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4, 2008, 3-9 3

ISSN 1335-8243 2008 FEI TUKE

THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PARASITIC

EFFECTS IN INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

SUPPLIED FROM SEMICONDUCTOR INVERTERS

Stanislav BARTO, Ivo DOLEEL, Jakub NEESAN, Ji KRAMLK and Viktor VALOUCH

Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR, Dolejkova 5, 182 00 Prague, Czech Republic,

E-mail: {bartos, dolezel, necesaj, skramlik, valouch}@it.cas.cz

ABSTRACT

The paper deals with the numerical modeling of a pulse-width modulated voltage inverter-fed induction motor drive for the

common and differential current modes. The proposed model of the drive respects the influence of the feeding cable described by the

lumped or distributed parameters. The theoretical analysis is supplemented by results of relevant simulations and experiments.

Evaluated are also the frequency characteristics of selected parts of the system and their contributions to its resultant harmonic

spectra.

Keywords: electromagnetic interferences, semiconductor devices , inverter, induction motor, frequency characteristics.

1. INTRODUCTION

The pulse-width modulated (PWM) transistor or thy-

ristor inverters supplying the induction motor drives often

become sources of the common and differential mode

currents that produce conducted and radiated electromag-

netic interferences (EMI), bearing currents and decrease

of the insulation lifetime. Their undesirable effects may

effectively be reduced by different ways that have recently

been developed, see, for example, [1][4].

The analysis of the amplitudes and harmonic spectra of

the above parasitic currents requires adequate models of

inverter-fed induction motor (IM) [5][12]. The paper

deals with the models of a PWM voltage inverter-fed

induction motor drive developed for the common and

differential current modes. Both representations of the

drive system take into account models of the feeding cable

with lumped or distributed parameters. The theoretical

analysis is supplemented by results of relevant simulations

and experiments carried out on IGBT and IGCT inverters.

Evaluated are also the frequency characteristics of se-

lected parts of the system and their contributions to its

resultant harmonic spectra.

2. THE BASIC MODELS

The basic arrangement of the investigated system is

shown in Fig. 1.

A. Induction motor model for high frequencies

The IM can generally be modeled by an equivalent

circuit consisting of several blocks connected in series.

Every block contains a set of lumped parameters (see Fig.

2) determined by constrained optimization process based

on the minimum difference between the calculated and

measured frequency characteristics of the circuit. The

circuit that we decided to use after several tests consists of

two parts, which are similar in their structures but gener-

ally different in the values of particular parameters. The

stator phases are modeled by two impedances

v1

Z and

v2

Z connected in series.

Fig. 1 The investigated drive system

with an inverter, cable and IM

Fig. 2 The selected equivalent circuit of the induction motor

Thus, we can derive the transfer functions (IM imped-

ances) for the common and differential modes on the basis

of Fig. 2. The common mode currents flow through leak-

age capacitances to the earth and back to the ac power

mains via the ground connection, while differential mode

currents close themselves only in the phase conductors.

4 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Parasitic Effects in Induction Motor Drives Supplied from Semiconductor Inverters

ISSN 1335-8243 2008 FEI TUKE

The influence of the mutual inductances

vi

M may be

incorporated into the transfer functions ( ) v

, 1, 2

i

Z p i =

by putting

vc v v

2

i i i

L L M = + in the common mode and

vd v v i i i

L L M = in the differential mode.

Both common and differential mode transfer functions

c

( ) Z p and

d

( ) Z p are in the case of two blocks given by

fractions containing polynomials of the seventh or eighth

orders in their numerators and denominators. The order

grows by four for every additional block.

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

f (kHz)

R

c

(

)

R

v1

, L

v1

, R

w1

, C

v1

, R

p1

R

v2

, L

v2

, R

w2

, C

v2

, R

p2

(, H, F):

395, 0.003953, 1227, 6.86110

-11

, 7.510

4

506.9, 0.004848, 1216, 1.81910

-11

, 7.510

4

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

-8000

-6000

-4000

-2000

0

2000

f (kHz)

R

g1

, C

g1

, C

vv1

R

g2

, C

g2

, C

vv2

(, F):

1326, 3.38410

-10

, 7.47210

-11

1083, 1.90710

-10

, 3.06710

-11

X

c

(

)

Fig. 3 Real and imaginary parts of the IM

impedance in the common mode

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

f (kHz)

R

d

(

)

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

-20000

-10000

0

10000

20000

f (kHz)

X

d

(

)

R

v1

, L

v1

, R

w1

, C

v1

, R

p1

R

v2

, L

v2

, R

w2

, C

v2

, R

p2

(, H, F):

395, 0.003953, 1227, 6.86110

-11

, 7.510

4

506.9, 0.004848, 1216, 1.81910

-11

, 7.510

4

R

g1

, C

g1

, C

vv1

R

g2

, C

g2

, C

vv2

(, F):

1326, 3.38410

-10

, 7.47210

-11

1083, 1.90710

-10

, 3.06710

-11

Fig. 4 Real and imaginary parts of the IM

impedance in the differential mode

Fig. 3 shows both measured points and calculated fre-

quency characteristics of the real

( ) c

R f and imaginary

( ) c

X f parts of the IM impedance in the common mode

and Fig. 4 the same parts

( ) d

R f ,

( ) d

X f valid for the

differential mode. The basic IM parameters in this case

are 1.5 kW P = , 380/ 220 V U = , 50 Hz f = ,

1410/ min n = , 3.6/ 6.2 A I = , cos 0.82 = .

Note that the IM model with only one set of parame-

ters in ( ) v

, 1, 2

i

Z p i = was obtained, valid for both the

modes. Let us also emphasize that all important resonant

peaks in both models may be found by analysis of the

equivalent circuit of IM shown in Fig. 2.

B. Model of feeding cable

The voltage and current distributions in a system con-

sisting of n conductors are described by the following set

of equations

[ ]

[ ][ ] [ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ][ ] [ ]

[ ]

' '

' '

x t

x t

=

=

u i

R i L

i u

G u C

(1)

where [u] is a vector of the phase voltages, [i] a vector of

the phase currents, [ ]

R is a diagonal matrix containing

resistances of individual conductors per unit length and

[ ]

L , [ ]

G and [ ]

C are dense and symmetric matrices

containing inductances, modified conductances and ca-

pacitances per unit length. The initial conditions read

( ) ( ) 0,t t = u U (2)

while conditions at the end of the line depend on how the

load is modeled and connected.

Although a number of more or less sophisticated

methods were developed and studied, we used only the

Fourier decomposition procedure that represents a rela-

tively simple tool for determining the time dependence of

the steady state parasitic currents. The method was incor-

porated into a program package written by the authors that

is intended for solution of steady state and transient phe-

nomena in systems containing feeding lines.

In case of the simplest possible representation of the

cable by a lumped parameter circuit containing elements

c c c c

, , , R G L C , the common and differential mode transfer

functions ( ) cc

Z p and ( ) dc

Z p of the system with the

cable and motor are given by fractions with polynomials

both in the numerator and denominator. These polynomi-

als are of the order of 8/7 for

cc

Z and 9/8 for

dc

Z , respec-

tively, and can be written as

( ) ( ) ( ) cc c c c

1

3

Z p R pL Z p = + + (3)

and

( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( )

d

dc c c

c c d

2

1

Z p

Z p R pL

G pC Z p

= + +

+ +

. (4)

3. SIMULATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS

A great amount of simulations and measurements have

been carried out for confirmation of the validity of the

models and provide a deeper view into the effects. The

Acta Electrotechnica et Informatica Vol. 8, No. 4, 2008 5

ISSN 1335-8243 2008 FEI TUKE

responses obtained on this model well correspond with the

responses captured on the real drive system.

Fig. 5 shows the measured (a) and calculated (b) tran-

sient current responses of the IM (a voltage step of 10 V

was applied) in the common mode. The shapes of both

responses are in a good agreement (except for the very

beginning).

Fig. 6 presents analogous current responses in the dif-

ferential mode. The difference between the magnitudes of

the measured and calculated peak values of ( )

d

i t is in

accordance with the error in ( )

d d d

j Z p R X = + for the

lower resonant frequency (Fig. 5). Nevertheless, the shape

of the calculated response is in accordance with the meas-

ured one.

Fig. 5 Common mode current responses of IM:

a) measured, b) calculated

A lot of computations based on (1), (2) were also car-

ried out to investigate the common and differential mode

current responses when the drive was fed by a series of

perfectly trapezoidal voltage pulses drawn from the in-

verter.

Very important in this respect are the parameters of the

cable. The measured values of its inductance and capaci-

tance per unit length are almost constant within the con-

sidered range of frequencies and their average values were

found to be

6

c

2 10 H m L

= and

6

c

1.6 10 F m C

= ,

respectively. The conductance

c

G per unit length is far

from being constant and grows with frequency, but as in

comparison with

c

C is always too small, its value was

taken

8

10 S m. Finally

( ) c

m R is strongly dependent

on frequency and for the mathematical model it was

approximated by function

( )

' 2

c c0

R f R kf = + (5)

where relevant measurements provided values

'

c0

0.02 m R = and

12 1 2

0.28 10 m s k

= .

0 1000 3000 2000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000

0.006

t (ns)

0.004

0.002

0

Fig. 6 Differential mode current responses of IM:

a) measured, b) calculated

a) length of the cable

c

1 l = m

b) length of the cable

c

10 l = m

Fig. 7 Calculated voltage and common mode current responses

in a system with feeding cable and IM

While Fig. 7a) shows the steady state values of voltage

and common mode current responses at the beginning (left

hand side) and the end (right hand side) of the cable of the

6 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Parasitic Effects in Induction Motor Drives Supplied from Semiconductor Inverters

ISSN 1335-8243 2008 FEI TUKE

length of 1 m, Fig. 7b) presents similar values for the

cable of length of 10 m. The comparison of the figures

shows the overvoltages at motor terminals are higher, as a

result of wave phenomena, and the current peaks at the

inverter terminals are more pronounced due to cable leak-

age currents, for the longer cable.

Fig. 8 compares the calculated (the number of the Fou-

rier expansion terms being 500) and measured transient

common mode current responses in a system with the

feeding cable of length 10 m and induction motor.

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

t (s)

i

c

(A)

0.05

measured

calculated

Fig. 8 Calculated and measured current response in the common

mode (system with the feeding cable of length 10 m and IM)

10

4

10

5

10

6

10

7

-70

-60

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

10

4

10

5

10

6

10

7

-70

-60

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70

10

4

10

5

10

6

10

7

f (Hz)

10

4

10

5

10

6

10

7

f (Hz)

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70

a)

b)

Fig. 9 Common mode interference spectra for

a)

c

2m l = , b)

c

30m l =

Fig. 9 shows the common mode interference spectra

detected at the measurement point at the LISN and ex-

pressed in the double logarithmic representation for two

different lengths of the feeding cables (

c

2 l = m and 30

m). Three characteristics are depicted, namely for only the

inverter in operation (dotted lines), the IGBT inverter with

the feeding cable (dashed lines) and for the inverter feed-

ing the IM through the cable (full lines). By comparing the

interference spectra for different lengths of the cable and

different parts of the system we can evaluate impacts of

these individual subsystems of the drive.

Two main peaks (around 350 kHz and 6.5 MHz) may

be distinguished at the frequency spectrum for the inverter

working alone without any load. After comparing the

curves in the two figures we can see that the longer is the

cable, the higher is the level of the common mode inter-

ference (dashed lines), while for the longer cable the spec-

tra measured without and with the induction machine (Fig.

9b) are almost identical.

The reason is that with growing length of the cable the

current flowing through the stray capacitances of the cable

to ground increases. For a certain length of the cable the

contribution of the IM leakage current to the total current

is almost negligible, except for the range of lower fre-

quencies (below a few hundreds of kHz). It is clearly

visible that the character of the spectra (full lines) between

70 and 300 kHz is practically the same regardless the

lengths of cables feeding the IM. It indicates that this part

characterizes the IM. On the contrary, the second domi-

nating part of the characteristics (around 5.5 and 1.5 MHz)

depends on the cable length (2 and 30 m).

As a matter of fact, power switching devices exhibit

permanent improvement which can be demonstrated e.g.

by the successive development of GTOs into IGCTs. In

general, the objective was an increase in the device rat-

ings, especially in terms of the repetitive peak blocking

voltage (nowadays up to

DRM

4500 V V = ), the maximum

controllable turn-off current (nowadays up to

TGQM

4000 A I = ) and the device switching frequency.

The IGCT is based on the principle that is called the hard-

driven turn-off process, which is known also as unity-gain

turn-off.

Fig. 10 compares the voltage front edges produced by

an IGCT inverter to voltage front edges produced by the

IGBT inverter. For this comparison, however, inverters

with the same dc supply voltage were not at our disposal.

The IGBT inverter was made up of a MITSUBISHI mod-

ule and the provided dc feeding voltage was 310 V. The

IGCT inverter, on the other hand, was supplied by 550 V.

The supplied motor was an IM of the type TB 702 with

rated values 85 kW, 75 Hz, 2214 rpm, 133.8 A.

We see that the voltage front edges at both the IGBT and

IGCT inverters have similar steep slopes and, although the

switching times at the IGCT-based inverters are longer

than those at the IGBT inverters, it may be expected that

these inverters will produce also similar voltage waves

traveling along the cables connecting the inverters and ac

motors and resulting overvoltage phenomena, see Fig.

11.To eliminate solitary, accidental, and abnormal wave-

forms, two characteristic waveforms (samples) measured

very close to the inverter and two characteristic samples

measured very close to the motor were selected for the

Acta Electrotechnica et Informatica Vol. 8, No. 4, 2008 7

ISSN 1335-8243 2008 FEI TUKE

harmonic analysis. The figure demonstrates that the pres-

ence of the cable results in overvoltages at the IM termi-

nals.

Fig. 10 Comparison of voltage front edges, the voltage across

the minus dc input terminal and any of ac outputs,

cable length 3m

1. IGCT inverter: separate phase cables, point of measurement

1 m distant from the inverter,

2. IGBT inverter, 3-phase cable employed

a) close to IGCT inverter

b) close to IM

Fig. 11 Voltage-time, voltage-frequency relationships (IGCT

inverter, cable 10 m long), measured at two different positions

We have found that the results and experience referred

so far are very useful at the development and testing of

some drives of vehicles for city mass transport from the

point of view of EMI. In addition to conducted high fre-

quency parasitic currents also radiated EMI produced by

the drives of vehicles (tramways and trolleybuses) were

calculated and measured.

Contact wires

Trolley

Roof

Fig. 12 Calculation of magnetic field inside and outside the

trolleybus TR21. Mesh with details: 379807 nodes

Figs. 12 and 13 show the examples of results gained

when modeling magnetic field inside and outside the

trolleybus TR21. The computations were carried out for

various working regimes and for application of two differ-

ent power switching semiconductor devices (IGBTs,

IGCTs). The influence on near low-current and telecom-

munication systems was of our interest, too. The computa-

tion of the magnetic field was performed by the profes-

sional FEM-based program QuickField. The results were

compared with the values measured and those given by

the corresponding standards.

Figs. 14 and 15 show the examples of the measured

levels of EMI in the city transport enterprises in Czech

towns Hradec Krlov and Plze. It is important to note

that at Hradec Krlov a trolleybus with IGCT devices

was tested, see Fig. 14. The EMI background there was

influenced by other trolleybuses, which were operating at

the same time. The EMI of a tramway equipped with

IGBT inverters was measured at Plze, see Fig. 15. The

tramway was a prototype under test operation and no other

similar tramways were connected to the overhead contact

8 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Parasitic Effects in Induction Motor Drives Supplied from Semiconductor Inverters

ISSN 1335-8243 2008 FEI TUKE

system. To increase the objectivity, many measurements

at various localities were carried out.

The results summarized in Figs. 1215 were helpful

when suggesting measures for the reduction of EMI.

Fig. 13 Contours of calculated magnetic field strength inside

and outside the trolleybus TR21

Fig. 14 Values of EMI obtained from the analyzer E7401A at

Hradec Krlov (trolleybus TR21). The measurements were

performed in accordance with the demands (distance of the

antenna, etc.) specified in Standard EN 50121-2

4. CONCLUSION

The equivalent models of the feeding cable and induc-

tion motor appropriate for the determination of stray cur-

rent disturbances in the common and differential modes

have been suggested. The frequency characteristics of

selected parts of the system and their contributions to the

resultant harmonic spectra have been evaluated as well.

The responses obtained on this model well correspond

with the responses captured on the real drive system. This

holds even at the very beginning of the transients, where

the variables (mainly currents) are characterized by steep

changes (peaks) and high frequencies.

The IGCT inverters have to be expected to produce

similar voltage waves traveling along the cables connect-

ing the inverters and ac motors and other phenomena as

those produced by the IGBT inverters, even when the

IGCT total switching times are substantially longer.

The paper summarizes also the most important ex-

perimental results. These results were obtained both in the

laboratory (experimental operation of the IGBT and IGCT

inverters feeding a 3-phase induction machine) and during

the practical tests of these switching devices in vehicles of

city mass transportation.

Fig. 15 Values of EMI obtained at Plze

(a tramway equipped with IGBT inverters)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The financial supports of the Grant Agency of the

Czech Republic (Project No. 102/06/0112) and the Acad-

emy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Institutional Re-

search Plan Z20570509 of the Institute of Thermomechan-

ics, v.v.i.) are gratefully acknowledged.

REFERENCES

[1] Van der Broeck, H., Loef, Chr.: Use of LC Filters in

Hard Switching PWM Inverter Drives. Proc. EPE'95,

Seville, Spain, 1995, pp. 15361541.

[2] Von Jouanne, A., Rendusara, D. A., Enjeti, P. N.,

Gray, J. W.: Filtering Techniques to Minimise the

Effects of Long Motor Leads on PWM Inverter-Fed

AC Motor Drive Systems. IEEE Trans. IA 32, 1996,

No. 4, pp. 919925.

[3] Ogasawara, S., Akagi, H.: Modelling and Damping

of High-Frequency Leakage Currents in PWM In-

verter-Fed AC Motor Drive Systems. IEEE Trans.

IA 32, 1996, No. 5, pp. 11051113.

[4] Mutoh, N., Ogata, M.: New Methods to Control EMI

Noises Generated in Motor Drive Systems, IEEE

Trans. IA 40, 2004, No.1, pp. 143152.

[5] Persson, E.: Transient Effects in Application of

PWM Inverters to Induction Motors. IEEE Trans. IA

28, 1992, No. 5, pp. 1095 1101.

[6] Cacciato, M., Consoli, A., Scarcella, G., Testa, A.:

Effects of PWM Techniques on Common Mode Cur-

Acta Electrotechnica et Informatica Vol. 8, No. 4, 2008 9

ISSN 1335-8243 2008 FEI TUKE

rents in Induction Motor Drives. Proc ISIE'97, Gui-

mares, Portugal, 1997, pp. SS212SS217.

[7] Consoli, A., Oriti, G., Testa, A., Julian, A. L.: Induc-

tion Motor Modeling for Common Mode and Differ-

ential Mode Emission Evaluation. Proc. 31st IAS

Annual Meeting, San Diego, USA, 1996, pp. 595

599.

[8] Grandi, G., Casadei, D., Reggiani, U.: Equivalent

Circuit of Mush Wound AC Windings for High Fre-

quency Analysis. Proc. ISIE'97, Guimares, Portu-

gal, 1997, pp. SS201 SS206.

[9] Kerkman, R. J., Leggate, D., Skibinski, G. L.: Drive

Modulation and Cable Parameters on AC Motor

Transients. IEEE Trans. IA 33, 1997, No. 3, pp. 722

729.

[10] Akagi, H., Tamura, S.: A Passive EMI Filter for

Eliminating Both Bearing Current and Ground

Leakage Current From an Inverter-Driven Motor.

IEEE Trans. PE 21, 2006, No. 5, pp. 14591469.

[11] Boglietti, A., Carpaneto, E.: An Accurate Induction

Motor High-Frequency Model for Electromagnetic

Compatibility Analysis. Electric Power Components

and Systems,. Taylor & Francis, Vol. 29, 2001, pp.

191209.

[12] Lai, J. S., Huang, X., Pepa, E., Chen, S., Nehl, T.

W.: Inverter EMI Modeling and Simulation

Methodologies. IEEE Trans. IE 53, 2006, No.3, pp.

736744.

Received March 31, 2008, accepted September 29, 2008

BIOGRAPHIES

Assoc. Prof. Stanislav Barto (1935) graduated from the

Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Czech Technical

University, Prague in 1958. He has 21 year experience in

heavy industry (development engineer in power electron-

ics applications). Since 1981 he has been working with the

Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Academy of

Sciences of the Czech Republic (fused with the Institute of

Thermomechanics two years ago) in the field of voltage

source inverters, IGBTs, IGCTs, ETOs. From 2002 to

2005 he was head of the Department of Power Electron-

ics, currently he is a scientific advisor. He is an author or

co-author of about 40 scientific papers.

Prof. Ivo Doleel (1949) obtained his Eng. degree from

the Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Czech Technical

University in Prague) in 1973 and after 28 years in the

Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Academy of

Sciences of the Czech Republic he returned back to the

Czech Technical University. His interests are aimed

mainly at electromagnetic fields and coupled problems in

heavy current and power applications. He is an author or

co-author of one monograph, about 300 papers and several

large program packages.

Jakub Neesan, PhD. (1978) obtained his Eng. degree

from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Czech Techni-

cal University in Prague) in 2004 and PhD degree from

the same university in 2007. Since 2002 he has been

working at the Institute of Electrical Engineering of the

Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (fused with

the Institute of Thermomechanics in 2006). He is inter-

ested in numerical modelling and computing. He is an

author or co-author of about 10 scientific papers.

Prof. Viktor Valouch (1947) finished his studies at the

Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Czech Technical

University in 1972 (MSc) and degree PhD he received in

1976 from the same CTU. In 1975 be joined the CKD

Semiconductors where he dealt with problems connected

with induction motor drives fed from inverters. Since

1977 he has been working with the Institute of Electrical

Engineering of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech

Republic (fused with the Institute of Thermomechanics

two years ago). His present research activities are concen-

trated on

microprocessor-based control systems, ac drives with

variable speed, static inverters and active power filters. He

is an author or co-author of about 170 papers in periodical

journals and conference proceedings and also 3 patents.

Ji kramlk, PhD. (1956) finished his studies at the

Faculty of Electrical Engineering of CTU in Prague in

1982. In 1993 he joined the Institute of Electrical Engi-

neering of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Repub-

lic (fused with the Institute of Thermomechanics two

years ago) as a research engineer. Now he is a researcher

with the Institute of Thermomechanics. He has dealt with

problems of the pulse width modulation in the voltage

inverters for induction motors and active power filters,

and utilisation of the digital signal processors. He is an

author or co-author of about 40 papers and 4 patents.

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