Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

Effects of tobacco smoking on the body

Inhaling tobacco smoke causes damage to many of the bodys organs and systems.
Effects of smoking on the respiratory system
The effects of tobacco smoke on the respiratory system include:
Irritation of the trachea (windpipe) and larynx (voice box)
Reduced lung function and breathlessness due to swelling and narrowing of the lung
airways and excess mucus in the lung passages
Impairment of the lungs clearance system, leading to the build-up of poisonous
substances, which results in lung irritation and damage
Increased risk of lung infection and symptoms such as coughing and wheezing
Permanent damage to the air sacs of the lungs.
Effects of smoking on the circulatory system
The effects of tobacco smoke on the circulatory system include:
Raised blood pressure and heart rate
Constriction (tightening) of blood vessels in the skin, resulting in a drop in skin
temperature
Less oxygen carried by the blood
Stickier blood, which is more prone to clotting
Damage to the lining of the arteries, which is thought to be a contributing factor to
atherosclerosis (the build-up of fatty deposits on the artery walls)
Reduced blood flow to extremities (fingers and toes)
Increased risk of stroke and heart attack due to blockages of the blood supply.
How Does Smoking Increase Heart Disease Risk?
The nicotine present in smoke causes heart disease by:
Decreasing oxygen to the heart.
Increasing blood pressure and heart rate.
Increasing blood clotting.
Damaging to cells that line coronary arteries and other blood vessels.
Smoking: the principle risk factor for CHD
The British Regional Heart Study cites three principle non-hereditary risk factors for Coronary
Heart Disease: smoking, cholesterol and high blood pressure. More recently the European
Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) examined risk factors for myocardial
infarction and concluded that smoking is one of the leading risk factors.10 A 2010 national
cohort study of nurses in the United States found that while smoking-related risk was greatest for
lung cancer, CHD had a higher number of attributable deaths as a result of smoking. The report
authors assert that the risks of smoking were far greater than previously thought.
Stroke
A stroke (also known as cerebral thrombosis or cerebro-vascular disease) occurs when blood
flow to the brain is interrupted causing brain cells to become damaged or die. It can affect the
way your body or mind functions. It is currently the second most common cause of death world-
wide after heart disease. The World Health Organization has predicted that this will still be the
case in 2030, with stroke expected to account for 12.1% of all deaths.
Aneurysm
An aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel that is caused by a weakness in the vessel wall. As the
blood passes through the weakened part of the vessel, the blood pressure causes it to bulge
outwards like a balloon. There is a danger that the aneurysm will cause the artery to burst
(rupture) causing organ damage or internal bleeding, both of which can be fatal.
Aneurysms occur most commonly in the aorta (the main artery in the heart that pumps blood out
into the body) or in the brain (referred to as an intracranial aneurysm) but can occur in any artery
in the body. An intracranial aneurysm which occurs near the surface of the brain may lead to
blood seeping into the space between the skull and the brain.
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Peripheral Arterial Disease (also called Peripheral Vascular Disease) is a disease that affects the
arteries. Most forms of PAD are caused by a gradual build-up of fatty material in the walls of the
artery, a condition called atherosclerosis. Over time, one or more of the principal arteries may
become so narrow that they are unable to deliver oxygen-rich blood to the limbs. In severe cases,
the blockage can cause gangrene requiring amputation.
The exact mechanism by which smoking induces atherosclerosis is not fully understood.
However, smoking appears to be a significant risk factor in the development of PAD in a number
of ways.
Smoking and Respiratory Disease
Smoking can cause lung disease by damaging your airways and the small air sacs (alveoli) found
in your lungs.
1,2

Lung diseases caused by smoking include COPD, which includes emphysema and
chronic bronchitis.
1,2

Cigarette smoking causes most cases of lung cancer.
1,2

If you have asthma, tobacco smoke can trigger an attack or make an attack worse.
1,2

Smokers are 12 to 13 times more likely to die from COPD than nonsmokers.
1

Smoking and Cancer
Smoking can cause cancer almost anywhere in your body:
1,2
(See figure above)
Bladder
Blood (acute myeloid leukemia)
Cervix
Colon and rectum (colorectal)
Esophagus
Kidney and ureter
Larynx
Liver
Oropharynx (includes parts of the
throat, tongue, soft palate, and the
tonsils)
Pancreas
Stomach
Trachea, bronchus, and lung
What are the risks associated with smoking?
Smokers not only increase their risk of lung disease, including lung cancer, but they also increase
their risk of other illnesses, including heart disease, stroke, and oral cancer. Risks from smoking,
as they relate to lung disease, may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis, a long-term inflammation of the bronchi (large
airways), is characterized by coughing productively over a long period of time.
Emphysema. Emphysema, a chronic lung condition that affects the air sacs in the lungs
(alveoli), is characterized by shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, sleep and heart
problems, weight loss, and depression.
Lung cancer. Lung cancer, an abnormal, continual multiplying of cells that can result in
lumps, masses, or tumors, can begin in the lining of the bronchi (large airways), or other
areas of the respiratory system. Lung cancer may cause a cough as the tumor grows.
Other symptoms may include constant chest pain, shortness of breath, wheezing,
recurring lung infections, bloody or rust-colored sputum, hoarseness, swelling of the neck
and face, pain and weakness in the shoulder, arm, or hand, and unexplained fever.
Smoking, including secondhand smoke, is the leading cause of lung cancer.