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You are on page 1of 4

The Effect of Impedance Mismatch on

the Conducted EM1 Emission

Warit Thammasi ri roj

EMC Laboratory, ReCCI T, and

Electrical Engineering Department,

Faculty of Engineering,

King Mongkuts Institute of

Technology Ladkrabang,

3 Chalongkrung Road, Ladkrabang,

Bangkok, 10520, THAI LAND

e-mail: ktwarit@kmitl.ac.th

Suthi da Ruayari yasub

EMC Laboratory, ReCCI T, and

Electrical Engineering Department,

Faculty of Engineering,

King Mongkuts Institute of

Technology Ladkrabang,

3 Chalongkrung Road, Ladkrabang,

Bangkok, 10520, THAI LAND

e-mail: bammiko@yahoo.com

Shui chi Ni tta

Production System Engineering,

Salesian Polytechnic

35-1 1, I gusa 2-Chome, Suginami-ku,

e-mail: nitta@cc.tuat.ac.jp

Tokyo, 167-002 1, J APAN

Werachet Khan-ngern

ESMC Laboratory, ReCCI T, and

Electrical Engineering Deparhnent,

Faculty of Engineering,

King Mongkuts Institute of

Technology Ladkrabang,

3 Chalongkrung Road, Ladkrabang,

13angkok, 10520, THAI LAND

e-mail: kkveerac@kmitl.ac.th

Abstract: This paper proposes the process to predict and

analyze the conducted electromagnetic interference (EMJ )

emission using the impedance mismatch approach. Five steps of

this process are introduced and analyzed. The impedance mismatch

criterion is proposed based on current and voltage waveforms in

time domain. The impedance mismatch fixtures and EM1 measured

results show how the relationship of impedance ratio and

conducted EM1 emission are occurred. This work is done using a

class E zero-voltage switching (ZVS) resonant inverter at various

loaded conditions: unity, lagging and leading power factors. The

experimental results show some good agreements with the

simulated results, which are accomplished by MATLAB program.

Keywords: Conducted EM1 emission, prediction, impedance

mismatch, Class E ZVS resonant inverter

I ntroducti on

In recent years, the EM1 emission has been interested and proved

by many published papers. Some papers showed the processes to

reduce the EMI, some papers approved the implements by the

simulations, and some papers explained the EM1 by their

techniques. In this paper, the EM1 prediction is presented.

This paper proposes the conducted EM1 emission analysis using

the mismatch of impedance in each part of the circuit. The first step

of this method is to consider each part of circuit separately; such as

to consider the rectifier circuit from the inverter circuit and load

separately, as shown in Figure 1. The impedance and power of

each part can be measured and calculated by oscilloscope and some

basic software. These results can be analyzed and supported by the

conducted EM1 emission measurement.

The experiment shows the relationship of the conducted EM1

emission trend and the impedance mismatch, when loaded

impedance is various. The proposed circuit uses an induction coil

as the load; therefore, it is the resistive-inductive load. The selected

capacitor is used to change the loaded power factor fromlagging to

unity and also leading power factors. These three cases of load are

used to compare the impedance mismatch and power mismatch of

this circuit with its conducted EM1 emissions; where the input

power of each condition is constant at 1000 W. This paper shows a

basic concept and an example to prove and explain this method.

For any applied circuits, this method can also be used for the

emission predicting, but users have to simplify their circuits first.

Cl ass E ZVS Resonant I nverter

The Class E power amplifiers as shown in Figure 2 were

developed by Sokal [I ] in the: mid 1970s for use in lightweight, low

power, high efficiency power converters and RF amplifiers. The

Class E ZVS resonant inverters are most efficient inverters known.

In particular, the switch turns on at zero voltage if the component

values of the resonant circuit are properly chosen. Since the switch

current and voltage wavefomns do not overlap during the switching

time intervals, switching lo:;ses are virtually zero, yielding high

efficiency (approximately 96% [2-31). When the inverter operated

at high frequency in order to get high efficiency controlled. The

output current and voltage waveforms of this circuit will be

sinusoidal shape, if the loaded quality factor is high enough.

In this paper, the class E circuit is used for generating the high

frequency output power as t!nehigh frequency power supply. The

advantage of this circuit is the total harmonic distortion of both

current and voltage wavefomis are small.

Load

power

factor

Figure 1. Separating concept

Figure 2. I mproved power factor by connect the capacitor at

the secondary side of transformer

346

Step-by-step Method

The tested circuit is a class E ZVS resonant inverter, using the

induction coil load with the selected capacitor as shown in Fig. 2.

The use of this circuit is not only to reduce a number of switching

devices and the amount of switching loss, but also generate

predictable frequency. This circuit can generate both sinusoidal

output current and voltage waveforms, when the loaded quality

factor is high enough. The analysis and discussion of the conducted

EM1 emission are concluded. The simulated and experimental

results of the conducted EM1 emissions are discussed and analyzed

in the next section.

In this paper, the main contents are composed of the proposed

circuits as shown in Figure 2 and their impedance approach, the

comparison between the simulated results and measured results of

inverter waveforms, the EM1 analysis and prediction and the

conclusion. The impedance is measured as shown in Figure 4.

The proposed process, as shown in Figure 3, can be described, the

first step, starting by setting three different loaded power factors:

unity, lagging and leading power factor. This condition must keep

the same input power. This is the important criterion to compare

the EM1 emission. Then, the second step, the current and voltage

waveforms at 4 key points are measured as shown in Figure 4.

I

Step 1: To operates the inverter at three different loaded

I Power factors

5-

Step 2: To measure i and v waveforms at four key points

I

Step 3: To calculate the impedance and power flow

Step 4: To calculate the impedance mismatch using the

imoedance mismatch ratio

Finally, the fifth step, the measurement setup and results of

conducted EM1 emission, as shown in Figures 11-14, are done at

three different loaded power factors.

Z at point x - Z at point 1

Z at point 1

The ratio of Z at pointx =

P at point x - P at point 1

P at point 1

The ratio of P at pointx =

Some analyses reveal that at the unity load power factor, the lowest

mismatch impedance, generate the lowest conducted EM1 emission

comparing to those of leading and lagging power factors as shown

in Figures 12-14.

Figure 4. Proposed circuit

~~

Step 5: To predict and analyze the conducted EM1 emission

based on the imoedance mismatch ratio

Figure 3. The proposed process to predict and analyze the

conducted EMI emission

These results lead to calculate the impedance at four points: point 1

is at the AC terminal, point 2 is at the input of the class E inverter,

point 3 is at the front end of transformer primary side, and point 4

is at the loaded side. The third step, the impedance of each point is

calculated using MATLAB tool, where the data fromoscilloscope

are loaded to the computer in the MATLAB program. The

simulated and measured results of current and voltage waveforms

are shown in Figures 5-8.

The fourth step, the mismatch impedance is based on the

impedance ratio at any point as shown in equation (1). This

criterion is also done for the mismatch of the power flow as shown

in equation (2). The example results of each circuit impedance and

impedance ratio are done as shown in tables 1-2. The power flow

details and power ratio are shown in table 3-4. Figures 9 and IO are

the histograms of impedance ratio fromtable 2 and power ration

from table 3, respectively. They can show the difference of all

cases easily.

Figure 5. Simulated current and voltage waveforms at the

power MOSFET, when the power factor is unity

Figure 6. Experimental current and voltage waveforms at the

power MOSFET, when the power factor is unity

id : SAldiv, vllr : 500Vldiv, I : 2psldiv

341

Table 4. Impedance ratio at four points on Figure 2

Lagging

Leading

I

,,. .I_ s . , 9,- ", 9.- 2,) ,.a. >n 9. - *, . ,,-

-.om I

,I.

..<et I ,

Figure 7. Simulated current and voltage waveforms at the

transformer primary side, when the power factor is unity

132.78 33.36 88.19

125.32 35.61 88.47

Figure 8. Experimental current and voltage waveforms at the

transformer primary side, when the power factor is unity

ipri : SAIdiv, vpri : 100V/div, f : 2psIdiv

Table 1. Measured impedance at four points on Figure 2

Power ratio ("76)

I 1m- 1

I Unity t - 1 8.03 t 16.93 t 18.79 I

1 Lagging I I 1 I ;::;; 1 22.63 1

Leading 20.175

1 2 3

Unity IBi Lagging 0 Leading

Figure 9. The comparison of impedance ratio from table 2

Impedance (Q)

39.09 87.39 54.61

1 2 3

El Unity S Lagging 0 Leading

37.95 I 88.34 I 25.29 I 4.48 I

I Leading 1 39.46 I 88.91 1 25.41 I 4.55 I

Note: Impedances in this table are based on RMS values

Table 2. Impedance ratio at four points on Figure 2

~~

I

Impedance ratio (%)

Point i 1 Point 2 I Point 3 1 Point4

1 Unity I - I 123.56 I 39.70 1 88.44 I

Table 3. Measured power at four points on Figure 2

Power (W)

Point I I Point 2 1 Point 3 I Point 4

I Unitv I 1000.00 I 919.75 I 830.71 I 812.09 I

Figure 10. The comparison of power ratio from table 2

Conducted EM1 Emission Measurement

The aimof this paper is to predict the conducted EM1 emission in a

circuit using the impedance mismatch approach. The simulated and

experimental results have been tested using a class E ZVS resonant

inverter at 1,000 W input power, and the switching frequency of

100 kHz. The operating condition for the load can be done at unity,

lagging and leading loaded power factor using the capacitor

variation. The mismatch impedance at four different points shows

both of power fl ow and condlucted EM1 emission to the utility grid.

The line impedance stabilization network (LISN) is connected to

provide acceptable measurement and impedance at the range of 9

kHz to 30 MHz. The limitation of the conducted EM1 emission

based on CISPR 11 Class B is used as the reference [4].

I Lagging I 1000.00 1 916.92 I 790.04 I 773.69 I

I Leading I 1000.00 1 919.39 I 817.80 I 798.25 I

Note: Powers in this table are based on RMS values

348

Figure 11. Measurement circuit

Receiver: Agilent EMC analyzer E74011A, 9 kHz-1.5 GHz

LISN: EMCO 3810/2 50 R, 50/250 pH, 9 kHz-30 MHz

dBUV

I I

1 10

Figure 12. Conducted EM1 emission from the case of unity

power factor, measured from 90 kHz to 30 MHz,

the reference is set to 100 dBpV

dBVV

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

IO

0

ENS(syI11;Cl ui B Cmdurlrd, Croup 1 = d l , Q.a&P..L

1 I 10

Figure 13. Conducted EM1 emission from the case of lagging

power factor, measured from 90 kHz to 30 MHz,

the reference is set to 100 dBpV

70

60

M

40

m

I I I I l 1 I l

I

IO

0 , 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1111

1 10 MHI

Figure 14. Conducted EMI emission from the case of leading

power factor, measured from 90 kHz to 30 MHz,

the reference is set to 100 dBpV

Discussion

In table 1, the measured impedances of each circuit are presented.

These results can be modified by the transformed data as shown in

table 2, which shows the difference values of each point compare

with their previous point values by using equation 1. The different

of impedance mismatch of point 1 comparing other point is the key

criteria to estimate the EM1 emission. For example, the unity

power factor case has the smallest change in impedance variation

of those four points comparing to both of leading and lagging

power factor. This result is confirmed in table 1.

In table 3, the power transfer of this circuit is presented, and

transferred to the power ratio in table 4. These results can also

confirm the power loss in the circuit. For example, the maximum

power loss of this circuit is the lagging power factor case, and

minimum power loss is the unity power factor case. Some of their

losses generate the EM1 emission as shown in Figures 12-14.

Some results show that the unity load power factor, the lowest

impedance mismatch, generate the lowest conducted EM1 emission

comparing to those of leading and lagging power factors.

More contents can be discussed as follows:

I . The analysis of the relationship of the impedance mismatch

and the conducted EM1 emission. For example, the emission of

unity power factor case, as shown in Figure 12, is lower than of

those lagging and leading power factors during 150 kHz to 5

MHz, which shows the effect of differential-mode emission,

that can support the mismatch impedance approach. For the

frequency more than 10 MHz, the common-mode emission will

be dominated; therefore, these results of all loaded power

factor will generate the same EM1 trend.

2. The impedance mismatch affect to the power transfer. The

power transfer can also be presented and proved to support the

conducted EM1 emission trends of these three cases.

Conclusion

This paper proposes the process to analyze the conducted EM1

emission using the impedance mismatch approach. Five steps of

the process are described. Some impedance fixtures and EM1

measured results show how the relationship of impedance ratio and

conducted EM1 emission are occurred. The power flow can also

support the prediction of EM1 phenomena.

Finally, the benefit of this work can be complied for any

complicating circuits.

References

[ I ] Sokal, N.O., Sokal, A.D., "Class E - A New Class of High-

Efficiency Tuned Single-Ended Switching Power Amplifiers",

IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits, vol. 10, no. 3, 1975, pp. 168-176.

[2] Kazimierczuk, M.K., Puczko, K. "Class E Tuned Power

Amplifer with Antiparallel Diode of Series Diode at Switch,

with Any Loaded Q and Duty Cycle", IEEE Trans. Circuit and

Systems, vol. 36, no. 9, 1989, pp. 1021-1029.

[3] Kazimierczuk, M.K., Czarkowski, D., Resonant Power

Converters, J ohn Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1995.

[ 4] International Electrotechnique Commission CISPR 11,

Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) Radio-frequency

equipment - Electromagnetic Disturbance Characteristics -

Limits and Methods of Measurement. - 3'd ed. Geneva : IEC

Central Office. 1997.

149

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