Sie sind auf Seite 1von 70

1 1 SIMS/B.Tech.

/ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN


BASIC
BASIC
THERMODYNAMICS
THERMODYNAMICS
CHAPTER 1.
THERMODYNAMIC DEFINITIONS.
2 2 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.1 THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM:
Thermodynamic system is defined as a collection of matter within
prescribed and identifiable boundary.
It is also defined as a material in the space to be analysed.
Thermodynamic
system
surrounding
boundary
3 3 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.2 SURROUNDING:
Exterior environment is called as surrounding
1.3 BOUNDARY:
It is a separator between system and surrounding
It may be real or imaginary
system
boundary
surrounding
surrounding
surrounding
surrounding
Piston cylinder system
4 4 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.4 TYPES OF THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM:
CLOSED
SYSTEM
OPEN
SYSTEM
ADIABATIC
SYSTEM
RIGID
SYSTEM
ISOLATED
SYSTEM
Fixed mass (solid or
liquid) within the
boundary
e.g. fluid in cylinder
Flow system
A volume with partly solid
boundaries and
imaginary boundary
section through which
fluid flows
e.g. fluid flow in turbine
System is
insulated (no
heat transfer) but
may perform
work.
System can not perform
work but may transfer
heat to surrounding
e.g. heat exchanger
Exchanges neither
heat nor work with
the surrounding
5 5 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.5 WORKING SUBSTANCE:
In most of the work producing and absorbing devices, the working substances are
1. Gas or Vapour
2. Vapour and liquid in equilibrium
3. Oil
A thermodynamic system is originally called as a working substance.
1.6 PURE SUBSTANCE:
Pure substance is one that has a homogeneous and invariable chemical
composition even though there is a change in phase.
It is a system which is homogeneous in composition and heterogeneous in
chemical aggregation.
e.g. : liquid, water, mixture of liquid water & steam, mixture of ice & water.
6 6 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.7 PHASE:
It is a quantity of mass/ matter that is homogeneous throughout in chemical
composition and physical structure.
e.g. : solid, liquid, vapour, gas
1.8 HOMOGENEOUS AND HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEM
HOMOGENEOUS STSTEM: HETEROGENEOUS STSTEM:
It consists of a single phase It consists of two or more phases.
WATER + STEAM
AIR + WATER VAPOUR
WATER + NITRIC ACID
7 7 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.9 MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC point of view:
Thermodynamic studies are undertaken by the following two different
approaches:
1. MACROSCOPIC : ( MACRO MEANS BIG/ TOTAL)
2. MICROSCOPIC : ( MICRO MEANS SMALL)
1.10 MACROSCOPIC APPROACH: ( classical thermodynamics)
Certain quantity of matter is considered, without a concern on the events
occurring at the molecular level.
These effects can be perceived by human senses or measured by
instruments.
The analysis of macroscopic system requires simple mathematical formulae.
The values of the properties of the system are their AVERAGE values.
In order to describe a system only a few properties are needed.
8 8 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.11 MICROSCOPIC APPROACH:
In microscopic approach, the effect of molecular motion is considered.
At microscopic level, the pressure of a gas is not constant, the
temperature is the function of the velocity of molecules.
This approach concerned directly with the structure of the matter is
known as statistical thermodynamics.
The analysis of microscopic system requires advanced statistical and
mathematical method.
The properties like, velocity, momentum, impulse, K.E. which describe the
molecule cant be easily measured by instruments.
Large number of variables are required to describe a system
The approach is COMPLICATED.
9 9 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
Although the microscopic and macroscopic approaches seems to be
different, there exists a relation between them. Hence, when both
systems are applied to the particular system, they give the SAME RESULT.
T KE
avg
) (
2
2
1
) ( u m KE
avg

A
N
N
u u u
u
2 2
2
2
1
2
. . . . + +
=
RT KE
avg
2
3
) ( =
10 10 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.12 EQUILIBRIUM:
Equilibrium is a concept associated with the absence of any tendency for
spontaneous changes when the system is isolated.
Once the system reaches the state of equilibrium all the macroscopic
measurable properties remain uniform and constant, even though there will be
changes at the microscopic level.
A system with thermodynamic equilibrium does not deliver anything.
THERMAL
EQUILIBRIUM
MECHANICAL
EQUILIBRIUM
CHEMICAL
EQUILIBRIUM
For attaining a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, following three types
of equilibrium states must be achieved.
11 11 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.12.1 THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM:
The temperature of the system does not change with time and has same
value at all the points of system
) , , , ( z y x time f Temp
12 12 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.12.2 MECHANICAL EQUILIBRIUM:
There are no unbalanced forces within the system or between system and
surrounding.
The state in which the internal stresses are exactly balanced by applied
pressure is called the state of mechanical equilibrium.
Thus, the pressure is same in the system at all the points and does not
change with the time.
) , , , ( Pr z y x time f essure
13 13 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.12.3 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM:
If there is no chemical reaction takes place in the system and the chemical
composition which is same through out the system does not vary with time,
then the system is said to be in chemical equilibrium.
) , , , ( z y x time f n compositio chemical
Is it in chemical equilibrium?
NO
14 14 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.13 PROPERTIES OF SYSTEM:
To describe the system without any ambiguity, it is necessary to specify
the state or condition of the system in terms of its properties.
Thus, any characteristics that can be used to describe the state of matter
without knowing the history behind it is called as property.
Characteristics depend upon the state and not upon how the state is
reached.
Properties are MACROSCOPIC in nature.
Properties enable us to identify the system.
The property should have a definite value when the system is in a
particular state.
Thermodynamic property is a point function and not a path function.
15 15 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
e.g. Volume, Mass, Pressure, Temperature, odour, colour, taste, enthalpy,
entropy, heat
Irrelevant
Properties
Relevant
Properties
1.13 PROPERTIES OF SYSTEM:
In thermodynamics, we
deal with energy, and its
transformation, and hence
any characteristic which is
associated with the energy
of matter is called .
All other/
rests are
called.
16 16 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
Intensive
property
Extensive
Property
1.13 PROPERTIES OF SYSTEM:
The property whose value depends
upon the size or extent of the system
The property whose value is
independent of the size or extent of
the system
e.g. Volume, Mass, Energy, Heat
e.g. Pressure, Temperature, density
Specific Property
Extensive properties are divided by mass associated with them to obtain the
intensive properties, these properties are called as Specific Properties.
Specific property is a special case of an intensive property.
e.g. Specific Volume, Specific energy, Specific heat
17 17 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.13 PROPERTIES OF SYSTEM:
Thermodynamic
property
Fundamental
Property
The properties which can be
measured directly are known as
fundamental properties
The properties which cant be
measured directly but are calculated
are known as thermodynamic
properties
e.g. Pressure, Volume, Temperature e.g. Work, energy, enthalpy, entropy
18 18 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.14 POINT & PATH FUNCTION:
STATE: State is the condition of the system at an instant of time as
described or measured by its properties.
P
V
1
2
P
1
,V
1
P
2
,V
2
1 and 2 are the
states of the
system.
19 19 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
POINT FUNCTION: depends upon the state only and not how the
system reaches that state.
It gives complete description of the system.
Each property has a single value at each state. i.e. all properties are
STATE or POINT functions.
All properties are identical for identical states.
e.g. pressure, volume, temperature, entropy
1.14 POINT & PATH FUNCTION:
PATH FUNCTION: depends upon the path followed during the
process and as well as the end states.
e.g. heat, work done
20 20 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
P
V
1
2
P
1
,V
1
P
2
,V
2
1-2 is the path of
the system and
heat is a path
function.
Const. temp and
heat is given
1.14 POINT & PATH FUNCTION:
21 21 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.15 PROCESS:
A process occurs when the system undergoes a change in a state or
an energy transfer at a steady state.
During process, a system may undergo changes in some or all its
properties.
Process is a locus of changes of states.
Processes in thermodynamics are like streets in a city.
1.16 TYPES OF PROCESS:
As a matter of rule, we allow one of the properties to remain
constant during process. Depending upon this concept we classify
the processes
22 22 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.16 TYPES OF PROCESS:
Isothermal
isobaric
Isochoric/
isometric
isentropic
isenthalpic
adiabatic
isosteric
P
V
1
2
P
1
,V
1
P
2
,V
2
1-2: isothermal
2-3: isobaric
3-1:isochoric
1-2-3-1 is a
thermodynamic
cycle
Const. temp
and heat is
given
3
23 23 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.16 TYPES OF PROCESS:
Depending upon the mass flow rate, the process is divided into TWO
categories:
Non-flow process:
Closed system undergo non-flow
process.
e.g. heating of a gas in closed
cylinder.
Flow process:
Open system undergoes flow process.
Mass is entering and leaving through the
boundary of an open system
Steady flow process:
Total mass of the system remains
constant at any time.
Total mass crossing the boundary at
entry is equals the total mass crossing
the boundary at the exit
e.g. flow through turbine, compressor
Unsteady flow process:
Mass of the system changes with time.
Unsteady flow process starts and end over
some finite time period.
e.g. start up and shutdown periods of the
turbine, compressors, filling a balloon with
Helium gas
also known as transient flow process
24 24 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.16 TYPES OF PROCESS:
Quasi-static Process / Reversible Process:
Quasi means almost.
This process is a succession of equilibrium states and infinitely slow.
A process is said to be REVERSIBLE if both the system and surroundings can
be restored to their respective initial states by reversing the direction of the
process.
P
V
1
2
P
1
,V
1
P
2
,V
2
e.g. Isothermal process,
adiabatic process.
Isothermal heating
Isothermal cooling
25 25 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.16 TYPES OF PROCESS:
1. Gas pressure (P gas) = pressure exerted by external
load ( P load)
2. Remove negligible load from top, (P load)
infinitesimally smaller than (P gas), the gas expands.
3. There is pressure difference but it is infinitesimal.
4. Again remove very small external load, the gas again
expands.
5. The process followed by such system is called quasi-
static process.
zero to equal exactly not but P 0
. , 0 process reversible called is system the P For =
GAS
(P gas)
P load
26 26 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.16 TYPES OF PROCESS:
On the other hand, if we remove all the external load at a glance, the piston
will be kicked up by the gas pressure.
It will not become quasi-static process because the process is not in a
sustained manner.
ALL ACTUAL PROCESSES are irreversible and non-quasi-static because they
proceed with finite pressure and temperature differences and they occur at a
finite rate.
For Thermodynamic Analysis, we idealize several processes as reversible
because reversible processes give the maximum work done by the system.
27 27 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.17 THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE:
Thermodynamic cycle or a cyclic process is a process when a number of
processes in sequence bring back the system to its initial state.
The initial and the final states of the system are the same.
The net effect of a cyclic process may be either conversion of a part of heat
received at higher temperature into work or to maintain the system at a
temperature lower than the surroundings by means of work input.
Rankine cycle, Diesel cycle, Otto cycle, Carnot cycle
OTTO CYCLE
Vapour-
compression
cycle
28 28 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.18 ENERGY, WORK & HEAT
1.18.1 ENERGY:
Energy is defined as the capacity possessed by a body or substance to do work.
When energy is added to or subtracted from a system, there is change in the
properties of the system.
Stored energy transition energy
It is the energy contained
within the system boundaries
This type of energy crosses
the boundaries of the system
e.g. K.E., P.E., Internal energy
e.g. heat energy, work done
K.E. is the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion while P.E. is the
energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position.
2
.
2
1
. . V m E K =
mgh E P = . .
29 29 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.18 ENERGY, WORK & HEAT
1.18.2 INTERNAL ENERGY:
Internal energy is the sum of all the microscopic forms of energy of a system.
It is related to the molecular structure and the degree of molecular activity
and may be viewed as the sum of K.E. and P.E. of the molecules.
This energy is also due to the rotation and vibrations of the atoms within the
molecules. Internal energy is the function of temperature.
The value of the absolute internal energy of a system at any particular state is
not a measurable quantity. But, the change in the internal energy U can be
measured.
Now, consider a closed system.
Heat absorbed by the system from the surrounding is Q
The work done by the system on its surroundings is W
The change in the internal energy U is given by
U = Q - W
30 30 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.18 ENERGY, WORK & HEAT
1.18.2 WORK (W):
When a force is acting on a body causing it to move, work is said to be done
Work is a transition form of energy and it is not a property.
work = Force x distance travelled through which force acts
Unit of work is Joule ( 1 J = 1 N.m)
As work is done, boundary of the system undergoes a displacement.
Thermodynamic definition of work:
Work is said to be done by the system when
the sole effect external to the system can be reduced to raise the mass/ weight
against gravity.
Sign Convention :
Work done by the system positive
Work done on the system negative
31 31 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.18.2 HEAT (Q):
1.18 ENERGY, WORK & HEAT
Heat is a form of energy in transition.
Heat can be transferred from one body to another body due to the temperature
difference.
Thermodynamic definition of Heat:
Heat is defined as the energy transferred without
transfer of mass across the boundary of a system due to temperature difference
between system and surroundings.
Unit of heat : Joule, Calories.
Sign Convention :
Heat given to the system positive
Heat rejected by the system negative
32 32 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.18 ENERGY, WORK & HEAT
All temperature changes need not be due to heat alone.
e.g. Friction
All heat interaction need not result in changes in temperature.
e.g. Condensation, Evaporation
All our efforts are oriented towards how to convert heat to work and vice-versa.
HEAT TO WORK THERMAL POWER PLANT
WORK TO HEAT REFRIGERATION
33 33 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.19 WORK AND P-V DIAGRAM
PRESSURE
P
EXTERNAL
LOAD
DISTANCE L
P
REMAINS
SAME
INTERNAL PRESSURE = P PISTON AREA = A
FORCE ON THE PISTON = PRESSURE x AREA = P.A
Let this force is sufficient to overcome some external load.
Now Piston moves back a distance L along the cylinder with fluid pressure remains
same. Therefore the force on the piston will remain same.
Now, Work done = force x distance.
= P.A x L = P. (A x L)
But, A x L is volume swept by piston, called swept or stroke volume = (V
2
-V
1
)
Work done = P . (V2-V1) = P. ( V)..(equation A)
34 34 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.19 WORK AND P-V DIAGRAM
PRESSURE
P
Swept volume
(V2-V1)
P
REMAINS
SAME
EXTERNAL
LOAD
P
V
V
1 V
2
P
V
1
V
2
a b
c d
Operation of Piston-cylinder is
shown on a graph with axes Pressure
and Volume is called P-V diagram
The graph shows horizontal straight
line ab whose height is at pressure P
and whose length is from original
volume V1 to final volume V2.
Now consider area under this graph,
A (abcd) = P (V2-V1).equation B
Hence the area under P-V diagram gives a work done.
35 35 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.19 WORK AND P-V DIAGRAM
Numerical 1.
A fluid in a cylinder is at a pressure of 700 KN/m
2
. It is expanded at a
constant pressure from volume 0.28m
3
to a volume of a 1.68 m
3
. Determine
the work done.
Solution:
Given parameters: P = 700 KN/m2 = 700000 N/m2
V
1
= 0.28m
3
V
2
= 1.68 m
3
W = P (V
2
-V
1
)
= 700 x 1000 x (1.68-0.28)
= 9.8 X 105 J
= 980 KJ
36 36 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.19 WORK AND P-V DIAGRAM
WORK DONE IN REVERSIBLE PROCESS (GENERAL P-V DIAGRAM)
2
P2
V
1
P
P1
V2 V1
This is the general P-V diagram
obtained when an expansion takes
place in a thermal engine.
Here both pressure and volume are
changing.
P1,V1 = Initial pressure, volume
P2,V2 = final pressure, volume
Work done = A (1-2-V2-V1)
NOW, HOW TO CALCULATE WORK DONE?
Divide graph into small rectangles. Area of each small rectangle represents work done
The sum of all areas of small rectangles would give approximate value of work.
Greater the number of rectangles more close to actual results.
37 37 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.19 WORK AND P-V DIAGRAM
If the number of rectangles were made infinitely small, the sum would give actual area.
2
1
P2
P
P1
V2 V1
Now, consider some point in the
expansion, say X where pressure is P
and volume is V.
Let there be an elemental expansion V
from the volume V.
the Work done during the elemental
expansion = P. V
Total work done is obtained by
summing all the elemental strips of width
V from volume V1 to volume V2.

=
=
=
2
1
V V
V V
V P. done work Total 0, V As

=
2
1
V
V
P.dv done work
V
V
P
X
38 38 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.19 WORK AND P-V DIAGRAM
Till now the discussion is concentrated on expansion.
In engine many cases of compression are encountered. Compression is
really the reverse of an expansion process.
The compression curve plotted on a P-V diagram has the same general
shape as an expansion curve except the direction which is reverse.
This means volume decreases as pressure increases.
The area under curve gives the work done but it is negative as work must
be done on the working fluid in order to compress it.
39 39 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.20 ENERGY, WORK & HEAT
P
V
1
2
a
b
c
A system can go from state 1 to state 2
following difference processes a, b, and c.
Though the end conditions are same, the
work done/ heat exchange during the
processes will be different.
Heat exchange and work done depends
upon the path followed during the process
and not on the end conditions.
Hence the heat and work done are said to
be path function as the differential is in exact
and cant be integrated unless the path
followed by the process is fixed.
HEAT and WORK are path functions:
40 40 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.21 WORK DONE IN POLYTROPIC PROCESS
2
1
P
2
P
P
1
V
2
V
1
General P-V
curve
Whether there is a law
connecting pressure-volume
relation for the expansion ?
Now, convert the P-V diagram
into log (P)- log (V), we will get
Log (P)
Log (V)
Log( C)
This is much better for the graph appears
as a straight line and is of the form
Log (P) = -n log (V) + log (C)
n = slope of the line
C = intercept on the Pressure axis
41 41 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.21 WORK DONE IN POLYTROPIC PROCESS
Log (P) = -n log (V) + log (C)
Log (P) + n. log (V) = Log (C)
P.V
n
= C .taking antilog on both the sides.
.This is the law for general case of expansion or compression of a substance.
This general case of expansion or compression of a substance according to the law
of P.V
n
= C is called Polytropic expansion or compression.
C = constant and it depends upon the change of the condition
N = index, also known as Polytropic exponent.
Thus P1.V1
n
= P2.V2
n
=P3.V3
n
=P4.V4
n
..1,2,3,4 are the different conditions of
state taken during the expansion or compression.
42 42 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.21 WORK DONE IN POLYTROPIC PROCESS
The value of n varies from 1 to 1.7more precisely it changes from 1.2 to 1.5
Now,
If n = 0,
P.V
0
= CP = constant ..constant pressure process.
Now, P.V
n
= C
Take nth root of both the side, we get
P
1/n
.V = C
If n =
P
1/
.V = C
P
0
.V = C
V = C ..constant volume process.
43 43 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.21 WORK DONE IN POLYTROPIC PROCESS
Numerical 2.
0.112 cubic meter of a gas has a pressure of 138 KN/sq. m. It is compressed
to 690KN/ sq. m. according to the law of PV
1.4
= C. Determine the new volume of the
gas.
Solution:
Since the gas is compressed according to the law PV
1.4
= C, then
P1V1
1.4
= P2V2
1.4
P1/P2 = (V2/V1)
1.4
V2/V1 = ( P1/P2)
1/1.4
V2= 0.0355 cubic meter.
44 44 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.21 WORK DONE IN POLYTROPIC PROCESS
Work done in Polytropic process is given as follows:

=
=
=
=
=
2
1
2
1
2
1
.
.
,
P.dV done work total The
V
V
V
V
n
V
V
n
n
n
dV V C
dV CV done Work
CV P
C PV Now
[ ]
[ ]

+
=

+
=

+
=
+
+ +
+
1
1 - by r denominato and numerator multiply
1
. .
1
1
1 n -
V
C W
g, integratin
2 2 1 1
1 1 2 2
1
1
1 2 2
1
1
1
2
1 n -
2
1
n
V P V P
n
V P V P
V V V V
n
C
V V
n
C
on
n n
n n
V
V
45 45 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.21 WORK DONE IN POLYTROPIC PROCESS
Numerical 3.
0.014m
3
gas at a pressure of 2070 KN/m
2
expands to a pressure of 207 KN/m
2
according to the law PV
1.35
= C. Determine the work done by the gas during the
expansion.
Solution:
Given parameters: Unknown parameters?
V1= 0.014m
3
V2= ?
P1= 2070 KN/m
2
W = ?
P2= 207 KN/m
2
V2= 0.077m
3
W = 37.3 KJ
46 46 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.22 WORK DONE IN HYPERBOLIC PROCESS
Hyperbolic process is a particular case of the polytropic process, PV
n
= C, for n = 1
Thus the law for the hyperbolic process is PV = C
This law if plotted on a P-V diagram it will appear as a rectangular hyperbola.
For a hyperbolic change from state 1 to state 2 , we get
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
We knowwork done during a polytropic process is given as
W = (P
1
V
1
- P
2
V
2
) / (n-1)
Here for hyperbolic function, P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
and n = 1,
Therefore W = 0/0indeterminate form
Now work done ????
47 47 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.22 WORK DONE IN HYPERBOLIC PROCESS
2
1
P
2
P
P
1
V
2
V
1
PV = C

=
2
1
V
V
P.dv done work
In this case, PV=C , hence P = C/V.
Substitute this value in the equation for work done,

=
2
1
V
V
V
dV
C done Work
[ ]
2
1
ln
V
V
V C =
[ ]
1 2
ln ln V V C =
1
2
ln
V
V
C =
1
2
ln
V
V
PV W =
r' ' letter by the designated often ratio, expression called is
1
2
V
V
) ln(r PV W =
48 48 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.22 WORK DONE IN HYPERBOLIC PROCESS
Numerical 4.
A gas is compressed hyperbolically from a pressure and volume of 100KN/m
2
and
0.056 m
3
, respectively, to a volume of 0.007 m
3
. Determine the final pressure and
the work done on the gas.
Solution:
Given parameters
P
1
= 100KN/m
2
V
1
= 0.056 m
3
V
2
= 0.007 m
3
Equations used: P
1
V
1
=P
2
V
2
P
2
= 800KN/m
2
W = PV ln (r) W = -11.64 KJ.
49 49 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.23 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Law of conservation of Energy:
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be
converted from one form to another form. The total amount of energy in the
universe always remain constant.
The first law of Thermodynamics is merely one statement of above law
with particular reference to heat energy and mechanical energy i.e. Work.
First law of thermodynamics:
The first law of thermodynamics states that, in a closed system
executing a cycle the net work delivered to the surroundings is
proportional to the net heat taken from the surroundings.
In other words heat and work are mutually convertible.
W = Q .(1)
Where, W = work transfer and Q = heat transfer.
50 50 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.23 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
During cyclic process, the initial and final states are identical. Hence the net
property change is ZERO.
Net Heat Transfer Net Work Transfer = 0 (2)
or
Net Heat Transfer = Net Work Transfer ...(3)
or
Q = W ...(4)
or
(5)
The equations (2), (3), (4) and (5) are further statements of the first law of
thermodynamics.
The first law implies that, in a cycle, there must be heat transfer for there to be
work transfer.


=
cycle the round summation the means
W Q
51 51 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.23 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
P
V
1
2
a
b
1 2 b 2 1 a 1 2 b 2 1 a
+ = + W W Q Q

=
2
1
2 - a1
a' ' path along ...... Q Q
( ) ( )

= +
2
1
1
2
0 W Q W Q
( ) ( )

=
2
1
2
1
0
A path Along path Along
W Q W Q
B

( ) ( )

=
2
1
2
1
A path Along path Along
W Q W Q
B

a and b are arbitrarily taken. As far as process is concerned a or b, the difference
Q-W remains a constant as long as the initial and final states are the same.
The difference depends only on the end points of the process.
Q and W themselves depend on the path followed but their difference does not.
52 52 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.23 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
This implies that the difference between the heat and the work interactions during a
PROCESS is a property of the system.
This property is called the energy of the system. It is designated as E and is equal
to sum of all the energies at a given state.
Thus the first law of thermodynamics for the process is given as:
Q-W= dE
E = U + KE + PE
U = internal energy
KE = kinetic energy
PE = potential energy
For a process a. Q-W = E
2
-E
1
For a process b . Q-W = E
1
-E
2
For isolated systemQ=0 and W=0 then E remain constant.
53 53 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.23 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
So, whenever we need to derive some work, we must expand thermal or internal
energy.
HEAT & WORK are not the property of the system while ENERGY is a property of the
system as
1. Heat and work depends on the path followed and the end conditions.
2. The net change in heat and work for cyclic process is not zero.
3. While Energy of the system depends on the end conditions and not on the path
followed.
4. The net change of the energy of the system is absolute zero for the cyclic process.
Summary:
1st law of thermodynamics for the cycle:
1st law of thermodynamics for the process: Q-W= E
1st law of thermodynamics for the isolated system: E=0

= W Q
54 54 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.23 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Numerical 5.
In a process carried out on a closed system, the heat transferred into the system was
2500KJ and the work transferred from the system was 1400KJ. Determine the change
in the total energy and state whether it is an increase or decrease.
Given parameters:
Q= 2500 KJ
W= 1400 KJ
E2-E1= Q-W .E= 1100 KJ. (+ve means increase in total energy)
Numerical 6.
In a process carried out on a closed system, the work transferred into the system was
4200KJ and the increase in the total energy of the system was 3500KJ. Determine the
heat transferred and the state the direction of transfer.
Q= (E2-E1)+W.Q= -700KJ.heat is transferred from the system.
55 55 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
The first law of thermodynamics for the process is given as:
Q-W= dE
E = U + KE + PE
U = internal energy
KE = kinetic energy
PE = potential energy
For non-flow process, KE = 0 and PE = 0
Q-W= dUNFEE
where dU = U
2
-U
1
Example of non-flow process is any process in a closed system eg: expansion or
compression of a fluid in a cylinder.
1.24 THE NON-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
56 56 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
Numerical 7.
During the working stroke of an engine the heat transferred out of the system was
150KJ/Kg of the working substance. The internal energy of the system also decreases
by 400KJ/Kg of the working substance. Determine the work done and state whether it
is work done by the engine or on the engine.
Given parameters:
Q=-150KJ/Kg
U= -400KJ/Kg
Formula used: Q-W= U
-150-W=-400-ve as decrease in internal energy
W= 400-150=250KJ/Kg
W is +ve means work is done by the engine per Kg of the working fluid.
1.24 THE NON-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
57 57 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
For flow, the system has to be open system.
Consider the two-flow open system, in which an equal mass of fluid per unit time is
entering as well as leaving the system ..continuity of the mass flow.
Fluid mass
entering the
system
Fluid mass
leaving the
system
1
2
Q
W
58 58 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
The forms of energy associated with the moving fluid mass leaving the system are:
1. Kinetic energy: KE
2
2. Gravitational Potential energy: PE
2
3. Internal energy: U
2
4. Displacement or flow energy: P
2
V
2
Let, the total energy of the fluid mass actually in the system is : E
s1
Let, the total energy of the fluid mass remaining in the system after the fluid mass
leaves the system: E
s2
During this mass flow, let the heat transfer is Q and the work transfer is W.
The forms of energy associated with the moving fluid mass entering the system are:
1. Kinetic energy: KE
1
2. Gravitational Potential energy: PE
1
3. Internal energy: U
1
4. Displacement or flow energy: P
1
V
1
1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
59 59 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
Energy of the fluid mass entering the system:
Energy of the fluid mass leaving the system:
1 1 1 1 1
PE KE V P U + + +
2 2 2 2 2
PE KE V P U + + +
By the principle of conservation of the energy:
Initial energy
of the system
+
Final energy of
the system
Energy entering
the system
+
=
Energy leaving
the system
.........................2 U PV H Enthalpy + = =
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
...........3
s S
E H KE PE Q E H KE PE W + + + + = + + + +
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
........1
s S
E U PV KE PE Q E U PV KE PE W + + + + + = + + + + +
1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
60 60 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
In a steady-flow system, the mass flow rate of the fluid is constant throughout the
system.
The total energy of the fluid mass in the system remains constant.
E
s1
= E
s2
1 1 1 2 2 2
............................4 H KE PE Q H KE PE W + + + = + + +
2 1 2 1 2 1
( ) ( ) ( )
...............................This is known as steady -flow energy equation(SFEE)
Q W H H KE KE PE PE = + +
This equation is for any mass flow rate. For unit mass flow rate SFEE becomes
5 .......... )......... ( ) ( ) (
1 2 1 2 1 2
PE PE KE KE h h W Q + + =
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
v P u h and v P u h + = + =
61 61 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
Z
1
P
1
,v
1
,
u
1
,C
1
Z
2
P
2
,v
2
,
u
2
,C
2
Datum level
E
s1
=E
s2
system
W
Q
62 62 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
Fluid flows into a steady-flow open system with pressure P
1
, specific volume v
1
,
specific internal energy u
1
, and velocity C
1
. The entry is at height Z
1
above datum
level.
In its passage through the system, specific heat energy Q and specific work W are
transferred into or out of the system.
The fluid leaves the system with pressure P
2
, specific volume v
2
, specific internal
energy u
2
, and velocity C
2
. The exit is at height Z
2
above the datum level.
Now, the steady flow energy equation for the system becomes,
6 .... ..........
2 2
2
2
2
2 2 2 1
2
1
1 1 1
W gZ
C
v P u Q gZ
C
v P u + + + + = + + + +
In thermodynamics, any changes in gravitational energy are mostly small
compared to other energy forms. The gZ terms are neglected.
And also we know ..u+Pv = h
63 63 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
7 .......... .......... ..........
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
1
W
C
h Q
C
h + + = + +
The various forms of the steady-flow energy equation, such as equation no. 5,6,7
are further statements of the first law of thermodynamics.
64 64 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
Numerical 8.
In a steady-flow open system a fluid substance flows at the rate of 4 Kg/s. It enters
the system at a pressure of 600KN/m
2
, a velocity of 220m/s, internal energy
2200KJ/Kg and specific volume 0.42 m
3
/Kg. It leaves the system at a pressure of
150KN/m
2
, a velocity of 145m/s, internal energy 1650KJ/Kg and specific volume
1.5m
3
/kg. During its passage through the system, the substance has a loss by heat
transfer of 40KJ/Kg to the surroundings.
Determine the power of the system, stating whether it is from or to the system.
Neglect any change of gravitational potential energy.
Solution:
Given parameters: mass flow rate= 4Kg/s
P
1
= 600KN/m
2
P
2
= 150KN/m2
C
1
= 220m/s C
2
= 145m/s
u
1
= 2200KJ/Kg u
2
= 1650KJ/Kg
v
1
= 0.42 m
3
/Kg v
2
= 1.5 m3/Kg
Q= -40 KJ/Kg.
Find out : W and Power
65 65 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
6 .... ..........
2 2
2
2
2
2 2 2 1
2
1
1 1 1
W gZ
C
v P u Q gZ
C
v P u + + + + = + + + +
Equation Used:
Answers:
W= 550.69 KJ/Kg
Power = W .
= 2202.75KW (1KJ/s=1KW)
66 66 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
Numerical 9.
Air passes through a gas turbine system at the rate of 4.5Kg/s. It enters the
turbine system with a velocity of 90m/s and a specific volume of 0.85 m
3
/Kg.
It leaves the turbine system with a specific volume of 1.45m
3
/Kg. The exit area
of the turbine system is 0.038m
2
. In its passage through the turbine system,
the specific enthalpy of the air is reduced by 200KJ/Kg and there is a heat
transfer loss of 40KJ/Kg.
Determine:
1. The inlet area of the turbine in m
2
2. The exit velocity of the air in m/s
3. The power developed by the turbine system in KW.
Solution:
Given parameters:

1
= 4.5 Kg/s C
1
=90 m/s v
1
=0.85 m
3
/Kg
v
2
= 1.45 m
3
/Kg A
2
= 0.038m
2
(h
1
-h
2
)=200 KJ/kg
Q = -40KJ/Kg.
A
1
=???? C
2
=???? P=????
67 67 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
(a) At inlet :
= (A
1
C
1
)/v
1
A
1
= 0.042 m2
(b) At exit :
= (A
2
C
2
)/v
2
C
2
= 171.71 m/s
(c) The steady-flow energy equation for unit mass is
7 .......... .......... ..........
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
1
W
C
h Q
C
h + + = + +
68 68 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION
W = 149.3 KJ/kg
P = W.
P = 671.85KW
69 69 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
Different units for pressure:
1. 1 Atmosphere = 1 atmosphere
2. 1 Atmosphere = 1.013 Bar
3. 1 Atmosphere = 760 millimeter of mercury
4. 1 Atmosphere = 1.033Kg/cm
2
1. 1 bar = 100000 Pascal = 1E5 Pascal
2. 1 bar = 0.1MPa = 0.1 N/mm
2
3. 1 bar = 14.5PSI
4. 1 bar = 750 torr
Different units for temperature:
1. F = 1.8 x C + 32
2. K = C + 273.15
3. 1K = 1.8 Rankine
70 70 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN
REFERENCES (other than specified in Syllabus)
1. Prof. K. Srinivasan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.Sc.
Bangalore
2. Thermal Engineering by R.K. Rajput
3. Thermal Engineering by B.K. Sarkar
4. Thermodynamics by Y.V.C. Rao
5. www.ecourses.o.edu