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# Rubis, Thea Marie S.

## February 27, 2013

BS MecE 3

Simpsons 1/3 Rule
The trapezoidal rule was based on approximating the integrand by a first order polynomial, and then integrating the
polynomial over interval of integration. Simpsons 1/3 rule is an extension of Trapezoidal rule where the integrand is
approximated by a second order polynomial.

Figure 1 Integration of a function

Method 1:
Hence

where ) (
2
x f is a second order polynomial given by
.
Choose
)), ( , ( a f a ,
2
,
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
| + + b a
f
b a
and )) ( , ( b f b
as the three points of the function to evaluate ,
0
a
1
a and
2
a .

} }
~ =
b
a
b
a
dx x f dx x f I ) ( ) (
2
2
2 1 0 2
) ( x a x a a x f + + =
2
2 1 0 2
) ( ) ( a a a a a a f a f + + = =

Solving the above three equations for unknowns, ,
0
a
1
a and
2
a give

Then

Substituting values of ,
0
a
1
a and
2
a give

Since for Simpson 1/3 rule, the interval | | b a, is broken into 2 segments, the segment width

Hence the Simpsons 1/3 rule is given by
2
2 1 0 2
2 2 2 2
|
.
|

\
| +
+ |
.
|

\
| +
+ = |
.
|

\
| +
= |
.
|

\
| + b a
a
b a
a a
b a
f
b a
f
2
2 1 0 2
) ( ) ( b a b a a b f b f + + = =
2 2
2 2
0
2
) ( ) (
2
4 ) ( ) (
b ab a
a f b a abf
b a
abf b abf b f a
a
+
+ + |
.
|

\
| +
+
=
2 2
1
2
) (
2
4 ) ( 3 ) ( 3
2
4 ) (
b ab a
b bf
b a
bf a bf b af
b a
af a af
a
+
+ |
.
|

\
| +
+ + |
.
|

\
| +

=
2 2
2
2
) (
2
2 ) ( 2
b ab a
b f
b a
f a f
a
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
| +

=
}
~
b
a
dx x f I ) (
2
( )
}
+ + =
b
a
dx x a x a a
2
2 1 0
b
a
x
a
x
a x a
(

+ + =
3 2
3
2
2
1 0
3 2
) (
3 3
2
2 2
1 0
a b
a
a b
a a b a

+

+ =
(

+ |
.
|

\
| +
+

=
}
) (
2
4 ) (
6
) (
2
b f
b a
f a f
a b
dx x f
b
a
2
a b
h

=
(

+
|
.
|

\
| +
+ ~
}
) (
2
4 ) (
3
) ( b f
b a
f a f
h
dx x f
b
a

Since the above form has 1/3 in its formula, it is called Simpsons 1/3 rule.

Method 2:
Simpsons 1/3 rule can also be derived by approximating ) (x f by a second order polynomial using Newtons divided
difference polynomial as

where

Integrating Newtons divided difference polynomial gives us

|
|
.
|

\
| +
+
+

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
2
) )( (
4
) )( 3 (
3

) (
2
) (
2 2 3 3
2
2 2
1 0
a b b a a a b b a a b
b
a b a
a b
b a b b

|
.
|

\
| +
+ + =
2
) ( ) ( ) (
2 1 0 2
b a
x a x b a x b b x f
) (
0
a f b =
a
b a
a f
b a
f
b

+
|
.
|

\
| +
=
2
) (
2
1
a b
a
b a
a f
b a
f
b a
b
b a
f b f
b

+
|
.
|

\
| +

|
.
|

\
| +

=
2
) (
2
2
2
) (
2
} }
~
b
a
b
a
dx x f dx x f ) ( ) (
2
} (

|
.
|

\
| +
+ + =
b
a
dx
b a
x a x b a x b b
2
) ( ) (
2 1 0
b
a
x b a a x b a x
b ax
x
b x b
(

|
|
.
|

\
| +
+
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
) (
4
) 3 (
3 2
2 3
2
2
1 0

Substituting values of ,
0
b ,
1
b and
2
b into this equation yields the same result as before
(

+
|
.
|

\
| +
+

~
}
) (
2
4 ) (
6
) ( b f
b a
f a f
a b
dx x f
b
a

(

+
|
.
|

\
| +
+ = ) (
2
4 ) (
3
b f
b a
f a f
h

Method 3:
One could even use the Lagrange polynomial to derive Simpsons formula. Notice any method of three-point quadratic
interpolation can be used to accomplish this task. In this case, the interpolating function becomes

Integrating this function gets

Believe it or not, simplifying and factoring this large expression yields you the same result as before
) (
2
) (
2
) (
2
2 2
) )( (
) (
) (
2
) (
2
) (
2
b f
b a
b a b
b a
x a x
b a
f
b
b a
a
b a
b x a x
a f
b a
b a
a
b x
b a
x
x f
|
.
|

\
| +

|
.
|

\
| +

+
|
.
|

\
| +
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

+

+
|
.
|

\
| +

|
.
|

\
| +

=
b
a
b
a
b f
b a
b a b
x b a a x b a x
b a
f
b
b a
a
b a
abx
x b a x
a f
b a
b a
a
x b a b x b a x
dx x f
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
| +

+
+
+

+
|
.
|

\
| +
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

+
+
+

|
.
|

\
| +

+
+
+

=
}
) (
2
) (
2
) (
4
) 3 (
3
2
2 2
2
) (
3
) (
) (
2
2
) (
4
) 3 (
3
) (
2 3
2 3 2 3
2
) (
2
) (
2
) )( (
4
) )( 3 (
3
2
2 2
) (
2
) )( (
3
) (
) (
2
2
) )( (
4
) )( 3 (
3
2 2 3 3
2 2 3 3
2 2 3 3
b f
b a
b a b
a b b a a a b b a a b
b a
f
b
b a
a
b a
a b ab
a b b a a b
a f
b a
b a
a
a b b a b a b b a a b
|
.
|

\
| +

+
+
+

+
|
.
|

\
| +
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

+
+
+

|
.
|

\
| +

+
+
+

=

(

+
|
.
|

\
| +
+

~
}
) (
2
4 ) (
6
) ( b f
b a
f a f
a b
dx x f
b
a

(

+
|
.
|

\
| +
+ = ) (
2
4 ) (
3
b f
b a
f a f
h
.

Method 4:
Simpsons 1/3 rule can also be derived by the method of coefficients. Assume
) (
2
) ( ) (
3 2 1
b f c
b a
f c a f c dx x f
b
a
+
|
.
|

\
| +
+ ~
}

Let the right-hand side be an exact expression for the integrals , 1
}
b
a
dx ,
}
b
a
xdx and
}
b
a
dx x
2
. This implies that the right
hand side will be exact expressions for integrals of any linear combination of the three integrals for a general second
order polynomial. Now

Solving the above three equations for ,
0
c
1
c and
2
c give

This gives
) (
6 2 3
) ( 2
) (
6
) ( b f
a b b a
f
a b
a f
a b
dx x f
b
a

+
|
.
|

\
| +
+

~
}

3 2 1
1 c c c a b dx
b
a
+ + = =
}
b c
b a
c a c
a b
xdx
b
a
3 2 1
2 2
2 2
+
+
+ =

=
}
2
3
2
2
2
1
3 3
2
2 3
b c
b a
c a c
a b
dx x
b
a
+
|
.
|

\
| +
+ =

=
}
6
1
a b
c

=
3
) ( 2
2
a b
c

=
6
3
a b
c

=

(

+
|
.
|

\
| +
+

= ) (
2
4 ) (
6
b f
b a
f a f
a b

(

+
|
.
|

\
| +
+ = ) (
2
4 ) (
3
b f
b a
f a f
h

The integral from the first method
} }
+ + ~
b
a
b
a
dx x a x a a dx x f ) ( ) (
2
2 1 0

can be viewed as the area under the second order polynomial, while the equation from Method 4
) (
6 2 3
) ( 2
) (
6
) ( b f
a b b a
f
a b
a f
a b
dx x f
b
a

+
|
.
|

\
| +
+

~
}

can be viewed as the sum of the areas of three rectangles.
Multiple-segment Simpsons 1/3 Rule
Just like in multiple-segment trapezoidal rule, one can subdivide the interval | | b a, into n segments and apply
Simpsons 1/3 rule repeatedly over every two segments. Note that n needs to be even. Divide interval | | b a, into n
equal segments, so that the segment width is given by

n
a b
h

= .
Now

where

Apply Simpsons 1/3rd Rule over each interval,

} }
=
n
x
x
b
a
dx x f dx x f
0
) ( ) (
a x =
0
b x
n
=
} } } } }

+ + + + =
n
n
n
n
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
b
a
dx x f dx x f dx x f dx x f dx x f
2
2
4
4
2
2
0
) ( ) ( ...... ) ( ) ( ) (
...
6
) ( ) ( 4 ) (
) (
6
) ( ) ( 4 ) (
) ( ) (
4 3 2
2 4
2 1 0
0 2
+
(

+ +
+
(

+ +
~
}
x f x f x f
x x
x f x f x f
x x dx x f
b
a

Since

then

Simpsons 3/8 Rule
Introduction
The main objective of this chapter is to develop appropriate formulas for approximating the integral of the form
}
=
b
a
dx x f I ) ( (1)
Most (if not all) of the developed formulas for integration are based on a simple concept of approximating a given
function ) (x f by a simpler function (usually a polynomial function) ) (x f
i
, where i represents the order of the
polynomial function. In Chapter 07.03, Simpsons 1/3 rule for integration was derived by approximating the integrand
) (x f with a 2
nd
order (quadratic) polynomial function. ) (
2
x f
2
2 1 0 2
) ( x a x a a x f + + = (2)

(

+ +
+
(

+ +
+

6
) ( ) ( 4 ) (
) (
6
) ( ) ( 4 ) (
) (
1 2
2
2 3 4
4 2
n n n
n n
n n n
n n
x f x f x f
x x
x f x f x f
x x
h x x
i i
2
2
=

n i ..., , 4 , 2 =
...
6
) ( ) ( 4 ) (
2
6
) ( ) ( 4 ) (
2 ) (
4 3 2 2 1 0
+
(

+ +
+
(

+ +
~
}
x f x f x f
h
x f x f x f
h dx x f
b
a
(

+ +
+
(

+ +
+

6
) ( ) ( 4 ) (
2
6
) ( ) ( 4 ) (
2
1 2 2 3 4 n n n n n n
x f x f x f
h
x f x f x f
h
{ } { } | | ) ( ) ( ... ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( ... ) ( ) ( 4 ) (
3
2 4 2 1 3 1 0 n n n
x f x f x f x f x f x f x f x f
h
+ + + + + + + + + =

(
(
(

+ + + =

=
=

=
=
) ( ) ( 2 ) ( 4 ) (
3
2
2
1
1
0 n
n
even i
i
i
n
odd i
i
i
x f x f x f x f
h
(
(
(

+ + +

~

}

=
=

=
=
) ( ) ( 2 ) ( 4 ) (
3
) (
2
2
1
1
0 n
n
even i
i
i
n
odd i
i
i
b
a
x f x f x f x f
n
a b
dx x f

Figure 1 ) (
~
x f Cubic function.

In a similar fashion, Simpson 3/8 rule for integration can be derived by approximating the given function ) (x f with the
3
rd
order (cubic) polynomial ) (
3
x f
{ }

(
(
(
(

=
+ + + =
3
2
1
0
3 2
3
3
2
2 1 0 3
, , , 1
) (
a
a
a
a
x x x
x a x a x a a x f
(3)
which can also be symbolically represented in Figure 1.
Method 1
The unknown coefficients
3 2 1 0
and , , a a a a in Equation (3) can be obtained by substituting 4 known coordinate data
points ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )} , { and } , { }, , { }, , {
3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0
x f x x f x x f x x f x into Equation (3) as follows.

+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
2
3 3
2
3 2 3 1 0 3
2
2 3
2
2 2 2 1 0 2
2
1 3
2
1 2 1 1 0 1
2
0 3
2
0 2 0 1 0 0
) (
) (
) (
) (
x a x a x a a x f
x a x a x a a x f
x a x a x a a x f
x a x a x a a x f
(4)
Equation (4) can be expressed in matrix notation as
( )
( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(

3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
3
3
2
3 3
3
2
2
2 2
3
1
2
1 1
3
0
2
0 0
1
1
1
1
x f
x f
x f
x f
a
a
a
a
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
(5)
The above Equation (5) can symbolically be represented as
| |
1 4 1 4 4 4
= f a A

(6)
Thus,
| | f A
a
a
a
a
a

=
(
(
(
(

=
1
4
3
2
1
(7)
Substituting Equation (7) into Equation (3), one gets
( ) { } | | f A x x x x f

=
1 3 2
3
, , , 1 (8)
As indicated in Figure 1, one has

+ =
+ =
+
=

+ =
+ =
+
=

+ =
+ =
=
b
a b
a
h a x
b a
a b
a
h a x
b a
a b
a
h a x
a x
3
3 3
3
3
2
3
2 2
2
3
2
3
3
2
1
0
(9)
With the help from MATLAB [Ref. 2], the unknown vector a

## (shown in Equation 7) can be solved for symbolically.

Method 2
Using Lagrange interpolation, the cubic polynomial function ( ) x f
3
that passes through 4 data points (see Figure 1) can
be explicitly given as
( )
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
( )
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
( )
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
( )
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
( )
3
2 3 1 3 0 3
2 1 0
3
3 2 1 2 0 2
3 1 0
1
3 1 2 1 0 1
3 2 0
0
3 0 2 0 1 0
3 2 1
3
x f
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x f
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x f
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x f
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
x f

+

+

+

=
(10)

Simpsons 3/8 Rule for Integration
Substituting the form of ( ) x f
3
from Method (1) or Method (2),
( )
( )
}
}
~
=
b
a
b
a
dx x f
dx x f I
3

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
8
3 3
3 2 1 0
x f x f x f x f
a b
+ + +
= (11)
Since
3
a b
h

=
h a b 3 =
and Equation (11) becomes
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
3 2 1 0
3 3
8
3
x f x f x f x f
h
I + + + ~ (12)
Note the 3/8 in the formula, and hence the name of method as the Simpsons 3/8 rule.
The true error in Simpson 3/8 rule can be derived as [Ref. 1]
( ) , f
a b
E
t
' ' ' '

=
6480
) (
5
, where b a s s , (13)
Multiple Segments for Simpson 3/8 Rule
Using n = number of equal segments, the width h can be defined as
n
a b
h

= (14)
The number of segments need to be an integer multiple of 3 as a single application of Simpson 3/8 rule requires 3
segments.
The integral shown in Equation (1) can be expressed as
( )
( )
}
}
~
=
b
a
b
a
dx x f
dx x f I
3

( ) ( ) ( )
} } }
=
=

+ + + ~
b x
x
x
x
x
a x
n
n
dx x f dx x f dx x f
3
6
3
3
0
3 3 3
........ (15)
Using Simpson 3/8 rule (See Equation 12) into Equation (15), one gets
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
)
`

+ + + + +
+ + + + + + +
=
n n n n
x f x f x f x f
x f x f x f x f x f x f x f x f
h
I
1 2 3
6 5 4 3 3 2 1 0
3 3 .....
3 3 3 3
8
3
(16)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
)
`

+ + + + =

=

=
n
n
i
i
n
i
i
n
i
i
x f x f x f x f x f
h
3
,.. 9 , 6 , 3
1
,.. 8 , 5 , 2
2
,.. 7 , 4 , 1
0
2 3 3
8
3
(17)

EXAMPLES FOR SIMPSONS 1/3 RULE
Example 1
The distance covered by a rocket in meters from 8 = t s to 30 = t s is given by

a) Use Simpsons 1/3 rule to find the approximate value of x .
b) Find the true error,
t
E .
c) Find the absolute relative true error,
t
e .
Solution
a)
(

+ |
.
|

\
| +
+

~ ) (
2
4 ) (
6
b f
b a
f a f
a b
x

(

+
|
.
|

\
| +
+

~ ) (
2
4 ) (
6
b f
b a
f a f
a b
x

} |
|
.
|

\
|

(

=
30
8
8 . 9
2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 dt t
t
x
8 = a
30 = b
19
2
=
+ b a
t
t
t f 8 . 9
2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 ) (
(

=
s m f / 27 . 177 ) 8 ( 8 . 9
) 8 ( 2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 ) 8 ( =
(

=
s m f / 67 . 901 ) 30 ( 8 . 9
) 30 ( 2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 ) 30 ( =
(

=
s m f / 75 . 484 ) 19 ( 8 . 9
) 19 ( 2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 ) 19 ( =
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
| | ) 30 ( ) 19 ( 4 ) 8 (
6
8 30
f f f + + |
.
|

\
|
=
| | 67 . 901 75 . 484 4 27 . 177
6
22
+ + =
=11065.72 m
b) The exact value of the above integral is

=11061.34 m
So the true error is

=11061.34-11065.72

c) Absolute Relative true error,

100
34 . 11061
38 . 4

=

Example 2
Use 4-segment Simpsons 1/3 rule to approximate the distance covered by a rocket in meters from 8 = t s to 30 = t s as
given by

a) Use four segment Simpsons 1/3rd Rule to find the probability.
b) Find the true error,
t
E for part (a).
c) Find the absolute relative true error,
t
e for part (a).
Solution:
a) Using n segment Simpsons 1/3 rule,

} |
|
.
|

\
|

(

=
30
8
8 . 9
2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 dt t
t
x
Value e Approximat Value True E
t
=
m 38 . 4 =
100
Value True
Error True
= e
t
% 0396 . 0 =
} |
|
.
|

\
|

(

=
30
8
8 . 9
2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 dt t
t
x
(
(
(

+ + +

~

=
=

=
=
) ( ) ( 2 ) ( 4 ) (
3
2
2
1
1
0 n
n
even i
i
i
n
odd i
i
i
t f t f t f t f
n
a b
x
4 = n

So

8 = a
30 = b
n
a b
h

=
4
8 30
=
5 . 5 =
t
t
t f 8 . 9
2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 ) (
(

=
) 8 ( ) (
0
f t f =
s m f / 27 . 177 ) 8 ( 8 . 9
) 8 ( 2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 ) 8 ( =
(

=
) 5 . 13 ( ) 5 . 5 8 ( ) (
1
f f t f = + =
s m f / 25 . 320 ) 5 . 13 ( 8 . 9
) 5 . 13 ( 2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 ) 5 . 13 ( =
(

=
) 19 ( ) 5 . 5 5 . 13 ( ) (
2
f f t f = + =
s m f / 75 . 484 ) 19 ( 8 . 9
) 19 ( 2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 ) 19 ( =
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
) 5 . 24 ( ) 5 . 5 19 ( ) (
3
f f t f = + =
s m f / 05 . 676 ) 5 . 24 ( 8 . 9
) 5 . 24 ( 2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 ) 5 . 24 ( =
(

=

b) The exact value of the above integral is

=11061.34 m
So the true error is

c) Absolute Relative true error,
) 30 ( ) ( ) (
4
f t f t f
n
= =
s m f / 67 . 901 ) 30 ( 8 . 9
) 30 ( 2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 ) 30 ( =
(

=
(
(
(

+ + +

=

=
=

=
=
) ( ) ( 2 ) ( 4 ) (
3
2
2
1
1
0 n
n
even i
i
i
n
odd i
i
i
t f t f t f t f
n
a b
x
(
(
(

+ + +

=

=
=
=
=
2
2
3
1
) 30 ( ) ( 2 ) ( 4 ) 8 (
) 4 ( 3
8 30
even i
i
i
odd i
i
i
f t f t f f
| | ) 30 ( ) ( 2 ) ( 4 ) ( 4 ) 8 (
12
22
2 3 1
f t f t f t f f + + + + =
| | ) 30 ( ) 19 ( 2 ) 5 . 24 ( 4 ) 5 . 13 ( 4 ) 8 (
6
11
f f f f f + + + + =
| | 67 . 901 ) 75 . 484 ( 2 ) 05 . 676 ( 4 ) 25 . 320 ( 4 27 . 177
6
11
+ + + + =
m 64 . 11061 =
} |
|
.
|

\
|

(

=
30
8
8 . 9
2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 dt t
t
x
Value e Approximat Value True E
t
=
64 . 11061 34 . 11061 =
t
E
m 30 . 0 =

100
34 . 11061
3 . 0

=
= 0.0027%

EXAMPLES FOR 3/8 SIMPSONS RULE
Example 1
The vertical distance covered by a rocket from 8 = x to 30 = x seconds is given by
}
|
.
|

\
|

(

=
30
8
8 . 9
2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 dx x
t
s
Use Simpson 3/8 rule to find the approximate value of the integral.
Solution
3333 . 7
3
8 30
3
=

=
a b
n
a b
h

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
3 2 1 0
3 3
8
3
x f x f x f x f
h
I + + + ~
( )
2667 . 177
8 8 . 9
8 2100 140000
140000
ln 2000
8
0
0
=

|
.
|

\
|

=
=
x f
x

( )

=

|
.
|

\
|

=
=
+ =
+ =
4629 . 372
3333 . 15 8 . 9
3333 . 15 2100 140000
140000
ln 2000
3333 . 15
3333 . 7 8
1
0 1
x f
h x x

100
Value True
Error True
= e
t
( )

=

|
.
|

\
|

=
=
+ =
+ =
8976 . 608
6666 . 22 8 . 9
6666 . 22 2100 140000
140000
ln 2000
6666 . 22
) 3333 . 7 ( 2 8
2
2
0 2
x f
h x x

( )

=

|
.
|

\
|

=
=
+ =
+ =
6740 . 901
30 8 . 9
30 2100 140000
140000
ln 2000
30
) 3333 . 7 ( 3 8
3
3
0 3
x f
h x x

Applying Equation (12), one has
{ }
3104 . 11063
6740 . 901 8976 . 608 3 4629 . 372 3 2667 . 177 3333 . 7
8
3
=
+ + + = I

The exact answer can be computed as
34 . 11061 =
exact
I
Example 2
The vertical distance covered by a rocket from 8 = x to 30 = x seconds is given by
}
|
.
|

\
|

(

=
30
8
8 . 9
2100 140000
140000
ln 2000 dx x
t
s
Use Simpson 3/8 multiple segments rule with six segments to estimate the vertical distance.
Solution
In this example, one has (see Equation 14):
6666 . 3
6
8 30
=

= h
( ) { } { } 2667 . 177 , 8 ,
0 0
= x f x
( ) { } { } 6666 . 11 6666 . 3 8 where 4104 . 270 , 6666 . 11 ,
0 1 1 1
= + = + = = h x x x f x
( ) { } { } 3333 . 15 2 where 4629 . 372 , 3333 . 15 ,
0 2 2 2
= + = = h x x x f x
( ) { } { } 19 3 where 7455 . 484 , 19 ,
0 3 3 3
= + = = h x x x f x
( ) { } { } 6666 . 22 4 where 8976 . 608 , 6666 . 22 ,
0 4 4 4
= + = = h x x x f x
( ) { } { } 3333 . 26 5 where 9870 . 746 , 3333 . 26 ,
0 5 5 5
= + = = h x x x f x
( ) { } { } 30 6 where 6740 . 901 , 30 ,
0 6 6 6
= + = = h x x x f x
Applying Equation (17), one obtains:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
)
`

+ + + + =

=
=
=
=
=
=
6740 . 901 2 3 3 2667 . 177 6666 . 3
8
3
3 3
,.. 6 , 3
5 1
,.. 5 , 2
4 2
,.. 4 , 1
n
i
i
n
i
i
n
i
i
x f x f x f I
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } 6740 . 901 7455 . 484 2 9870 . 746 4629 . 372 3 8976 . 608 4104 . 270 3 2667 . 177 3750 . 1 + + + + + + =
4696 . 601 , 11 =