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1. What is Cocolisap?

Coconut scale insect pests are common in coconuts as its name suggests but in severe
infestation could spread to perennial fruit trees. Damages to leaves, stalks and branches cause
stunt growth, defoliation and dieback. Damages to fruits cause blemishes, deformed and
unmarketable. Coconut scale insects are recorded in both sub tropical and tropical regions and is
usually present in all countries where coconut trees are present. It is also known as armored
scale, transparent scale, bourbon scale, bourbon aspidiotus and is sometimes called red flies
because of the abundance of male flies in severe outbreaks. CSI is present in most of the Pacific
Island countries particularly the atoll countries; Tuvalu and Kiribati.
Scale insects belong to one of two types, the armored scales or the soft scales. The coconut
scale is classified as an armored scale. These scales are protected by a distinct, hard, separable
shell or scale over their delicate bodies (Metcalf, 1962). The shell is made of entangled threads
of wax exuded from the body wall of the scale and discarded cast skins (the old skin shed during
molts). Armored scales lose their legs and antennae after the first molt. Females are always
wingless and remain under their scale their entire life. Males have one pair of membranous
wings, move about actively in search of females and do not feed during the adult stage.
Reproduction is by eggs in most cases, but a few species birth live young. Eggs are protected
underneath the scale or shell of the mother insect until they hatch. All armored scales have
essentially the same life history (Metcalf, 1962).
Duration of developmental stages varies with temperature. Life history studies were
conducted in Fiji by Taylor (1935) at a mean temperature of 79 F on seedling coconuts. Taylor
found the total life cycle of females, from egg to the beginning of oviposition, required 34-35
days. Complete development of males required 30-35 days (Taylor, 1935). There are 8 - 10
generation per year in tropical regions.
2. What are the causes and effects of Cocolisap in a coconut and other fruit bearing plant?

CSIs feeding causes yellowing or chlorosis, wilting, premature nut fall, and low yield.

Experts explain that as CSI sucks the sap and injects toxic enzymes, these result to
discolored leaves and deformed plant tissues.

Usually a minor pest of young coconut in nurseries, CSI is also a destructive pest to
mature coconut palms. As they settle on the leaves, they continuously suck the sap that is
essential for the growth of the crop.

In young palms, this pest appears on the underside of coconut palms. In bearing palms, it also
attacks the surface of the fruits and the petioles.

3. Give at least 5 issues and concerns about Cocolisap in our country.

Batangas Coconut Infestation Under Control
Insect infestation in coconut palms in Batangas is not expected to reach epidemic
proportion as it has been contained at 6 percent of the coconut trees in the province. The
Philippine Coconut Authority, citing a provincial assessment report, said of the total coconut
area of 34,932.7 hectares in 34 towns, only 2,054.46 hectares in nine towns were affected by
the scale insects. Among the towns affected were Tanauan, Calaca, Lemery, Sto. Tomas,
Malvar, Agoncillo, Talisay, Laurel and Balete. The coconut scale insects, Aspidiotus
Destructor Signoret, are small plant parasites that cause yellowing or chlorosis, wilting,
premature nut fall and low yield of coconut trees.
PCA Administrator Euclides G. Forbes said he had directed field personnel to
continuously take action to prevent infestation to reach epidemic level and to prevent it from
spreading to neighboring provinces such as Laguna and Quezon. The agency said mechanical
as well as biological control measures were being applied. It added that in young palms, the
scale insects could be controlled by scrapping them off or by spraying a jet of soapy water.
Washing infested plant parts or a brisk wash spray of water can be helpful in reducing
populations, particularly in cases of small infestations and/or in young palms. Leaf pruning to
remove infested parts is continuously being done and disposed of by burning, the PCA said.
Gov't to roll out emergency measures to fight coconut pest
(philstar.com) | Updated June 6, 2014 - 8:00pm
MANILA, Philippines - The government has said it will put in place emergency
measures to combat the infestation of scale insect which threatens to cripple the local coconut
industry.
Executive Order No. 169 released today authorizes the establishment of emergency
measures to control the spread of scale insects (Aspidiotus rigidus) in coconut plantations.
The order was signed by President Benigno Aquino III on June 5.
"The massive infestation of scale insect poses a very serious threat to the coconut
industry and to the livelihood of those who depend (on it)," said Aquino.
State-run Philippine Coconut Authority will take the lead in crafting and
implementing the emergency measures. Aquino said these emergency measures can include
preventing the transport of unprocessed and untreated coconuts from infested areas that have
been placed under quarantine.
In the last three years, the Philippine government has been trying to eradicate scale
insects - a pest attacking plant leaves - in the northern Philippine provinces of Cavite,
Laguna, Batangas, and Quezon.
The government said the pest appeared to have spread in Mindanao and has been
attacking other high-value crops like coffee and cacao that are cultivated under coconuts or
near coconut plantations.
The Philippines is the top supplier of coconut products in the world. The local
coconut industry contributes an estimated $2 billion in foreign exchange earnings and
provides livelihood to 3.5 million farmers in 68 provinces.
Insect infestation threatens coconut industry in Isabela City
BY: RENE V. CARBAYAS
Tuesday 13th of August 2013
ISABELA CITY, Basilan, Aug 13 (PIA) -- Scale insect (Aspidiotus Destructor
Signoret), a soft-bodied 5mm long fluid-feeding insect is invading the coconut plants and
other palm and fruit trees in the city posing threat to farmers livelihood and the coconut
industry.

Rudy B. Corsame, officer-in-charge of the Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) in
Isabela City, revealed that as of July 15, 15 barangays have been affected by the pests.

Hardest hit was Barangay Lanote with 2,519 coconut trees affected, followed by
Maligue, Cabunbata, and Lumbang.

PCA data show the 15 barangays have 702,956 coconut trees and 5,975 of these are
infested with the scale insect. The data also show the pest also attacked 1,170 ornamental
plants, 382 lanzones trees, and 21 mango trees.

PCA fears that more trees are affected, as 11 other barangays, namely, Calvario,
Tabiawan, Panunsulan, Begang, Busay, Binuangan, Sumagdang, Kumalarang, Kapayawan,
Balatanay, and Makiri are already affected.

The Regional Development Council in Region 9 (RDC-9) also got alarmed at the
infestation, knowing the magnitude of damage it caused to the coconut farmers of Batangas.

Regional Director Noemi B. Edaga of the Philippine Information Agency (PIA)-9
disclosed that the RDC had come up with a resolution asking the agency to help conduct a
massive information campaign about this pest.

During the regional technical briefing conducted recently in Zamboanga City to PIA
personnel by PCA and the Department of Agriculture (DA), Edaga explained that a massive
information drive requires some budget which the agency has no funds for the purpose.Thus,
she asked the PCA to fund the campaign. The PCA agreed to study the matter.

Moreover, PCA-9 also presented its plans to address the situation. At its level, PCA
field offices have already started to alert coconut farmers about the infestation, especially in
Isabela City and made initial documentation on the extent of the infestation in the region.

PCA-Isabela City had also gathered barangay chairpersons and selected kagawads of
the 15 barangays affected by the pest last Aug. 1 to formulate plans to address the problem
and control the spread of infestation to other barangays and neighboring cities and provinces
in the region. The barangay officials have decided to conduct awareness drive in every
affected barangay.

Corsame said the insect is not a new pest specie attacking coconuts in the Philippines.
He pointed out that there are many reasons why an outbreak of coconut scale insect occurred,
and one of them is bad agricultural practices such as overuse or misuse of pesticides,
particularly on the vegetables and fruit trees planted under coconut plants. Pesticides also kill
natural enemies and without them, insect pests are free to multiply without control, he said.

Although coconut is the preferred host of scale insects, it is also known to attack other
perennial species including many species of fruit trees, such as avocado, breadfruit, mango,
mangosteen, guava and papaya.

PCA strengthens measures against CSI entry
BY: LILIBETH A. FRENCH Monday 23rd of June 2014

ILOILO CITY, June 23 (PIA6) - - The Philippine Coconut Authority in Western
Visayas is strengthening its quarantine measures in all ports of entry in the region to guard
against the coconut scale insect (Aspidiotus rigidus)

PCA 6 Officer in Charge Jeffrey de los Reyes said that so far they have not monitored
any occurrence of CSI in the region but will strengthen quarantine measures in all ports of
entry in the region such as Caticlan port in Malay, Aklan and Culasi Port in Roxas City,
Capiz.

He said the scale insect is now pestering CALABARZON, Basilan and part of
Mindoro.

It is now near, since there is a part of Mindoro that is infested. Hopefully it wont
spread to Bicol because once it enters Bicol it is near us, said De los Reyes in a press
briefing held at the Department of Agriculture 6 Regional Agriculture and Fisheries
Information Division Office.

De los Reyes said that they are still waiting for the implementing rules on what will
be intercepted in the quarantine stations but most likely this will include parts of coconut and
coco seedlings.

The leaves are used to cover citrus from Mindoro, said De los Reyes.On June 5,
President Benigno Aquino signed Executive Order No. 169 establishing emergency measures
to control and manage the spread and damage of Aspidiotus Rigidus in the country. It also
designated the PCA as the agency to lead the nationwide effort to control and contain the
scale infestation in the country.

The EO also mandates the PCA to coordinate efforts in formulating necessary and
appropriate emergency measures to treat infected coconut trees and host plants which may
include mechanical, chemical and biological measures, as well as to declare infested areas to
be under quarantine and to establish checkpoints and quarantine stations to prevent the
transport of infected coconut plants. (JCM/LAF/PIA6).

How 'cocolisap' infestation threatens Philippines
by RG Cruz, ABS-CBN News
Posted at 06/09/2014 9:15 PM | Updated as of 06/14/2014 10:57 AM
Pangilinan: P200M lost to 'cocolisap' infestation
MANILA - The local coconut industry has lost at least P200 million because of the the so-
called "cocolisap" infestation.
Presidential Assistant on Food Security and Agricultural Modernization Francis Pangilinan
on Monday said the losses are mounting.
Last year, ang datos po nila almost P200 million (losses). Inaverage out iyong yield loss,
mga 60 percent ang bagsak. Sometimes its 100 percent kapag talagang nadali na iyong
puno; sometimes its as low as 25 percent kung ito po ay moderate ang kanyang infestation,"
he said, describing the infestation on coconut plantations. "But they average out at 60
percent, 58 percent ang yield loss. So, ang total for last year based on the data was around
P180 million yield loss for the industry."
If the infestation is left unchecked, Pangilinan said losses may go up to billions of pesos. "If
left without intervention, you will have P12 billion losses in Region 4, another P13 billion
losses in Region 5 and around P7 billion losses, potential losses [in Region 9], with a 58
percent decrease."
"In other words, 60 percent decrease. Based on our experience dito sa Calabarzon
(Cavite/Laguna/Batangas/Rizal/Quezon), kung bumagsak ng 60 percent ang yield, yan po
ang magiging pigura," Pangilinan said.
Pangilinan said the problem involves the pests moving to other areas. "Meaning, lumilipat.
We have from 2010 to 2014, based on the data, the pest moves 400 meters a month. It can
also transport itself even quicker kung ito ay dinadala by way of transporting the goods."
He gave examples. "Meron tayong naging karanasan, halimbawa, from Batangas biglang
sumulpot at lumabas sa Cavinti, Laguna. Outside of the normal 400 meters a month traveling
bigla hong nagkaroon ng reports. At ang kanilang conclusion is that somebody transported
infested products from Batangas to Cavinti, Laguna. Also in Polilio Island, for example,
which is an island, meron na ring infestation and that confirms precisely the theory or the
belief, which is established also by science, that its airborne."
The losses are not limited to coconuts anymore, as the infestation also affected other crops
that are used in multi-cropping.
This, however doesnt mean government will avoid multi-cropping altogether.
"Pati po ang produkto ng mangosteen at saka lanzones, merong kalahating milyong mga
puno na apektado na rin. And the treatment there will be different. Ang gagamitin po natin
diyan is organic [pesticide] --- organic spraying, hindi ho chemical. And multi-cropping, I
guess, eventually ganun pa rin ang solusyon. Temporarily, in certain areas where infestation
is severe, it would not be advisable to plant new crops kasi nga baka siya ay mahaluan din at
mahawa," Pangilinan said.
4. What are the preventive measures to avoid Cocolisap?

5. What are the Biological Methods to be applied to prevent Cocolisap?


6. What are the factors might influence a change in the population?