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BASIC

BASIC

THERMODYNAMICS

THERMODYNAMICS

CHAPTER 1.

THERMODYNAMIC DEFINITIONS.

2 2 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.1 THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM:

Thermodynamic system is defined as a collection of matter within

prescribed and identifiable boundary.

It is also defined as a material in the space to be analysed.

Thermodynamic

system

surrounding

boundary

3 3 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.2 SURROUNDING:

Exterior environment is called as surrounding

1.3 BOUNDARY:

It is a separator between system and surrounding

It may be real or imaginary

system

boundary

surrounding

surrounding

surrounding

surrounding

Piston cylinder system

4 4 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.4 TYPES OF THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM:

CLOSED

SYSTEM

OPEN

SYSTEM

ADIABATIC

SYSTEM

RIGID

SYSTEM

ISOLATED

SYSTEM

Fixed mass (solid or

liquid) within the

boundary

e.g. fluid in cylinder

Flow system

A volume with partly solid

boundaries and

imaginary boundary

section through which

fluid flows

e.g. fluid flow in turbine

System is

insulated (no

heat transfer) but

may perform

work.

System can not perform

work but may transfer

heat to surrounding

e.g. heat exchanger

Exchanges neither

heat nor work with

the surrounding

5 5 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.5 WORKING SUBSTANCE:

In most of the work producing and absorbing devices, the working substances are

1. Gas or Vapour

2. Vapour and liquid in equilibrium

3. Oil

A thermodynamic system is originally called as a working substance.

1.6 PURE SUBSTANCE:

Pure substance is one that has a homogeneous and invariable chemical

composition even though there is a change in phase.

It is a system which is homogeneous in composition and heterogeneous in

chemical aggregation.

e.g. : liquid, water, mixture of liquid water & steam, mixture of ice & water.

6 6 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.7 PHASE:

It is a quantity of mass/ matter that is homogeneous throughout in chemical

composition and physical structure.

e.g. : solid, liquid, vapour, gas

1.8 HOMOGENEOUS AND HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEM

HOMOGENEOUS STSTEM: HETEROGENEOUS STSTEM:

It consists of a single phase It consists of two or more phases.

WATER + STEAM

AIR + WATER VAPOUR

WATER + NITRIC ACID

7 7 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.9 MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC point of view:

Thermodynamic studies are undertaken by the following two different

approaches:

1. MACROSCOPIC : ( MACRO MEANS BIG/ TOTAL)

2. MICROSCOPIC : ( MICRO MEANS SMALL)

1.10 MACROSCOPIC APPROACH: ( classical thermodynamics)

Certain quantity of matter is considered, without a concern on the events

occurring at the molecular level.

These effects can be perceived by human senses or measured by

instruments.

The analysis of macroscopic system requires simple mathematical formulae.

The values of the properties of the system are their AVERAGE values.

In order to describe a system only a few properties are needed.

8 8 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.11 MICROSCOPIC APPROACH:

In microscopic approach, the effect of molecular motion is considered.

At microscopic level, the pressure of a gas is not constant, the

temperature is the function of the velocity of molecules.

This approach concerned directly with the structure of the matter is

known as statistical thermodynamics.

The analysis of microscopic system requires advanced statistical and

mathematical method.

The properties like, velocity, momentum, impulse, K.E. which describe the

molecule cant be easily measured by instruments.

Large number of variables are required to describe a system

The approach is COMPLICATED.

9 9 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

Although the microscopic and macroscopic approaches seems to be

different, there exists a relation between them. Hence, when both

systems are applied to the particular system, they give the SAME RESULT.

T KE

avg

) (

2

2

1

) ( u m KE

avg

A

N

N

u u u

u

2 2

2

2

1

2

. . . . + +

=

RT KE

avg

2

3

) ( =

10 10 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.12 EQUILIBRIUM:

Equilibrium is a concept associated with the absence of any tendency for

spontaneous changes when the system is isolated.

Once the system reaches the state of equilibrium all the macroscopic

measurable properties remain uniform and constant, even though there will be

changes at the microscopic level.

A system with thermodynamic equilibrium does not deliver anything.

THERMAL

EQUILIBRIUM

MECHANICAL

EQUILIBRIUM

CHEMICAL

EQUILIBRIUM

For attaining a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, following three types

of equilibrium states must be achieved.

11 11 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.12.1 THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM:

The temperature of the system does not change with time and has same

value at all the points of system

) , , , ( z y x time f Temp

12 12 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.12.2 MECHANICAL EQUILIBRIUM:

There are no unbalanced forces within the system or between system and

surrounding.

The state in which the internal stresses are exactly balanced by applied

pressure is called the state of mechanical equilibrium.

Thus, the pressure is same in the system at all the points and does not

change with the time.

) , , , ( Pr z y x time f essure

13 13 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.12.3 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM:

If there is no chemical reaction takes place in the system and the chemical

composition which is same through out the system does not vary with time,

then the system is said to be in chemical equilibrium.

) , , , ( z y x time f n compositio chemical

Is it in chemical equilibrium?

NO

14 14 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.13 PROPERTIES OF SYSTEM:

To describe the system without any ambiguity, it is necessary to specify

the state or condition of the system in terms of its properties.

Thus, any characteristics that can be used to describe the state of matter

without knowing the history behind it is called as property.

Characteristics depend upon the state and not upon how the state is

reached.

Properties are MACROSCOPIC in nature.

Properties enable us to identify the system.

The property should have a definite value when the system is in a

particular state.

Thermodynamic property is a point function and not a path function.

15 15 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

e.g. Volume, Mass, Pressure, Temperature, odour, colour, taste, enthalpy,

entropy, heat

Irrelevant

Properties

Relevant

Properties

1.13 PROPERTIES OF SYSTEM:

In thermodynamics, we

deal with energy, and its

transformation, and hence

any characteristic which is

associated with the energy

of matter is called .

All other/

rests are

called.

16 16 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

Intensive

property

Extensive

Property

1.13 PROPERTIES OF SYSTEM:

The property whose value depends

upon the size or extent of the system

The property whose value is

independent of the size or extent of

the system

e.g. Volume, Mass, Energy, Heat

e.g. Pressure, Temperature, density

Specific Property

Extensive properties are divided by mass associated with them to obtain the

intensive properties, these properties are called as Specific Properties.

Specific property is a special case of an intensive property.

e.g. Specific Volume, Specific energy, Specific heat

17 17 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.13 PROPERTIES OF SYSTEM:

Thermodynamic

property

Fundamental

Property

The properties which can be

measured directly are known as

fundamental properties

The properties which cant be

measured directly but are calculated

are known as thermodynamic

properties

e.g. Pressure, Volume, Temperature e.g. Work, energy, enthalpy, entropy

18 18 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.14 POINT & PATH FUNCTION:

STATE: State is the condition of the system at an instant of time as

described or measured by its properties.

P

V

1

2

P

1

,V

1

P

2

,V

2

1 and 2 are the

states of the

system.

19 19 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

POINT FUNCTION: depends upon the state only and not how the

system reaches that state.

It gives complete description of the system.

Each property has a single value at each state. i.e. all properties are

STATE or POINT functions.

All properties are identical for identical states.

e.g. pressure, volume, temperature, entropy

1.14 POINT & PATH FUNCTION:

PATH FUNCTION: depends upon the path followed during the

process and as well as the end states.

e.g. heat, work done

20 20 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

P

V

1

2

P

1

,V

1

P

2

,V

2

1-2 is the path of

the system and

heat is a path

function.

Const. temp and

heat is given

1.14 POINT & PATH FUNCTION:

21 21 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.15 PROCESS:

A process occurs when the system undergoes a change in a state or

an energy transfer at a steady state.

During process, a system may undergo changes in some or all its

properties.

Process is a locus of changes of states.

Processes in thermodynamics are like streets in a city.

1.16 TYPES OF PROCESS:

As a matter of rule, we allow one of the properties to remain

constant during process. Depending upon this concept we classify

the processes

22 22 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.16 TYPES OF PROCESS:

Isothermal

isobaric

Isochoric/

isometric

isentropic

isenthalpic

adiabatic

isosteric

P

V

1

2

P

1

,V

1

P

2

,V

2

1-2: isothermal

2-3: isobaric

3-1:isochoric

1-2-3-1 is a

thermodynamic

cycle

Const. temp

and heat is

given

3

23 23 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.16 TYPES OF PROCESS:

Depending upon the mass flow rate, the process is divided into TWO

categories:

Non-flow process:

Closed system undergo non-flow

process.

e.g. heating of a gas in closed

cylinder.

Flow process:

Open system undergoes flow process.

Mass is entering and leaving through the

boundary of an open system

Steady flow process:

Total mass of the system remains

constant at any time.

Total mass crossing the boundary at

entry is equals the total mass crossing

the boundary at the exit

e.g. flow through turbine, compressor

Unsteady flow process:

Mass of the system changes with time.

Unsteady flow process starts and end over

some finite time period.

e.g. start up and shutdown periods of the

turbine, compressors, filling a balloon with

Helium gas

also known as transient flow process

24 24 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.16 TYPES OF PROCESS:

Quasi-static Process / Reversible Process:

Quasi means almost.

This process is a succession of equilibrium states and infinitely slow.

A process is said to be REVERSIBLE if both the system and surroundings can

be restored to their respective initial states by reversing the direction of the

process.

P

V

1

2

P

1

,V

1

P

2

,V

2

e.g. Isothermal process,

adiabatic process.

Isothermal heating

Isothermal cooling

25 25 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.16 TYPES OF PROCESS:

1. Gas pressure (P gas) = pressure exerted by external

load ( P load)

2. Remove negligible load from top, (P load)

infinitesimally smaller than (P gas), the gas expands.

3. There is pressure difference but it is infinitesimal.

4. Again remove very small external load, the gas again

expands.

5. The process followed by such system is called quasi-

static process.

zero to equal exactly not but P 0

. , 0 process reversible called is system the P For =

GAS

(P gas)

P load

26 26 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.16 TYPES OF PROCESS:

On the other hand, if we remove all the external load at a glance, the piston

will be kicked up by the gas pressure.

It will not become quasi-static process because the process is not in a

sustained manner.

ALL ACTUAL PROCESSES are irreversible and non-quasi-static because they

proceed with finite pressure and temperature differences and they occur at a

finite rate.

For Thermodynamic Analysis, we idealize several processes as reversible

because reversible processes give the maximum work done by the system.

27 27 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.17 THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE:

Thermodynamic cycle or a cyclic process is a process when a number of

processes in sequence bring back the system to its initial state.

The initial and the final states of the system are the same.

The net effect of a cyclic process may be either conversion of a part of heat

received at higher temperature into work or to maintain the system at a

temperature lower than the surroundings by means of work input.

Rankine cycle, Diesel cycle, Otto cycle, Carnot cycle

OTTO CYCLE

Vapour-

compression

cycle

28 28 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.18 ENERGY, WORK & HEAT

1.18.1 ENERGY:

Energy is defined as the capacity possessed by a body or substance to do work.

When energy is added to or subtracted from a system, there is change in the

properties of the system.

Stored energy transition energy

It is the energy contained

within the system boundaries

This type of energy crosses

the boundaries of the system

e.g. K.E., P.E., Internal energy

e.g. heat energy, work done

K.E. is the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion while P.E. is the

energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position.

2

.

2

1

. . V m E K =

mgh E P = . .

29 29 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.18 ENERGY, WORK & HEAT

1.18.2 INTERNAL ENERGY:

Internal energy is the sum of all the microscopic forms of energy of a system.

It is related to the molecular structure and the degree of molecular activity

and may be viewed as the sum of K.E. and P.E. of the molecules.

This energy is also due to the rotation and vibrations of the atoms within the

molecules. Internal energy is the function of temperature.

The value of the absolute internal energy of a system at any particular state is

not a measurable quantity. But, the change in the internal energy U can be

measured.

Now, consider a closed system.

Heat absorbed by the system from the surrounding is Q

The work done by the system on its surroundings is W

The change in the internal energy U is given by

U = Q - W

30 30 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.18 ENERGY, WORK & HEAT

1.18.2 WORK (W):

When a force is acting on a body causing it to move, work is said to be done

Work is a transition form of energy and it is not a property.

work = Force x distance travelled through which force acts

Unit of work is Joule ( 1 J = 1 N.m)

As work is done, boundary of the system undergoes a displacement.

Thermodynamic definition of work:

Work is said to be done by the system when

the sole effect external to the system can be reduced to raise the mass/ weight

against gravity.

Sign Convention :

Work done by the system positive

Work done on the system negative

31 31 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.18.2 HEAT (Q):

1.18 ENERGY, WORK & HEAT

Heat is a form of energy in transition.

Heat can be transferred from one body to another body due to the temperature

difference.

Thermodynamic definition of Heat:

Heat is defined as the energy transferred without

transfer of mass across the boundary of a system due to temperature difference

between system and surroundings.

Unit of heat : Joule, Calories.

Sign Convention :

Heat given to the system positive

Heat rejected by the system negative

32 32 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.18 ENERGY, WORK & HEAT

All temperature changes need not be due to heat alone.

e.g. Friction

All heat interaction need not result in changes in temperature.

e.g. Condensation, Evaporation

All our efforts are oriented towards how to convert heat to work and vice-versa.

HEAT TO WORK THERMAL POWER PLANT

WORK TO HEAT REFRIGERATION

33 33 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.19 WORK AND P-V DIAGRAM

PRESSURE

P

EXTERNAL

LOAD

DISTANCE L

P

REMAINS

SAME

INTERNAL PRESSURE = P PISTON AREA = A

FORCE ON THE PISTON = PRESSURE x AREA = P.A

Let this force is sufficient to overcome some external load.

Now Piston moves back a distance L along the cylinder with fluid pressure remains

same. Therefore the force on the piston will remain same.

Now, Work done = force x distance.

= P.A x L = P. (A x L)

But, A x L is volume swept by piston, called swept or stroke volume = (V

2

-V

1

)

Work done = P . (V2-V1) = P. ( V)..(equation A)

34 34 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.19 WORK AND P-V DIAGRAM

PRESSURE

P

Swept volume

(V2-V1)

P

REMAINS

SAME

EXTERNAL

LOAD

P

V

V

1 V

2

P

V

1

V

2

a b

c d

Operation of Piston-cylinder is

shown on a graph with axes Pressure

and Volume is called P-V diagram

The graph shows horizontal straight

line ab whose height is at pressure P

and whose length is from original

volume V1 to final volume V2.

Now consider area under this graph,

A (abcd) = P (V2-V1).equation B

Hence the area under P-V diagram gives a work done.

35 35 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.19 WORK AND P-V DIAGRAM

Numerical 1.

A fluid in a cylinder is at a pressure of 700 KN/m

2

. It is expanded at a

constant pressure from volume 0.28m

3

to a volume of a 1.68 m

3

. Determine

the work done.

Solution:

Given parameters: P = 700 KN/m2 = 700000 N/m2

V

1

= 0.28m

3

V

2

= 1.68 m

3

W = P (V

2

-V

1

)

= 700 x 1000 x (1.68-0.28)

= 9.8 X 105 J

= 980 KJ

36 36 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.19 WORK AND P-V DIAGRAM

WORK DONE IN REVERSIBLE PROCESS (GENERAL P-V DIAGRAM)

2

P2

V

1

P

P1

V2 V1

This is the general P-V diagram

obtained when an expansion takes

place in a thermal engine.

Here both pressure and volume are

changing.

P1,V1 = Initial pressure, volume

P2,V2 = final pressure, volume

Work done = A (1-2-V2-V1)

NOW, HOW TO CALCULATE WORK DONE?

Divide graph into small rectangles. Area of each small rectangle represents work done

The sum of all areas of small rectangles would give approximate value of work.

Greater the number of rectangles more close to actual results.

37 37 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.19 WORK AND P-V DIAGRAM

If the number of rectangles were made infinitely small, the sum would give actual area.

2

1

P2

P

P1

V2 V1

Now, consider some point in the

expansion, say X where pressure is P

and volume is V.

Let there be an elemental expansion V

from the volume V.

the Work done during the elemental

expansion = P. V

Total work done is obtained by

summing all the elemental strips of width

V from volume V1 to volume V2.

=

=

=

2

1

V V

V V

V P. done work Total 0, V As

=

2

1

V

V

P.dv done work

V

V

P

X

38 38 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.19 WORK AND P-V DIAGRAM

Till now the discussion is concentrated on expansion.

In engine many cases of compression are encountered. Compression is

really the reverse of an expansion process.

The compression curve plotted on a P-V diagram has the same general

shape as an expansion curve except the direction which is reverse.

This means volume decreases as pressure increases.

The area under curve gives the work done but it is negative as work must

be done on the working fluid in order to compress it.

39 39 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.20 ENERGY, WORK & HEAT

P

V

1

2

a

b

c

A system can go from state 1 to state 2

following difference processes a, b, and c.

Though the end conditions are same, the

work done/ heat exchange during the

processes will be different.

Heat exchange and work done depends

upon the path followed during the process

and not on the end conditions.

Hence the heat and work done are said to

be path function as the differential is in exact

and cant be integrated unless the path

followed by the process is fixed.

HEAT and WORK are path functions:

40 40 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.21 WORK DONE IN POLYTROPIC PROCESS

2

1

P

2

P

P

1

V

2

V

1

General P-V

curve

Whether there is a law

connecting pressure-volume

relation for the expansion ?

Now, convert the P-V diagram

into log (P)- log (V), we will get

Log (P)

Log (V)

Log( C)

This is much better for the graph appears

as a straight line and is of the form

Log (P) = -n log (V) + log (C)

n = slope of the line

C = intercept on the Pressure axis

41 41 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.21 WORK DONE IN POLYTROPIC PROCESS

Log (P) = -n log (V) + log (C)

Log (P) + n. log (V) = Log (C)

P.V

n

= C .taking antilog on both the sides.

.This is the law for general case of expansion or compression of a substance.

This general case of expansion or compression of a substance according to the law

of P.V

n

= C is called Polytropic expansion or compression.

C = constant and it depends upon the change of the condition

N = index, also known as Polytropic exponent.

Thus P1.V1

n

= P2.V2

n

=P3.V3

n

=P4.V4

n

..1,2,3,4 are the different conditions of

state taken during the expansion or compression.

42 42 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.21 WORK DONE IN POLYTROPIC PROCESS

The value of n varies from 1 to 1.7more precisely it changes from 1.2 to 1.5

Now,

If n = 0,

P.V

0

= CP = constant ..constant pressure process.

Now, P.V

n

= C

Take nth root of both the side, we get

P

1/n

.V = C

If n =

P

1/

.V = C

P

0

.V = C

V = C ..constant volume process.

43 43 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.21 WORK DONE IN POLYTROPIC PROCESS

Numerical 2.

0.112 cubic meter of a gas has a pressure of 138 KN/sq. m. It is compressed

to 690KN/ sq. m. according to the law of PV

1.4

= C. Determine the new volume of the

gas.

Solution:

Since the gas is compressed according to the law PV

1.4

= C, then

P1V1

1.4

= P2V2

1.4

P1/P2 = (V2/V1)

1.4

V2/V1 = ( P1/P2)

1/1.4

V2= 0.0355 cubic meter.

44 44 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.21 WORK DONE IN POLYTROPIC PROCESS

Work done in Polytropic process is given as follows:

=

=

=

=

=

2

1

2

1

2

1

.

.

,

P.dV done work total The

V

V

V

V

n

V

V

n

n

n

dV V C

dV CV done Work

CV P

C PV Now

[ ]

[ ]

+

=

+

=

+

=

+

+ +

+

1

1 - by r denominato and numerator multiply

1

. .

1

1

1 n -

V

C W

g, integratin

2 2 1 1

1 1 2 2

1

1

1 2 2

1

1

1

2

1 n -

2

1

n

V P V P

n

V P V P

V V V V

n

C

V V

n

C

on

n n

n n

V

V

45 45 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.21 WORK DONE IN POLYTROPIC PROCESS

Numerical 3.

0.014m

3

gas at a pressure of 2070 KN/m

2

expands to a pressure of 207 KN/m

2

according to the law PV

1.35

= C. Determine the work done by the gas during the

expansion.

Solution:

Given parameters: Unknown parameters?

V1= 0.014m

3

V2= ?

P1= 2070 KN/m

2

W = ?

P2= 207 KN/m

2

V2= 0.077m

3

W = 37.3 KJ

46 46 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.22 WORK DONE IN HYPERBOLIC PROCESS

Hyperbolic process is a particular case of the polytropic process, PV

n

= C, for n = 1

Thus the law for the hyperbolic process is PV = C

This law if plotted on a P-V diagram it will appear as a rectangular hyperbola.

For a hyperbolic change from state 1 to state 2 , we get

P

1

V

1

= P

2

V

2

We knowwork done during a polytropic process is given as

W = (P

1

V

1

- P

2

V

2

) / (n-1)

Here for hyperbolic function, P

1

V

1

= P

2

V

2

and n = 1,

Therefore W = 0/0indeterminate form

Now work done ????

47 47 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.22 WORK DONE IN HYPERBOLIC PROCESS

2

1

P

2

P

P

1

V

2

V

1

PV = C

=

2

1

V

V

P.dv done work

In this case, PV=C , hence P = C/V.

Substitute this value in the equation for work done,

=

2

1

V

V

V

dV

C done Work

[ ]

2

1

ln

V

V

V C =

[ ]

1 2

ln ln V V C =

1

2

ln

V

V

C =

1

2

ln

V

V

PV W =

r' ' letter by the designated often ratio, expression called is

1

2

V

V

) ln(r PV W =

48 48 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.22 WORK DONE IN HYPERBOLIC PROCESS

Numerical 4.

A gas is compressed hyperbolically from a pressure and volume of 100KN/m

2

and

0.056 m

3

, respectively, to a volume of 0.007 m

3

. Determine the final pressure and

the work done on the gas.

Solution:

Given parameters

P

1

= 100KN/m

2

V

1

= 0.056 m

3

V

2

= 0.007 m

3

Equations used: P

1

V

1

=P

2

V

2

P

2

= 800KN/m

2

W = PV ln (r) W = -11.64 KJ.

49 49 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.23 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Law of conservation of Energy:

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be

converted from one form to another form. The total amount of energy in the

universe always remain constant.

The first law of Thermodynamics is merely one statement of above law

with particular reference to heat energy and mechanical energy i.e. Work.

First law of thermodynamics:

The first law of thermodynamics states that, in a closed system

executing a cycle the net work delivered to the surroundings is

proportional to the net heat taken from the surroundings.

In other words heat and work are mutually convertible.

W = Q .(1)

Where, W = work transfer and Q = heat transfer.

50 50 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.23 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

During cyclic process, the initial and final states are identical. Hence the net

property change is ZERO.

Net Heat Transfer Net Work Transfer = 0 (2)

or

Net Heat Transfer = Net Work Transfer ...(3)

or

Q = W ...(4)

or

(5)

The equations (2), (3), (4) and (5) are further statements of the first law of

thermodynamics.

The first law implies that, in a cycle, there must be heat transfer for there to be

work transfer.

=

cycle the round summation the means

W Q

51 51 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.23 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

P

V

1

2

a

b

1 2 b 2 1 a 1 2 b 2 1 a

+ = + W W Q Q

=

2

1

2 - a1

a' ' path along ...... Q Q

( ) ( )

= +

2

1

1

2

0 W Q W Q

( ) ( )

=

2

1

2

1

0

A path Along path Along

W Q W Q

B

( ) ( )

=

2

1

2

1

A path Along path Along

W Q W Q

B

a and b are arbitrarily taken. As far as process is concerned a or b, the difference

Q-W remains a constant as long as the initial and final states are the same.

The difference depends only on the end points of the process.

Q and W themselves depend on the path followed but their difference does not.

52 52 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.23 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

This implies that the difference between the heat and the work interactions during a

PROCESS is a property of the system.

This property is called the energy of the system. It is designated as E and is equal

to sum of all the energies at a given state.

Thus the first law of thermodynamics for the process is given as:

Q-W= dE

E = U + KE + PE

U = internal energy

KE = kinetic energy

PE = potential energy

For a process a. Q-W = E

2

-E

1

For a process b . Q-W = E

1

-E

2

For isolated systemQ=0 and W=0 then E remain constant.

53 53 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.23 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

So, whenever we need to derive some work, we must expand thermal or internal

energy.

HEAT & WORK are not the property of the system while ENERGY is a property of the

system as

1. Heat and work depends on the path followed and the end conditions.

2. The net change in heat and work for cyclic process is not zero.

3. While Energy of the system depends on the end conditions and not on the path

followed.

4. The net change of the energy of the system is absolute zero for the cyclic process.

Summary:

1st law of thermodynamics for the cycle:

1st law of thermodynamics for the process: Q-W= E

1st law of thermodynamics for the isolated system: E=0

= W Q

54 54 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.23 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Numerical 5.

In a process carried out on a closed system, the heat transferred into the system was

2500KJ and the work transferred from the system was 1400KJ. Determine the change

in the total energy and state whether it is an increase or decrease.

Given parameters:

Q= 2500 KJ

W= 1400 KJ

E2-E1= Q-W .E= 1100 KJ. (+ve means increase in total energy)

Numerical 6.

In a process carried out on a closed system, the work transferred into the system was

4200KJ and the increase in the total energy of the system was 3500KJ. Determine the

heat transferred and the state the direction of transfer.

Q= (E2-E1)+W.Q= -700KJ.heat is transferred from the system.

55 55 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

The first law of thermodynamics for the process is given as:

Q-W= dE

E = U + KE + PE

U = internal energy

KE = kinetic energy

PE = potential energy

For non-flow process, KE = 0 and PE = 0

Q-W= dUNFEE

where dU = U

2

-U

1

Example of non-flow process is any process in a closed system eg: expansion or

compression of a fluid in a cylinder.

1.24 THE NON-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

56 56 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

Numerical 7.

During the working stroke of an engine the heat transferred out of the system was

150KJ/Kg of the working substance. The internal energy of the system also decreases

by 400KJ/Kg of the working substance. Determine the work done and state whether it

is work done by the engine or on the engine.

Given parameters:

Q=-150KJ/Kg

U= -400KJ/Kg

Formula used: Q-W= U

-150-W=-400-ve as decrease in internal energy

W= 400-150=250KJ/Kg

W is +ve means work is done by the engine per Kg of the working fluid.

1.24 THE NON-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

57 57 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

For flow, the system has to be open system.

Consider the two-flow open system, in which an equal mass of fluid per unit time is

entering as well as leaving the system ..continuity of the mass flow.

Fluid mass

entering the

system

Fluid mass

leaving the

system

1

2

Q

W

58 58 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

The forms of energy associated with the moving fluid mass leaving the system are:

1. Kinetic energy: KE

2

2. Gravitational Potential energy: PE

2

3. Internal energy: U

2

4. Displacement or flow energy: P

2

V

2

Let, the total energy of the fluid mass actually in the system is : E

s1

Let, the total energy of the fluid mass remaining in the system after the fluid mass

leaves the system: E

s2

During this mass flow, let the heat transfer is Q and the work transfer is W.

The forms of energy associated with the moving fluid mass entering the system are:

1. Kinetic energy: KE

1

2. Gravitational Potential energy: PE

1

3. Internal energy: U

1

4. Displacement or flow energy: P

1

V

1

1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

59 59 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

Energy of the fluid mass entering the system:

Energy of the fluid mass leaving the system:

1 1 1 1 1

PE KE V P U + + +

2 2 2 2 2

PE KE V P U + + +

By the principle of conservation of the energy:

Initial energy

of the system

+

Final energy of

the system

Energy entering

the system

+

=

Energy leaving

the system

.........................2 U PV H Enthalpy + = =

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

...........3

s S

E H KE PE Q E H KE PE W + + + + = + + + +

1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

........1

s S

E U PV KE PE Q E U PV KE PE W + + + + + = + + + + +

1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

60 60 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

In a steady-flow system, the mass flow rate of the fluid is constant throughout the

system.

The total energy of the fluid mass in the system remains constant.

E

s1

= E

s2

1 1 1 2 2 2

............................4 H KE PE Q H KE PE W + + + = + + +

2 1 2 1 2 1

( ) ( ) ( )

...............................This is known as steady -flow energy equation(SFEE)

Q W H H KE KE PE PE = + +

This equation is for any mass flow rate. For unit mass flow rate SFEE becomes

5 .......... )......... ( ) ( ) (

1 2 1 2 1 2

PE PE KE KE h h W Q + + =

2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

v P u h and v P u h + = + =

61 61 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

Z

1

P

1

,v

1

,

u

1

,C

1

Z

2

P

2

,v

2

,

u

2

,C

2

Datum level

E

s1

=E

s2

system

W

Q

62 62 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

Fluid flows into a steady-flow open system with pressure P

1

, specific volume v

1

,

specific internal energy u

1

, and velocity C

1

. The entry is at height Z

1

above datum

level.

In its passage through the system, specific heat energy Q and specific work W are

transferred into or out of the system.

The fluid leaves the system with pressure P

2

, specific volume v

2

, specific internal

energy u

2

, and velocity C

2

. The exit is at height Z

2

above the datum level.

Now, the steady flow energy equation for the system becomes,

6 .... ..........

2 2

2

2

2

2 2 2 1

2

1

1 1 1

W gZ

C

v P u Q gZ

C

v P u + + + + = + + + +

In thermodynamics, any changes in gravitational energy are mostly small

compared to other energy forms. The gZ terms are neglected.

And also we know ..u+Pv = h

63 63 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

7 .......... .......... ..........

2 2

2

2

2

2

1

1

W

C

h Q

C

h + + = + +

The various forms of the steady-flow energy equation, such as equation no. 5,6,7

are further statements of the first law of thermodynamics.

64 64 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

Numerical 8.

In a steady-flow open system a fluid substance flows at the rate of 4 Kg/s. It enters

the system at a pressure of 600KN/m

2

, a velocity of 220m/s, internal energy

2200KJ/Kg and specific volume 0.42 m

3

/Kg. It leaves the system at a pressure of

150KN/m

2

, a velocity of 145m/s, internal energy 1650KJ/Kg and specific volume

1.5m

3

/kg. During its passage through the system, the substance has a loss by heat

transfer of 40KJ/Kg to the surroundings.

Determine the power of the system, stating whether it is from or to the system.

Neglect any change of gravitational potential energy.

Solution:

Given parameters: mass flow rate= 4Kg/s

P

1

= 600KN/m

2

P

2

= 150KN/m2

C

1

= 220m/s C

2

= 145m/s

u

1

= 2200KJ/Kg u

2

= 1650KJ/Kg

v

1

= 0.42 m

3

/Kg v

2

= 1.5 m3/Kg

Q= -40 KJ/Kg.

Find out : W and Power

65 65 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

6 .... ..........

2 2

2

2

2

2 2 2 1

2

1

1 1 1

W gZ

C

v P u Q gZ

C

v P u + + + + = + + + +

Equation Used:

Answers:

W= 550.69 KJ/Kg

Power = W .

= 2202.75KW (1KJ/s=1KW)

66 66 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

Numerical 9.

Air passes through a gas turbine system at the rate of 4.5Kg/s. It enters the

turbine system with a velocity of 90m/s and a specific volume of 0.85 m

3

/Kg.

It leaves the turbine system with a specific volume of 1.45m

3

/Kg. The exit area

of the turbine system is 0.038m

2

. In its passage through the turbine system,

the specific enthalpy of the air is reduced by 200KJ/Kg and there is a heat

transfer loss of 40KJ/Kg.

Determine:

1. The inlet area of the turbine in m

2

2. The exit velocity of the air in m/s

3. The power developed by the turbine system in KW.

Solution:

Given parameters:

1

= 4.5 Kg/s C

1

=90 m/s v

1

=0.85 m

3

/Kg

v

2

= 1.45 m

3

/Kg A

2

= 0.038m

2

(h

1

-h

2

)=200 KJ/kg

Q = -40KJ/Kg.

A

1

=???? C

2

=???? P=????

67 67 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

(a) At inlet :

= (A

1

C

1

)/v

1

A

1

= 0.042 m2

(b) At exit :

= (A

2

C

2

)/v

2

C

2

= 171.71 m/s

(c) The steady-flow energy equation for unit mass is

7 .......... .......... ..........

2 2

2

2

2

2

1

1

W

C

h Q

C

h + + = + +

68 68 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

1.25 THE STEADY-FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

W = 149.3 KJ/kg

P = W.

P = 671.85KW

69 69 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

Different units for pressure:

1. 1 Atmosphere = 1 atmosphere

2. 1 Atmosphere = 1.013 Bar

3. 1 Atmosphere = 760 millimeter of mercury

4. 1 Atmosphere = 1.033Kg/cm

2

1. 1 bar = 100000 Pascal = 1E5 Pascal

2. 1 bar = 0.1MPa = 0.1 N/mm

2

3. 1 bar = 14.5PSI

4. 1 bar = 750 torr

Different units for temperature:

1. F = 1.8 x C + 32

2. K = C + 273.15

3. 1K = 1.8 Rankine

70 70 SIMS/B.Tech./ Basic Thermodynamics / Sem I / AAN

REFERENCES (other than specified in Syllabus)

1. Prof. K. Srinivasan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.Sc.

Bangalore

2. Thermal Engineering by R.K. Rajput

3. Thermal Engineering by B.K. Sarkar

4. Thermodynamics by Y.V.C. Rao

5. www.ecourses.o.edu

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