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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN

Day: 091 Subject: Mathematics Grade Level: 4

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6E1

ITBS/TAP: ISAT:
Analyze and interpret data in a chart, Understand and use methods of data
choose and apply appropriate problem collections and analysis using a chart
solving strategies and understand
number systems

Unit Focus/Foci

Fractions

Instructional Focus/Foci

Prime and composite numbers

Materials

Six-Group Activity: Identifying Fractions


Math journals
Graph paper
Prepared chart

Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures

Warm-up Activity:

Have students fill in factors for each problem. Answers will vary.

1. ____ × ____ = 8 6. ____ × ____ = 9


2. ____ × ____ = 12 7. ____ × ____ = 5
3. ____ × ____ = 4 8. ____ × ____ = 2
4. ____ × ____ = 6 9. ____ × ____ = 10
5. ____ × ____ = 7 10. ____ × ____ = 11

Discuss all possible answers for each problem.

1
Lesson:

Review terms product and factors. Product is the answer to a multiplication problem.
Factors are the numbers multiplied to find a product.

factor × factor = product

Introduce prime and composite numbers. A prime number is a number that has only 2
factors one and itself. A composite number has more than 2 factors. The number “1” is
neither a prime number nor a composite number because it has only 1 factor.

Provide students with a sheet of graph paper and a duplicate of the chart below:

Tell students that the blank


Number of Prime or
Number column will be filled in at
Rectangles composite
another time.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Using the graph paper, have students draw as many rectangles as they can for each of the
numbers on the chart. Each rectangle should have a different shape and be neatly
colored. Make sure students understand that the rectangles and are the same
shape and are just rotated. Tell students that a square is also a rectangle (4-sided figure
with opposite sides equal). Have students record their findings on their charts.

Tell students to save their charts, or collect and store charts. They used in subsequent
lessons.

2
Example:
1 Number Prime or
Numb
2 of Composit
er 1 1 Neither
3 2 1 P
4 3 1 P
4 2 C
Discuss completed rectangles and charts. Have students name the prime numbers
through 12. (2, 3, 5, 7, 11) Ask students whether they identified one as prime or
composite. Their response should be “neither.” Ask why. (The number “1” has only
one factor)

Ten Statements

Review the ten statements and have students write yes if they heard it in today’s lesson
and no if they did not. If the answer is no, say: The statement is true, but it was not
heard in today’s lesson.

1. Factors are the numbers multiplied to find a product. (yes)


2. 8 is a composite number because it has more than two factors. (yes)
3. 1 is neither prime nor composite because it has only one factor. (yes)
4. An acute angle is less than 900 . (no)
5. A prime number has only two factors. (yes)
6. The first five prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7 and 11. (yes)
7. 200 + 80 + 3 is the expanded form of 283. (no)
8. The answer to a multiplication problem is called the product. (yes)
9. A composite number has more than two factors. (yes)
10. 4 quarts is equal to 1 gallon. (no)

Free-Choice Lesson

Have students choose a lesson from the Free-Choice Activity sheet (one box per day).

Six-Group Activity

Have a group of six students, two from each ability level, complete an activity on Set Up
a teacher-directed activity.

Math Workshop

Have students work in the Math Workshop after completing their Free-Choice Lesson.

3
Integration with Core Subject(s)

LA: Understand explicit, factual information

SC: Analyze and interpret data

SS: Read and interpret maps, charts, tables, graphs and cartoons

Connection(s)

Enrichment: Have students find the prime numbers between 26 and 50.

Fine Arts:

Home:

Remediation: Six-Group Activity Lesson.

Technology:

Assessment

Informal: Student response during lesson, Ten Statements.

Homework

Have students draw a chart like the one used in class for the numbers 13 to 25. Assign
students to use the remainder of the graph paper (or new sheet) to draw the rectangles for
13 to 25 and then complete the chart.

Teacher Notes

4
Six-Group Activity

Fractions: Identifying Mixed Numbers, Improper Fractions, and Proper Fractions

Materials:

20 index cards (3” x 5”)


1 black marker
1 pencil

Prepare the following index cards and sample reteaching model. Use a black marker to
write the problems on the front of the index cards. Use a pencil to write the answers
(located in parentheses) on the back of the index cards.

3 3 28 2 4 20 1 2 16 7
(I) 2 (M) (I) (P) 4 (M) (P) 5 (M) (P) (I) (I)
4 4 8 21 2 3
3 4 6 7
3 8 4 9 10 1 2 21 5 2
6 (M) (I) (P) (I) (I) (P) 7 (M) (I) (P) (P)
5 16 10 8 6
4 3 6 6 5

Lay the study board on the table with a sample of each form of fraction. Explain to the
students that a proper fraction has a numerator which is less than the denominator.
1 3 1
( , , ) A proper fraction is less than all the parts the whole is divided into. The
3 6 20
value of a proper fraction is always less than one.

When the numerator is equal to or greater than the denominator, the fraction is improper.
An improper fraction is more than the total parts in the whole. The value of an improper
fraction is either equal to one or greater than one. A mixed number is a whole number
3 1 3
written next to a proper fraction: 1 , 2 , 10 .
5 2 5

Say: We are going to do an activity that calls for you to identify a fraction as P for
proper fraction, I for improper fraction, and M for mixed number. Lay one of the cards
on the table and give the students one to two minutes to write the answer. Turn the card
over and reveal the answer. (As you reveal the answer, say: The answer is……). Then
do this with the rest of the cards until completed.

Have students who have mastered this skill simplify the problem. If the problem cannot
be simplified, have the students write C for complete.

Copy this study board and use this to reteach this lesson.

5
Different Fractions

2 3
proper (P) 2 mixed (M)
6 6
5 5
, improper (I)
3 5

Show the students the model of different fractions and explain why they are different.
2
Example: is a proper fraction because the numerator is less than or smaller than the
6
5 5
denominator. and are improper fractions, because the numerator is greater than the
3 5
5 5
denominator ( ), or the denominator and numerator are the same ( ). A mixed fraction
3 5
3
is a fraction that has a whole number and proper fraction. 2 .
6

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN

Day: 092-093 Subject: Mathematics Grade Level: 4

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6E1

ITBS/TAP: ISAT:
Analyze and interpret data presented in Understand and use methods of data collection
appropriate problem solving strategies and and analysis using a chart
understand number systems

Unit Focus/Foci

Fractions

Instructional Focus/Foci

Prime and composite numbers, Part 2

Materials

Six Group Activity: What are Fractions


Math journals
Charts from previous lesson and homework

Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures

Warm-up Activity:

1. Instruct students to define prime and composite numbers in their math journals.
2. List the prime numbers between 1 and 12.

Lesson:

Review the terms factors, product, prime, and composite. Have students take out their
charts from the previous lesson and homework. Tell students that they are going to list in
the blank column all the factors for each of the numbers 1 through 25. Have them write
Factors in the empty title box of the chart. Tell students that the factors are to be
separated by commas.

Tell students to write the factors of 2 (1 and 2) separating them using a comma (1,2).

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Ask students for the factors of 3 (1 and 3) and write them on the chart. Have students
give the factors of 4 (1, 2 and 4). Ask how they will list the factors. (Only once. For
example 2 × 2 = 4. The 2 is listed with the factors only once.)
For larger composite numbers, students may find it easier to pair factors and then list
them in ascending order. For example, when listing the factors of 12 tell students to pair
them 1 × 12,
2 × 6 and 3 × 4. Then they could list them 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12.

Discuss completed charts.

Ten Statements

Review the ten statements and have students write yes if they heard it in today’s lesson
and no if they did not. If the answer is no, say: The statement is true, but it was not
heard in today’s lesson.

1. A composite number has more than 2 factors. (yes)


2. 6 and 9 are multiples of 3. (no)
3. One is neither prime nor composite. (yes)
4. In the fraction 3 , the 4 tells how many parts it takes to make up a whole. (no)
4
5. The factors of 6 are 1, 2, 3, and 6. (yes)
6. When writing the factors for a number list each factor only once. (yes)
7. A prime number has only 2 factors. (yes)
8. When listing the factors of 12, pair them, such as 1 × 12, 2 × 6, and 3 × 4. (yes)
9. The distance around a circle is called the circumference. (no)
10. Factors are the numbers multiplied to find a product. (yes)

Free-Choice Lesson

Have students choose a lesson from the Free Choice Activity sheet (one box per day).

Six-Group Activity

Have a group of six students, two from each ability level, complete an activity on What
are Fractions as a teacher-directed activity.

Math Workshop

Have students work in the Math Workshop after completing their Free-Choice Lesson.

8
Integration with Core Subject(s)

LA: Understand explicit, factual information


Understand the meaning of words in context

SC: Apply scientific method to solve problems


Analyze and interpret data

SS: Read and interpret maps, charts, tables, graphs and cartoons
Sequence information, especially using time lines
Select appropriate information for intended purpose

Connection(s)

Enrichment:

Fine Arts:

Home:

Remediation: Six-Group Activity Lesson.

Technology:

Assessment

Informal: Student response during lesson Ten Statements.

Homework

Assign students to list the factors for the numbers 30 through 42.

Teacher Notes

9
Six-Group Activity

Fractions: What are Fractions?

Materials:
15 index cards (5” x 7”)
1 pencil
1 envelope (9 ½” x 6 ½”)
Scissors
Glue
15 Activity Cards

Prepare the following index cards using scissors to cut out the activity cards included in
the pages that follow and glue each to an index card. On the opposite side of the cards,
write the answers using the pencil.

Note: For the cards with the pictures, have students write a fraction for the shaded part in
each figure.

2 5 6 6 2
4 12 8 10 7

2 5 2 3
1
5 7 5 12

4 1 50 6 6
12 12 100 8 24

Lay a card on the table and, when you show a picture card, say: Write a fraction for each
shaded card. When you show a word problem card, say: Write a fraction that describes
each situation. Turn each card over, saying: The answer is… … Do all cards the same
way. Allow time for each student to write an answer.

Use this study board to reteach the concept of fractions. Make a copy of this study
board.

10
What are Fractions?

A fraction is a number that names part of a whole or part of a group. A fraction has a
numerator which tells how many parts you have and a denominator that tells you how
many equal parts are in the whole.

2
Example: The fraction tells you that two parts of the figure are shaded. The whole
4
figure is divided into four equal parts.

Example 1. Write a fraction for the shaded part.

Step 1. Count the parts in the whole. 3

Step 2. Write 3 as the denominator.


3

Step 3. Count the shaded parts. 1

1
Step 4. Write 1 as the numerator.
3

1 ⇐ numerator
The fraction is:
3 ⇐ denominator

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Example 2. Write a fraction for the shaded part.

Step 1. Count the parts in the whole.


8

4
Step 2. Count the shaded parts.

4
Step 3. Write the fraction.
8

4
The fraction is: .
8

Tell the students they are going to do an activity that calls for them to identify parts of
fractions and use fractions that describe situations. Lay a card on the table and give
enough time for students to write the answer. When each student has had sufficient time
to decide on an answer, reveal the answer by turning the card over and saying: The
answer is... Do this for every card. Store this activity in the envelope.

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Fraction Activity Cards

13
Fraction Activity Cards

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Fraction Activity Cards

15
Fraction Activity Cards

16
Fraction Activity Cards

17
Fraction Activity Cards

18
Fraction Activity Cards

19
Fraction Activity Cards

20
Fraction Activity Cards

21
Fraction Activity Cards

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A denominator is 4 times the numerator. The numerator is 12.
What fraction is this?

On a 12-month calendar, what fraction is represented by the first


month of the year?

What fraction of a dollar (100 cents) is represented by 50 cents?

Mr. Brown ordered a large pizza with 8 slices and his family ate
6. Which fraction names the amount of pizza eaten?

On a 24-hour clock, what fraction of the day has passed if the


time is 6 a.m.?

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN

Day: 094 Subject: Mathematics Grade Level: 4

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A5, 6B2

ITBS/TAP: ISAT:
Demonstrate understanding of measurement Demonstrate understanding of measurement
concept and apply measurement skills concepts and skills

Unit Focus/Foci

Fractions

Instructional Focus/Foci

Fractions as part of one whole, writing fractions

Materials

Six Group Activity: Set Up


Math journals
Homework sheet
20 snap cubes (10 each 2 colors)

Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures

Warm-up Activity:

Prime or composite?

1) 12 4) 8
2) 11 5) 21
3) 13 6) 23
Write all of the factors for the following numbers. List each factor only one time.
7) 12
8) 19
9) 2
10) 14

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Lesson:
Explain that a whole can be divided into equal parts, and that each equal part is called a
fraction. Draw the following figures on the board and ask students which figure is
divided into 3 equal parts. (B) Be sure students understand that equal parts means that
the parts are the same size.
A. B C.

Next draw a square on the board and have a student divide it into 4 equal parts. Possible
answers:

, , ,
This activity can be repeated by drawing rectangles and circles and having students
divide those figures into various equal parts on the chalkboard and in their math journals.

On the board, draw the chart with column headings only and have students copy chart in
their journals.

Number of equal parts Fraction name for each part


1 or one-half
2
1 or one third
3

Next, draw a rectangle with 2 equal parts under the heading Number of equal parts. Ask
students what each part is called. Write “ 1 or one-half” under the heading Fraction
2
name for each part. Have students copy this in their journals. Do the same for fourths,
fifths, sixths and eighths. Squares or circles can also be used.

Explain to students that with the exception of halves and thirds, all other fraction names
end with the letters th or ths.

Parts of a fraction. The top part of a fraction is called the numerator. The bottom part of
the fraction is called the denominator. The line separating the numerator and
denominator is called the fraction bar.

numerator fraction bar


denominator

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To help students remember which part is which, tell them that the words denominator and
down begin with the letter d. Therefore, the denominator belongs down on the bottom.
Next, explain that the denominator tells how many equal parts are present.

Write 1 , 2 , and 5 on the chalkboard. For each fraction ask: How many equal parts
4 3 7
does it take to make a whole? (4, 3, 7) How many equal parts that you have? (1, 2, 5)
How many more equal parts would you need to make a whole? (3, 1, 2)

Divide students into pairs. Give each pair 10 cubes each of 2 colors. In the absence of
cubes, any counters can be used as long as there are two different colors. Direct students
to take turns making the following trains. Have students make a train using 4 cubes of
one color and 1 cube of the other color. Ask: How many equal parts make up the whole?
(5) What fraction of the whole are the four cubes of one color? ( 4 ) What fraction of the
5
whole is the other cube? ( 1 ) Pull your demo apart and ask: 4 + 1 = ? (1) Have each
5 5 5
student in the pair make a train with 6 cubes of one color and 3 of the other color. Ask
the same questions as before.

Have students make several other trains and answer questions about them.

Ten Statements

Review the ten statements and have students write yes if they heard it in today’s lesson
and no if they did not. If the answer is no, say: The statement is true, but it was not
heard in today’s lesson.

1. The bottom part of a fraction is called the denominator. (yes)


2. Except for halves and thirds, all other fraction names end with the letters th or ths.
(yes)
3. In the fraction 3 , the 5 is the denominator. (yes)
5
4. A number being divided is called the dividend. (no)
5. The top part of a fraction is called the numerator. (yes)
6. The first place to the right of the decimal point is called the tenths place. (no)
7. The numerator tells how many parts of the whole there are. (yes)
8. If a whole is divided into 2 equal parts, each part is called one-half. (yes)
9. There are 3 feet in a yard. (no)
10. The denominator tells how many equal parts it takes to make up a whole. (yes)

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Free-Choice Lesson

Have students choose a lesson from the Free-Choice Activity sheet (one box per day).

Six-Group Activity

Have a group of six students, two from each ability level, complete an activity on Set Up
as a teacher-directed activity.

Math Workshop

Have students work in the Math Workshop after completing their Free-Choice Lesson.

Integration with Core Subject(s)

LA: Understand explicit, factual information

SC: Analyze and interpret data

Connection(s)

Enrichment:

Fine Arts:

Home:

Remediation: Six-Group Activity Lesson.

Technology:

Assessment

Student response during lesson, Ten Statement Review.

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Homework

What part is shaded?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

1 1 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 1 3 3
, , , , , , , ,
2 3 4 2 4 4 2 3 5 2 8 5
4 4 4
, ,
6 8 9

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

________ ________ ________ ________ _______

Teacher Notes

28
Six-Group Activity

Fractions: Set-Up

Materials:

10 index cards (5” x 7”)


1 black marker
1 pencil
1 envelope (9 ½” x 6 ½”)

Prepare index cards with the following problems. Write the problems horizontally on the
index cards.

3 2 1 2 1 2 1 3 1
2 - 5 - 2 2 - 10 +5 2 +1
4 3 4 4 2 3 6 4 2
2 1 1 5 2 1 1 1 1
3 + +2 8 -2 6 -2 3 + 6 +3
4 3 12 9 3 9 3 3 10

Write the answers on the back of the index cards in pencil.

2 2 2 3
2 5 2 10 2
3 4 3 4
3
- 1 1 1 1
4 -2 - +5 +1
4 2 6 2
2
3
4 5 1
8 6 3 6
1 9 9
1 1
3 2 1 + +3
-2 -2 3 10
1 3 3
+2
12

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Copy this study board.

On most standardized tests, fractions are written horizontally.


Example:
1 1
horizontal problem: 2 + 1
3 6
Rewrite the problem vertically.
Example:
1
2
3
vertical problem:
1
+1
6

Explain that the set up of a problem can help students solve the problem in an orderly
fashion. If the problem has the same denominator, there is no need to rearrange the
order; but if the denominators are different, it would make sense to write the problem
vertically to find the LCD.

Tell the students that you want them to risk writing the answers to these problems. Lay
one card on a flat surface and give the students one to two minutes to write the answer.
After the students have written the answer, turn the index card over and say: The answer
is…… Store this activity in the envelope.

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN

Day: 095 Subject: Mathematics Grade Level: 4

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A5, 6B2

ITBS/TAP: ISAT:
Demonstrate an understanding of measurement Demonstrate an understanding of measurement
concepts and skills concepts and skills

Unit Focus/Foci

Fractions

Instructional Focus/Foci

Fraction as part of a set

Materials

Six Group Activity: Writing Fractions


Math journals
Warm-up worksheet

Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures

Warm-up Activity:

Distribute worksheet of figures on the next page. Have students divide the figures into
equal parts and then shade in the fractional amount listed below each figure. The first
figure has been divided for them.

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Warm-up Worksheet

1. 2. 3. 4.

3 5 1 2
10 8 4 3

5. 6. 7. 8.

3 5 0 1
4 6 5 2

9. The top of a fraction is called the ______________________________.

10. The bottom part of a fraction is called the ________________________.

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Lesson:

Review fraction parts: numerator, denominator, fraction bar.

A fraction can show an equal part of a set. A set can be a group of objects, numbers, etc.
Draw the following on the board: . Ask: What part of
the figures are squares? (5 out of 8 figures are squares. Therefore, 5 of the figures are
8
squares.) Draw another set of figures and ask the same question. Ask the class how many
students are in the classroom. Ask a student what fraction of the class he/she is. Ask:
What fraction of the class girls?
What fraction of the class boys? What fraction of the class are the children in row 4?

Have students write the answers and /or questions in their journals. Check that students
understand that in today’s lesson the denominator represents how many objects are in the
set and the numerator represents how many are circled, shaded, etc.

Draw a set of objects on the chalkboard (hearts, squares, etc.) Have a student go to the
chalkboard and shade in a fraction of them. Have another student identify the amount
shaded. Repeat this several times.

In their math journals, have students draw eight squares and shade in 0 to 8 of them and
put a blank beneath them. Next, have students draw 6 triangles and shade in 0 to 6 of
them and put a blank beneath them. Then, have students exchange math journals with a
classmate. Tell them to write the fraction representing the shaded objects for both sets
and return the math journal to its owner. Instruct the owner of each math journal to then
determine if the fraction are correct.

Ten Statements

Review the ten statements and have students write yes if they heard it in today’s lesson
and no if they did not. If the answer is no, say: The statement is true, but it was not
heard in today’s lesson.

1. The denominator tells how many objects are in a set. (yes)


2. Three point seven is read three and seven tenths. (no)
3. The numerator is the top part of a fraction. (yes)
4. The fraction bar separates the numerator and denominator. (yes)
5. There are eight squares and 3 of them are red. 3 is the fraction that would show this.
8
(yes)
6. A fraction can show a part of a set. (yes)
7. The formula for area is length times width. (no)
8. The denominator is the bottom part of a fraction. (yes)
9. A hexagon is a polygon with 6 sides. (no)
10. A set can be a group of objects, numbers, etc. (yes)

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Free-Choice Lesson

Have students choose a lesson from the Free-Choice Activity sheet (one box per day).

Six-Group Activity

Have a group of six students, two from each ability level, complete an activity on Writing
Fractions as a teacher-directed activity.

Math Workshop

Have students work in the Math Workshop after completing their Free-Choice Lesson.

Integration with Core Subject(s)

LA: Understand explicit, factual information

SC: Analyze and interpret data

Connection(s)

Enrichment:

Fine Arts:

Home:

Remediation: Six-Group Activity Lesson.

Technology:

Assessment

Informal: Student response during lesson Ten Statements.

Homework

Have students draw a set of 8 objects. Tell them to shade in 0 to 8 of them and to write a
fraction to show the amount shaded.

Teacher Notes

34
Six-Group Activity

Fractions: Writing Fractions

Materials:

10 index cards (5” x 7”)


1 pencil
10 Fractions Activity Cards
Scissors
Glue
1 envelope (9 ½”x 6 ½”)

Prepare the following index cards by cutting out the activity problems and gluing them to
the index cards. Use the pencil to write the answer on the back of each card.

Note: Write a fraction for each of the parts described on each card.

Answers:

9 7 3 60 3 3
=
16 12 5 100 5 4

120 4 77 1,451 5 23
=
150 5 280 2,000 12 36

Instruct the students to write the answer to the card. After they have written the answer,
reveal the answer by turning the card over and saying: The answer is ... ... Allow
students time to complete the problem.

Use the same study board from What Are Fractions? to reteach students.

See attached Fraction Activity Cards.

Lay a card on the table and say: Write a fraction for each of the parts described on each
card. Give the students time to write the answer before revealing the answer and saying:
The answer is … … Store all materials from this activity in the envelope.

35
Fraction Activity Cards

A pound contains 16 ounces. 9 ounces is what


fraction of a pound?

7 months is what fraction of a year?

During a 5-day work week, James was sick for 3


days. What fraction of the work week was he sick?

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There are 100 centimeters in a meter. 60 centimeters
is what fraction of a meter?

There are 4 quarts in a gallon. 3 quarts is what


fraction of a gallon?

David makes $150 a week. He has spent $120.


What fraction of his week’s pay has he spent?

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Madge has typed 77 pages of a report that contains
280 pages. What fraction of the report has she
typed?

There are 2,000 pounds in a ton. 1,451 pounds is


what fraction of a ton?

A foot contains 12 inches. 5 inches is what fraction


of a foot?

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A yard contains 36 inches. 23 inches is what
fractional part of a yard?

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN

Day: 096 Subject: Mathematics Grade Level: 4

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A5, 6B3, 6D2

ITBS/TAP: ISAT:
Apply estimation strategies Use mathematical skills to estimate and judge
Demonstrate understanding of measurement reasonableness of results
concepts Demonstrate understanding of measurement
concepts and skills

Unit Focus/Foci

Fractions

Instructional Focus/Foci

Estimating with fractions review formal assessment

Materials

Six Group Activity: Prime Factorization


Math journals
Optional transparency for lesson

Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures

Warm-up Activity:
Put the following on the chalkboard or a transparency or handout and have students
complete them.

Ask: What fraction of each set is shaded?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

______ ________ _________ ________ _______

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What fraction of each set is circled?
rrrrrr #### $$$ ^^^ %
%
rrrrrr #### $$$
___________ _______ ________ ________
_______

Lesson:

Review factors, product, prime and composite numbers, listing factors, parts of a fraction,
and definition of a fraction as part of a set for the test next class session. Use notes and
lessons from the previous four class sessions.

Introduce estimating with fractions.

Draw the following figure on the chalkboard.

Tell students that since the figure is not divided into equal parts that the shaded portion
must be estimated. Ask if the shaded portion is about 1 , 1 , or 1 . ( 1 ) If students have
4 3 2 3
difficulty with this, show 1 and 1 on the figure.
4 2

Draw the following glass:

Ask for an estimation of how full the glass is: 1 1, or 2 . ( 1 )


,
4 2 3 2

Do a few more of these.

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Draw a circle and shade half of it. Draw the following circles below it:

__________ ____________ ____________

Ask how much of these circles are shaded: less than 1 , or more than 1 or equal to 1 ?
2 2 2

Draw: . Ask students how much of the rectangle is shaded. ( 5 ) Next,


8
draw the following rectangles:

__________ __________ __________ __________

Ask students to determine whether the shaded areas for each are more than 5 , less than 5
8 8
or equal to 5.
8

Draw a line dividing it into 3 equal parts and label the parts 0, 1 , 2 and 1. Have students
3 3
copy. Next, put an x above the 2 mark.
3
0 1 2 1
3 3

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1
Ask students if 2 is closer to 0, or 1. ( 1 ) They will not see 1 on the line and may
3 2 2 2
1
have difficulty. Ask them where would be. (Halfway between 1 and 2 .) Indicate, if
2 3 3
1
desired, on the line or have a student do it. Have students copy the following number
2
line from or on the chalkboard.

0 2 4 1
6 6

Ask if 5 is closer to 0, 1 , or 1. (1) Do a few more problems like these, if desired.


6 2
Write the following on the chalkboard or a transparency can be previously prepared and
used. Tell students that they can estimate with fractions to tell if a statement makes
sense. If the following statements do not make sense, tell students to indicate why they
do not.

1. In Taylor’s class, 2 of the students are girls and 1 are boys. (Does not make sense)
3 2
2. There are 8 pieces of candy in a bag. If 4 pieces are eaten, 1 of the candy is left.
2
3. Betty is using a recipe that makes 6 servings. Only 5 people will be eating.
Therefore, Betty makes 5 of the amount given by using 5 of each of the ingredients.
6 6
4. Kevin and Bob collected rocks for 3 of an hour. They started at 12:00 p.m. and quit
4
at 1:45. (Does not make sense.)

Ten Statements

Review the ten statements and have students write yes if they heard it in today’s lesson
and no if they did not. If the answer is no, say: The statement is true, but it was not
heard in today’s lesson.

1. On the number line, 2 is closer to 1 than to 1. (yes)


3 2
2. If a figure is not divided into equal parts, it can be estimated. (yes)
3. A right angle is an angle that forms a square corner. (no)
4. We can estimate with fractions to determine if a statement makes sense. (yes)
5. A prime number has only 2 factors. (yes)
6. The top part of a fraction is called the numerator. (yes)
7. A decimal point is a dot used to separate the ones digit from the tenth digit. (no)
8. Factors are the numbers multiplied to find a product. (yes)
9. A line segment is a part of a line with two endpoints. (no)
10. A composite number has more than 2 factors. (yes)

43
Free-Choice Lesson

Have students choose a lesson from the Free-Choice Activity sheet (one box per day).

Six-Group Activity

Have a group of six students, two from each ability level, complete an activity on Prime
Factorization as a teacher directed activity.

Math Workshop

Have students work in the Math Workshop after completing their Free-Choice Lesson.

Integration with Core Subject(s)

LA: Understand explicit, factual information

Connection(s)

Enrichment:

Fine Arts:

Home:

Remediation: Six-Group Activity Lesson.

Technology:

Assessment

Student responses during lesson, Warm-up activity and Ten Statements Review

Homework

Assign students to study for the test.

Teacher Notes

44
Six-Group Activity

Fractions: Prime Factorization

Materials:

10 index cards (3” x 5”)


1 pencil
1 envelope (9 ½” x 6 ½”)

Prepare the following index cards using the black marker to write the problems on the
front of the cards. Use the pencil to write the answers on the back of the cards.

25 88 43 96 64

30 85 57 78 45

Answers:

5x5 2 x 2 x 2 x 11 1 x 43 2x2x2x2x2x3 2x2x2x2x2x2


2x3x5 5 x 17 3 x 19 2 x 3 x 13 3x3x5

Have students write the factor tree for each number. Show one card at a time and give
immediate feedback by turning the card over and revealing the answer. Say: The answer
is…

Use this study board to reteach this activity.

Prime Factorization

A prime number has exactly two factors, 1 and the number itself. Example: 13 is a
prime number. It has only 1 and 13 as factors.

A composite number has more than two factors. A composite number may be written as
the product of prime numbers.

45
Example: Find the prime factorization of 70.
70
Step 1. Factor 70. 7 × 10 = 70
7 × 10
Step 2. Factor 10; 7 cannot be factored. 5 × 2 = 10
5× 2
The prime factorization of 70 is 7 × 5 × 2 .
Write the prime numbers in order from least to greatest. Check to see if the product is 70.
2 ×5×7

The numbers 0 and 1 are neither prime nor composite. 0 has an endless number of
factors. 1 has only one factor, itself.

Use these numbers to practice prime factorization with students before you give them the
activity. 25, 44 and 92 (Answers: 5 × 5; 2 × 2 × 11; 2 × 2 × 23 )

Tell the students that they are going to do an activity on finding the prime factorization of
a number. When you lay a card on the table, have the students write the prime
factorization of that number. After they have finished, turn the index card over and
reveal the answer, saying: The answer is … …. Store this activity in the envelope.

46
STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN

Day: 097 Subject: Mathematics Grade Level: 4

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A5, 6B2, 6B3, 6D2, 6E1

ITBS/TAP: ISAT:
Demonstrate understanding of measurement Demonstrate understanding of measurement
skills skills
Apply estimation strategies Use mathematics skills to estimate and judge
reasonableness of results

Unit Focus/Foci

Fractions

Instructional Focus/Foci

Formal assessment

Materials

Prepared test

Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures

Prepare test in advance and distribute to students. Answers in teacher’s notes.

47
Test

Prime or composite. Write P or C in the blank next to the number:

1) 24 ________
2) 9 ________
3) 11 ________
4) 21 ________
5) 23 ________

List all of the factors for each of these numbers. Write them from least to greatest.

6) 7 ___________________ 7) 14 _____________________

8) 8 ___________________ 9) 12 _____________________

Using the words in the word box, complete the following sentences.
WORD BOX
Numerator Composite
Factors Product
Fraction bar Fraction
Prime Denominator
Two One

10) A ___________________number has more than two factors.

11) The line separating the denominator and the numerator is called the
____________________.

12) The ________________ is the answer to a multiplication problem.

13) When a whole is divided into equal parts, each part is called a
____________________.

14) The numbers we multiply to find a product are called ______________________.

15) The bottom part of a fraction is called the _______________________.

16) _____________________ is neither prime nor composite.

17) A ______________________ number has only two factors.

18) The top part of a fraction is called the ______________________.

48
What part is shaded?

19) 20) 21) 22)

____________ ____________ __________________ ____________

Tell if the shaded areas are closer to 0, 1 or 1.


2

23) 24) 25)

_________ ___________ __________

26) Is the shaded area less than 1 , more than 1 , or equal to 1 ? Write less, more or
2 2 2
equal.

_______________

27) Shade in 3 of this square.


4

28) Shade in 5 of these diamonds.


7

29) You have 5 of an apple. What fraction of the apple would you need in order to have
6
a whole apple?

30) In the box,


a) Draw a shape.
b) Divide it into equal parts.
c) Shade as many of these parts as you wish.
d) On the line below the box, write a fraction to show how many parts are shaded.

31) Draw a set of objects. Shade in as many of the objects as you wish. Write a fraction
to show how many objects you did not shade.

49
Ten Statements

Review the ten statements and have students write yes if they heard it in today’s lesson
and no if they did not. If the answer is no, say: The statement is true, but it was not
heard in today’s lesson.

No Ten Statements today.

Free-Choice Lesson

Have students choose a lesson from the Free-Choice Activity sheet (one box per day).

Six-Group Activity

No Six-Group Activity today.

Math Workshop

Have students work in the Math Workshop after completing their Free-Choice Lesson.

Integration with Core Subject(s)

LA: Understand explicit, factual information

SC: Analyze and interpret data

Connection(s)

Enrichment:

Fine Arts:

Home:

Remediation:

Technology:

Assessment

Homework

50
Teacher Notes
Answer Key to Test:
Problems 1-29 are worth 3 points each. Problems 30 and 31 are worth 6 points each, 3
points for drawing and shading and 3 points for writing the fraction.
1) C
2) C
3) P
4) C
5) P
6) 1, 7
7) 1, 2, 7, 14
8) 1, 2, 4, 8
9) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12
10) Composite
11) Fraction bar
12) Product
13) Fraction
14) Factors
15) Denominators
16) One
17) Prime
18) Numerator
19) 4
6
20) 0
2
21) 7
10
22) 5
9

23) 1
2
24) 1
25) 0
26) Less
27) Possible answer
28) 5 out of 7 diamonds must be shaded.
29) 1
6
30) Answers will vary.
31) Answers will vary. Make sure their fraction is for the unshaded portion of their
drawing.

51