=
P
k
k
j
j k
r
j
r n r r
p
p
p
y x a
(6)
a
r,n
is the n
th
polynomial coefficient of the r
th
reciprocal efficiency map. A one
dimensional polynomial of order 2 defined by eq. 5 has 3, a twodimensional polyno
mial given with eq. 6 has 6 coefficients. For a twodimensional polynomial n runs
from 0 to 5 and can be gained from the counter variables of the sums in eq. 6 by
.
2
) 1 (
j
k k
n
p p
+
+
=
(7)
Regardless of which polynomial dimension is used for the reciprocal efficiencies, to
gether with eq. 5 or 6 eq. 4 can be represented as
,
1
, , ,
=
=
R
r
i r
P
i
i r in AUX
W p P
(8)
whereas p
r,i
is the i
th
polynomial coefficient of the r
th
component, and W
r,i
designates
the product of the output power of the r
th
component with the i
th
polynomial varia
ble(s).
Assuming in a first approach that all output power ratings can be measured and thus
are known, and further assuming that all input signals of the efficiency map can be
captured, the unknown polynomial coefficients can be determined using a least
squares approach.
For applying the least squares approach the measurement values of the input power
signals of the auxiliary components have to be modeled with eq. 8. The unknown
polynomial coefficients can then be determined minimizing the least squares error
given by
, ) (
1
2
1
, , ,
= =


.

\

=
N
k
R
r
i r
P
i
i r in AUX
W p k P c (9)
solving the matrix equation
438
.
1
ZW W P =
(10)
P is the vector with the polynomial coefficients
], ..., , , [
2 1
T
R
T T
p p p P = (11)
W is a square matrix which results from the Wterms in eq. 8 to
.
2
10
11 10
10 10 11
2
10
(
(
(
(
(
RP RP
RP
W W W
W W
W W W W W
W
(12)
ZW is a matrix combining the terms W
r,i
with the P
AUX,in
measurement values by the
expression
  .
, 11 , 10 ,
T
RP in AUX in AUX in AUX
W P W P W P
= ZW (13)
Hence, to determine the unknown polynomial coefficients of the reciprocal efficiency
maps, eq. 10 has to be solved. Before the number R of the considered auxiliary
components has to be selected. Furthermore is has to be defined if the efficiencies
depend on one or two influencing quantities. The polynomial of the corresponding
component has two be defined using a one or twodimensional approach according
ly. To solve eq. 10 the minimum number of measurement values results from the
number of coefficients being used to model the reciprocal efficiencies.
For each set of measurement data the input power P
AUX,in
as well as the output pow
er ratings of the auxiliary components and the values of the influencing quantities has
to be given. Using these data the matrices in eq. 12 and 13 can be built up and con
sequently eq. 10 can be solved. The efficiency maps q then can be obtained as re
ciprocals of the reciprocal efficiencies .
4. Strategy for Measuring the Efficiency Maps
Solving eq. 10 (assuming that the output power ratings of the auxiliary components
are known) all efficiency maps can be gained at once. However, for the defined sys
tem of equations both the input power ratings of the components and the efficiency
maps itselves are unknown. Thus solving eq. 10 leads to a reasonable solution in a
mathematical sense. But in a physical sense the results are not feasible as one ob
tains negative efficiencies or efficiencies > 1. To solve this problem either the system
of equations has to be extended in a reasonable way or has to be restricted appro
priately. Another way is to choose a suitable measuring approach to determine the
efficiencies subsequently.
The basic concept is to apply reasonable operating configurations in that way that
only one component burdens the combustion engine whereas the other components
439
are deactivated anyhow. This procedure is summarized in the table below and will be
explained in the following.
Table 2: Approach for Subsequent Determination of the Efficiencies of Auxiliary
Components
Step Measure Means Result
1 Deactivating Alternator
Full Battery, Switching off
Electric Loads
Speed and Load De
pendent Efficiency
Map of Cooling and
Steering Pump
Deactivating A/C
Compressor
Switching off Air Condi
tion
Minimize Power of
Steering Pump
Driving w/o Steering
2 Charging Alternator Switching on Electric
Loads
Efficiency Map of Al
ternator
3 Activating A/C Com
pressor
Cooling Vehicle Cabin Efficiency Map of A/C
Compressor
Concerning the a/c compressor and the alternator it is a quite simple task to deacti
vate the mentioned components (switching off the climate control and operating the
electric vehicle system with heavily reduced loads and a full battery). However, the
cooling pump and the steering pump are running continuously with a certain load:
The cooling circuit of the engine is activated immediately after engine start. The
same holds for the hydraulic steering support. Both the pressure and the speed de
pendent flow rate of the coolant lead to permanent power losses within the auxiliary
system. And even the steering support is active after engine start. The steering pump
already runs and provides a pressure with a flow rate even if no steering angle is
present. This leads to additional mechanical losses.
Thus in a first step the efficiencies of the steering pump and the coolant system have
to be determined. As the input power ratings of the cooling pump and the steering
pump cannot be measured separately, it is not possible to calculate the efficiency of
these components independently. Therefore both components have to be considered
as one consumer. For measuring the total efficiency of steering and water pump the
alternator has to be deactivated. This can be realized running the vehicle electric sys
tem with a fully charged battery and just applying the minimum number of electric
consumers. Furthermore the a/c compressor has to be switched off.
Operating the vehicle for measuring purposes it has to be taken into consideration
that all driving scenarios are realized without steering angle at different engine
speeds. Operating the vehicle beginning from a cold start, different coolant tempera
tures result what leads to different pressures within the coolant liquid. Measuring the
pressure of the coolant liquid as well as the component speeds, a speed and load
dependent efficiency map can be obtained.
440
For the second step the driving scenarios are repeated with activated alternator, i.e.
operating the vehicle electric system with different currents. The difference between
the measured input power P
AUX,in
of the auxiliary system and the input power of the
cooling and steering pump calculated backwards with the output power ratings and
the efficiency map is determined. This difference then equals the input power of the
alternator. As the input and output power of the alternator is known, the efficiency
map can be estimated directly. In this way the efficiency of the a/c compressor is de
termined applying different pressures to the refrigerant medium by choosing different
set temperatures of the vehicles cabin.
5. Results
The strategy to identify the efficiencies of the auxiliary components described in the
former chapter is verified using a simulation model with a 237 Nm/80 kW diesel en
gine together with the accessory components specified in table 3. Only for verification
purposes it is further assumed that the output power ratings of the components are
available.
Table 3: Specification of the Auxiliary Components Used in the Simulation Model
Component Parameter
Cooling Pump Ratio 1.2
Max. Flow Rate 100 l/min.
Nominal Pressure 1.2 bar
Alternator Ratio 2.7
Max. Power 1,8 kW@12 V
Steering Pump Ratio 1.2
Max. Flow Rate 100 l/min.
Nominal Pressure w/o Steering Angle 6 bar
A/C Compressor Ratio 1.5
Max. Flow Rate 25 l/min.
Pressure Range 3 to 20 bar
The corresponding efficiency maps of the components are shown in the following Fig.
3 and 4.
Beside the efficiency contour lines the bold dots symbolize the operating points ap
plied to the auxiliary system to identify the efficiencies. The number of measurement
points depends on the order of the polynomials that describe the reciprocal efficien
cies (see eq. 5 and 6). As for all polynomials an order of two has been chosen, at
least 3 or 6 measurement values per line or map have to be acquired. Furthermore
the operating points should be inside a typical operating range to avoid focusing on
unusual operating areas. Abnormal loads thus should be avoided.
441
Fig. 3: Efficiency Map of Cooling Pump (left) and Efficiency Line of Steering Pump
(right)
Fig. 4: Efficiency Maps of A/C Compressor (left) and Alternator (right)
As described in table 2 the first step of the identification strategy is to determine the
common efficiency map from cooling and steering pump. Using the parameterization
above, simulation runs are accomplished to acquire the output power of the compo
nents for given speeds and coolant pressures.
The total efficiency of cooling and steering pump can now be obtained using eq. 10.
The result is given in Fig. 5 (right). The left plot shows the input power of the auxiliary
system and the output power ratings of the cooling and steering pump. As expected,
an averaged efficiency map results combining both the efficiency map of the water
pump and the efficiency line of the steering pump (Fig. 3). As the efficiency map used
as a cooling pump parameter does not vary strongly within the range applied in the
simulation (1.1 to 1.3 bar), almost vertical contour lines result in Fig. 5 (right). It
should be stated out here, that for measurements at real auxiliary systems further
loads appear which are not covered by the steering and water pump, such like de
formation of the belt, turbulences, belt friction, and so on. Thus, the calculated effi
ciency in general is less than the real efficiency of both components.
442
Fig. 5: Measured Power at Auxiliary System (left) and Estimated Common Efficiency
Map from Water and Steering Pump (right)
According to table 2, for the second step the alternator will be activated. Using the
common efficiency map of water and steering pump the input power of both compo
nents can be determined. Subtracting this power from the input power of the auxiliary
system leads to an estimation of input power of the alternator. The alternator efficien
cy map then can be determined using eq. 10.
Fig. 6 (left) again shows the input power of the auxiliary system. The saw tooth
shaped line is due to increasing load of the alternator. The input power of cooling and
steering pump calculated backwards from the output power ratings is shown as a
dashed line. The difference of both lines equals the mechanical alternator input pow
er. The resulting efficiency map is illustrated in Fig. 6 (right) and basically matches
the real efficiency map used in the simulation. Deviations can be observed in the
gradient of the efficiency contour lines with increasing speed. This is due to the low
order of the polynomial model of the reciprocal efficiency map.
Fig. 6: Measured Power at Auxiliary System (left) and Estimated Efficiency Map from
Alternator (right)
As accomplished with the alternator the same strategy is applied now to the a/c com
pressor. Different compressor power settings are requested defining different cooling
temperatures for the vehicle passenger cabin with activated air condition. This leads
to different pressures of the refrigerant liquid. Again making use of the efficiency
443
maps determined in the foregoing steps the input power ratings of alternator, cooling,
and steering pump can be estimated backwards. The difference with the auxiliary
input power again leads to the mechanical a/c compressor input power. The resulting
efficiency and the power distributions are shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 7: Measured Power at Auxiliary System (left) and Estimated Efficiency Map from
A/C Compressor (right)
Again the estimated efficiency map basically matches the parameterized efficiency
map of the a/c compressor. Deviations can be observed around the maximum area.
As the estimated efficiency is too high, the consequence is that backwards calculated
power of the other components is lower than actually have been. This leads to a 5
percentage point higher efficiency value. As already emphasized for the alternator
the gradient of the contour lines is lower than it is for the real map. This again is due
to the low order of the polynomial for modeling the reciprocal efficiency map.
6. Optimized Measurements
The last chapter pointed out which identification quality can be expected for the effi
ciency maps if all output power ratings of the considered components can be ob
tained. Increasing the order of the polynomials of the reciprocal efficiency maps may
provide better results, but basically a polynomial of order 2 is sufficient to achieve a
suitable estimation. This statement even holds if the considered operating ranges are
not extended to the absolute component limits.
As already mentioned at the beginning, practically it is quite impossible to measure
all output power ratings of the auxiliary components due to cost and safety reasons.
Thus, different alternative signals are necessary to achieve suitable estimations of
the component output power if the power signals cannot be measured directly. Pro
posals for the auxiliary components are given in the next sections.
6.1 Alternator
The output power of the alternator is the product between alternator current and volt
age of the vehicle electric system. These signals are usually easy to access. Measur
444
ing the current, a clampon ammeter is required; the voltage of the vehicle electric
system should be directly measured at the terminals of the alternator.
6.2 Water Pump
The output power of the water pump is the product between the difference pressure
of the pump and the flow rate of the coolant. Basically neither flow rate nor coolant
pressure are measured online in series vehicles and provided over the CAN bus.
Thus, alternative signals are required.
Increasing engine temperature and consequently rising temperature of the coolant
leads to an expansion of the coolant liquid. This process is accompanied by an in
creasing of the coolant pressure. If the pressure exceeds a certain limit a valve
opens and redirects a part of the coolant into the expansion tank. Below this limit the
pressure increases almost linearly with the coolant temperature (law of Amontons).
As the coolant temperature is a signal that usually is available in series vehicles, this
signal can be used to determine the coolant pressure.
The flow rate of the coolant depends on the speed of the water pump. Due to the law
of similarity [5] it can be assumed that the flow rate and the pump speed are linear
dependent to each other. Hence the power of the water pump can be calculated in
typical operating ranges with
( ) . 1
0 0 0 WP WP
n a p Q p P A + = = 0
(14)
p
0
is the initial pressure of the coolant,
0
is the volumetric coefficient of expansion,
A0 = 0 0
0
describes the temperature difference compared to the initial temperature
0
0
, and a
0
contains the displacement volume of the pump.
6.3 Steering Pump
The output power of the steering pump is (as it is for the water pump) the product
between the difference pressure of the pump and the flow rate of the hydraulic oil.
As it holds for the water pump the flow rate again is proportional to the pump speed.
Unlike the water pump, for the steering pump neither temperature not pressure in
formation can be achieved. Thus measuring the pressure directly at the high pres
sure side of the steering pump is indispensable. Together with the flow rate the out
put power of the steering pump can be estimated with
.
0 SP SP
n a p Q p P = =
(15)
p is the measured pressure of the hydraulic oil and a
0
contains again information
about the displacement volume of the pump.
445
6.4 A/C Compressor
Just like the steering and water pump power, the a/c compressor power also can be
obtained from the product between the pressure difference and the flow rate of the
refrigerant medium.
For modern vehicles information about the pressure at the high pressure side of the
compressor usually is available. The pressure at the compressor input usually is not
measured, but the temperature at the evaporator. The corresponding pressure can
be obtained from the steam table for the refrigerant medium. Furthermore it has to be
taken into consideration that there is an averaged overheating of 6 K of the refriger
ant medium. Using the law of Amontons the pressure at the compressor input can be
estimated. Thus, for the pressure difference between high and low pressure side of
the a/c compressor one obtains
( ) ( ). 1
0 Over in out in out
p p p p p 0 0 A + = = A
(16)
where Ap represents the pressure difference between output p
out
and input p
in
, p(0
in
)
is for the pressure gained from the steam table of the refrigerant medium measured
at temperature 0
in
at the evaporator,
0
is the volumetric coefficient of expansion of
the refrigerant medium and A0
over
is for the overheating temperature level.
The flow rate Q of the refrigerant medium through the compressor can be gained by
the equation
.
geom
Q Q =
(17)
is the volumetric efficiency of the compressor. Besides other influence variables
(e.g. temperature of the inflowing refrigerant) the volumetric efficiency strongly de
pends on the pressure ratio of the compressor. Q
geom
is for flow rate that can be cal
culated by the geometrical data of the compressor, i.e. the volume V
geom
per time
unit. Assuming a controllable compressor the volume V
geom
usually can be controlled
between 0 and V
geom,max
using a wobbling disk, e.g [1]. Thus Q
geom
is directly propor
tional to the compressor speed so that the flow rate can be calculated as
( ) ( ) , n s V Q
geom
= t
(18)
where t is the pressure ratio p
out
/p
in
, n represents the compressor speed, and s is the
controllable stroke of the compressor piston. Neglecting pressure losses at the intake
the volumetric efficiency can be calculated to [3]
( )
( ) ( )
  ( ) ( ) ( ). 1 025 , 0 1 1 1
1 62 , 0 1 / 1
=
+
t t t
k
c (19)
c is the clearance ratio and k is the isentropic exponent of the refrigerant medium.
446
6.5 Measurement System
Making use of the assumptions above the output power signals of the auxiliary units
can be determined. The following Fig. 8 shows the corresponding measurement sig
nals that have to be captured at the auxiliary system.
Fig. 8: Points of Measurement to Determine the Input Power of the Auxiliary Units
and the Component Output Power Ratings
For measuring the auxiliary system it is indispensable to have knowledge about the
input torque to the auxiliaries. Thus it is necessary to apply a torque sensor to the
accessory input. The acquisition of the alternator current should be realized with a
clampon ammeter directly at one of the alternator output terminals. The hydraulic
circuit of the steering support has to be equipped with a pressure sensor at the out
put side of the pump. All other signals can be measured without any further instru
mentation directly from the power train or comfort CAN bus.
In comparison to the direct measuring of all input and output power signals the
measurement system introduced in Fig. 8 is much simpler. The most costintensive
components are the torque adapter and the pressure sensor at the output of the
steering pump. A disadvantage is that the output power signals only can be obtained
with a limited accuracy. Furthermore the efficiencies of the cooling and steering
pump including other additional losses cannot be determined separately.
447
7. Summary
Determination of the efficiency of auxiliary units even integrated in a vehicle is an
ambitious task that could require highly costintensive efforts concerning the meas
urement equipment. This is due to the fact that all input and output power signals of
all components had to be acquired.
Considering an exemplary auxiliary system with four different components a funda
mental set of equations was introduced to determine the efficiencies of all defined
components. For this set of equations both the efficiencies and the component input
power ratings of the auxiliary units are unknown. Describing the reciprocal efficiency
maps as polynomials, it is possible to determine the unknown polynomial coefficients
making use of a subsequent activation of the accessories. A suitable quality of the
estimated maps could be proven using a simulation approach for verification purpos
es. However, knowledge about the output power ratings of the units is required. It
was further shown how these power ratings can be obtained with easy accessible
signals.
Using this approach it is possible to achieve information about the efficiencies of the
considered accessory units without using sophisticated measurement devices.
List of References
[1] Matthies, H. J.; Renius, K. T.: Einfhrung in die lhydraulik, 6. Auflage, Vieweg
+ Teubner Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2008
[2] Lunanova, M.: Optimierung von Nebenaggregaten: Manahmen zur Senkung
der CO2Emission von Kraftfahrzeugen, Vieweg + Teubner Verlag, Wiesbaden,
2009
[3] Cikonkov, R.; Hilliweg, A.: Kolbenverdichter Simulation des Leistungsverhal
tens beim Einsatz in einem Verflssigungssatz, KI Luft und Kltetechnik,
3/2003
[4] Rumbolz, Ph.; Piegsa, A.; Reuss, H.Ch.: Messung der Fahrzeuginternen Leis
tungsflsse und der diese beeinflussenden Gren im reallife Fahrbetrieb, 7.
VDI Tagung Innovative Fahrzeugantriebe, Dresden, 2010
[5] Surek, D.; Stempin, S.: Angewandte Strmungsmechanik fr Praxis und Stu
dium, 1. Auflage, B. G. Teubner Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2007
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