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# 1.

Indefi
nite
Volu
me
2. Indefi
nite
Shape

R
a
p
i
d
l
y
m
o
v
i
n
g
p
a
rt
ic
le
s
t
h
at
d
o
n
o
t
i
n
te
r
a
ct
11.2
Knetc Moe
cuar Theory

3. Gases are compressible
4. Low density
because of the arge spaces between the moecues
5. Mixtures of gases are always homogeneous
6. Gases are fuid
When gas moecues strke a surface, they push on that surface = force
The tota amount of force s the pressure the gas s exertng
pressure = force per unt area
Gases w ow from area of hgh pressure to ow pressure
the bgger the dherence n pressure, the stronger the ow of the gas
If there s somethng n the gas path, the gas w try to push t aong as the gas ows
The pressure (P) of a gas depends on severa factors:
1. number of gas partces n a gven voume = mo
2. voume of the contaner = V
3. average speed of the gas partces = T (temperature)
Ar pressure
The atmosphere exerts a pressure on everythng t contacts
4. on average 14.7 ps at sea eve
Ths pressure hods a coumn of water about 10.3 m hgh

1. Indefi
nite
Volu
me
2. Indefi
nite
Shape

R
a
p
i
d
l
y
m
o
v
i
n
g
p
a
rt
ic
le
s
t
h
at
d
o
n
o
t
i
n
te
r
a
ct
nhae

daphragm
& rb
musces
contract

chest
cavty
expands -
voume
ncrease

pressure
nsde
ungs drops
beow ar
pressure

ar ows
nto ung to
equbrate
pressure
gases
move
from h
pressur
e to ow
exhae

daphragm
& rb
musces
reax

chest
cavty
voume
decreases

pressure
nsde
ungs rses
above ar
pressure

ar ows
out of ung
to
equbrate
pressure
norma
heathy
person can
generate a
ung pressure
of 1.06 atm
pressure
of a gas
s
nversey
proporto
na to ts
voume
at
constant
T and
amount
of gas.

graph
P vs
1/V s
stragh
t ne

as P
ncreas
es, V
decrea
ses by
the
same
factor

P x V =
consta
nt
P
1 V1 = P2 V2
theoretc
a
temper
ature at
whch a
gas
woud
have
zero
voume
and no
pressure

Kevn
cacu
ated
by
extrap
oato
n
0 K =
-273.15
C =
-459 F
= 0 R
never
attanab
e

thoug
h
weve
gotten
rea
cose!
a gas
aw
probems
use the
Kevn
temperat
ure
scae!
voume s
drecty
proportona
to
temperatur
e at
constant P
and amount
of gas
graph of V
vs T s
straght
ne
as T
ncreases,
V aso
ncreases
V =
constant x
T
(f T
measured n
Kevn, K =
oC + 273)
use a barometer
coumn of mercury supported by ar pressure
force of the ar on the surface of the mercury s baanced by the pu of gravty on the coumn of
mercury
Sea eve pressure = 760 mm Hg
The hgher up n the atmosphere, the ower the atmospherc pressure.
at sea eve atmospherc pressure s 14.7 ps
at 10,000 ft t s ony 10.0 ps

Wam Thomson,the Lord of Kevn,extrapoated thene graphs ofVoume vs. Temp.to determne
thetheoretca temp.a gas woud havea voume of 0.
In the eary 1800s, Gay-Lussacascended to a heght ofapproxmatey 23,000 ft n a hotar baoon to study
varatons nthe Earth's eectro-magnetcntensty reatve to attude. Onths ght, he experenced
theehects of oxygen deprvaton butst managed to coect arsampes at over 20,000 ft, studythe
varaton of pressure andtemperature, and contnue hsobservatons on eectro-
magnetsm.
nhae

daphragm
& rb
musces
contract

chest
cavty
expands -
voume
ncrease

pressure
nsde
ungs drops
beow ar
pressure

ar ows
nto ung to
equbrate
pressure
gases
move
from h
pressur
e to ow
exhae

daphragm
& rb
musces
reax

chest
cavty
voume
decreases

pressure
nsde
ungs rses
above ar
pressure

ar ows
out of ung
to
equbrate
pressure
norma
heathy
person can
generate a
ung pressure
of 1.06 atm
pressure
of a gas
s
nversey
proporto
na to ts
voume
at
constant
T and
amount
of gas.

graph
P vs
1/V s
stragh
t ne

as P
ncreas
es, V
decrea
ses by
the
same
factor

P x V =
consta
nt
P
1 V1 = P2 V2
theoretc
a
temper
ature at
whch a
gas
woud
have
zero
voume
and no
pressure

Kevn
cacu
ated
by
extrap
oato
n
0 K =
-273.15
C =
-459 F
= 0 R
never
attanab
e

thoug
h
weve
gotten
rea
cose!
a gas
aw
probems
use the
Kevn
temperat
ure
scae!
voume s
drecty
proportona
to
temperatur
e at
constant P
and amount
of gas
graph of V
vs T s
straght
ne
as T
ncreases,
V aso
ncreases
V =
constant x
T
(f T
measured n
Kevn, K =
oC + 273)
Boyes Law
shows the
reatonshp
between
pressure and
voume

at constant
temperature
Chares Law
shows the
reatonshp
between
voume and
absoute
temperature

at constant
pressure
the two aws
can be
combned
together to
gve a aw that
predcts what
happens to the
voume of a
sampe of gas
when both the
pressure and
temperature
change
By combng the
gas aws we can
wrte a genera
equaton
R s caed the
Gas Constant
the vaue of R
depends on the
unts of P and V

we w use
0.0821
and convert P
to atm and V
to L
use the Idea
Gas aw when
have a gas at
one condton,
use the
Combned Gas
Law when you
have gas whose
condton s
changng
voume
drecty
proporto
na to the
number
of gas
moecue
s

V =
consta
nt x n

consta
nt P
and T

more
gas
moecu
es =
arger
voume
count
number
of gas
moecue
s by
moles
equa
voumes
of gases
contan
equa
numbers
of
moecue
s

the
gas
doesn
t
matte
r
Rea
gases
often
do not
behave
ke
dea
gases
at hgh
pressur
e or ow
temper
ature
Idea
gas
aws
assume
1) no
attra
cton
s
betw
een
gas
moe
cues
2) gas
moe
cues
do
not
take
up
spac
e
3) base
d on
the
Knet
c-
Moe
cuar
Theo
ry
at ow
temper
atures
and
hgh
pressur
es
these
assump
tons
are not
one of
the
methods
chemsts
use to
determn
e the
moar
mass of
an
unknown
substanc
e s to
heat a
weghed
sampe
unt t
becomes
a gas,
measure
the
temperat
ure,
pressure
and
voume,
and use
the Idea
Gas Law
Gay-Lussac's Law states that the pressure of a sampe of gas at constant volume, s directly
proportional to ts temperature n Kevn.
Common reference ponts for comparng
standard pressure = 1.00 atm
standard temperature = 0C = 273 K
STP

theoretc
a
temper
ature at
whch a
gas
woud
have
zero
voume
and no
pressure

Kevn
cacu
ated
by
extrap
oato
n
0 K =
-273.15
C =
-459 F
= 0 R
never
attanab
e

thoug
h
weve
gotten
rea
cose!
a gas
aw
probems
use the
Kevn
temperat
ure
scae!
Boyes Law
shows the
reatonshp
between
pressure and
voume

at constant
temperature
Chares Law
shows the
reatonshp
between
voume and
absoute
temperature

at constant
pressure
the two aws
can be
combned
together to
gve a aw that
predcts what
happens to the
voume of a
sampe of gas
when both the
pressure and
temperature
change
By combng the
gas aws we can
wrte a genera
equaton
R s caed the
Gas Constant
the vaue of R
depends on the
unts of P and V

we w use
0.0821
and convert P
to atm and V
to L
use the Idea
Gas aw when
have a gas at
one condton,
use the
Combned Gas
Law when you
have gas whose
condton s
changng
voume
drecty
proporto
na to the
number
of gas
moecue
s

V =
consta
nt x n

consta
nt P
and T

more
gas
moecu
es =
arger
voume
count
number
of gas
moecue
s by
moles
equa
voumes
of gases
contan
equa
numbers
of
moecue
s

the
gas
doesn
t
matte
r
Rea
gases
often
do not
behave
ke
dea
gases
at hgh
pressur
e or ow
temper
ature
Idea
gas
aws
assume
1) no
attra
cton
s
betw
een
gas
moe
cues
2) gas
moe
cues
do
not
take
up
spac
e
3) base
d on
the
Knet
c-
Moe
cuar
Theo
ry
at ow
temper
atures
and
hgh
pressur
es
these
assump
tons
are not
one of
the
methods
chemsts
use to
determn
e the
moar
mass of
an
unknown
substanc
e s to
heat a
weghed
sampe
unt t
becomes
a gas,
measure
the
temperat
ure,
pressure
and
voume,
and use
the Idea
Gas Law
each gas
n the
mxture
exerts a
pressure
ndepend
ent of the
other
gases n
the
mxture
the
pressure
of an
compone
nt gas n
a mxture
s caed
a partial
pressur
e
the sum
of the
parta
pressures
of a the
gases n
a mxture
equas
the tota
pressure

Daton
s Law
of
Parta
Pressu
res
P
tota =
Pgas A +
Pgas B +
Pgas C +...
Accordng to
Knetc
Moecuar
Theory, the
partces n a
gas behave
ndependenty
Ar s a
mxture, yet we
can treat t as
a snge gas
Aso, we can
thnk of each
gas n the
mxture
ndependent of
the other gases

though a
gases n the
mxture have
the same
voume and
temperature
a gases
compete
y occupy
the
contaner,
so a
gases n
the
mxture
have the
voume of
the
contaner
our bodes
to breathe
O
2 at a parta
pressure of 0.21 atm

Sherpa, peope
natve to the
Hmaaya
mountans, are
much ower
parta pressure
of oxygen n ther
ar

parta pressures of
O2 ower than 0.1
hypoxia

unconscousness
or death

cmbers of Mt
Everest must carry
O2 n cynders to
prevent hypoxa

on top of Mt
Everest, Par =
0.311 atm, so
PO2 = 0.065 atm
to nd the
parta pressure
of a gas,
mutpy the
tota pressure of
the mxture by
the fractona
composton of
the gas
for exampe, n
a gas mxture
that s 80.0%
He and 20.0%
Ne that has a
tota pressure of
1.0 atm, the
parta pressure
of He woud be:
P
He = (0.800)(1.0 atm) = 0.80
atm

fractona composton =
percentage dvded by
100
ts aso
possbe to
have too
much O
2, a
condton caed
oxygen toxicity

## PO2 > 1.4 atm

oxygen toxcty
musce spasms,
tunne vson
and convusons

ts aso possbe to
have too much N2, a
condton caed
nitrogen narcosis

aso known as
Rapture of the
Deep

## when dvng deep,

the pressure of the
ar dvers breathe
ncreases - so the
parta pressure of
the oxygen
ncreases

at a depth of 55
m the parta
pressure of O2
s 1.4 atm

dvers that go
beow 50 m use
a mxture of He
and O2 caed
heox that
contans a ower
percentage of
O2 than ar
gases are
often
coected
by havng
them
dspace
water from
a
contaner
the
probem s
that snce
water
evaporate
s, there s
aso water
vapor n
the
coected
gas
the parta
pressure of
the water
vapor,
caed the
vapor
pressure,
depends
ony on
the
temperatu
re

so you
can use
a tabe
to nd
out the
parta
pressur
e of the
water
vapor n
the gas
you
coect
f you
coect a
gas
sampe
wth a
tota
pressure of
758 mmHg
at 25C,
the parta
pressure of
the water
vapor w
be 23.8
mmHg - so
the parta
pressure of
the dry
gas w be
734 mmHg
voume
drecty
proporto
na to the
number
of gas
moecue
s

V =
consta
nt x n

consta
nt P
and T

more
gas
moecu
es =
arger
voume
count
number
of gas
moecue
s by
moles
equa
voumes
of gases
contan
equa
numbers
of
moecue
s

the
gas
doesn
t
matte
r
Rea
gases
often
do not
behave
ke
dea
gases
at hgh
pressur
e or ow
temper
ature
Idea
gas
aws
assume
1) no
attra
cton
s
betw
een
gas
moe
cues
2) gas
moe
cues
do
not
take
up
spac
e
3) base
d on
the
Knet
c-
Moe
cuar
Theo
ry
at ow
temper
atures
and
hgh
pressur
es
these
assump
tons
are not
each gas
n the
mxture
exerts a
pressure
ndepend
ent of the
other
gases n
the
mxture
the
pressure
of an
compone
nt gas n
a mxture
s caed
a partial
pressur
e
the sum
of the
parta
pressures
of a the
gases n
a mxture
equas
the tota
pressure

Daton
s Law
of
Parta
Pressu
res
P
tota =
Pgas A +
Pgas B +
Pgas C +...
Accordng to
Knetc
Moecuar
Theory, the
partces n a
gas behave
ndependenty
Ar s a
mxture, yet we
can treat t as
a snge gas
Aso, we can
thnk of each
gas n the
mxture
ndependent of
the other gases

though a
gases n the
mxture have
the same
voume and
temperature
a gases
compete
y occupy
the
contaner,
so a
gases n
the
mxture
have the
voume of
the
contaner
our bodes
to breathe
O
2 at a parta
pressure of 0.21 atm

Sherpa, peope
natve to the
Hmaaya
mountans, are
much ower
parta pressure
of oxygen n ther
ar

parta pressures of
O2 ower than 0.1
hypoxia

unconscousness
or death

cmbers of Mt
Everest must carry
O2 n cynders to
prevent hypoxa

on top of Mt
Everest, Par =
0.311 atm, so
PO2 = 0.065 atm
to nd the
parta pressure
of a gas,
mutpy the
tota pressure of
the mxture by
the fractona
composton of
the gas
for exampe, n
a gas mxture
that s 80.0%
He and 20.0%
Ne that has a
tota pressure of
1.0 atm, the
parta pressure
of He woud be:
P
He = (0.800)(1.0 atm) = 0.80
atm

fractona composton =
percentage dvded by
100
ts aso
possbe to
have too
much O
2, a
condton caed
oxygen toxicity

## PO2 > 1.4 atm

oxygen toxcty
musce spasms,
tunne vson
and convusons

ts aso possbe to
have too much N2, a
condton caed
nitrogen narcosis

aso known as
Rapture of the
Deep

## when dvng deep,

the pressure of the
ar dvers breathe
ncreases - so the
parta pressure of
the oxygen
ncreases

at a depth of 55
m the parta
pressure of O2
s 1.4 atm

dvers that go
beow 50 m use
a mxture of He
and O2 caed
heox that
contans a ower
percentage of
O2 than ar
gases are
often
coected
by havng
them
dspace
water from
a
contaner
the
probem s
that snce
water
evaporate
s, there s
aso water
vapor n
the
coected
gas
the parta
pressure of
the water
vapor,
caed the
vapor
pressure,
depends
ony on
the
temperatu
re

so you
can use
a tabe
to nd
out the
parta
pressur
e of the
water
vapor n
the gas
you
coect
f you
coect a
gas
sampe
wth a
tota
pressure of
758 mmHg
at 25C,
the parta
pressure of
the water
vapor w
be 23.8
mmHg - so
the parta
pressure of
the dry
gas w be
734 mmHg
the prncpes
of reacton
stochometry
from Chapter 8
can be
combned wth
the Gas Laws
for reactons
nvovng
gases
n reactons of
gases, the
amount of a
gas s often
gven as a
Voume

moes

as weve
seen, must
state
pressure and
temperature
the Idea Gas
Law aows us
to convert
from the
voume of the
gas to moes;
then we can
use the
coemcents n
the equaton
as a moe rato
P x V = n x R x T
ts aso
possbe to
have too
much O
2, a
condton caed
oxygen toxicity

## PO2 > 1.4 atm

oxygen toxcty
musce spasms,
tunne vson
and convusons

ts aso possbe to
have too much N2, a
condton caed
nitrogen narcosis

aso known as
Rapture of the
Deep

## when dvng deep,

the pressure of the
ar dvers breathe
ncreases - so the
parta pressure of
the oxygen
ncreases

at a depth of 55
m the parta
pressure of O2
s 1.4 atm

dvers that go
beow 50 m use
a mxture of He
and O2 caed
heox that
contans a ower
percentage of
O2 than ar
gases are
often
coected
by havng
them
dspace
water from
a
contaner
the
probem s
that snce
water
evaporate
s, there s
aso water
vapor n
the
coected
gas
the parta
pressure of
the water
vapor,
caed the
vapor
pressure,
depends
ony on
the
temperatu
re

so you
can use
a tabe
to nd
out the
parta
pressur
e of the
water
vapor n
the gas
you
coect
f you
coect a
gas
sampe
wth a
tota
pressure of
758 mmHg
at 25C,
the parta
pressure of
the water
vapor w
be 23.8
mmHg - so
the parta
pressure of
the dry
gas w be
734 mmHg
the prncpes
of reacton
stochometry
from Chapter 8
can be
combned wth
the Gas Laws
for reactons
nvovng
gases
n reactons of
gases, the
amount of a
gas s often
gven as a
Voume

moes

as weve
seen, must
state
pressure and
temperature
the Idea Gas
Law aows us
to convert
from the
voume of the
gas to moes;
then we can
use the
coemcents n
the equaton
as a moe rato