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FALL OF INDIA What happened to Bharata ?
SHRI YANTRA A Simple Way to Draw the Shri Yantra



Technicalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



Writing part 1-21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



Declension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



Chandas (verse meter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



Sandhi (junctions) part 1-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154


Alphabetical Word Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226


Dhtus (word roots) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243


Kdanta (derivation) part 1-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

10. Taddhita (second. derivation) part 1-8 . . . . . 365

11. Samsa (compounds) part 1-3 . . . . . . . . . . . 462
12. Conjugation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
13. Dhtu List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620
14. Suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646
15. Word List Gt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647
16. Word List Conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762
17. Summary Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771
18. Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776

1. Sanskrit Technicalities
m. ... masculine gender
f. ... feminine gender
n. ... neuter gender
caus. ... causative
opt. ... optional form
pass. ... passive voice
... verbal root (dhtu)
We are using the grammatical terminology according to the famous Harinmmta-vykaraam by Jva
Gosvm, a 16th century saint and scholar:
acyuta (Pini: la) the present tense: he does (Table 2)
ajita (l) conditional, cause and effect: if ... then (Table 2)
adhokaja (li) perfect, a past tense (not witnessed): he did (Table 2)
anvaya succession, syntax, the regular word order in a Sanskrit sentence
avyaya unchangeable, an indeclinable word
ra (from i) license of a sage
uttama-purua last person, our first person: I, we two, we all
ohya with the lips (oha), labial
kahya in the throat (kaha), guttural
kalki (l) the general future tense: he will do (Table 2)
kmapla (r-li) benedictive, blessing: let it be done(Table 2)
kdanta ending with a kt [affix], primary derivation of words from dhtus (word roots)
kanma a group of words, mainly pronouns
caturth fourth case, dative, for the beneficiary or purpose (Table 1)
taddhita (tad-hita) good for that, secondary derivation of words from other words
tlavya at the palate (tlu), palatal
tty third case, instrumental, for the instrument (Table 1)
dvitya second case, accusative, for the object (Table 1)
nma all words other than verbs
nma-dhtu a secondary dhtu derived from a nma
dantya at the teeth (danta), dental
pacam fifth case, ablative, for the source or cause (Table 1)
prathama-purua first person, our third person: he, they two, they all
pratham first case, nominative, for the subject (Table 1)
blakalki (lu) periphrastic, a future tense (not the same day): he will do (Table 2)
bhtea (lu) aorist, the general past tense: he did (Table 2)
bhtevara (la) imperfect, a past tense (not the same day): he did (Table 2)
madhyama-purua middle person, our second person: you, you two, you all
mrdhanya at the roof (mrdh), cerebral or retroflex
loka-prama that which is established by usage
vidht (lo) imperative, order or blessing: he must do (Table 2)
vidhi (vidhi-li) potential, rule or possibility: he should do (Table 2)
ah sixth case, genitive, for a relationship (Table 1)
sati-saptam locative absolute: when...
sandhi junction
saptam seventh case, locative, for the location in place or time (Table 1)
sambodhana addressing, vocative, the eighth case (Table 1)


Table 1 The number code for the declension

sing. dual plural
(1) pratham

1.1 1.2 1.3


(2) dvity

2.1 2.2 2.3

object: to ...

(3) tty

3.1 3.2 3.3

instrument: with ...

(4) caturth

4.1 4.2 4.3

beneficiary or purpose: for ...

(5) pacam

5.1 5.2 5.3

source or cause: from ...

(6) ah

6.1 6.2 6.3

relationship: of ...

(7) saptam

7.1 7.2 7.3

place or time: in ...

(8) sambodhana 8.1 8.2 8.3

Table 2 The ten tenses and moods
(1) acyuta
(2) vidhi
(3) vidht
(4) bhtevara
(5) bhtea
(6) adhokaja
(7) kmapla
(8) blakalki
(9) kalki
(10) ajita

addressing: O ...

present tense: he does

rule or possibility: he should do
order or blessing: he must do
past tense (not same day): he did
past tense: he did
past tense (not witnessed): he did
blessing: let it be done
future tense (not same day): he will do
future tense: he will do
cause and effect: if ... then


AJaraMarvTPa[ajae ivaMaQa| c icNTaYaeTa( ) Ga*hqTa wv ke= Xaezu Ma*TYauNaa DaMaRMaacreTa( )) 2

a-jarmaravat prjo vidym artha ca cintayet, ghta iva keeu mtyun dharmam caret 3

ivaMa( AQaRMa( c vidym artham ca For [the gain of] education (vidy) and wealth (artha)4
Pa[aj" prja an intelligent person
AJarAMarvTa( icNTaYaeTa( ajara-amaravat cintayet should feel as if free from old age and death.
Ma*TYauNaa ke= Xaezu Ga*hqTa" wv mtyun keeu ghta iva [But] as if caught in the hairs (kea) by death

DaMaRMa( AacreTa(

dharmam caret he should do virtue (dharma).

verse has a number assigned to it, under which you will find the respective verse in our
2Verse in Devangar
3Transliteration We have divided all words, which might be joined in Devangar due to a method of
writing ligatures.
4Anvaya Making an anvaya means to put the words in their regular prose order (anvaya) of agent
(kart), object (karma) and verb (kriy). We tried to make only a minimum of changes in the
original word order and have divided the anvaya into easily comprehensible short phrases.
5Brackets In brackets we have given the undeclined form of the word, as you can find it in a
dictionary. In square brackets you will find words that are not part of the original text, but that
help you to understand the context of the verse.


ati. very, beyond
adhi. over, more
anu. after, along
apa. (opp. to upa.:) away, bad
abhi. near to, intense
ava. under, away
. near, gives opposite sense to verbs of motion
ud. up, out, from
upa. (opp. to apa.:) near, under
dur. (opp. to su.:) difficult, bad
ni. down, below
nir. away, without
pari. round, fully
pra. very much, before
prati. towards, back again
vi. (opp. to sam.:) apart, reverse
sam. opp. to vi.:) together with, full
su. (opp. to dur.:) well, very
.[p] in taddhita, to make feminine nouns; as in padma >>> padm
.[p] in taddhita, to make feminine nouns; as in gopa >>> gop
.[k]ta in kdanta; as in k.ta (done)
.[k]tavat[u] in kdanta; as in k.tavat[u] (he who has done)
.[k]tv in kdanta; as in ([after] doing, having done)
.cana particle that makes interrogatives indefinit; as in ki.cana (something)
.cid particle that makes interrogatives indefinit; as in ki.cid (something)
.tama in taddhita, forming superlative; as in guhya.tama (most guhya)
.tara in taddhita, forming comparative; as in guhya.tara (more guhya)
.tavya in kdanta; as in kar.tavya (to be done, duty)
.tas[i] in taddhita, forming avyayas interpreted as pacam; as in mat.ta (from me)
.t[p] in taddhita, forming abstract nouns; as in sama.t (sameness)
.tum[u] in kdanta, forming the infinitive: to do
.t[n] in kdanta, forming agent nouns; kar.t (doer)
.tra in taddhita, forming avyayas indicating place; as in sarva.tra (everywhere)
.tva in taddhita, forming abstract nouns; as in sama.tva (sameness)
.mat[u] in taddhita; as in r.mat[u] (having r)
.maya in taddhita; as in magala.maya (full of auspiciousness)
.ya in kdanta; as in kr.ya (which is to be done, duty)
.ya[p] in kdanta; niyam.ya ([after] restraining)
.vat[i] in taddhita; as in daa.vat[i] (like a rod)
.vat[u] in taddhita, derived from mat[u]; as in bhaga.vat[u] (having bhaga)
.[]at[] in kdanta; as in kurvat[] [while] doing
.[]na in kdanta; as in [while] doing

Hinduism Invocation
sampti-kmo magalam caret
One who desires accomplishment (sampti) [of anything] should [first] invoke auspiciousness
magalam ia-devat-namaskra
Magalcaraa (magalam) [means] obeisance (namaskra) to ones worshipable (ia) Lord (devat).
guru vidy hari prcya purdi likhen nara
[After] having [first] worshipped the teacher (guru), learning (vidy) and the Lord (Hari), a man (nara)
should copy (write) [literature] like the Puras.
hari om
The Lord (Hari) [is addressed with] om.
satyam eva jayate
[The Absolute] Truth (satya) alone he (the yog) attains (conquers).
vakra-tua mah-kya srya-koi-sama-prabha, nirvighna kuru me deva ubha-kryeu sarvad
O lord (deva) [Gaea], with a curved trunk (tua), with a great body (kya), and with an effulgence
(prabh) equal to millions (koi) of suns (srya)! In auspicious (ubha) activities (krya) make me always
(sarvad) free from obstacles!
mano-java mruta-tulya-vega jitendriya buddhimat variam
vttma-ja vnara-ytha-mukhya r-rma-dta araa prapadye
Who is swift like the mind (manas), equal (tulya) to the wind in force (vega), sense-controlled, best
(varia) of the intelligent, son of the wind (vta), and chief of the host of monkeys (vnara) of that r
Rmas messenger (dta) [Hanumn] I take shelter.
nama savitre sryya bhskarya vivasvate, dityydi-bhtya devdn namo nama
To [the Sun known as] Savitr, Srya, Bhskara, Vivasvn and ditya [my] obeisance. To [that]
foremost (di-bhta) among gods (deva) and others [my] repeated obeisance (namas).
y dev sarva-bhteu vidy-rpea sasthit, namas tasyai namas tasyai namas tasyai namo nama
The goddess (dev) [Sarasvat] who is situated in all beings (bhta) as their knowledge (vidy), to her
my obeisance (namas), to her my obeisance, to her my obeisance, my repeated obeisance.
sarva-magala-magalye ive sarvrtha-sdhike, araye tryambake gauri nryai namo stu te
O [most] auspicious one (magaly) of all what is auspicious (magala), O bestower (sdhik) of all
wealth (artha), O shelter (aray), O [consort of iva, known as] iv, Tryambak, Gaur, Nrya !
My obeisance to You [Durg]!
padmsane sthite devi para-brahma-svarpii, sarva-dukha-hare devi mah-lakmi namo stu te
O goddess (dev) who is situated on a lotus (padma) seat (sana), O embodiment (svarpi) of the
Supreme Absolute (brahman), O goddess (dev) Mah-Lakm, remover (har) of all suffering (dukha)!
[My] obeisance (namas) to You!
nama ivya gurave sac-cid-nanda-mrtaye, niprapacya ntya nirlambya tejase


To the teacher (guru) [of the world], the embodiment (mrti) of eternity (sat), knowledge (cit) and bliss
(nanda), who is unmanifest (niprapaca) and peaceful (nta), independent and effulgent to [that
Lord] iva my obeisance.
mka karoti vcla pagu laghayate girim, yat-kp tam aha vande paramnanda-mdhavam
Whose mercy (kp) makes a dumb man (mka) eloquent, and a lame man (pagu) crossing a
mountain (giri), that transcendentally blissful Lord (Mdhava) I praise.
dakie lakmao yasya vme ca janaktma-j, purato mrutir yasya ta vande raghu-nandanam
On whose right side is Lakmaa, on whose left side is [St,] the daughter of [King] Janaka, and in
whose front is Hanumn (Mruti), I praise that Rma, beloved of the Raghus.
kyena vc manasendriyair v buddhytman v prakte sva-bhvt
karomi yad yat sakala parasmai nryayeti samarpaymi
According to my nature (prakti) whatever I do with body (kya), words (vc), mind (manas), senses
(indriya), intelligence (buddhi) and soul (tman), saying nryaya (this is for the Lord), I dedicate
[everything] to Him.
om, a-sato m sad gamaya, tamaso m jyotir gamaya, mtyor m amta gamaya, o nti nti nti
[O Lord!] From illusion (a-sat) lead me (m) to reality (sat), from darkness (tamas) lead me to light
(jyotis), from death (mtyu) lead me to eternity (amta). Peace, peace, peace!
adhikr ca sambandho viaya ca prayojanam, avayam eva vaktavya strdau tu catuayam (1)
Who the qualified student (adhikrin) [of the book] is, (2) its context (sambandha), (3) the topic
(viaya) and (4) the goal (prayojana) [this] fourfold [intention] it is inevitably (avayam) to be stated
in the beginning (di) of a book (stra).
ananta-stra bahul ca vidy svalpa ca klo bahu-vighnat ca
yat sra-bhta tad upsanya haso yath kram ivmbu-madhyt
Scriptures (stra) are unlimited, sciences (vidy) are many, time (kla) is very short (svalpa), and there
are many obstacles (vighna). [Therefore,] that which is essential (sra) that is to be attended, as a swan
(hasa) [draws] milk (kra).
prtar dyta-prasagena madhyhne str-prasagata, rtrau caura-prasagena klo gacchati dhmatm
In the morning by indulgence (prasaga) in gambling (dyta), at noon by indulgence in women (str),
and at night (rtri) by indulgence in theft (caura) [thus] the time (kla) of the wise is spent (goes).
om, sa ha nv avatu, sa ha nau bhunaktu, saha vrya karavvahai, tejasvi nv adhtam astu
m vidvivahai, o nti nti nti
May He (the Lord) protect (avatu) us both (nau), may He nourish (bhunaktu) us both [intellectually],
may we both work vigoriously, may our study (adhta) be brilliant, and may we not (m) quarrel! Peace,
peace, peace!
tri-vara satyam
[Which is said] three times [comes] true.
vidyrth prpnuyd vidy dhana-kmo dhana tath, yu-kmas tathaivyu r-kmo mahat riyam
One desiring learning (vidy) shall attain learning, one desiring wealth (dhana) [shall attain] wealth,
one desiring longevity (yus) [shall attain] longevity, and one desiring opulence (r) [shall attain] great
sarve bhavantu sukhina sarve santu nirmay, sarve bhadri payantu m kacid dukha-bhg bhavet
durjana saj-jano bhyt saj-jano ntim pnuyt, nto mucyeta bandhebhyo mukta cnyn vimocayet

May all (sarva) be happy (sukhin), may all be free from disease (nir.maya), may all see fortunes
(bhadra), and may no one become distressed. May an evil person (dur.jana) become a saintly person (satjana), may a saintly person attain peace (nti), may someone who is peaceful become free from
bondages, and may someone who is [thus] liberated (mukta) deliver others (anya)!
svasti prajbhya pariplayant nyyena mrgea mah mah, go-brhmaebhya ubham astu
nitya lok samast sukhino bhavantu For all creatures (praj) [shall be] fortune (svasti, su.asti
well-being), the rulers shall perfectly protect the earth (mah) by the proper course (mrga), for the
cows (go) and intelligent men (brhmaa) shall always be fortune, all worlds / people (loka) shall be
okra-mla-mantrdhya punar-janma-dhaya, go-bhakto bhrata-gurur hindur hisana-daka
Whose meditation is on om (om-kra) as primeval (mla) mantra, whose firm (dha) belief is in rebirth
(punar-janma), who adores the cow (go), whose teacher (guru) is the [scripture] Mahbhrata (bhrata),
and who criticizes violence (hisana), he is a Hindu. (Hindu is not Sanskrit, but an ancient Persian
word for a resident of India. It may have been derived from the river Sindhu (Indus), or indu (moon).
This verse is supposed to be found in a book called Mdhava-dig-vijaya.)



2. Sanskrit Alphabet
vowels (svara):

A a Aa
w i wR o u O ?

W e We ai Aae o AaE au
The vowels

and ? are practically not used.

Next in the alphabet, after the vowels, are two signs:

anusvra after-sound, the nasalization of the preceding vowel, in Devangar marked by a dot above
the line, and
visarga sent forth, an echo marked by a colon. We will study these signs in the lesson on


consonants (vyajana):

k== ka % kha
c ca ^ cha
$= a #= ha
Ta ta Qa tha
Pa pa f== pha

Ga ga
Ja ja
@ a
d da
b ba

ga gha x== a
jha Ha a
! ha <a a
Da dha Na na
>a bha Ma ma

Ya ya r ra l la v va
Xa a z a Sa sa h ha
Since consonants require a vowel for pronunciation, the a is used for all the consonants by default,
unless noted otherwise ka, kha, ga, gha, and so on.
Among the consonants, the first twenty-five, from ka to ma, are full-contact consonants (spara),
involving the complete stoppage of the path of air. The letters ya, ra, la and va are semivowels
(antastha), with only little contact; and a, a, sa and ha are sibilants. The full-contact consonants
(spara) are further divided into five groups (vargas), named after the first member of each group:
ka-varga ka kha ga gha a







a ha




da dha


pa-varga pa pha ba bha ma

In poetry, pa-varga represents the materialistic way of life parirama (hard work); phena (foam,
indicating exhaustion, because foam comes from the mouth of an exhausted animal); bandha (bondage);
bhaya (fear); and ultimately mtyu (death). Therefore, the path of liberation is called a-pavarga not


Places of pronunciation:


(1) guttural

A a Aa k== ka % kha Ga ga ga gha x== a

(2) palatal


(3) cerebral

$= a #= ha @ a ! ha <a a r ra

wR c ca ^ cha Ja ja jha Ha a Ya ya

(4) dental
(5) labial

ou O

Ta ta Qa tha d da Da dha Na na l la
Pa pa f== pha b ba >a bha Ma ma

h ha
Xa a
z a
Sa sa

(1) kahya in the throat (kaha), guttural

For a (as in mother), (as in father) and ha the tongue remains relaxed at the bottom of the mouth.
For the consonants from ka to the nasal a (as in long) the back of tongue raises to block and release
the air.
(2) tlavya at the palate (tlu), palatal
For the vowels of this group (i and ) the tongue approaches the palate, without
touching it. Put the tongue in the position to pronounce i, which means you have to
smile , and say i (as in kiss) and (as in peace). For pronouncing ya and a, please
keep the tongue in this position, i.e., keep smiling , and say yaa (fame), iva
(auspicious), a (lord). For the other palatals (ca, cha, ja, jha, a) keep the tongue in
the same place. But now, the tongue makes full contact with the palate.
(3) mrdhanya at the roof (mrdh), cerebral or retroflex
Except for ra, all the cerebrals are transliterated with a dot below. You may imagine this
dot to be the tip of the tongue which bents upwards, touching the palate. Therefore
these letters are also called retroflex. Please be more serious

. For the vowels of this

group ( and ) the tongue does not touch the roof. For the consonants the tongue
touches the roof of the mouth. Say: a, kaha (throat), koa (corner), pava (Arjuna)
(4) dantya at the teeth (danta), dental
The tip of the tongue touches slightly the root and back of the upper teeth.
(5) ohya with the lips (oha), labial
For all letters of this group the tongue is completely passive. The vowels of this group (u an ) are
pronounced with a projection of the lips. For the consonants put the lips together and let them spring
slightly apart. The pha is pronounced as in shepherd.
The remaining letters are pronounced as follows:
The place of articulation of e and ai is simultaneously the throat and palate.
ai E as in day and ai as in aisle.

W We

Aae o AaE au

The vowels o and au are prounounced with the modulation of the throat and the lips.
O as in go and au as in cow


v va


The consonant va is pronounced by a slight contact of the upper teeth with the lower lip.

Finally here are two signs that influence the pronuncation of a preceding vowel:
The place of articulation of the pure nasal anusvra (transliterated as ) is said to be the head and
the nose. There is neither a contact between the lips, nor an activity of the tongue. It is thus
differentiated from a normal m in that it is produced through the nose alone, and not by a
combination of lips and nose. And it is differentiated from the other nasals the guttural a, palatal
a, cerebral a and dental na because it is articulated without intervention of the tongue.

= &=


Visarga () is a sound similar to ha, but unvoiced/hard. It is followed by a short echo of the
preceding vowel. Thus for mana say manaha, for agni say agnihi and for bandhu say
When the ending is -ai, only i is repeated and in au only u is repeated: for kmai say kmaihi
and for gau say gauhu.
If the visarga is followed by another consonant, it is heard only as a scratching guttural sound, as
in Loch Ness. This occurs when is inside a word, a compound word, a sentence, or a line of a
verse: dukha (misery), mana-prasda (satisfaction of the mind).

Further notes:
(1) The first vowels are listed in pairs (a-, i-... ). In each pair the first vowel is short (hrasva) and the
second is exactly twice as long (drgha): a as in mother and as in father.
(2) Among the consonants there are so-called aspirates. They are pronounced while exhaling markedly.
This is denoted by adding an h to the consonant, as in kha. The difference between kha and ka is, that
kha requires more exhalation than ka, otherwise they are the same sounds. Compare for example karma
(activity) and sukha (happiness), tapas (austerity) and patha (path; note that the Sanskrit th is not the
English th of path, but that it is a t with much exhalation). Do also not confuse the transliteration h (in

kha, tha, ...) with the letter ha.

(3) Mark the difference in pronunciation between the three sibilants which we have learned the palatal
a , the cerebral a , and the dental sa. As in iva , viu , sev (service), and rsana
(headstand) r sana).


Hinduism Wisdom
pthivy tri ratnni jalam anna subhitam
On earth (pthiv) there are three (tri) jewels (ratna) water (jala), food (anna) and a saying (subhita
spoken well, witty saying).
naratva durlabha loke vidy tatra sudurlabh, kavitva durlabha tatra aktis tatra ca durlabh
In [this] world (loka) [birth as] a human (nara.tva) is rare [i.e., a prerogative], in it (human life)
education (vidy) is very rare (su.durlabha), in it (education) poetic skill (kavi.tva) is rare, and in it
(poetic skill) genius (akti ability) is even more rare.
gandhena gva payanti vedai payanti brhma crai payanti rjna cakurbhym itare jan
Cows (go) see through smell (gandha), the intelligent (brhmaa) see through knowledge (veda), kings
(rjan) see through scouts (cra), and ordinary (itara other) people (jana) through the two eyes
dhty inodara raket pi-pda ca caku, caku-rotre ca manas mano vca ca vidyay
Genital (ina) and stomach (udara) one should protect with ones determination (dhti), hands (pi)
and feet (pda) with the eye (cakus), eyes and ears (rotra) with the mind (manas), and mind and words
(vc) with wisdom (vidy).
di-pta nyaset pda vastra-pta jala pibet, satya-pta vaded vkya mana-pta samcaret
One should put (cast) his step (pda) [only] when purified (pta) by sight (di) (i.e., being careful
not to step on any creature), one should drink water (jala) filtered (purified) with [a piece of] cloth
(vastra), one should speak words (vkya) purified by truth (satya), and one should inact what is
approved (purified) by the mind (manas).
cira-krika bhadra te bhadra te cira-krika, cira-kr hi medhv npardhyati karmasu
O you, who thinks long before acting (cira-krika who works a long time (cira)), blessing (bhadra)
to you! O you, who thinks long before acting, blessing to you! One who thinks long before he acts is
truly wise (medhvin) [because] he never offends (apardhyati) in his activities (karman).
a-mantram akara nsti nsti mlam an-auadham, a-yogya puruo nsti yojakas tatra durlabha
There is no letter (akara) without meaning (mantra advice), there is no root (mla) without
medicinal value (auadha), there is no person (purua) without ability, [but] rare is the one who can use
vid apy amta grhya bld api subhitam, a-mitrd api sad-vttam a-medhyd api kcanam
Even from poison (via) nectar (amta) is to be taken, even from a child (bla) good advice (subhita),
even from an enemy (a-mitra) [a lesson in] good conduct (sat-vtta), and even from something impure
(a-medhya) gold (kcana).
reho hi paita atrur na ca mitram a-paita
Better [to have] a learned (paita) enemy (atru) (... to learn from him), and not an ignorant (apaita) friend (mitra).
sarvatra brhma santi santi sarvatra katriy, vaiy drs tath kara striya sdhvya ca suvrat
O Kara! In every country (sarvatra everywhere) there are intelligent men (brhmaa), everywhere
there are [good] rulers (katriya), [good] businessmen (vaiya), workers (dra), and saintly (sdhv)
women (str) of good vows (su.vrata).



3. Sanskrit Writing 1
Whenever a new letter is introduced, you will see its place in the alphabet on the right hand side. Make
sure that you also remember those letters from previous lectures, which you will find in the alphabet as
At the end of each lesson you will find a list of Sanskrit words. They only contain letters that you have
learned already. Practicing to read these words will speed up your learning process tremendiously. You
can check your pronunciation by reading the transliteration next to it.
The first vowels are a (as in mother) and (as in father). Please practice writing the letters and use the
dotted line as a guide where to place the uppermost horizontal line of each letter. Thus the letter will be
b e l o w the line:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


A Aa

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The first consonant we will learn is ma:


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and our first word is mama (my):

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The upper horizontal line is written at the end over both letters at once, and not over each letter
Since every consonant is already pronounced with an inherent a, the letter

A a is only written at the

beginning of a word: a-mama without [a sense of] my, without egotism.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a-mama no ego

For long , a vertical line is added to a consonant:


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
m mother

A a AMa ama AaMa ma AMaa am AaMaa m MaMaa mam MaaMaa mm AaMaMa

AMaaMa amma AMaMaa amam

Reading exercise:


AacarAaYaRTvNYaaYa"== )
The proverb (nyya) of good behaviour (cra) and being a gentleman (rya).


Devangar has no hyphens, but we are using them sometimes to show the compounds of a word. The


vertical line at the end indicates the full stop.



Sanskrit Writing 2
The next letters:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A Aa


Cutting the inherent a with a plough, so that ma becomes m:


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A vowel may be followed by a nasalization, which is called anusvra

(aftersound) and marked with a dot:



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Or it may be followed by an echo, which is called visarga and marked with a



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(in this example ka is thus pronounced kaha)


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
kma desire

k== ka k==a k k==Ma( kam k==aMa( km k==aMaMa( kmam k==aMaaNa( kmn AaNak== naka MaaMak==Ma( mmakam
A& a Ma& ma Na& na Aa& Maa& m Naa& n


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nama salute

MaNa" mana (say manaha) k==aMa" kma (say kmaha) MaaMak==a" mmak (say mmakha)


Sanskrit Writing 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A Aa



>a Ma

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

raMa" rma Nar nara (man) k==rMa( karam Mak==r" makara Aak==r" kara AaraMa" rma


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
sra essence

SaMa sama (same) SaMaaSa samsa (compound) SarSaaMa( sarasm Sa&Saar sasra (rebirth) rSaNaMa(
rasanam AaSaNa sana (seat) MaaSa msa (month) MaNaSaa manas MaaNaSaa" mnas


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
bhara load

>aaMa bhma >aaSa( bhs >aaSa" bhsa >aak(= bhk Na>a" nabha Aa>aaSaMa( bhsam


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bhrata is the actual name of the country which foreigners call India.



TaTa" tata (then) TaTaMa( tatam TaMa" tama (darkness) TaMaSaa tamas TaaTa tta MaTa" mata rTa rata
rTaa" rat SaTa( sat (real, good) SaMaTaa samat SaTaTaMa( satatam SaNaaTaNa santana (eternal) ATa"
ata k==TarTa( katarat

ruSaPaRNYaaYa"== )
The proverb (nyya) of the rope (rajju) and the snake (sarpa).


Sanskrit Writing 4: Ligatures

There are three ways of forming ligatures between consonants:
(1) dropping the vertical line of the first component

Na na + Ta ta >>> the vertical line of the first letter is dropped N n + Ta ta >>> NTa nta


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ta ta + Ma ma >>> T t + Ma ma >>> TMa tma


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sa sa + Ma ma >>> S s + Ma ma >>> SMa sma


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ma ma + >a bha >>> M m + >a bha >>> M>a mbha


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ANTa anta (end) ANTa" anta ANTarMa( antaram SaNTa" santa SaMaNTa samanta ANaNTa ananta
(endless) AaTMak== tmaka AaTMaNa( tman AaTMaa tm (self, soul) ASMaaTa( asmt k==SMaaTa( kasmt
TaSMaaTa( tasmt (therefore) >aSMa bhasma SMarNa( smaran AarM>a" rambha AM>aSaa ambhas
Similarly: TSa tsa MaTSar matsara MNa mna SaaMNaaMa( smnm



Sanskrit Writing 5: Vowel Signs

As we saw before, the letter =a is written only in the beginning of a word, because every consonant is
pronounced with an inherent a. When the inherent a is to be replaced by another vowel, the
corresponding vowel sign is added. The vowel sign for a long is a vertical line and

k== ka becomes

A a Aa

vowel sign

k== ka
Ta ta
Na na
>a bha
Ma ma
r ra

k==a k
Taa t
Naa n
>aa bh
Maa m
ra r

ik== ki
iTa ti
iNa ni
i>a bhi
iMa mi
ir ri

wR o u O
k==I k
Taq t
Naq n
>aq bh
Maq m
rq r

W e We ai Aae o AaE au
e E
k*= k
Ta* t
Na* n
>a* bh
Ma* m

Short i :


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Long :


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

There is a Sanskrit vowel which is pronounced similar to the syllable ri. But we have to remember that
is a vowel and r in ri a consonant (see introduction). In the following example this is in k (say kri):
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
kim what

riTa rati SaiTa sati MaiTa" mati TaMaiSa tamasi AiSaTa" asita NaaiSak==a nsik (nose) SMariTa smarati
Ai>aMaaNa abhimna AaTMaiNa tmani AiMaTa amita

After a ligature:



STa sta iSTa sti AiSTa asti (he is) AiSMa asmi (I am)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

nti policy

>aq bh >aqMa bhma AMaq am >aqTaMa( bhtam AaSaqTa sta AaSaqNa sna k==aMaq km ATaqTa"
atta TaaMaSaq tmas AaSaqNa" sna AaSaqNaMa( snam ANaqk==Ma( ankam


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
amta nectar

k*= Ta kta (done) k*= TaaMa( ktm >a*Taa bht Ma*TaMa( mtam SMa*Ta smta SMa*iTa smti >a*Ta( bht >a*TaaMa(
bhtm Sa*Taq st AMa*TaMa( amtam Aak*= iTa kti
Sa& sa Sk== ska Sk*= sk Sa&Sk*= sask Sa&Sk*= Ta saskta (what we spell Sanskrit)

Sa&Sk*= Ta

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Rarely the long (say rii with long i), written , appears:


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AaYauga* RTa NYaaYa"== )

The proverb (nyya) of long life (yur) and ghee (ghta).



Sanskrit Writing 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A Aa



Ta Qa
Pa f==
>a Ma
Ya r l

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
gata gone

GaTaMa( gatam GaiTa gati GaaiMaNaa gmin GaqTaa gt GaqTaMa( gtam GaNTaaiSa gantsi iGaraMa( girm raGa
rga AaGaTa gata >aaGaMa( bhgam SaaGar" sgara
In ligature: GNa gna iGNa gni AiGNa agni iNariGNa" niragni


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
kla time

k==alMa( klam k==ill kalila k==Mal kamala (lotus) k==ral karla Mal mala la>a lbha (gain) Naql
nla lqla ll (pastime) AMal amala (pure) ANal" anala MalaNa( maln Maala ml (garland)
In ligature: Ll lla
MaLl malla (say mal-la; in double consonants, both letters are pronounced
distinctly, as in the Italian bel-lo, beautiful) Ml mla AMl amla GlaiNa" glni



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
para beyond

ParMaMa( paramam PaaNa pna Paal pla PaTaiNTa patanti PaiTa" pati iPaTa* pit (father) APar apara
APaaNa apna AiPa api k==iPal kapila k*= Paa kp (mercy) TaPa" tapa TaPaaiMa tapmi iliPa lipi
In ligature: PTa pta SaPTa sapta Ta*PTa tpta Ta*i" tpti APSara apsar k==LPa kalpa ALPa alpa (little)


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
phala fruit

Remember that pha is pronounced as in shepherd:

k==f= kapha (not kafa) f==lMa( phalam f==laiNa



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

my illusion

MaYaq may AYaNa ayana (path) AYaNaMa( ayanam AYaMa( ayam k==aYaMa( kyam k*= PaYaa kpay GarqYa"
garya TaYaa tay NaYaNa nayana (eye) iNaYaTa niyata ParYaa paray
In ligature: NYaaYa nyya (logic) k==aMYa kmya ParSYa parasya k*= TYa" ktya GaMYaMa( gamyam TaSYa
tasya TYaaGa tyga (renunciation) iNaTYa nitya (regular)


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
patha path

AQa atha (now) TaQaa tath (and) ANYaQaa anyath k==QaYa kathaya k==QaYaTa( kathayat PaiQa pathi
Pa*Qak(= pthak YaQaa yath rQa ratha (chariot) rQaMa( ratham k==QaMa( katham
In ligature: QYa thya iMaQYaa mithy (false) SQaaiNa sthni SQaaPaYa sthpaya iSQaTa sthita iSQar" sthira

ANDaParMParaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb (nyya) of the succession (parampar) of blind men (andha).



Sanskrit Writing 7: Vowel Signs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Please note the special combinations ru and r:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


A a Aa w i wR o u O W e We ai Aae o AaE au

vowel sign

ku= l

k== ka
Ta ta
Na na
>a bha
Ma ma
r ra




ku= ku
Tau tu
Nau nu
>au bhu
Mau mu

kU= k
TaU t
NaU n
>aU bh
MaU m




. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
kula family

YauGa yuga (an age) TauLYa tulya PauNa" puna (again) >a*Gau bhgu MaNau manu MauiNa muni (sage) Saul>a
sulabha STauiTa stuti (praise) Maurair murri Naku= l nakula AaYau" yu (life) ku= Maar kumra ku= SauMa
kusuma TauMaul tumula


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mla root


MaUlaiNa mlni PaUTa pta PaUr pra >aUTa bhta kU= Pa kpa (well) >aUiMa bhmi >aUYa" bhya >aUTaaNaaMa(
bhtnm SaM>aUTaMa( sambhtam ASaUYa" asya


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
guru teacher

ku= kuru MaTa( marut MaaTa" mruta NaMaSku= namaskuru


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
rpa form

PaMa( rpam ANauPaa anurp ku= Na( kurn GauNa( gurn


kU = =PaMa<@U k ==NYaaYa"== )
The proverb (nyya) of the frog (maka) in the well (kpa).



Sanskrit Writing 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mark the difference between the combination

rv rava and

the single letter

k== :a Ga



A Aa

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ta Qa d
Pa f== b >a Ma
Ya r l v

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vana forest

vr vara Tav tava >av bhava vSaUNa( vasn vYaMa( vayam v*k= vka vaYau vyu (air) vqr vra iv>au
vibhu >aviTa bhavati >aGavaNa( bhagavn (Lord) >auiv bhuvi Gaiv gavi k==iv kavi MaaNav mnava
SaM>av sambhava
In ligature: Sv sva SvaMaq svm (master) SviSTa svasti SvYaMa( svayam TvaMa( tvm TviYa tvayi
MaTva matv VYa vya VYaaSa vysa VYaQaa vyath VYaYa vyaya SaVYa savya


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mukha mouth

:aMa( kham Sa:aa sakh Sau:a sukha (happiness) Saui%Na" sukhina Sau:aq sukh i:alMa( khilam
Mau%aiNa mukhni
In ligature: :Ya khya Mau:Ya mukhya


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
bala strength

blaTa( balt bTa bata b>aUv babhva

In ligature: Bd bda XaBd abda AMbr ambara AMbu ambu


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
dna donation


dMa dama (control) dqPa dpa (light) dYaa day (mercy) idVYa divya (divine) Aadr dara Aaid di
(first) ividTa vidita Naard nrada Pad pada Sa&vad savda Sada sad Tad( tad Tada tad Yaadv
ydava Yada yad
In ligature: Nd nda MaNdaNa( mandn Sk==Nd" skanda AaNaNd nanda (bliss)
With this new letter we can give an examples of visarga, the echo, inside a word. Then it is heard only as
a scratching guttural sound, as in Loch Ness.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
dukha distress

Sau:adu":a sukha-dukha (happiness and distress)


vaTaAaidNYaaYa"== )
The proverb (nyya) of vta, etc. (the other doas or body types).



Sanskrit Writing 9: Vowel Signs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

And a new consonant:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Note that h is not written

h* , as we would expect, but:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


A a Aa w i wR o u O W e We ai Aae o AaE au

vowel sign


k== ka
Ta ta
Na na
>a bha
Ma ma
r ra




ku= kU= k*= ke= ke
Tau TaU Ta* Tae te
Nau NaU Na* Nae ne
>au >aU >a* >ae bhe
Mau MaU Ma* Mae me

re re



kE= kai
TaE tai
NaE nai
>aE bhai
MaE mai
rE rai

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
deva god

>aave bhve Mau%e mukhe AaSaNae sane ANTae ante ANYae anye bleNa balena daNaeNa dnena dqPaeNa
dpena f==le phale k==ale kle l>aTae labhate MauNae" mune PlveNa plavena rMaTae ramate YaeNa yena


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
daiva godly


dEvMa( daivam dEvq daiv >aavE" bhvai (say bhvaihi) vedE" vedai (say vedaihi) vENaTaeYa vainateya
vEraGYa vairgya k==aMaE" kmai (say kmaihi) f==lE" phalai (say phalaihi) SaENYaSYa sainyasya


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
aham I

Aah ha Aahar hra deh deha Gaeh geha bhu bahu bhv" bahava Ga*h gha (home) h&Sa hasa
(swan) hir hari hra har huTaMa( hutam ihTa hita (benefit) Maha mah (great) rhiSa rahasi Sah


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
hd heart

dYa hdaya id hdi APaTa apahta Saud( suhd (friend)



Sanskrit Writing 10: Ligatures

Before another consonant, r is written as a hook on top of that letter:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


After another consonant, r is written as a small stroke:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A special combination with r :


Ta ta + r ra >>> Ta] tra >>> }a tra

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
karma action

AaYaR rya AkR= arka AQaR artha dPaR darpa duGaR durga Ga>aR garbha iNaMaRMa" nirmama k==aYaR krya
PaaQaR prtha PaUvR prva SaGaR sarga (creation) SaUYaR srya (sun) SavR sarva (all) vqYaR vrya vTaRTae
vartate AhRiTa arhati
This r in ligature has to be read before the complete syllable:

GaR rga GaeR rge SaGaeR sarge AQaeR arthe k==IiTaR krti MaUiTaR mrti MaUTaeR mrte SavaRNa( sarvn SaveR>Ya"
sarvebhya SvGYaRMa( svargyam vTMaR vartma duGaaR durg k==TaaR kart >aTaaR bhart AiPaRTa arpita
The dot of becomes part of the preceeding r :

GaR rga Ga| rga SaGa| sarga AQa| artha AaYa| rya k==aYa| krya SaUYa| srya AaPaUYa| prya


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vrata holy vow

v]Taa" vrat >a]aTaa bhrt A>a]Ma( abhram AaMa] mra AGa]e agre d]VYa dravya Ga]aMa grma (village)
Ga]h graha Ga]qv grva Ga]STa grasta iMa]YaTae mriyate k]= Ma krama NaMa] namra Pa]k*= iTa prakti (nature)
Pa]MaeYa prameya
With a vowel sign: >a] bhra >a]U bhr b]Uih brhi
Mark the ligatures d] dra and sra (instead of Sa]=): d]VYa dravya &SaTae srasate


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
tri three

}aYa traya }aYaq tray A}a atra (here) GaaYa}aq gyatr iMa}a mitra (friend) ku= }a kutra Maa}aa mtr
MaE}a maitra Nae}a netra (eye) Pa}a patra Paiv}a pavitra (sacred) Pau}a putra (child) rai}a rtri (night)
SaU}a stra Yaa}aa ytr


N}a ntra MaN}a mantra (advice) MaN}aq mantr (advisor) YaN}a yantra (instrument) q str
This sign for r (as in sra) should not be confused with one of the forms of n in ligature (as in sna):
&SaTae srasate but aNa snna (bath), AaGa]h graha but >aGan bhagna, A}a atra but Aa anna (=Na na + Na
na >>> N n + Na na >>> NNa or a nna)
In ligature:


SvPNaMaN}ala>aNYaaYa"== )
The proverb (nyya) of getting a mantra in a dream (svapna).



Sanskrit Writing 11
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A Aa

k== :a Ga ga
c ^
Ta Qa d Da Na
Pa f== b >a Ma
Ya r l v
Sa h

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ghsa grass

Aga agha gaaTaYaiTa ghtayati lagavMa( lghavam

In ligature: gNaaNaaMa( ghnnm gNaTa" ghnata dqgaR drgha VYaaga] vyghra (tiger)


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
dhana wealth

DaaMa dhma DaaTau dhtu (element) DaMaR dharma (duty) Daqr dhra DaUMa dhma ADaMa adhama buDa
budha dDaaiMa dadhmi iviDa vidhi (rule) MaaDav mdhava Pa]DaaNa pradhna SaaDau sdhu (saint)
SaMaaiDa samdhi
In ligature: DYa dhya DYaaNa dhyna (meditation) ADYaaTMa adhytma ADYaaYa adhyya ANDa andha
(blind) bDNaaiTa badhnti bNDau bandhu (relative) Da]uv dhruva dDMau" dadhmu GaNDavR gandharva BDv
bdhva lBa labdhv DNaR rdhna MaUiDNaR mrdhni


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
cakra wheel

cl cala cilTa calita cTvar" catvra ced( ced cEl caila ceTaNaa cetan icNTaa cint (worry)
icr cira ke= icd( kecid Naqc nca PaircYaR paricarya SaceTa saceta vc" vaca AacaYaR crya
In ligature:

CYa cya CYaviNTa cyavanti ACYauTa acyuta ivMauCYa vimucya vaCYa vcya



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
chya shade

i^a chinna i^NdiNTa chindanti ^Nda&iSa chandsi ^lYaTa( chalayat

In ligature: GaC^ gaccha iNaGaC^iTa nigacchati Yad*C^Yaa yadcchay Pa*C^aiMa pcchmi
In ligature with with a few letters like ^ cha , ] ra takes the form of \ : ^\ chra C^\ cchra iC^\ cchri
ATYauiC^\ TaMa( atyucchritam

vNaVYaaga]NYaaYa"== =)
The proverb (nyya) of the forest (vana) and the tiger (vyghra).

SvPNaVYaaga]NYaaYa"== )
The proverb (nyya) of a tiger (vyghra) in a dream (svapna).



Sanskrit Writing 12: Vowel Signs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


A a Aa w i wR o u O W e We ai Aae o AaE au

vowel sign


k== ka
Ta ta
Na na
>a bha
Ma ma
r ra




ku= kU= k*=
Tau TaU Ta*
Nau NaU Na*
>au >aU >a*
Mau MaU Ma*



k==ae ko
Taae to
Naae no
>aae bho
Maae mo
rae ro

k==aE kau
TaaE tau
NaaE nau
>aaE bhau
MaaE mau
raE rau

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

YaaeGaq yog >aaeGa bhoga >aaeGaE" bhogai AQaae atho Gaae go (cow) GaaeivNd govinda heTaae" heto ivYaaeGa
viyoga k==raeiMa karomi lae>a lobha (greed) laek= loka (world) Maaeh moha (illusion) MaaeihNaq mohin
SaaeMa soma (moon)


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mauna silence

MaaehaE mohau PaaE}a pautra PaaEvR paurva YaaEvNa yauvana (youth) SaaEMYa saumya AadaE dau AGNaaE
agnau d]aEPadeYa draupadeya idVYaaE divyau k==aENTaeYa kaunteya k==raE karau la>aaE lbhau SaMaaDaaE
samdhau SaMaaE samau
With r : GaaE gau GaaER rgau SaGaaER sargau Aha arhau

k*= TvaicNTaaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of thinking (cint) after acting (ktv).


Sanskrit Writing 13
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


A Aa

(as in job)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

k== :a Ga ga
c ^ Ja

(written like pa, but with a diagonal stroke)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(pronounced like na, but with the tip of the tongue touching the palate)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Qa d Da Na
f== b >a Ma
r l v
z Sa h

(keep smiling !)


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
jala water

JaPa japa JaYa jaya (victory) JaaiTa jti JaGaTa( jagat (world) JaNMa janma (birth) Jaqv jva >aJaNa
bhajana (worship) GaJa gaja rJa" raja raJaa rj (king) TaeJa" teja v]Ja vraja >aaeJaNa bhojana
In ligature: JYa jya raJYa rjya (kingdom) TYaaJYa tyjya vJa] vajra vJaRMa( varjam AJauRNa arjuna


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
bh language

daez doa gaaez" ghoa iNaiMazNa( nimian ivzad vida ivzMa( viam ivzYa viaya k*= iz ki
Pauz purua (person) daNaezu dneu
In ligature: ZYa ya >aivZYa bhaviya >aqZMa bhma PauZPa pupa (flower) MaNauZYa manuya (man) vzR
vara hzR hara


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
gua quality

A<au au APaR<a arpaa cr<a caraa d]ae<a droa ga]a<a ghra Ga<a gaa icre<a cirea k==ar<a
kraa k==LYaa<a kalya Mai<a mai Pa[<aaMa prama Pa[a<a pra (breath) Pa]<av praava (om)
Paura<a pura (ancient)
In ligature: <aR ra k==<aR kara v<aR vara PaU<aR pra Pau<Ya puya Z<a a k*= Z<a ka ivZ<au viu




. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

XaTa ata XaUr ra iXaZYa iya (disciple) deXa dea Pa[k= aXa praka YaXa" yaa XaaiNTa nti (peace)
Xar<a araa (shelter) Xa astra (weapon) Xaa stra (scripture) Xarqr arra (body) XaBd abda
(sound) XaMaR arma
In ligature: dXaRNa darana SPaXaR spara AXMa ama AXNaTa( anat vEXYa vaiya PaXYaiTa payati

v]qihbqJaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the seed (bja) of rice (vrhi).

JalMaNQaNaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of churning (manthana) water (jala).

raJaPau}aVYaaDaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the prince (rja-putra) and the hunter (vydha).


Sanskrit Writing 14: Ligatures

Two letters occure always in ligature the


And the

x== a as in long:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A Aa

Ha a as in Canyon:

k== :a Ga ga x==
c ^ Ja
There are three ways of forming ligatures between consonants. We have
d Da Na
already shown (1) dropping the vertical line: Na na + Ta ta >>> N= Ta >>> NTa Ta Qa
nta. Another way is (2) putting the first letter on top of the second
Pa f== b >a Ma
Ya r l v
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Xa z Sa h
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
akara iva

Sar sakara Ahar ahakra (ego) SaLPa sakalpa XaXaa aka

And with ga: ga A aga Gaa gag il liga Pauv pugava Sa saga
Further ligature: gra SaaMa sagrma, or Sax(= Ga]aMa


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
paca five

cl cacala SaYa sacaya k==aNa kcana ik==id( kicid ivMauiTa vimucati

And with ja: ja SaaYa sajaya >auTae bhujate Ail ajali DaNaaYa dhanajaya YauNa( yujan
In ligature with another letter: Ya jya YauYaaTa( yujyt
Similarly: cca k==id( kaccid a jja SaaTae sajjate
Following the same principle ligatures with da:

d da + Da dha >>> d + D below >>> ddha

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

bu buddha (Lord Buddha) bui buddhi (intelligence) iSai siddhi ivi viddhi Xaui uddhi
d da + >a bha >>> d + > below >>> dbha



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SaMauv samudbhava AuTa adbhuta i" dbhi (say dbhihi) heTauMai" hetumadbhi
d da + v va >>> d + V below >>> dva

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

i dvi (two) iJa dvija ivaNa( vidvn ar dvra (door) N dvandva ez dvea YaTa( yadvat
Similarly: d da + b ba >>> dba, d da + Ga ga >>> dga, d da + d da >>> dda

kU= MaRANYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the limbs (aga) of the tortoise (krma).

ANDaPauNYaaYa"== =)
The proverb of the blind man (andha) and the lame man (pagu).

ANDadPaR<aNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the blind man (andha) and his mirror (darpaa).


Sanskrit Writing 15
The following consonants are all cerebral (pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching the palate):
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(not to be confused with

x== a)

A Aa




ga x==
! <a
Da Na
>a Ma

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(not to be confused with d da)

In ligature:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


z a + $= a >>> Z + $= a >>> Z$= or =a

z a + #= ha >>> Z#= or ha
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
taa beach, bank

ik==rq$=q kir ivra$=" vira kU= $= ka

In ligature: A aa (eight) cea ce d*i di Sa*i si SaNTau santua
In ligature with r : $=\ ra (note the change of [ to \ under round letters, and the difference between $=\
ra and d] dra) \ ra ra\ rra Da*Tara\ dhtarra
Similarly: ha iTaiTa tihati iNaa nih YauiDair yudhihira AiDaaNa adhihna


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a six

Ga@ gaa d<@ daa iPa<@ pia Paa<@v pava Pai<@Ta paita (scholar)




. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mha dull

d*! dha VYaU! vyha


ANDac$=k= NYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the blind man (andha) and the sparrow (caaka).

ANDaGaJaNYaaYa"== =)
The proverb of the blind men (andha) and the elephant (gaja).

AaMa]vNaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the mango (mra) grove (vana).

ga$=Pa[dqPaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the lamp (pradpa) in the pot (ghaa).

bhui^d]ga$=NYaaYa"== )
The proverb of a pot (ghaa) with many holes (chidra).


Sanskrit Writing 16: Ligatures

Now the third way of forming ligatures:
(3) the two characters merge into a new one:

k== ka + z a >>> +a ka
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


k== ka + Ta ta >>> == kta

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ja ja + Ha a >>> j ja
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The double consonant

j ja is nowadays widely pronounced and even written as gya, which is not

correct. At least the nasalization should not be dropped better say gnya.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
kam tolerance

+a<a kaa +ae}a ketra (field) +ai}aYa katriya A+ar akara c+au" caku d+a daka di+a<a dakia
i>a+au bhiku Maae+a moka (liberation) Pa+a paka ra+aSa rkasa Saa+aq sk
In further ligature: +Ma kma l+Maq lakm SaU+Ma skma >aae+YaSae bhokyase ka Aak==a


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mukta liberated

>a== bhakta (devotee) >ai== bhakti (devotion) AaSa== sakta TYa== tyakta AVYa== avyakta VYai==
vyakti Xai== akti (ability) Yau= yukta
In further ligature: kta >aue bhukte
Sometimes, ka in ligature is written K k : Kvicd( kvacid vaKYa vkya XaKYa akya }aElaeKYa trailokya
In further ligature: >aua bhuktv MauKTva muktv TYaa tyaktv >aKTYaa bhakty


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
jna knowledge

jaTa jta (say gnyaata) AjaTa a-jta ivjaNa vijna jaNaq jn jeYa jeya Pa]ja praj Yaj




Mai+ak==aNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the fly (makik).

>a]MarNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the bee (bhramara).

bqJav*+aNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the seed (bja) and the tree (vka).

ivz>a+a<aNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of eating (bhakaa) poison (via).

i>a+auPaadPa[Saar<aNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the beggar (bhiku) who is [gradually] extending (prasraa) his legs (pda).


Sanskrit Writing 17: Ligatures

The letter a often combines with other letters in the first way:


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ama stone

But with certain letters


Xa a + Ma ma >>> XMa ma

X becomes =, as in Xa a + r ra >>> ] ra.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
r fortune

[qMaTa( rmat Aa]Ma rama Aa]Ya raya Aai[Ta rita A]u aru [e rea [eYa" reya
[a raddh (faith) [uiTa ruti iMa[ mira
Similarly: va A ava ATQa avattha eTa veta iv viva ivaSa vivsa XaaTa vata
ca AaYaR carya iNal nicala iNaiTa nicita k==Na kacana k==id( kacid la aek=

The proverb of not making fire (an-adhirayaa) under the pot (sthl) in fear (bhiyas) of a beggar

A>a*TYaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of horse (ava) and servant (bhtya).

ivzk*= iMaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the poison (via) and the worm (kmi).

Ma*GaTa*Z<aaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the thirst (t) of a deer (mga).



Sanskrit Writing 18: Ligatures

These are the most important ligatures.





KYa kya == kka kR= rka k]= kra +a ka


== kta

== kla

GYa gya GGa gga GaR rga Ga] gra

gYa ghya
gaR rgha ga] ghra
ka ka kha ga gha
CYa cya cca cR rca
JYa jya jja JaR rja Ja] jra j ja
a $R= ra $\= ra
<Ya ya <<a a <aR ra
TYa tya ta tta TaR rta }a tra
dya dda dR rda d] dra dga
NYa nya a nna NaR rna Nr nra
LYa lya lla lR rla
XYa ya
XaR ra ] ra va
ZYa ya
zR ra
SYa sya SSa ssa SaR rsa sra S}a stra
hR rha hra ha

H^ cha a ja

ddha dba dbha dma dva

ca la
va ha
hna hma hla hva

Now we will practice new ligatures, which are marked in bold in the table above.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


dta datta icta citta iNaiMata nimitta Pa[v*ita pravtti SataMa sattama v*ita vtti Aav*ita vtti
In further ligature: tv ttva Satv sattva (existence) Tatv tattva Saaitvk== sttvika
Ligatures with da:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Aa dya iva vidy (knowledge) Pa[Pae prapadye uiTa dyuti ve vedya YaiPa yadyapi
Similarly: dma Pa padma (lotus)
Ligatures with ha:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


b] brahma b]a<a brhmaa b]carq brahmacr

Similarly: hva, hla, etc., as in JauiTa juhvati Pa]ad prahlda Jaavq jhnav Ga*aiTa ghti q
hr Gau guhya
Sometimes, in ligature, ya is written as shown below:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

y ddhya buya buddhy y khya Saay skhya y srya SaahyaMa( shasrym


ADaRku= u= $=qNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of a half (ardha) hen (kukku).

Pa-Pa}aNYaaYa"== =)
The proverb of the lotus (padma) leaf (patra).

Ar<YaraedNaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of crying (rodana) in the wilderness (araya).

ASaara<aaMaiPa bhUNaaiMaiTa NYaaYa"== )

a-srm api bahnm iti nyya
The proverb of the many (bahu), although [individually] strengthless (a-sra).

raJaXaUNYaPa[JaaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the population (praj) without (nya) king (rjan).

bhuraJak==PaurNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of a city (pura) of many (bahu) small kings (rjaka).



Sanskrit Writing 19
Now the remaining letters, mainly vowels in the beginning of a word:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


(not to be confused with

@=a and x== a)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Similar to i looks the consonant jha:


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A Aa
w wR






. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iti thus

wv iva wh iha (here) w ia wC^a icch wdMa( idam wNd] indra wiNd]Ya indriya


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a lord

wRr vara wR+a<a kaa wRd*XaMa( dam

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
jhaa fish

w+aurSaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the juice (rasa) of sugar-cane (iku).

w+auivk==arNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the transformations (vikra) of sugar-cane (iku).

ku= Xak==aXaAvlMbNaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of catching (avalambana) kua and ka [grass].


Sanskrit Writing 20
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A Aa
w wR o O






. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
um Durg

o>a ubha o== ukta odk== udaka oGa] ugra oPaaSaNaa upsan oPadeXa upadea oPaiNazd( upaniad
oPaaYa upya oPaMaa upam otaMa uttama oTSaah utsha ovac uvca oZ<a ua


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
rdhva above

OJaR" rja OiJaRTa rjita


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i sage

ddha Tae te Tau tu z>a abha C^iTa cchati Gved g-veda


o\lGau@NYaaYa"== )
The proverb of camel (ura) and stick (lagua).

o\k==<$=k= >a+a<aNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the camel (ura) eating (bhakaa) thorns (kaaka).

oTPaa$=d&\orGaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the snake (uraga) with the broken (utpa pulled out) fangs (dara).

oPavaSaar& i>a+aa wiTa NYaaYa"== )



upavsd vara bhik iti nyya

The proverb that better (vara) than fasting (upavsa) is begging (bhik).

AJaaTaPau}aNaaMaoTk==ITaRNaNYaaYa"== )
The proverb of glorifying (utkrtana) the name (nman) of the unborn (a-jta) child (putra).


Sanskrit Writing 21
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .







. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
eka one

Wk==da ekad WTad( etad Wv eva WvMa( evam WiTa eti


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
aivara might

WeYaR aivarya WeravTa airvata


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AaeJaSaa ojas AaezDaq" oadh


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AaEPaMYa aupamya AaEzDa auadha


k==<$=k= NYaaYa"== )
The proverb of the thorn (kaaka).

k==<#=cMaqk==rNYaaYa"== )



The proverb of the necklace (camkara) on the neck (kaha).


k==f= aei<aGau@NYaaYa"== )
The proverb of molasses (gua) on the elbow.

o>aYaTa" PaaXaaruiriTa NYaaYa"== )

ubhayata p-rajjur iti nyya
The proverb of the string (rajju) of a trap (p) on both sides (ubhayatas).
The word

AaeMa( om (or aum) has an own symbol:

The Indian numerals (with the important zero) were used in Arabia after A.D.700 as Al-Arqan-AlHindu. They spread further as Arabic, replacing the Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, etc.).

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Flash cards:



















as in mother











ring (cerebral)







pure nasal

say kaha














as in long

r cerebral

r cerebral













say gnya

















































r cerebral

r cerebral








r cerebral



r cerebral

















4. Sanskrit Declension
Some words (nma), like conjunctions and interjections, that are indeclinable, are called avyaya
(unchangeable). Most important of these are the words ca (and), na (not), v (or), api (also, even), iva
(like), tu / kintu (but), eva / hi (certainly), evam / iti (thus), yadi / ced (if), iha (here).
Although some combinations of avyayas are very common and even written as one word, in our
translations we mostly separate the two components, e.g., caiva is separated into ca and eva.
Other examples are: (1) with eva or hi (which give emphasis) ca eva (caiva), na eva (naiva), na hi
(nahi), ata eva (ataeva), iha eva (ihaiva), tatra eva (tatraiva), tath eva (tathaiva); (2) with api and ca
(also) ca api (cpi), tatra api (tatrpi), kva api (kvpi), tath api (tathpi), yadi api (yadyapi), hi api
(hyapi), na ca (naca), kim ca (kica); (3) with tu (but) na tu (natu), api tu (apitu), kim tu (kintu); and
(4) with v (or) kim v (kiv), yad v (yadv)
Words (nma) other than indeclinables (avyaya)
... are either masculine, feminine or neuter. In a dictionary you will only find the undeclined form
(prakti) of a word, however, in sentences the words are usually in their declined form. There are eight
cases and three numbers (singular, dual and plural) The declined forms are obtained by adding suffixes
to the undeclined form.
The majority of words are masculine, ending in short a. As an example, look at the declension of the
word deva (divine being, a god):

(1) singular

(2) dual

(3) plural

(1) pratham


deva 1.1

devau 1.2

dev 1.3

(2) dvity

to ...

devam 2.1

devau 2.2

devn 2.3

(3) tty

with ...

devena 3.1

devbhym 3.2 devai 3.3

(4) caturth

for ...

devya 4.1

devbhym 4.2 devebhya 4.3

(5) pacam

from ... devt 5.1

(6) ah

of ...

devasya 6.1 devayo 6.2

devnm 6.3

(7) saptam

in ...

deve 7.1

devayo 7.2

deveu 7.3

he deva 8.1

he devau 8.2

he dev 8.3

(8) sambodhana O ... !

devbhym 5.2 devebhya 5.3

Just read line by line: deva devau dev, devam devau devn, devena ... This is the only declension we will
practice throughout the book. For other types of declension see the tables in 18. Tables.



Explanation of the eight cases:

(1) pratham first case, nominative
Pratham indicates the subject of a sentence. In an active sentence the kart (agent) is the subject.
deva 1.1 bhakta rakati the Lord protects the devotee
In a passive sentence the karma (object) is the subject.
bhakta 1.1 devena rakyate the devotee is protected by the Lord
(2) dvity second case, accusative
The second case is used for the karma (object).
bhakta devam 2.1 payati the devotee sees the Lord
(3) tty third case, instrumental
The third case is used for the karaa, the means of action.
devena 3.1 saha together with the Lord
It is also used for the agent of a passive sentence, which is not the subject.
bhakta devena 3.1 rakyate the devotee is protected by the Lord
(4) caturth fourth case, dative
Caturth is used for the sampradna, the beneficiary or purpose of action.
deva bhaktya 4.1 dadti the Lord gives to the devotee
It is also used in connection with words like nama to offer respect.
devya 4.1 nama obeisance to the Lord
(5) pacam fifth case, ablative
This case is used for the apdna, the source or cause.
deva vaikuht 5.1 gacchati the Lord comes from Vaikuha
It is also used for comparison.
devt 5.1 balavattara stronger than the Lord
(6) ah sixth case, genitive
The sixth case is used for sambandha, or relationship, which is of different types:
sva-svm property and proprietor: devasya bhakta the Lords devotee
janya-janaka generated and generator: devasya putra the Lordss child
avayava-avayav part and whole: devasya padmbhujam the Lords lotus feet
Besides this sambandha-ah there is also nirdhraa-ah, used for taking out or specifying one out of
sambandha-ah: bhtnm cetan asmi of (in) the living beings (bhta) I am consciousness (cetan)
nirdhraa-ah: indriym mana asmi among the senses (indriya) I am the mind (manas)
(7) saptam seventh case, locative
Saptam is used for the adhikaraa or location, which is of two types place and time.
deva vaikuhe 7.1 nivasati the Lord lives in Vaikuha
There is another use, called sati-saptam or locative absolute.
ke 7.1 dine 7.1 at the end (ka) of the day (dina)
(8) sambodhana address, vocative
Sambodhana is used for addressing or calling.
he deva 8.1 O Lord!


Anvaya word order

In a sentence we find a variety of nmas with different case endings, but the core of a sentence is actually
the verb (kriy), and the nmas are used in relation to it. According to this relationship of nmas and
verbs, the kart (agent), karma (object), karaa (instrument), sampradna (beneficiary), apdna
(source) and adhikaraa (location), are called krakas (factors of action).
Since the grammatical value, as we have seen, is fixed in the case ending, the Sanskrit poet has full
freedom to arrange the words in any order, because the meaning will not really change. In our
translation we have made the Anvaya (regular prose word order) to show the syntax. An Anvaya can be
approximated as:
kart (agent)
karma (object)
kriy (verb)
the Lord
the devotee
Qualifiers come before the word they qualify:
daylu deva
uddham bhaktam
nityam rakati
the merciful Lord
the pure devotee
always protects
The other krakas karaa (instrument), sampradna (beneficiary), apdna (source) and adhikaraa
(location) can be placed wherever they best fit the intention of the speaker.
Loka-prama that which is established by usage
According to loka-prama we can determine rules for using Sanskrit words in an English sentence:
(1) If the Sanskrit word ends in a vowel other than , write its prakti (undeclined) form:
dharma, yoga, sana
(2) If the word ends in or a consonant, usually the pratham (first case) form is used:
kart >>> use kart 1.1; pit >>> use pit 1.1 bhagavat >>> bhagavn 1.1; hanumat >>> hanumn
1.1; tman >>> tm 1.1; karman >>> karma 1.1; svmin >>> svm 1.1; sannysin >>> sannys
The undeclined word brahman ends in a consonant and therefore rule (2) is applied. The word brahman
has two forms which declensions differ one is masculine, the other neuter. The masculine form is
declined to brahm 1.1 (Lord Brahm) and the neuter form is declined to brahma 1.1 but, everybody
says Brahman. This helps to distinguish more clearly the impersonal Brahman from the person Brahm.
But when you hear Hanumat for Hanumn; the tman for tm; karman for karma; a sannysin for
sannys, not considering loka-prama, you can detect foreign influence.
(1) In word lists where the gender of words is taught, all words are listed in pratham, so that the neuter
gender can be easily recognized by its ending m:
kla 1.1, patram 1.1, pupam 1.1, loka 1.1, ...
(2) Words ending in as are used in both ways (prakti and pratham):
cetas or ceta; manas or mana; rajas or raja; tejas or teja
(3) In the title of works we also see sometimes the prakti and sometimes the pratham:
as prakti: Mahbhrata; in pratham: Bhgavatam



Hinduism Fables
(Sequences from the first chapter of Hitopadea)

AJaraMarvTPa[ajae ivaMaQa| c icNTaYaeTa( ) Ga*hqTa wv ke= Xaezu Ma*TYauNaa DaMaRMaacreTa( ))

a-jarmaravat prjo vidym artha ca cintayet, ghta iva keeu mtyun dharmam caret

ivaMa( AQaRMa( c vidym artham ca For [the gain of] education (vidy) and wealth (artha)
Pa[aj" prja an intelligent person
AJarAMarvTa( icNTaYaeTa( ajara-amaravat cintayet should feel as if free from old age and death.
Ma*TYauNaa ke= Xaezu Ga*hqTa" wv mtyun keeu ghta iva [But] as if caught in the hairs (kea) by death

DaMaRMa( AacreTa(

dharmam caret he should do virtue (dharma).

The declension of the word kea, as in the above keeu:


















with / by
































in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he kea

he keau

he ke


SavRd]VYaezu ivEv d]VYaMaahurNautaMaMa( ) AhaYaRTvadNagaRTvad+aYYaTva SavRda ))

sarva-dravyeu vidyaiva dravyam hur anuttamam, a-hryatvd an-arghatvd a-kayyatvc ca sarvad

AhaYaRTvaTa( ANa(AgaRTvaTa( a-hryatvt an-arghatvt Because it cannot be stolen and is priceless

SavRda A+aYYaTvaTa( c sarvad a-kayyatvt ca and because it is always (sarvad) imperishable
SavRd]VYaezu iva Wv sarva-dravyeu vidy eva among all (sarva) kinds of wealth (dravya) education

ANautaMaMa( d]VYaMa( Aahu"

an-uttamam dravyam hu they (sages) call the best wealth.


Yaave >aaJaNae lGan" Sa&Sk==arae NaaNYaQaa >aveTa( ) k==QaaC^leNa balaNaa& NaqiTaSTaidh k==QYaTae ))
yan nave bhjane lagna saskro nnyath bhavet, kath-cchalena bln ntis tad iha kathyate

Yad( Nave >aaJaNae lGan"

yad nave bhjane lagna As, made on a new pot

... before firing

Sa&Sk==ar" Na ANYaQaa >aveTa(

saskra na anyath bhavet an impression (saskra) does not (na)


Tad( wh k==Qaa^leNa

tad iha kath-chalena so here (iha) on the pretext of a story (kath)


balaNaaMa( NaqiTa" k==QYaTae

blnm nti kathyate for (of) children (bla) good conduct (nti) is


















with / by
































in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he bla

he blau

he bl

Level 1

AiSTa >aaGaqrQaqTaqre asti bhgrath-tre There is on the bank (tra) of the Gag (Bhgrath)
Paa$=ilPau}aNaaMaDaeYaMa( NaGarMa( paliputra-nma-dheyam nagaram a city (nagara) by the name (nmadheya) Paliputra (modern Patna).

Ta}a SavRSvaiMaGau<aoPaeTa"

tatra sarva-svmi-gua-upeta There, endowed with all royal qualities


SaudXaRNa" NaaMa NarPaiTa" AaSaqTa(

sudarana nma nara-pati st was a king by the name (nman)


Sa" >aUPaiTa" Wk==da sa bh-pati ekad Once (ekad) that king

ke= NaaiPa Paa#yMaaNaMa( kenpi phyamnam being recited by someone
aek= YaMa( Xau[av loka-dvayam urva he heard two verses (loka):

ANaek= Sa&XaYaaeC^eid Parae+aaQaRSYa dXaRk= Ma( ) SavRSYa laecNa& Xaa& YaSYa NaaSTYaNDa Wv Sa" ))
aneka-saayocchedi parokrthasya darakam, sarvasya locana stra yasya nsty andha eva sa

ANaek= Sa&XaYaoC^eid aneka-saaya-ucchedi Which cuts off many (an-eka) doubts (saaya)
Parae+aAQaRSYa dXaRk= Ma( paroka-arthasya darakam shows the invisible object (artha)
SavRSYa laecNaMa( sarvasya locanam and is the eye (locana) of all
YaSYa XaaMa( Na AiSTa yasya stram na asti who does not have [such] scripture (stra),
Sa" ANDa" Wv sa andha eva he is certainly blind (andha).

YaaEvNa& DaNaSaMPaita" Pa[>auTvMaivveik==Taa ) WkE= k= MaPYaNaQaaRYa ik==Mau Ya}a cTauYaMa( ))

yauvana dhana-sampatti prabhutvam a-vivekit, ekaikam apy an-arthya kim u yatra catuayam

YaaEvNaMa( DaNaSaMPaita" yauvanam dhana-sampatti Youth (yauvana), acquisition of wealth (dhana)

Pa[>auTvMa( Aivveik==Taa prabhutvam a-vivekit lordship and indiscrimination
Wk==Wk==Ma( AiPa ANaQaaRYa eka-ekam api an-arthya are even (api) individually useless (an-artha),
ik==Ma( o Ya}a cTauYaMa( kim u yatra catuayam what (kim) then in whom these four are combined!
wiTa Aak==<YaR iti karya After hearing this



AaTMaNa" Pau}aa<aaMa( XaaANaNauaNaeNa

tmana putrm stra-ananuhnena because of the non-

practice of stra by his own children (putra)

oiGanMaNaa" udvigna-man being distressed in mind (manas)

Sa" raJaa icNTaYaaMaaSa sa rj cintaymsa that king (rjan) thought:

















with / by
































in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he putra

he putrau

he putr

(Note: For words containing r, or , in two declined forms

the ending n is under certain conditions replaced by .)

AJaaTaMa*TaMaU%aR<aa& vrMaaaE Na caiNTaMa" ) Sak*= u"%k==ravaaviNTaMaSTau Pade Pade ))

a-jta-mta-mrkh varam dyau na cntima, sakd dukha-karv dyv antimas tu pade pade


ajta-mta-mrkhm Among unborn (a-jta), dead (mta) and foolish

(mrkha) [children]

AaaE vrMa( Na c AiNTaMa"

dyau varam na ca antima the first (di) two are better, and not the last


AaaE Sak*= Ta( du"%k==raE dyau sakt dukha-karau The first two give misery (dukha) [only] once
AiNTaMa" Tau Pade Pade antima tu pade pade but the last one at every step (pada).

vrMaek= ae Gau<aq Pau}aae Na c MaU%RXaTaaNYaiPa ) Wk==Nd]STaMaae hiNTa Na c TaaraGa<aae= _iPa c ))

varam eko gu putro na ca mrkha-atny api, eka candras tamo hanti na ca tr-gao pi ca
Sometimes, at the beginning of a word, the a becomes silent and in its place the symbol


avagraha is written, transcribed as apostrophe:

Ga<aae= _iPa

gao pi (gao api).

vrMa( Wk==" Gau<aq Pau}a" varam eka gu putra Better is one (eka) good child
Na c MaU%RXaTaaiNa AiPa na ca mrkha-atni api and not even hundreds (ata) of fools.
Wk==" cNd]" TaMa" hiNTa eka candra tama hanti One moon (candra) destroys the darkness (tamas)
Na c TaaraGa<a" AiPa c na ca tr-gaa api ca and not even a multitude (gaa) of stars (tr).
Tad( k==QaMa( wdaNaqMa( tad katham idnm Then how now
WTae MaMa Pau}aa" ete mama putr these my sons
Gau<avNTa" i==YaNTaaMa( guavanta kriyantm can be made qualified?
WTad( icNTaiYaTva etad cintayitv After considering this
raJaa Pai<@TaSa>aaMa( k==airTavaNa( rj paita-sabhm kritavn the king caused an assembly of
scholars (paita).


raJaa ovac rj uvca The king said:

>aae >aae" Pai<@Taa" bho bho pait O scholars!
[UYaTaaMa( MaMa vcNaMa( ryatm mama vacanam Please hear my words (vacana)!
AiSTa k==id( WvM>aUTa" ivaNa( asti kacid evambhta vidvn Is there any such scholar
Ya" MaMa Pau}aa<aaMa( wdaNaqMa( ya mama putrm idnm who now for my (mama) sons
NaqiTaXaaoPadeXaeNa nti-stra-upadeena through the instruction in Nti-stra
PauNaJaRNMa k==ariYaTauMa( SaMaQaR" punarjanma krayitum samartha is able to cause the second



A}a ANTare atra antare Out of those (scholars)

ivZ<auXaMaaRNaaMaa MahaPai<@Ta" viu-arm-nm mah-paita a great scholar with name Viu


sakala-nti-stra-tattva-ja knower of the principles (tattva) of all Nti-


b*hSPaiTa" wv Ab]vqTa( bhaspati iva abravt spoke like Bhaspati:

z@(MaaSaA>YaNTare a-msa-abhyantare Within six (a) months (msa)
>avTa(Pau}aaNa( bhavat-putrn Your sons
AhMa( NaqiTaXaaAi>ajaNa( k==irZYaaiMa aham nti-stra-abhjn kariymi I will make aware of

raJaa SaivNaYaMa( PauNa" ovac

rj sa-vinayam puna uvca The king again (punas) spoke with


k==I$=ae= _iPa SauMaNa"SaadaraehiTa SaTaa& iXar" ) AXMaaiPa YaaiTa devTv& Mahi" SauPa[iTaiTa" ))
ko pi sumana-sagd rohati sat ira, ampi yti devatva mahadbhi supratihita


sumana-sagt In association (saga) with flowers

... i.e., when sitting in a flower garland
sumanas good-minded, flower

k==I$=" AiPa SaTaaMa( iXar" AaraehiTa

ka api satm ira rohati even a worm (ka) ascends the

head of saints (sat).

Mahi" SauPa[iTaiTa" mahadbhi supratihita When installed by great devotees (mahat)

AXMaa AiPa devTvMa( YaaiTa am api devatvam yti even a stone (aman) attains divinity.
wiTa oa iti uktv After speaking thus
bhuMaaNaPaur"SarMa( bahu-mna-purasaram with much (bahu) honor (mna)
pura-sara attended by

TaSYa ivZ<auXaMaR<a" k==re tasya viu-armaa kare in the hand (kara) of that Viu arm
Pau}aaNa( SaMaiPaRTavaNa( putrn samarpitavn he (the king) offered his sons.
AQa Pa[aSaadPa*e atha prsda-phe Then on the roof of the palace
Sau%oPaivaNaaMa( raJaPau}aa<aaMa( PaurSTaaTa( sukha-upavinm rja-putrm purastt
(purastt) the princes who were comfortably seated




Pa[STaav==Mae<a Pai<@Ta" Ab]vqTa(

prastva-kramea paita abravt as an introduction the scholar


>aae raJaPau}aa", Xa*<auTa

bho rja-putr, uta O princes, listen!


k==aVYaXaaivNaaedeNa k==alae GaC^iTa DaqMaTaaMa( ) VYaSaNaeNa Tau MaU%aR<aa& iNad]Yaa k==lheNa va ))

kvya-stra-vinodena klo gacchati dhmatm, vyasanena tu mrkh nidray kalahena v

k==aVYaXaaivNaaedeNa kvya-stra-vinodena With the pleasure (vinoda) of works on poetry (kvya)

DaqMaTaaMa( k==al" GaC^iTa dhmatm kla gacchati the time (kla) of the wise passes,
MaU%aR<aaMa( Tau mrkhm tu and [the time] of fools (mrkha) [passes]
VYaSaNaeNa iNad]Yaa k==lheNa va vyasanena nidray kalahena v with vice, sleep (nidr) or quarrel

















with / by
































in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he kla

he klau

he kl

Tad( >avTaaMa( ivNaaedaYa tad bhavatm vinodya Therefore, for Your pleasure
k==ak==kU= MaRAadqNaaMa( kka-krma-dnm of the crow (kka), tortoise (krma), and others
ivic}aaMa( k==QaaMa( vicitrm kathm a wonderful story
k==QaiYaZYaaiMa kathayiymi I will tell.
raJaPau}aE" o==Ma( rja-putrai uktam The princes said:
by the princes it was said

AaYaR k==QYaTaaMa( rya kathyatm Sir (rya), please speak!

ivZ<auXaMaaR ovac viu-arm uvca Viu arm said:
Xa*<auTa YaUYaMa( uta yyam You please listen!
SaMPa[iTa iMa}ala>a" Pa[STaUYaTae samprati mitra-lbha prastyate Now Mitra-lbha is presented
mitra-lbha making friends, name of the first chapter of Hitopadea

YaSYa AYaMa( Aa" aek= "

yasya ayam dya loka of which this is the first (dya) verse:

ASaaDaNaa ivtahqNaa buiMaNTa" SauNMaTaa" ) SaaDaYaNTYaaXau k==aYaaRi<a k==ak==kU= MaRMa*Gaa%uvTa( ))

a-sdhan vitta-hn buddhimanta suhn-mat, sdhayanty u kryi kka-krma-mgkhuvat

ASaaDaNaa" ivtahqNaa"

a-sdhan vitta-hn [Even when] bereft of means (sdhana) and wealth


SauNMaTaa" buiMaNTa"

suhnmat buddhimanta those who have friends and intelligence (buddhi)


AaXau k==aYaaRi<a SaaDaYaiNTa u kryi sdhayanti quickly accomplish their tasks (krya),
k==ak==kU= MaRMa*GaAa%uvTa( kka-krma-mga-khuvat like crow (kka), tortoise (krma), deer (mga)
and mouse.

raJaPau}aa" Ocu" rja-putr cu The princes said:

k==QaMa( WTad( katham etad How (katham) is this?
Sa" Ab]vqTa( sa abravt He (Viu arm) said:
AiSTa GaaedavrqTaqre asti godvar-tre There is, at the bank of the Godvar river
ivXaal" XaaLMalqTa" vila lmal-taru a big lmal tree (taru).
Ta}a NaaNaaidGa(deXaaTa( AaGaTYa tatra nn-dig-det gatya There, coming

from many (nn)

directions and countries (dea)

ra}aaE Pai+a<a" iNavSaiNTa rtrau pakia nivasanti the birds (pakin) rest at night (rtri).
AQa k==daicd( AvSaaaYaaMa( ra}aaE atha kadcid avasannym rtrau Now, once at the end of night
avasanna ended

lgauPaTaNak==NaaMaa vaYaSa"

laghupatanaka-nm vyasa the bird (crow) Laghupatanaka

laghu-patanaka who flies quickly

PaaXahSTaMa( VYaaDaMa( APaXYaTa(

pa-hastam vydham apayat saw a hunter (vydha) with a net in

hand (hasta).

AQa TaeNa VYaaDaeNa atha tena vydhena Then by that hunter

Ta<@ulk==<aaNa( ivk==IYaR taula-kan vikrya [after] scattering grains (kaa) of rice (taula)
JaalMa( ivSTaq<aRMa( jlam vistram a net was spread.
Sa" c Ta}a Pa[C^a" >aUTva iSQaTa" sa ca tatra pracchanna bhtv sthita And he stayed there, being

AiSMaNa( Wv k==ale asmin eva kle At that very time

ic}aGa]qvNaaMaa k==PaaeTaraJa" citragrva-nm kapota-rja the king of pigeons with name Citragrva
citra-grva whose neck is multi-colored

SaPairvar" sa-parivra with his family

TaaNa( Ta<@ulk==<aaNa( Avlaek= YaaMaaSa tn taula-kan avalokaymsa he saw those grains of rice.
TaTa" k==PaaeTaraJa" tata kapota-rja Then the king of pigeons
Ta<@ulk==<aluBDaaNa( k==PaaeTaaNa( Pa]iTa taula-kaa-lubdhn kapotn prati to the pigeons who were
greedy for the grains of rice

Aah ha he spoke:
ku= Ta" A}a iNaJaRNae vNae kuta atra nirjane vane What is here (atra) in the uninhabited forest (vana)
Ta<@ulk==<aaNaaMa( SaM>av" taula-kanm sambhava the possibility of rice grains (kaa)?




















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he deva

he devau

he dev

he kaa

he kaau

he ka

Tad( iNaPYaTaaMa( TaavTa( tad nirpyatm tvat That has first to be ascertained.
>ad]Ma( wdMa( Na PaXYaaiMa bhadram idam na paymi I do not see this as a fortune.
ANaeNa Ta<@ulk==<alae>aeNa anena taula-kaa-lobhena By this greed for the grains of rice
ASMaai>a" AiPa TaQaa >aivTaVYaMa( asmbhi api tath bhavitavyam also by us the same is about to
Level 2

k==<aSYa Tau lae>aeNa MaGan" Pae SauduSTare ) v*VYaaga]e<a SaMPa[a" PaiQak==" SaMMa*Taae YaQaa ))
kakaasya tu lobhena magna pake sudustare, vddha-vyghrea samprpta pathika sammto yath

k==<aSYa Tau lae>aeNa kakaasya tu lobhena By greed (lobha) for the bracelet (kakaa)
SauduSTare Pae MaGan" sudustare pake magna sunken in deep mud (paka)
v*VYaaga]e<a SaMPa[a" vddha-vyghrea samprpta and caught by the old (vddha) tiger (vyghra)
YaQaa PaiQak==" SaMMa*Ta" yath pathika sammta as the traveller died.

















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he deva

he devau

he dev

he lobha

he lobhau

he lobh

k==PaaeTaa" Ocu" k==QaMa( WTad( kapot cu, katham etad The pigeons said: How was this?
Sa" Ab]vqTa( sa abravt He (Citragrva) spoke:


Level 3

Wk==da di+a<aAr<Yae crNa(

ekad dakia-araye caran Once, wandering in the southern forest


AhMa( APaXYaMa( aham apayam I saw [the following]:

Wk==" v*" VYaaga]" eka vddha vyghra An old tiger
aTa" ku= XahSTa" snta kua-hasta having bathed, with kua grass in hand
Sar"Taqre b]UTae sara-tre brte on the river bank he spoke:
>aae >aae PaNQaa" bho bho panth O traveller!
wdMa( Sauv<aRk==<aMa( Ga*TaaMa( idam suvara-kakaam ghyatm Please accept this golden bracelet!
TaTa" lae>aAak*= eNa tata lobha-kena Then, attracted by greed
ke= Naicd( PaaNQaeNa AalaeicTaMa( kenacid pnthena locitam by some traveller it was considered:
>aaGYaeNa WTad( SaM>aviTa bhgyena etad sambhavati By good fortune this happens.
ik==NTau AiSMaNa( AaTMaSaNdehe kintu asmin tma-sandehe But in this personal risk
Pa[v*ita" Na ivDaeYaa pravtti na vidhey activity is not enjoined.
YaTa" yata Because:

AiNaaidla>ae= _iPa Na GaiTaJaaRYaTae Xau>aa ) Ya}aaSTae ivzSa&SaGaaeR= _Ma*Ta& TadiPa Ma*TYave ))

an-id ia-lbhe pi na gatir jyate ubh, yatrste via-sasargo mta tad api mtyave

wla>ae AiPa ia-lbhe api Even in the gain (lbha) of something desired
AiNaaTa( anit [but when it comes] from the undesired (bad source)
Xau>aa GaiTa" Na JaaYaTae ubh gati na jyate no good result comes.
Ya}a ivzSa&SaGaR" AaSTae yatra via-sasarga ste When in contact with poison (via)
Tad( AMa*TaMa( AiPa Ma*TYave tad amtam api mtyave then even nectar (amta) is deadly.
ik==NTau SavR}a AQaRAJaRNaPa[v*taaE kintu sarvatra artha-arjana-pravttau But always in an activity to earn

SaNdeh" Wv sandeha eva there is doubt (risk).

Tad( iNaPaYaaiMa TaavTa( tad nirpaymi tvat Therefore, I first examine it.
Pa[k= aXaMa( b]UTae prakam brte Loudly he spoke:
prakam visibly; aloud

ku= }a Tav k==<aMa( kutra tava kakaam Where is your bracelet?

VYaaga]" hSTaMa( Pa[SaaYaR vyghra hastam prasrya The tiger (vyghra), stretching his hand
dXaRYaiTa darayati would show it.




















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he deva

he devau

he dev

he vyghra

he vyghrau

he vyghr

PaaNQa" AvdTa( pntha avadat The traveller spoke:

MaarAaTMake= TviYa mra-tmake tvayi In you, who are death personified
k==QaMa( ivaSa" katham vivsa how can there be confidence (vivsa)?
VYaaga]" ovac vyghra uvca The tiger said:
Xa*<au re PaaNQa u re pntha Listen, O traveller!
Pa[aGa( Wv YaaEvNadXaaYaaMa( prg eva yauvana-daym Previously, in my youth
AhMa( ATaqv duv*Rta" AaSaMa( aham atva durvtta sam I was very vile.
ANaek= GaaeMaaNauza<aaMa( vDaaTa( aneka-go-mnum vadht Because of the killing of many cows and
men (mnua)

Mae Pau}aa" Ma*Taa" dara" c me putr mt dr ca my children died and my wife too,
AhMa( v&XahqNa" c aham vaa-hna ca and [now] I am without family.

















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in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he mnua

he mnuau

he mnu

TaTa" ke= Naicd( DaaiMaRke= <a tata kenacid dhrmikea Then, by some religious man
AhMa( oPaid" aham upadia I was instructed:
daNaDaMaRAaidk==Ma( dna-dharma-dikam Charity (dna) and other religious observances (dharma)
crTau >avaNa( wiTa caratu bhavn iti You must do!
Tad(oPadeXaaTa( wdaNaqMa( tad-upadet idnm Now, by his instruction
AhMa( aNaXaql" daTaa aham snna-la dt I am dedicated to [religious] baths and giving [in


v*" GailTaNa%dNTa"

vddha galita-nakha-danta Being old, my nails (nakha) and teeth (danta)

worn out

k==QaMa( Na ivaSa>aUiMa" katham na vivsa-bhmi how I am not an object of faith?

Tad( A}a SariSa aTva tad atra sarasi sntv Therefore, after bathing here in the lake
Sauv<aRk==<aMa( wdMa( Ga*ha<a suvara-kakaam idam gha accept this golden bracelet!
TaTa" YaavTa( ASaaE Tad(vc" Pa[TaqTa" tata yvat asau tad-vaca pratta Then as soon as he, having
heard his words

lae>aaTa( Sar" aTauMa( Pa[iv"

lobht sara sntum pravia out of greed having entered the lake to


TaavTa( MahaPae iNaMaGan" tvat mah-pake nimagna he sunk in deep mud (paka)
PalaiYaTauMa( A+aMa" palyitum a-kama and was unable to run away.

















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in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he paka

he pakau

he pak

TaMa( Pae PaiTaTaMa( d*a tam pake patitam dv Seeing him fallen in deep mud
VYaaga]" AvdTa( vyghra avadat the tiger spoke:
Ahh, MahaPae PaiTaTa" AiSa ahaha, mah-pake patita asi Oho, you are fallen in deep mud!
ATa" TvaMa( AhMa( oTQaaPaYaaiMa ata tvm aham utthpaymi Therefore, I will lift you up.
wiTa oa iti uktv After speaking thus
XaNaE" XaNaE" oPaGaMYa anai anai upagamya who was very slowly (anai) approaching
TaeNa VYaaga]e<a Da*Ta" tena vyghrea dhta being caught by that tiger
Sa" PaaNQa" AicNTaYaTa( sa pntha acintayat that traveller thought:
Tad( MaYaa >ad]Ma( Na k*= TaMa( tad may bhadram na ktam That was not done properly by me
Yad( A}a MaarAaTMake= yad atra mra-tmake that in death personified
ivaSa" k*= Ta" vivsa kta faith was put.

SavRSYa ih Parq+YaNTae Sv>aava NaeTare Gau<aa" ) ATaqTYa ih Gau<aaNSavaRNSv>aavae MaUiDNaR vTaRTae ))

sarvasya hi parkyante sva-bhv netare gu, attya hi gun sarvn sva-bhvo mrdhni vartate

SavRSYa Sv>aava" ih sarvasya sva-bhv hi The characters (sva-bhva own nature)) of all
Parq+YaNTae parkyante are to be examined
Na wTare Gau<aa" na itare gu and not the other [acquired] qualifications (gua).



SavaRNa( Gau<aaNa( ih ATaqTYa

sarvn gun hi attya Above all qualifications

surpassing all qualifications

Sv>aav" MaUiDNaR vTaRTae sva-bhva mrdhni vartate the character stands supreme.
wiTa icNTaYaNa( iti cintayan Thinking thus
ASaaE VYaaga]e<a Da*Tva asau vyghrea dhtv [after] being caught by the tiger
VYaaPaaidTa" %aidTa" c vypdita khdita ca he was killed and eaten.
Level 2

ATa" AhMa( b]vqiMa

ata aham bravmi Therefore I say:

... Citragrva speeking to his fellow pigeons

k==<aSYa Tau lae>aeNa wTYaaid

kakaasya tu lobhena itydi Out of greed for the bracelet, etc. [the

traveller died]. (verse above)

ATa Wv SavRQaa AivcairTaMa( k==MaR

ata eva sarvath a-vicritam karma Therefore, work which is

not fully considered

Na k==TaRVYaMa( wiTa na kartavyam iti should not be done.

WTad( vcNaMa( [uTva etad vacanam rutv Hearing these words
k==id( k==PaaeTa" SadPaRMa( Aah kacid kapota sa-darpam ha one pigeon (kapota) spoke with pride

















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he deva

he devau

he dev

he kapota

he kapotau

he kapot

Aa", ik==Ma( WvMa( oCYaTae

, kim evam ucyate Yes, as it is said:


v*SYa vcNa& Ga]aMaaPaTk==ale uPaiSQaTae ) SavR}aEv& ivcare Tau >aaeJaNae= _PYaPa[vTaRTaaMa( ))

vddhasya vacana grhyam pat-kle hy upasthite, sarvatraiva vicre tu bhojane py a-pravartatm

AaPad(k==ale oPaiSQaTae ih pad-kle upasthite hi Only when time of danger (pad) has come
v*SYa vcNaMa( Ga]aMa( vddhasya vacanam grhyam the word of an old man (vddha) is to be taken,
SavR}a WvMa( ivcare Tau sarvatra evam vicre tu but when there is such consideration in all matters
>aaeJaNae AiPa APa[vTaRTaaMa( bhojane api a-pravartatm there is non-engagement even in eating

WTad( ]uTva etad rutv [After] hearing this

Ta<@ulk==<alae>aeNa taula-kaa-lobhena because of greed for the grains of rice


Na>a"Ma<@laTa( AvTaqYaR nabha-maalt avatrya [after] descending from the sky

SaveR k==PaaeTaa" Ta}a oPaiva" sarve kapot tatra upavi all pigeons landed there.
ANaNTarMa( Tae SaveR anantaram te sarve Thereafter, all of them
JaaliNaba" b>aUvu" jla-nibaddh babhvu were bound in the net.
TaTa" YaSYa vcNaaTa( Ta}a AvliMbTaa" tata yasya vacant tatra avalambit Then, on whose word
they had depended there

TaMa( SaveR iTarSku= vRiNTa SMa

YaTa" yata Because:

tam sarve tiraskurvanti sma that one they all criticized.


Na Ga<aSYaaGa]Taae GaC^eiTSae k==aYaeR SaMa& f==lMa( ) Yaid k==aYaRivPaita" SYaaNMau%rSTa}a hNYaTae ))

na gaasygrato gacchet siddhe krye sama phalam, yadi krya-vipatti syn mukharas tatra hanyate

Ga<aSYa AGa]Ta" Na GaC^eTa(

gaasya agrata na gacchet One should not go in front of a group (gaa),

... become a leader

iSae k==aYaeR siddhe krye [because] when the work (krya) is accomplished (siddha)
SaMaMa( f==lMa( samam phalam the result is the same (sama),
... i.e., everyone gets the benefit

Yaid k==aYaRivPaita" SYaaTa( yadi krya-vipatti syt but if (yadi) there is disaster (vipatti) in the work
Mau%r" Ta}a hNYaTae mukhara tatra hanyate the leader is killed for it.

















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he deva

he devau

he dev

he gaa

he gaau

he ga

TaSYa iTarSk==arMa( [uTva

tasya tiraskram rutv [After] hearing his criticism

... hearing that the other pigeon was criticized

ic}aGa]qv" ovac citragrva uvca Citragrva said:

Na AYaMa( ASYa daez" na ayam asya doa It is not his fault (doa).
YaTa" yata Because:

AaPadaMaaPaTaNTaqNaa& ihTaae= _PYaaYaaiTa heTauTaaMa( ) MaaTa*Jaa ih vTSaSYa STaM>aq>aviTa bNDaNae ))

padm patantn hito py yti hetutm, mt-jagh hi vatsasya stambh-bhavati bandhane

AaPaTaNTaqNaaMa( AaPadaMa( patantnm padm For calamities (pad) which are approaching
ihTa" AiPa heTauTaaMa( AaYaaiTa hita api hetutm yti even a friend (hita) becomes the instrument



vTSaSYa MaaTa*Jaa ih

vatsasya mt-jagh hi [As] the leg of the very mother (mt) of the calf


bNDaNae STaM>aq>aviTa

bandhane stambh-bhavati becomes the pole for binding (bandhana).

... while milking a cow, her calf is sometimes bound to her leg

ivPad(k==ale ivSMaYa" Wv vipad-kle vismaya eva Perplexity in times of danger

k==aPauzl+a<aMa( kpurua-lakaam is the sign (lakaa) of a coward.
Tad( A}a DaEYaRMa( AvlMBYa tad atra dhairyam avalambya Therefore, taking soberness in this case
Pa[Taqk==ar" icNTYaTaaMa( pratkra cintyatm you should think of a remedy.
YaTa" yata Because:

z@(daeza" Pauze<aeh haTaVYaa >aUiTaiMaC^Taa ) iNad]a TaNd]a >aYa& ==aeDa AalSYa& dqgaRSaU}aTaa ))
a-do purueeha htavy bhtim icchat, nidr tandr bhaya krodha lasya drgha-strat

>aUiTaMa( wC^Taa Pauze<a bhtim icchat puruea By a man desiring fortune

z@( daeza" wh haTaVYaa" a do iha htavy six faults (doa) are to be given up in this world:
iNad]a TaNd]a >aYaMa( ==aeDa" nidr tandr bhayam krodha [too much] sleep (nidr), exhaustion, fear
(bhaya) and anger (krodha)

AalSYaMa( dqgaRSaU}aTaa

lasyam drgha-strat laziness (lasya) and procrastination.

drgha-stra spinning a long yarn


















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he deva

he devau

he dev

he krodha

he krodhau

he krodh

wdaNaqMa( AiPa WvMa( i==YaTaaMa( idnm api evam kriyatm Even now let this be done.
Sav" Wk==ictaq>aUYa" sarvai eka-citt-bhya After becoming of one in mind
JaalMa( AadaYa oqYaTaaMa( jlam dya uyatm taking the net, let us fly up.
YaTa" yata Because:

ALPaaNaaMaiPa vSTaUNaa& Sa&hiTa" k==aYaRSaaiDak==a ) Ta*<aEGauR<aTvMaaPaaEbRDYaNTae MatadiNTaNa" ))

alpnm api vastn sahati krya-sdhik, tair guatvam pannair badhyante matta-dantina

ALPaaNaaMa( AiPa vSTaUNaaMa( alpnm api vastnm Even between small (alpa) things (vastu)
Sa&hiTa" k==aYaRSaaiDak==a sahati krya-sdhik unity accomplishes a task (krya).
Gau<aTvMa( AaPaaE" Ta*<aE" guatvam pannai tai [As] with grasses (ta) taken into a rope
MatadiNTaNa" bDYaNTae matta-dantina badhyante mad elephants (dantin) are bound.


wiTa ivicNTYa Pai+a<a" SaveR iti vicintya pakia sarve Thinking thus, all the birds
JaalMa( AadaYa oTPaiTaTaa" jlam dya utpatit taking the net, they flew up.
ANaNTarMa( c VYaaDa" SaudUraTa( anantaram ca vydha sudrt And then the hunter, from afar
JaalAPahark==aNa( TaaNa( AvlaeKYa jla-apahrakn tn avalokya seeing those taking away the net
PaaTa( DaaivTa" AicNTaYaTa( pact dhvita acintayat running after (pact) them, he thought:

Sa&hTaaSTau hrNTYaeTae MaMa Jaal& ivhMaa" ) Yada Tau iNaPaiTaZYaiNTa vXaMaeZYaiNTa Mae Tada ))
sahats tu haranty ete mama jla vihagam, yad tu nipatiyanti vaam eyanti me tad

Sa&hTaa" Tau WTae ivhMaa" sahat tu ete vihagam These birds when united
MaMa JaalMa( hriNTa mama jlam haranti they take away my net (jla),
Yada Tau iNaPaiTaZYaiNTa yad tu nipatiyanti but when (yad) they will set down
Tada Mae (=MaMa=) vXaMa( WZYaiNTa tad me (mama) vaam eyanti then (tad) they will come under my

TaTa" tata Then

Taezu c+au"ivzYaAiTa==aNTaezu Pai+azu

teu caku-viaya-atikrnteu pakiu when those birds had

passed the range of his vision

Sa" VYaaDa" iNav*ta" sa vydha nivtta the hunter gave up.

AQa luBDak==Ma( iNav*taMa( d*a atha lubdhakam nivttam dv Now seeing the hunter having stopped
lubdhaka greedy man, hunter

k==PaaeTaa" Ocu" kapot cu the pigeons said:

SvaiMaNa( svmin Master [Citragrva],
ik==Ma( wdaNaqMa( k==TauRMa( oicTaMa( kim idnm kartum ucitam what is now proper (ucita) to do?
ic}aGa]qv" ovac citragrva uvca Citragrva said:
ASMaak==Ma( iMa}aMa( asmkam mitram Our friend
ihr<Yak==" NaaMa MaUizk==raJa" hirayaka nma mika-rja Hirayaka, the king of mice
Ga<@k==ITaqre ic}avNae iNavSaiTa gaak-tre citravane nivasati lives at the bank of the Gaak in the
Citravana [forest].

Sa" ASMaak==Ma( PaaXaaNa( ^eTSYaiTa sa asmkam pn chetsyati He will cut our bonds.
wiTa AalaeCYa iti locya Considering thus
SaveR ihr<Yak==ivvrSaMaqPaMa( GaTaa" sarve hirayaka-vivara-sampam gat they all went to the hole of

PaaXabaNa( c WTaaNa( d*a pa-baddhn ca etn dv And seeing them caught in the net
ihr<Yak==" ovac hirayaka uvca Hirayaka said:
Sa%e, ik==Ma( WTad( sakhe, kim etad O friend! How is this?
ic}aGa]qv" ovac Sa%e citragrva uvca, sakhe Citragrva said: O friend!
ASMaak==Ma( Pa[a==NaJaNMak==MaR<a" asmkam prktana-janma-karmaa Of our karma from a previous

f==lMa( WTad(

phalam etad this is the fruit (phala).




raeGaXaaek= ParqTaaPabNDaNaVYaSaNaaiNa c ) AaTMaaParaDav*+aa<aa& f==laNYaeTaaiNa deihNaaMa( ))

roga-oka-partpa-bandhana-vyasanni ca, tmpardha-vk phalny etni dehinm

raeGaXaaek= ParqTaaPa... roga-oka-partpa Disease (roga), sorrow (oka), misery

bNDaNaVYaSaNaaiNa c bandhana-vyasanni ca bondage (bandhana) and troubles
AaTMaAParaDav*+aa<aaMa( tma-apardha-vkm of the trees (vka) of ones offenses (apardha)
... offenses described as trees

deihNaaMa( WTaaiNa f==laiNa dehinm etni phalni these are for embodied beings the fruits (phala).
ihr<Yak==" Aah hirayaka ha Hirayaka said:
Sa%e ic}aGa]qv sakhe citragrva Friend Citragrva!
A}a JaalbNDaNaivDaaE SaiTa atra jla-bandhana-vidhau sati Being in this situation of being bound in
the net

daezMa( AaXay

doam akya suspecting a [personal] fault

... a wrong decision, or bad karma

AaTMaiNa Avja Na k==TaRVYaa

YaTa" yata Because:

tmani avaj na kartavy you should not blame yourself.


Yaae= _iDak==aaeJaNaXaTaaTPaXYaTaqhaiMaz& %Ga" ) Sa Wv Pa[ak==alSTau PaaXabNDa& Na PaXYaiTa ))

yo dhikd yojana-att payathmia khaga, sa eva prpta-klas tu pa-bandha na payati

Ya" %Ga" wh ya khaga iha The bird (vulture) who in this world
YaaeJaNaXaTaaTa( AiDak==aTa( yojana-att adhikt from more than a hundred yojanas
1 yojana = 9 miles

AaiMazMa( PaXYaiTa

miam payati sees meat,

... a corpse

Sa" Wv Pa[ak==al" Tau

sa eva prpta-kla tu that same one, when his death (kla time) has


PaaXabNDaMa( Na PaXYaiTa

pa-bandham na payati he does not see the snare of the net (pa).
... just in front of him

TaTa" ic}aGa]qvSYa bNDaNaMa( ^etauMa(

tata citragrvasya bandhanam chettum Then, to cut the bond of


ihr<Yak==" SaTvrMa( oPaSaPaRiTa

hirayaka satvaram upasarpati Hirayaka quickly (satvaram)


ic}aGa]qv" ovac citragrva uvca [But] Citragrva said:

iMa}a, Maa Maa WvMa( ku= mitra, m m evam kuru Friend! Do not do so!
Pa[QaMaMa( ASMad(Aai[TaaNaaMa( WTaezaMa( prathamam asmad-ritnm etem

PaaXaaNa( i^iNDa

pn chindhi cut the bonds (pa)!

First of these my



















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in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he pa

he pau

he p

yata Because:

DaNaaiNa JaqivTa& cEv ParaQaeR Pa[aj oTSa*JaeTa( ) SaiaiMatae vr& TYaaGaae ivNaaXae iNaYaTae SaiTa ))
dhanni jvita caiva parrthe prja utsjet, san-nimitte vara tygo vine niyate sati

DaNaaiNa JaqivTaMa( c Wv dhanni jvitam ca eva Wealth (dhana) and even life (jvita)
Pa[aj" ParAQaeR oTSa*JaeTa( prja para-arthe utsjet the wise should give up for anothers sake (artha).
SaTa(iNaiMatae TYaaGa" vrMa( sat-nimitte tyga varam Better to give [them] up for a good (sat) cause

ivNaaXae iNaYaTae SaiTa

vine niyate sati [their] destruction (vina) being destined.


Yaid iNaTYaMaiNaTYaeNa iNaMaRl& MalvaihNaa ) YaXa" k==aYaeNa l>YaeTa Taa lBDa& >aveau ik==Ma( ))
yadi nityam a-nityena nirmala mala-vhin, yaa kyena labhyeta tan na labdha bhaven nu kim

Yaid AiNaTYaeNa MalvaihNaa k==aYaeNa

yadi a-nityena mala-vhin kyena If with the temporary and

impure body (kya)

iNaTYaMa( iNaMaRlMa( YaXa" l>YaeTa

nityam nirmalam yaa labhyeta one can achieve eternal and pure fame


Tad( Na lBDaMa( >aveTa( Nau ik==Ma(

tad na labdham bhavet nu kim should it not be obtained?


















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in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he kya

he kyau

he ky

wiTa Aak==<YaR iti karya Hearing this

ihr<Yak==" Pa[MaNaa" hirayaka praha-man Hirayaka was delighted at heart



Paulik==Ta" SaNa( Ab]vqTa( pulakita san abravt and with his hair standing, he spoke:
SaaDau iMa}a SaaDau sdhu mitra sdhu Noble (sdhu), friend, noble!
ANaeNa Aai[TavaTSaLYaeNa anena rita-vtsalyena By this love for your subjects
}aElaeKYaSYa AiPa Pa[>auTvMa( trailokyasya api prabhutvam even the lordship of the three worlds
TviYa YauJYaTae tvayi yujyate is worthy for you.
WvMa( oa evam uktv Speaking thus
SaveRzaMa( k==PaaeTaaNaaMa( bNDaNaaiNa sarvem kapotnm bandhanni the bonds of all the pigeons
TaeNa i^aaiNa tena chinnni were cut by him (Hirayaka).
wiTa Pa[baeDYa iti prabodhya [After] thus enlightening [each other]
AaiTaQYaMa( k*= Tva Aaily c tithyam ktv ligya ca and hosting and embracing [each other]
ic}aGa]qv" SaPairvar" citragrva sa-parivra Citragrva with his family (parivra)
YaQaawdeXaaNa( YaYaaE yath-ia-den yayau he went to places he liked to go.
AQa lgauPaTaNak==NaaMaa k==ak==" atha laghupatanaka-nm kka Now the crow (kka) Laghupatanaka
SavRv*taaNTadXas sarva-vttnta-dar being witness to the whole affair
... from the very beginning, when the hunter spread his net

SaAaYaRMa( wdMa( Aah

sa-caryam idam ha said the following with wonder (carya):


















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in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he kka

he kkau

he kk

Ahae ihr<Yak==, agYa" AiSa aho hirayaka, lghya asi O Hirayaka! You are praisworthy.
ATa" AhMa( AiPa ata aham api Therefore, I also
TvYaa Sah MaE}aqMa( k==TauRMa( wC^aiMa tvay saha maitrm kartum icchmi want to make friendship with

ihr<Yak==" ivhSYa Aah hirayaka vihasya ha Hirayaka, [after] laughing, said:

k==a TvYaa Sah MaE}aq k tvay saha maitr What friendship is [possible] with you?
YaTa" yata Because:

>a+Ya>a+ak==Yaae" Pa[qiTaivRPatae" k==ar<a& MaTaMa( ) Xa*GaalaTPaaXabae= _SaaE Ma*Ga" k==ake= Na ri+aTa" ))

bhakya-bhakakayo prtir vipatte kraa matam, glt pa-baddho sau mga kkena rakita

>a+Ya>a+ak==Yaae" Pa[qiTa"

bhakya-bhakakayo prti Love (prti) between the food (bhakya) and its


ivPatae" k==ar<aMa( MaTaMa(

vipatte kraam matam is considered as cause (kraa) of misfortune


Xa*GaalaTa( PaaXab" glt pa-baddha When caught in a trap (pa) because of the jackal (gla)
ASaaE Ma*Ga" k==ake= Na ri+aTa" asau mga kkena rakita the deer (mga) was protected by the crow

















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in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he mga

he mgau

he mg

vaYaSa" Ab]vqTa( k==QaMa( WTad( vyasa abravt, katham etad The crow said: How was this?
ihr<Yak==" k==QaYaiTa hirayaka kathayati Hirayaka tells it:
Level 4

AiSTa MaGaDadeXae asti magadha-dee There is in the country of Magadha

cMPak==vTaq NaaMa Ar<YaaNaq campakavat nma arayn a wilderness

(arayn f.) called


TaSYaaMa( icraTa( tasym cirt In it, for a long time

MahTaa eheNa Ma*Gak==ak==aE iNavSaTa" mahat snehena mga-kkau nivasata lived with great love (sneha)
a deer and a crow.

Sa" c Ma*Ga" sa ca mga And that deer [Citrga (beautiful limbs)]

SvwC^Yaa >a]aMYaNa( PauA" sva-icchay bhrmyan ha-pua-aga while wandering at will,
being happy and fat in body

ke= Naicd( Xa*GaaleNa Avlaeik==Ta" kenacid glena avalokita was seen by some jackal.
TaMa( d*a Xa*Gaal" AicNTaYaTa( tam dv gla acintayat Seeing him, the jackal thought:
A" WTad( Maa&SaMa( SaulilTaMa( a, etad msam sulalitam Ah, this delicious flesh (msa)
k==QaMa( >a+aYaaiMa katham bhakaymi how can I eat it?
>avTau bhavatu It will be,
ivaSaMa( TaavTa( oTPaadYaaiMa vivsam tvat utpdaymi [but] first I will create confidence [in him].
wiTa AalaeCYa oPaSa*TYa iti locya upastya Thinking thus and approaching him
Ab]vqTa( abravt he said:
iMa}a, ku= XalMa( Tae mitra, kualam te O friend! Are you happy?
Ma*Gae<a o==Ma( k==" TvMa( mgea uktam, ka tvam The deer said: Who are you?



Sa" b]UTae sa brte He said:

+aud]buiNaaMaa JaMbuk= " AhMa(

kudrabuddhi-nm jambuka aham I am the jackal Kudrabuddhi


A}a Ar<Yae bNDauhqNa" atra araye bandhu-hna Here in the forest without any friend (bandhu)
Ma*TavTa( Wk==ak==I iNavSaaiMa mtavat ekk nivasmi I live alone like dead.
wdaNaqMa( TvaMa( iMa}aMa( AaSaa idnm tvm mitram sdya Having found you today as friend
PauNa" Jaqvlaek= Ma( Pa[iv" AiSMa puna jva-lokam pravia asmi I have entered again the world of
the living.

Ma*Gae<a o==Ma( WvMa( ASTau mgea uktam, evam astu The deer said: So be it!
TaTa" PaaTa( tata pact Thereafter
TaaE Ma*GaSYa vaSa>aUiMaMa( GaTaaE tau mgasya vsa-bhmim gatau they both went to the place of residence
of the deer.

Ta}a cMPak==v*+aXaa%aYaaMa(

tatra campaka-vka-khym There in a branch (kh) of a Campaka


SaubuiNaaMaa k==ak==" iNavSaiTa subuddhi-nm kka nivasati the crow Subuddhi (good-wit) lives
Ma*GaSYa icriMa}aMa( mgasya cira-mitram as the deers long-time (cira) friend.
TaaE d*a tau dv Seeing both of them
k==ak==" AvdTa( kka avadat the crow said [to the deer]:
Sa%e ic}aa sakhe citrga Friend Citrga!
k==" AYaMa( iTaqYa" ka ayam dvitya Who is this second (dvitya) one?
Ma*Ga" b]UTae mga brte The deer said:
ASMad(Sa:YaMa( wC^Na( asmad-sakhyam icchan Desiring our friendship (sakhya)
AYaMa( JaMbuk= " AaGaTa" ayam jambuka gata this jackal has come.
k==ak==" b]UTae kka brte The crow said:

AjaTaku= lXaqlSYa vaSaae deYaae Na k==SYaicTa( ) MaaJaaRrSYa ih daeze<a hTaae Ga*Da]ae Jarv" ))
a-jta-kula-lasya vso deyo na kasyacit, mrjrasya hi doea hato gdhro jaradgava

k==SYaicd( AjaTaku= lXaqlSYa

kasyacid ajta-kula-lasya To anyone of unknown family (kula)

and character (la)

vaSa" Na deYa" vsa na deya residence (vsa) should not be given.

MaaJaaRrSYa ih daeze<a mrjrasya hi doea By the fault (doa) of the cat (mrjra)
Ga*Da]" Jarv" hTa" gdhra jaradgava hata the vulture (gdhra) Jaradgava (old bull) was killed.



















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in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he vsa

he vsau

he vs

TaaE AahTau" k==QaMa( WTad( tau hatu, katham etad They both (deer and jackal) said: How was that?
k==ak==" k==QaYaiTa kka kathayati The crow says:
Level 5

AiSTa >aaGaqrQaqTaqre asti bhgrath-tre There is on the bank of the Gag (Bhgrath)
Ga*Da]kU= $=NaaiMNa PavRTae gdhraka-nmni parvate on the Gdhra-ka (vulture-peak)



MahaNa( PakR= $=qv*+a" mahn parka-vka a big Parka tree.

TaSYa k==ae$=re tasya koare In its hollow
dEvduivRPaak==aTa( GailTaNa%NaYaNa" daiva-durvipkt galita-nakha-nayana as a bad result of fate with
broken claws and eyesight

JarvNaaMaa Ga*Da]" Pa[iTavSaiTa

jaradgava-nm gdhra prativasati the vulture Jaradgava (old bull)


AQa k*= PaYaa Tad(JaqvNaaYa atha kpay tad-jvanya Now, out of mercy (kp), for his living
Tad(v*+avaiSaNa" Pai+a<a" tad-vka-vsina pakia the birds residing in that tree
SvAaharaTa( sva-hrt from their own food
ik==id( ik==id( o*TYa kicid kicid uddhtya setting apart each a little
TaSMaE ddiTa tasmai dadati they would give it to him.
TaeNa ASaaE JaqviTa tena asau jvati By that he would live
TaezaMa( Xaavk==r+aaMa( c k==raeiTa tem vaka-rakm ca karoti and do the protection of their babies.
AQa k==daicd( dqgaRk= <aRNaaMaa MaaJaaRr" atha kadcid drghakara-nm mrjra Once the cat
Drghakara (long-eared)

Pai+aXaavk==aNa( >a+aiYaTauMa( paki-vakn bhakayitum to eat the baby birds

Ta}a AaGaTa" tatra gata it came there.
TaTa" TaMa( AaYaaNTaMa( d*a tata tam yntam dv Then, seeing him (the cat) approaching
>aYaAaTa" Pai+aXaavkE= " bhaya-rtai paki-vakai by the fear-stricken baby birds [in the tree]
k==aelahl" k*= Ta" kolhala kta a loud sound was made.



Tad( ]uTva JarveNa o==Ma(

tad rutv jaradgavena uktam Hearing this [sound], it was said by


k==" AYaMa( AaYaaiTa ka ayam yti Who is this coming?

Ga*Da]Ma( AvlaeKYa gdhram avalokya Seeing the vulture
dqgaRk= <aR" Sa>aYaMa( Aah drghakara sa-bhayam ha [the cat] Drghakara said [to himself] in fear:
ha, hTa" AiSMa h, hata asmi Alas! I am dead,
YaTa" AYaMa( MaaMa( VYaaPaadiYaZYaiTa yata ayam mm vypdayiyati because he will kill me.
AQava athav However:

TaavYaSYa >aeTaVYa& YaavYaMaNaaGaTaMa( ) AaGaTa& Tau >aYa& vq+Ya Nar" ku= YaaRQaaeicTaMa( ))
tvad bhayasya bhetavya yvad bhayam an-gatam, gata tu bhaya vkya nara kuryd yathocitam

YaavTa( >aYaMa( ANa(AaGaTaMa( yvat bhayam an-gatam As long as a danger (bhaya) has not arrived
TaavTa( >aYaSYa >aeTaVYaMa( tvat bhayasya bhetavyam so long danger should be feared,
>aYaMa( AaGaTaMa( Tau vq+Ya bhayam gatam tu vkya but [after] seeing danger having arrived
Nar" YaQaaoicTaMa( ku= YaaRTa( nara yath-ucitam kuryt a man (nara) should do what is needed.
wiTa AalaeCYa TaMa( oPaSa*TYa iti locya tam upastya Considering thus and approaching him
Ab]vqTa( abravt [the cat] said [to the vulture Jaradgava]:
AaYaR, TvaMa( Ai>avNde rya, tvm abhivande Sir! I praise you.
Ga*Da]" AvdTa( k==" TvMa( gdhra avadat, ka tvam The vulture said: Who are you?
Sa" AvdTa( MaaJaaRr" AhMa( sa avadat, mrjra aham He said: I am a cat.
Ga*Da]" b]UTae dUrMa( APaSar gdhra brte, dram apasara The vulture said: Go far away!
Naae ced( hNTaVYa" AiSa MaYaa no ced hantavya asi may If not, then you are to be killed by me.
MaaJaaRr" AvdTa( mrjra avadat The cat said:
[UYaTaaMa( TaavTa( Mad(vcNaMa( ryatm tvat mad-vacanam First hear my words!
TaTa" Yaid AhMa( vDYa" tata yadi aham vadhya Then, if I am to be killed
Tada hNTaVYa" tad hantavya then I should be killed.
A}a GaaTaqre iNaTYaaYaq atra gag-tre nitya-sny Here at the bank of the Gag bathing daily
iNaraiMazAaXaq b]carq nirmia- brahmacr eating vegetarian diet, as celibate (brahmacr)
caNd]aYa<av]TaMa( AacrNa( cndryaa-vratam caran observing the vow (vrata) of cndryaa
... a difficult fast

AhMa( iTaaiMa aham tihmi I dwell.

YaUYaMa( DaMaRjaNarTaa" yyam dharma-jna-rat You are devoted to the knowledge of dharma (duty,


prema-vivsa-bhmaya and a personification (bhmi place) of love (prema)

and trust

wiTa Pai+a<a" SaveR iti pakia sarve thus all birds

SavRda MaMa AGa]e Pa[STauviNTa sarvad mama agre prastuvanti always declare before me.
ATa" ata Therefore


>avy" ivavYa"v*e>Ya"

bhavadbhya vidy-vaya-vddhebhya from You, senior (vddha) in

knowledge and years

DaMaRMa( [aeTauMa( dharmam rotum to hear about dharma

wh AaGaTa" iha gata I have come here.

















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he deva

he devau

he dev

he vddha

he vddhau

he vddh

(vddha senior; the plural is used here out of respect)

>avNTa" c WTaad*Xaa" DaMaRja"

bhavanta ca etd dharma-j But You are so well-versed in


Yad( MaaMa( AiTaiQaMa( yad mm atithim that me, a guest (atithi)

hNTauMa( oTaa" hantum udyat You are ready to kill.

AravPYauicTa& k==aYaRMaaiTaQYa& Ga*hMaaGaTae ) ^etauMaPYaaGaTae ^aYaa& NaaePaSa&hrTae d]uMa"== =))

arv apy ucita kryam tithya gham gate, chettum apy gate chy nopasaharate druma

AraE AiPa Ga*hMa( AaGaTae arau api gham gate Even when an enemy has come to the house (gha)
oicTaMa( AaiTaQYaMa( k==aYaRMa( ucitam tithyam kryam fitting hospitality (tithya) should be shown.
^etauMa( AiPa AaGaTae chettum api gate even when [someone has] come to cut [him]
d]uMa" ^aYaaMa( Na oPaSa&hrTae druma chym na upasaharate the tree (druma) does not withdraw its
shade (chy).
But when an enemy comes to kill, it is certainly foolish to receive him as a guest.

Ga*Da]" AvdTa( gdhra avadat The vulture said:

MaaJaaRr" ih Maa&Saic" mrjra hi msa-ruci A cat is fond of flesh,
Pai+aXaavk==a" c A}a iNavSaiNTa paki-vak ca atra nivasanti and here are living the babies of the

TaeNa AhMa( WvMa( b]vqiMa tena aham evam bravmi Therefore I would speak so [before].
Tad( ]uTva tad rutv Hearing that [excuse]
MaaJaaRr" >aUiMaMa( SPa*a mrjra bhmim spv the cat, after touching the earth (bhmi)
k==<aa SPa*XaiTa karau spati touches the ears (kara).
... a gesture indicating innocence




















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he deva

he devau

he dev

he kara

he karau

he kar

b]UTae c

brte ca He also said:


SvC^NdvNaJaaTaeNa Xaake= NaaiPa Pa[PaUYaRTae ) ASYa dGDaaedrSYaaQaeR k==" ku= YaaRTPaaTak&= MahTa( ))
svacchanda-vana-jtena kenpi prapryate, asya dagdhodarasyrthe ka kuryt ptaka mahat

SvC^NdvNaJaaTaeNa svacchanda-vana-jtena Grown by itself in the forest (vana)

Xaake= Na AiPa kena api even with [such] vegetable (ka)
Pa[PaUYaRTae prapryate [the belly which] is filled,
ASYa dGDaodrSYa AQaeR asya dagdha-udarasya arthe for this hungry belly (udara)
k==" MahTa( PaaTak==Ma( ku= YaaRTa( ka mahat ptakam kuryt who would do great sin (ptaka)?
WvMa( ivaSYa evam vivsya After thus creating confidence
Sa" MaaJaaRr" Tak==ae$=re iSQaTa" sa mrjra taru-koare sthita that cat would stay in the hollow of
the tree.

TaTa" idNaezu GaC^TSau tata dineu gacchatsu Then, as days (dina) were passing
Pai+aXaavk==aNa( Aa==MYa paki-vakn kramya after overcoming baby-birds
Svk==ae$=rMa( AaNaqYa sva-koaram nya and bringing them to his hollow
ASaaE Pa[TYahMa( %adiTa asau pratyaham khdati he (the cat) eats everyday.
AQa YaezaMa( APaTYaaiNa %aidTaaiNa atha yem apatyni khditni Now, those whose offsprings were

TaE" tai by those [parents]

wTa" TaTa" iJajaSaa SaMaarBDaa

ita tata jijs samrabdh here and there an enquiry (jijs) was


MaaJaaRr" Tad( PairjaYa mrjra tad parijya The cat, on understanding this
k==ae$=raTa( iNa"Sa*TYa bih" PalaiYaTa" koart nistya bahi palyita left the hollow and fled out

PaaTa( Ta}a Tak==ae$=re pact tatra taru-koare Later, there in the hollow of the tree
wTa" TaTa" iNaPaYai" Pai+ai>a" ita tata nirpayadbhi pakibhi by the birds who were searching
here and there

Xaavk==ASQaqiNa Pa]aPTaaiNa

vaka-asthni prptni the bones (asthi) of the babies were found.

ANaNTarMa( anantaram Then

ANaeNa Wv Xaavk==a" :aaidTaa"


anena eva vak khdit by him (the vulture) alone the babies were


wiTa Sav" Pai+ai>a" iNaiTYa iti sarvai pakibhi nicitya after this was concluded by all the birds
Sa" Ga*Da]" VYaaPaaidTa" sa gdhra vypdita that vulture was killed.
Level 4

ATa" AhMa( b]vqiMa ata aham bravmi Therefore I say:

AjaTaku= lXaqlSYa wTYaaid ajta-kula-lasya itydi To one of unknown family and character etc.
[residence should not be given]. (verse above)

wiTa Aak==<YaR iti karya Hearing this

Sa" JaMbuk= " Sak==aePaMa( Aah sa jambuka sa-kopam ha that jackal said with anger:
Ma*GaSYa Pa[QaMadXaRNaidNae mgasya prathama-darana-dine On the day seeing first the deer
>avaNa( AiPa bhavn api You [crow] also
AjaTaku= lXaql" Wv AaSaqTa( ajta-kula-la eva st were of unknown family and character.

AYa& iNaJa" Parae veiTa Ga<aNaa lgauceTaSaaMa( ) odarcirTaaNaa& Tau vSauDaEv ku= $u=Mbk==Ma( ))
aya nija paro veti gaan laghu-cetasm, udra-caritn tu vasudhaiva kuumbakam

AYaMa( iNaJa" Par" va ayam nija para v This is my own (nija) [family], this another
wiTa lgauceTaSaaMa( Ga<aNaa iti laghu-cetasm gaan thus is the calculation of the small-minded,
odarcirTaaNaaMa( Tau udra-caritnm tu but for those of noble (udra) character
vSauDaa Wv ku= $u=Mbk==Ma( vasudh eva kuumbakam the whole world (vasudh) is the family.
YaQaa c AYaMa( Ma*Ga" MaMa bNDau" yath ca ayam mga mama bandhu And as this deer is my friend
TaQaa >avaNa( AiPa tath bhavn api so are You too.
Ma*Ga" Ab]vqTa( mga abravt The deer said:
ik==Ma( ANaeNa otaraetare<a kim anena uttarottarea What is the use of such argumentation?
uttara-uttara reply on reply

Sav" Wk==}a iv[M>aAalaPaE"

sarvai ekatra virambha-lpai With all who together have

confidential (virambha) talks (lpa)

Sau%Ma( ANau>avi" sukham anubhavadbhi and who experience pleasure (sukha)

SQaqYaTaaMa( sthyatm we should stay.
k==ake= Na o==Ma( WvMa( ASTau kkena uktam, evam astu The crow said: So be it!




















with / by
































in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he lpa

he lpau

he lp

AQa Pa[aTa" atha prta Then in the morning

SaveR YaQaaAi>aMaTadeXaMa( GaTaa" sarve yath-abhimata-deam gat they all went to places they liked.
Wk==da iNa>a*TaMa( Xa*Gaal" b]UTae ekad nibhtam gla brte Once secretly the jackal said [to the deer]:
Sa%e Ma*Ga sakhe mga Deer, my friend!
WTaiSMaNa( Wv vNae Wk==deXae etasmin eva vane eka-dee In a place in this very forest
SaSYaPaU<aRMa( +ae}aMa( AiSTa sasya-pram ketram asti is a field (ketra) full of grain (sasya).
AhMa( TvaMa( Ta}a NaqTva aham tvm tatra ntv Leading you there
Tad( dXaRYaaiMa tad daraymi I will show it.
TaQaa k*= Tae SaiTa tath kte sati That being done
Ma*Ga" Pa[TYahMa( Ta}a GaTva mga pratyaham tatra gatv the deer, going there daily
SaSYaMa( %adiTa sasyam khdati would eat the grain.
TaTa" idNak==iTaPaYaeNa tata dina-katipayena Then, some day
+ae}aPaiTaNaa Tad( d*a ketra-patin tad dv after the owner (pati) of the field saw it
PaaXaa" Ta}a YaaeiJaTaa" p tatra yojit he fixed snares there.
ANaNTarMa( PauNa" AaGaTa" anantaram puna gata Thereafter, coming again
Ta}a crNa( PaaXaE" b" tatra caran pai baddha walking there and being caught by the snares
Ma*Ga" AicNTaYaTa( mga acintayat the deer thought:
wTa" k==alPaaXaaTa( wv VYaaDaPaaXaaTa( ita kla-pt iva vydha-pt From this hunters net which is
like deaths snare

iMa}aaTa( ANYa" mitrt anya other than a friend

k==" MaaMa( }aaTauMa( SaMaQaR" ka mm trtum samartha who is able to deliver me?
A}a ANTare JaMbuk= " Ta}a AaGaTYa atra antare jambuka tatra gatya Soon the jackal came there
oPaiSQaTa" AicNTaYaTa( upasthita acintayat and standing there he thought:
f==ilTa" TaavTa( phalita tvat Now has fructified
ASMaak==Ma( k==Pa$=Pa[bNDa" asmkam kapaa-prabandha our cunning plot.
YaTa" WTaSYa oTk*= TYaMaaNaSYa yata etasya utktyamnasya Because, of this [deer], being cut in parts
Maa&SaASa*k(= ilaiNa ASQaqiNa msa-ask-liptni-asthni the bones, smeared with flesh and blood
MaYaa AvXYaMa( Pa[aVYaaiNa may avayam prptavyni will certainly be gained by me.


TaaiNa c bahuLYaeNa tni ca bhulyena And they, plentifully

MaMa >aaeJaNaaiNa >aivZYaiNTa mama bhojanni bhaviyanti will be my meals.
Sa" c Ma*Ga" sa ca mga And that deer
TaMa( d*a oaiSaTa" b]UTae tam dv ullsita brte delighted after seeing him (the jackal), said:
Sa%e sakhe Friend!
i^iNDa TaavTa( MaMa bNDaNaMa( chindhi tvat mama bandhanam Cut my bond now!
SaTvrMa( }aaYaSv MaaMa( sa-tvaram tryasva mm Quickly (with haste) save me!
YaTa" yata Because:

AaPaTSau iMa}a& JaaNaqYaad]<ae XaUrMa*<ae XauicMa( ) >aaYaa| +aq<aezu ivtaezu VYaSaNaezu c baNDavaNa( ))
patsu mitra jnyd rae ram e ucim, bhry keu vitteu vyasaneu ca bndhavn

AaPaTSau iMa}aMa( JaaNaqYaaTa(

patsu mitram jnyt In calamities (pad) one can know a [true] friend


r<ae XaUrMa( <ae XauicMa(

rae ram, e ucim in battle a hero (ra), in debt (a) a honest man
... his honesty, when in difficulties

+aq<aezu ivtaezu >aaYaaRMa( keu vitteu bhrym when wealth (vitta) declines a wife
VYaSaNaezu c baNDavaNa( vyasaneu ca bndhavn and in difficulties relatives.
JaMbuk= " Aaha Sa%e jambuka h, sakhe The jackal said: O friend!
aYauiNaiMaRTaa" PaaXaa" snyu-nirmit p The snares (pa) are made of intestines,
Tad( A >aark==vare tad adya bharaka-vre therefore, today (adya) on Sunday
k==QaMa( WTaaNa( dNTaE" SPa*XaaiMa katham etn dantai spmi how can I touch them with the teeth

Yaid ictae Na ANYaQaa MaNYaSae yadi citte na anyath manyase If you do not mind
Tada Pa[>aaTae Yad( TvYaa v==VYaMa( tad prabhte yad tvay vaktavyam then in the morning, what you

Tad( k==TaRVYaMa( wiTa tad kartavyam iti that will be done.

ANaNTarMa( Sa" k==ak==" Pa[daezak==ale anantaram sa kka prado-kle Then the crow in the evening
Ma*GaMa( ANa(AaGaTaMa( AvlaeKYa mgam an-gatam avalokya seeing the deer having not returned
wTa" TaTa" AiNvZYaNa( ita tata anviyan searching here and there
TaQaaivDaMa( TaMa( d*a tath-vidham tam dv [and then] finding him (the deer) in such a state
ovac Sa%e= = uvca, sakhe he (the crow) said: O friend!
ik==Ma( WTad( kim etad What is this?
Ma*Gae<a o==Ma( mgea uktam The deer said:
AvDaqirTaSaud(vaKYaSYa avadhrita-suhd-vkyasya of disrespected (avadhrita) words of a friend
f==lMa( WTad( phalam etad this is the result.
k==ak==" b]UTae iMa}a kka brte, mitra The crow said: O friend!
o==Ma( Wv MaYaa PaUvRMa( uktam eva may prvam I have told it before!




duJaRNaeNa SaMa& Sa:Ya& vEr& caiPa Na k==arYaeTa( ) oZ<aae dhiTa caar" XaqTa" k*= Z<aaYaTae k==rMa( ))
durjanena sama sakhya vaira cpi na krayet, uo dahati cgra ta kyate karam

Sa:YaMa( vErMa( c AiPa sakhyam vairam ca api Friendship (sakhya) and also enmity (vaira)
duJaRNaeNa SaMaMa( Na k==arYaeTa( durjanena samam na krayet should not be done with a wicked person

oZ<a" c Aar" dhiTa ua ca agra dahati [Because] hot (ua) coal burns
XaqTa" k==rMa( k*= Z<aaYaTae ta karam kyate and cold (ta) [coal] blackens the hand.

















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in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he jana

he janau

he jan

AQa Pa[>aaTae atha prabhte Then in the morning

Sa" +ae}aPaiTa" lGau@hSTa" sa ketra-pati lagua-hasta that owner of the field, stick in hand
TaMa( Pa[deXaMa( AaGaC^Na( tam pradeam gacchan coming to that spot
k==ake= Na Avlaeik==Ta" kkena avalokita he was seen by the crow.
TaMa( AvlaeKYa k==ake= Na o==Ma( tam avalokya kkena uktam Seeing him, the crow said:
Sa%e Ma*Ga sakhe mga O friend deer!
TvMa( AaTMaaNaMa( Ma*TavTa( SaNdXYaR tvam tmnam mtavat sandarya Showing yourself as if dead
vaTaeNa odrMa( PaUriYaTva vtena udaram prayitv filling the belly with air (vta)
PaadaNa( STaBDaqk*= TYa iTa pdn stabdhktya tiha stiffening the legs (pda), be still!
AhMa( Tav c+auzq cHCva aham tava caku cacv I will move your eyes
ik==Ma( AiPa ivil%aiMa kim api vilikhmi as if scratching.
Yada AhMa( XaBdMa( k==raeiMa yad aham abdam karomi When I make a sound (abda)
Tada oTQaaYa tad utthya then, getting up
TvMa( SaTvrMa( PalaiYaZYaSae tvam satvaram palyiyase you should quickly flee.
Ma*Ga" TaQaa Wv mga tath eva The deer exactly
k==ak==vcNaeNa iSQaTa" kka-vacanena sthita stayed by the words of the crow.
TaTa" +ae}aPaiTaNaa tata ketra-patin Then by the field-owner
hzRoTfu= laecNaeNa hara-utphulla-locanena with eyes opened by joy (hara)
TaQaaivDa" Ma*Ga" Aalaeik==Ta" tath-vidha mga lokita the deer was seen in that state.
AQa ASaaE atha asau Then he


Aa" SvYaMa( Ma*Ta" AiSa svayam mta asi Ah, you are dead of yourself!
wiTa oa iti uktv After thus saying
Ma*GaMa( bNDaNaaTa( MaaeciYaTva mgam bandhant mocayitv freeing the deer from the snare
PaaXaaNa( Sa&vrqTauMa( SaYaTNa" b>aUv pn savartum sayatna babhva he was bussy to collect the nets.
TaTa" tata Then
ik==YaTa( dUre ANTairTae +ae}aPaTaaE kiyat dre antarite ketra-patau when the field-owner was in some far

Sa" Ma*Ga" k==ak==SYa XaBdMa( [uTva

sa mga kkasya abdam rutv that deer, hearing the sound of the


SaTvrMa( oTQaaYa PalaiYaTa" satvaram utthya palyita quickly getting up, fled.
TaMa( oiXYa tam uddiya Seeing him (the deer)
TaeNa +ae}aPaiTaNaa tena ketra-patin by that field-owner
Pa[k= aePaaTa( i+aeNa prakopt kiptena thrown in anger
lGau@eNa Xa*Gaal" VYaaPaaidTa" laguena gla vypdita by a stick the jackal was killed.
Level 2

ATa" AhMa( b]vqiMa ata aham bravmi Therefore I (the mouse Hirayaka) say:
>a+Ya>a+ak==Yaae" Pa[qiTa" wTYaaid bhakya-bhakakayo prti itydi Love between the food and its
eater, etc. [causes misfortune]. (verse above)

lgauPaTaNak==" b]UTae laghupatanaka brte [The crow] Laghupatanaka said:

[uTaMa( MaYaa SavRMa( rutam may sarvam I have heard all.
TaQaaiPa tathpi Still
MaMa WTaavaNa( Wv SaLPa" mama etvn eva sakalpa my resolution (sakalpa) is so great
Yad( TvYaa Sah SaaEMa( yad tvay saha sauhdyam that friendship with you
AvXYaMa( k==r<aqYaMa( avayam karayam must necessarily be formed.
ANYaQaa ANa(Aahare<a anyath an-hrea Otherwise, by not eating (hra)
Tav air tava dvri at your door (dvr)
AaTMaaNaMa( VYaaPaadiYaZYaaiMa wiTa tmnam vypdayiymi iti I will kill myself.

















with / by
































in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he hra

he hrau

he hr



Tad(vcNaMa( Aak==<YaR tad-vacanam karya Hearing these words

ihr<Yak==" bih" iNa"Sa*TYa Aah hirayaka bahi nistya ha Hirayaka, coming out [from his hole],

AaPYaaiYaTa" AhMa( pyyita aham I am pleased

>avTaaMa( WTaeNa vcNaAMa*TaeNa bhavatm etena vacana-amtena by this your nectarian word.
Tad( >avTau >avTa" Ai>aMaTaMa( Wv tad bhavatu bhavata abhimatam eva Therefore, let your wish be

TaTa" Pa[>a*iTa tata prabhti Beginning from that time

TaYaae" ANYaaeNYaAaharPa[daNaeNa tayo anyonya-hra-pradnena with mutual gifts of their food
ku= XalPa[nE" iv[M>aAalaPaE" c kuala-pranai virambha-lpai ca and with nice questions
(prana) and confidential talks

ik==YaTa( k==al" AiTavTaRTae kiyat kla ativartate some time would pass.
Wk==da lgauPaTaNak==" ihr<Yak==Ma( Aah ekad laghupatanaka hirayakam ha One day, Laghupatanaka
spoke to Hirayaka:

Sa%e sakhe Friend!

vaYaSaSYa wdMa( SQaaNaMa( vyasasya idam sthnam For a crow this place (sthna)
k==Tarl>YaAaharMa( kaatara-labhya-hram is more difficult for getting food.
Tad( WTad( PairTYaJYa tad etad parityajya Therefore, leaving this [place]
SQaaNaANTarMa( GaNTauMa( wC^aiMa sthna-antaram gantum icchmi I want to go to another place.
ihr<Yak==" b]UTae hirayaka brte Hirayaka said:

SQaaNa>a]a Na Xaae>aNTae dNTaa" ke= Xaa Na%a Nara" ) wiTa ivjaYa MaiTaMaaNSvSQaaNa& Na PairTYaJaeTa( ))
sthna-bhra na obhante dant ke nakh nar, iti vijya matimn sva-sthna na parityajet

dNTaa" ke= Xaa" Na%a" Nara"

dant ke nakh nar Teeth (danta), hairs (kea), nails (nakha) and

men (nara)

SQaaNa>a]a" Na Xaae>aNTae

sthna-bhra na obhante when removed from their place (sthna) they do

not shine.

wiTa ivjaYa MaiTaMaaNa( iti vijya matimn A wise man, knowing this
SvSQaaNaMa( Na PairTYaJaeTa( sva-sthnam na parityajet should not leave his own place.
k==ak==" b]UTae iMa}a kka brte, mitra The crow said: Friend!
k==aPauzSYa vcNaMa( WTad( kpuruasya vacanam etad This is the word of a coward.
YaTa" yata Because:

SQaaNaMauTSa*JYa== GaC^iNTa== iSa&ha"== SaTPauza== GaJaa"== )= =Ta}aEv= =iNaDaNa&= =YaaiNTa== k= ak==a"== k= aPauza== Ma*Gaa"== ))
sthnam utsjya gacchanti sih sat-puru gaj, tatraiva nidhana ynti kk kpuru mg

iSa&ha" SaTa(Pauza" GaJaa" sih sat-puru gaj Lions (siha), saints and elephants (gaja)
SQaaNaMa( oTSa*JYa GaC^iNTa sthnam utsjya gacchanti go, after leaving their place (sthna).
k==ak==a" k==aPauza" Ma*Gaa" kk kpuru mg [But] crows (kka), cowards and deer (mga)


Ta}a Wv iNaDaNaMa( YaaiNTa

tatra eva nidhanam ynti meet [rather] death in their place.


















with / by
































in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he gaja

he gajau

he gaj

ihr<Yak==" b]UTae iMa}a hirayaka brte, mitra Hirayaka said: Friend!

Kv GaNTaVYaMa( kva gantavyam Where will you go?

clTYaeke= Na PaadeNa iTaTYaeke= Na buiMaaNa( ) NaaSaMaq+Ya Par& SQaaNa& PaUvRMaaYaTaNa& TYaJaeTa( ))

calaty ekena pdena tihaty ekena buddhimn, nsamkya para sthna prvam yatana tyajet

buiMaaNa( Wke= Na PaadeNa cliTa buddhimn ekena pdena calati The wise man moves with one leg
Wke= Na iTaiTa ekena tihati and stands with one.
ParMa( SQaaNaMa( ASaMaq+Ya param sthnam a-samkya Without examining the next place
PaUvRMa( AaYaTaNaMa( Na TYaJaeTa( prvam yatanam na tyajet the previous place should not be left.
vaYaSa" b]UTae iMa}a vyasa brte, mitra The crow said: Friend!
AiSTa SauiNaiPaTaMa( SQaaNaMa( asti sunirpitam sthnam The place is a well-considered.
AiSTa d<@k==Ar<Yae asti daaka-araye There is in the Daaka forest
k==PaURrGaaErAi>aDaaNaMa( Sar" karpra-gaura-abhidhnam sara a lake known as Karpra-gaura

Ta}a tatra There

icrk==aloPaaiJaRTa" Mae iPa[YaSaud(

cira-kla-uprjita me priya-suhd my long-time-acquired (old)

and dear friend

MaNQarAi>aDaaNa" kU= MaR" manthara-abhidhna krma the tortoise (krma) Manthara

SahJaDaaiMaRk= " Pa[iTavSaiTa sahaja-dhrmika prativasati lives, who is naturally religious.




















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in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he krma

he krmau

he krm

Sa" c >aaeJaNaivXaezE" sa ca bhojana-vieai And he, with varieties of food

MaaMa( Sa&vDaRiYaZYaiTa mm savardhayiyati will nourish me.
ihr<Yak==" Aah hirayaka ha Hirayaka said:
Tad( A}a AvSQaaYa tad atra avasthya Then, [by] staying here
ik==Ma( MaYaa k==TaRVYaMa( kim may kartavyam what is to be done by me?
YaTa" yata Because:

YaiSMaNdeXae Na SaMMaaNaae Na v*itaNaR c baNDav" ) Na c ivaGaMa" k==ita& deXa& PairvJaRYaeTa( ))

yasmin dee na sammno na vttir na ca bndhava, na ca vidy-gama kacit ta dea parivarjayet

YaiSMaNa( deXae Na SaMMaaNa"

yasmin dee na sammna The country (dea) in which there is no respect


Na v*ita" Na c baNDav" na vtti na ca bndhava no livelihood (vtti), no relative (bndhava)

Na c ivaAaGaMa" na ca vidy-gama and no possibility to acquire knowledge (vidy),
TaMa( deXaMa( k==id( PairvJaRYaeTa( tam deam kacid parivarjayet that country one should give up.

DaiNak==" [aei}aYaae raJaa Nadq vESTau PaMa" ) Pa Ya}a Na ivNTae Ta}a vaSa& Na k==arYaeTa( ))
dhanika rotriyo rj nad vaidyas tu pacama, paca yatra na vidyante tatra vsa na krayet

DaiNak==" [aei}aYa" raJaa dhanika rotriya rj A rich man, a brhmaa (rotriya), a king (rjan)
Nadq vE" Tau PaMa" nad vaidya tu pacama a river (nad), and fifth a physician (vaidya)
Ya}a Pa Na ivNTae yatra paca na vidyante where [these] five (paca) do not exist,
Ta}a vaSaMa( Na k==arYaeTa( tatra vsam na krayet there one should not make his residence (vsa).
ATa" MaaMa( AiPa Ta}a NaYa ata mm api tatra naya Therefore, bring me also there!
vaYaSa" AvdTa( WvMa( ASTau vyasa avadat, evam astu The crow said: So be it!
AQa vaYaSa" TaeNa iMa}ae<a Sah atha vyasa tena mitrea saha Then the crow, with his friend
ivic}aAalaPaSau%eNa vicitra-lpa-sukhena with the happiness of various discussions
TaSYa SarSa" SaMaqPaMa( YaYaaE tasya sarasa sampam yayau went to the vicinity of that lake.
TaTa" MaNQar" tata manthara Then Manthara
dUraTa( Wv lgauPaTaNak==Ma( AvlaeKYa drt eva laghupatanakam avalokya seeing Laghupatanaka from

oTQaaYa utthya getting up

YaQaaoicTaMa( AaiTaQYaMa( ivDaaYa yath-ucitam tithyam vidhya and observing a proper reception,
MaUizk==SYa AiPa mikasya api also of the mouse
AiTaiQaSaTk==arMa( ck==ar atithi-satkram cakra he did the reception due to a guest.




5. Sanskrit Chandas
Sanskrit composition may be in the form of prose (gadya) or verse (padya). A regular verse consists of
two lines, and each line of two quarters (pda). E.g.,
line 1
pda 1

line 2
pda 2

pda 3

pda 4

AaTMaMaaTaa Gaurae" PaTNaq b]a<aq raJaPaiTNak==a ) DaeNauDaaR}aq TaQaa Pa*Qvq SaETaa MaaTar" SMa*Taa"== =))
tma-mt guro patn brhma rja-patnik, dhenur dhtr tath pthv saptait mtara smt

AaTMaMaaTaa Gaurae" PaTNaq The own mother (tma-mt), the wife (patn) of the priest (guru)
b]a<aq raJaPaiTNak==a the wife of the teacher (brhmaa), the wife of the king (rjan)
DaeNau" Daa}aq TaQaa Pa*Qvq the cow (dhenu), the nurse (dhtr) and the Earth (pthv)
Sa WTaa" MaaTar" SMa*Taa" these seven (sapta) are considered mothers (mt).
A long verse may be arranged in its two lines ...

AaTMaMaaTaa Gaurae" PaTNaq b]a<aq raJaPaiTNak==a )

DaeNauDaaR}aq TaQaa Pa*Qvq SaETaa MaaTar" SMa*Taa" ))
... or its four pdas:
pda 1

AaTMaMaaTaa Gaurae" PaTNaq

pda 2

b]a<aq raJaPaiTNak==a )

pda 3

DaeNauDaaR}aq TaQaa Pa*Qvq

pda 4

SaETaa MaaTar" SMa*Taa" ))

Pdas are regulated by their meter, which is defined in Chandas (that which covers poetry). The earliest
and most important work on Chandas is the Pigala-chanda-stra by the sage Pigala. The smallest unit
of a language is a letter, called a-kara (that which cannot be further divided). In writing, the smallest
units are ligatures, also called a-kara. In order to distinguish them from single letters, we will call them
syllables. Here we have divided the verse under discussion:

Aa TMa Maa Taa Gau rae" Pa TNaq


gu ro pa


b]a <aq ra Ja Pa iTNa k==a )

br hma




Dae Nau DaaR }aq Ta Qaa Pa* Qvq

Sa E Taa Maa Ta r" SMa* Taa" ))




rdh tr


th p thv


m ta ra sm


A syllable with one time unit (mtr) is called laghu (small, light) and marked with a dot (). A syllable
with two time units (mtr) is called guru (great, heavy) and marked with a line (). A syllable is guru if
it fulfills one of the following two conditions:


the syllable has a long vowel


or a combined vowel


e ai o au



The syllable is followed by


a double consonant




(5) The last syllable of a pda is also optionally guru.

Please check carefully the mtr of every single syllable. The respective rule(s) are on top of each



(2,3) (4) (1,5)

Aa TMa Maa Taa Gau rae" Pa TNaq









(1,4) (1)




(4) (1,5)


DaaR }aq Ta Qaa Pa* Qvq








(1) (1)



<aq ra Ja Pa iTNa k==a )





(1) (1)







E Taa Maa Ta r" SMa* Taa" ))



ta ra sm

The meter of this verse is called anuup, or loka, and has eight syllables in each pda. The fifth syllable
of each pda should be laghu (), the sixth guru (), the seventh guru in the first and third pda, and
laghu in the second and fourth pda. The other syllables are free, either laghu or guru.



The story continues:

TaTa" MaNQar" Aah tata manthara ha Then Manthara said [to Hirayaka]:
>ad] bhadra O friend [mouse]!
AaTMaNa" iNaJaRNavNaAaGaMaNak==ar<aMa( tmana nirjana-vana-gamana-kraam The reason for your
coming to [this] solitary forest

Aa:YaaTauMa( AhRiSa khytum arhasi you should kindly explain.

ihr<Yak==" AvdTa( hirayaka avadat Hirayaka said:
k==QaYaaiMa, [UYaTaaMa( kathaymi, ryatm I will tell it, please listen!
Level 6

AiSTa cMPak==Ai>aDaaNaaYaaMa( NaGaYaaRMa(

asti campaka-abhidhnym nagarym There is in the city

known as Campaka

Pairv]aJak==AvSaQa" parivrjaka-avasatha a hermitage for mendicants.

Ta}a cU@ak==<aR" NaaMa tatra ckara nma In it, with name Ckara (crest-ear)
Pairv]aJak==" Pa[iTavSaiTa parivrjaka prativasati would live a mendicant.
AviXai>a+aaAaSaihTaMa( avaia-bhik-anna-sahitam Containing the remnants of begged food
i>a+aaPaa}aMa( bhik-ptram his begging (bhik) bowl
NaaGadNTake= AvSQaaPYa nga-dantake avasthpya after hanging it on a peg [in the wall]
Sa" SviPaiTa sa svapiti he sleeps [every night].
Tad( AaMa( oTuTYa oTuTYa tad annam utplutya utplutya After jumping again again to that food
AhMa( Pa[TYahMa( >a+aYaaiMa aham pratyaham bhakaymi I eat every day that food.
ANaNTarMa( TaSYa iPa[YaSaud( anantaram tasya priya-suhd Once his dear friend
vq<aak==<aR" NaaMa Pairv]aJak==" vkara nma parivrjaka the mendicant Vkara (lute-ear)
SaMaaYaaTa" samyta arrived.
cU@ak==<aeRNa o==Ma( ckarena uktam Ckara (the first mendicant) said:
PaXYa, AYaMa( MaUizk==" paya, ayam mika See, this mouse (mika)
Paa}aSQaMa( i>a+aaAaMa( oTuTYa ptra-stham bhik-annam utplutya jumping for the begged food in
the pot

Sada >a+aYaiTa

sad bhakayati always eats [it].



















with / by
































in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he mika

he mikau

he mik

NaaGadNTak==Ma( AvlaeKYa nga-dantakam avalokya Seeing the peg [so high in the wall]
vq<aak==<aR" Aah vkara ha Vkara said:
SvLPabl" AiPa svalpa-bala api Although it has very little strength (bala)
k==QaMa( AYaMa( MaUizk==" katham ayam mika how does this mouse
WTaavTa( dUrMa( oTPaTaiTa etvat dram utpatati jump so high?
ke= NaaiPa k==ar<aeNa >aivTaVYaMa( kenpi kraena bhavitavyam By some reason it must be possible.
TaQaa c o==Ma( tath ca uktam As it is also said:

Ak==SMaauvTaq v*& ke= XaeZvak*= ZYa cuMbiTa ) PaiTa& iNadRYaMaaily heTaur}a >aivZYaiTa== =))


pa ti

sm dyu va


rda ya m

v ddha



ke e v

he tu


ya cu mba ti

tra bha vi



ke= Xaezu PaiTaMa( Aak*= ZYa keeu patim kya [After] drawing the husband (pati) by the hair (kea)
iNadRYaMa( Aaily nirdayam ligya and embracing him closely (mercilessly)
Ak==SMaaTa( YauvTaq v*Ma( cuMbiTa akasmt yuvat vddham cumbati why does the young woman kiss
the old man (vddha)?

A}a heTau" >aivZYaiTa atra hetu bhaviyati For this there will be a cause (hetu).
cU@ak==<aR" Pa*C^iTa k==QaMa( WTad( ckara pcchati, katham etad Ckara asks: How is this?
vq<aak==<aR" k==QaYaiTa vkara kathayati Vkara says:
Level 7

AiSTa GaaE@ivzYae asti gaua-viaye There is in the land of Gaua

k==aEXaaMbq NaaMa NaGarq kaumb nma nagar the city of Kaumb.
cNdNadaSaNaaMaa candana-dsa-nm By name Candana-dsa
MahaDaNa" vi<ak(= mah-dhana vaik a greately rich merchant (vaik)
TaSYaaMa( iNavSaiTa tasym nivasati lives in it.
PaiMae vYaiSa vTaRMaaNaeNa pacime vayasi vartamnena [Although] living in his later part of life
k==aMaAiDaiTaceTaSaa kma-adhihita-cetas by the mind governed by lust
DaNadPaaRTa( dhana-darpt and out of pride of wealth
lqlavTaq NaaMa vi<ak(= Pau}aq llvat nma vaik-putr Llvat, the daughter (putr) of a merchant



TaeNa Pair<aqTaa tena parit was married by him.

YaTa" yata Because:

DaNaaXaa JaqivTaaXaa c GauvqR Pa]a<a>a*Taa& Sada ) v*SYa Ta<aq >aaYaaR Pa]a<ae>Yaae= _iPa GarqYaSaq== =))


vi t





ddha sya ta ru bh ry

DaNaAaXaa JaqivTaAaXaa c


a bh t sa d

e bhyo pi



dhana- jvita- ca The desire () for wealth (dhana) and the

desire for life (jvita)

Pa]a<a>a*TaaMa( Sada GauvqR pra-bhtm sad gurv are always important for living beings,
v*SYa Ta<aq >aaYaaR vddhasya taru bhry [but] for an old man (vddha) a young wife
Pa]a<ae>Ya" AiPa GarqYaSaq prebhya api garyas is more important than his life airs (pra).

















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in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he pra

he prau

he pr


NaaePa>aaeu&= Na c TYau&= XaKNaaeiTa ivzYaaNa( Jarq ) AiSQa iNadRXaNa" ev iJaYaa lei! ke= vlMa(= = ))




bho ktu na




tya ktu

a na ve

a kno





y nja

hva y le hi ke



ivzYaaNa( oPa>aaeu= Ma( viayn upabhoktum To enjoy sense objects (viaya)

Jarq Na XaKNaaeiTa jar na aknoti an old person is not able
Na c TYau= Ma( na ca tyaktum nor to renounce [them],
iNadRXaNa" wv nirdaana va-iva just like a dog without teeth
ke= vlMa( AiSQa iJaYaa lei! kevalam asthi jihvay lehi who just licks the bone with the tongue.
AQa Saa lqlavTaq atha s llvat Now that Llvat
YaaEvNadPaaRTa( yauvana-darpt by the pride of youth
AiTak]= aNTaku= lMaYaaRda atikrnta-kula-maryd transgressing family honor
ke= NaaiPa vi<ak(= Pau}ae<a Sah kenpi vaik-putrea saha with some merchants son
ANauraGavTaq b>aUv anurgavat babhva she fell in love.
Wk==da Saa lqlavTaq ekad s llvat Once that Llvat
PaYaRe TaeNa vi<ak(= Pau}ae<a Sah paryake tena vaik-putrea saha on a couch with that merchants son
iv]M>aAalaPaE" Sau:aAaSaqNaa virambha-lpai sukha-sn sitting happily with confidential talks



a-lakita-upasthitam unnoticed present

... coming unexpectedly

TaMa( PaiTaMa( AvlaeKYa tam patim avalokya seeing that her husband
SahSaa oTQaaYa ke= Xaezu Aak*= ZYa sahas utthya keeu kya immediately getting up, drawing him by
the hair

Gaa!Ma( Aaily cuiMbTavTaq gham ligya cumbitavat and tightly embracing him, she kissed him.
TaeNa AvSare<a Jaar" PalaiYaTa" tena avasarea jra palyita By that opportunity the paramour

o==Ma( c

uktam ca It is also said:


oXaNaa ved YaC^aS}a& Ya ved b*hSPaiTa" ) Sv>aaveNaEv TaC^aS}a& S}aqbuaE SauPa]iTaiTaMa(= = ))


da ya cch stra

sva bh ve nai va

ta cch stra







ddhau su pra

ha spa



hi tam

Yad( XaaS}aMa( oXaNaa ved yad stram uan veda The scripture (stra) which ukrcrya knows
Yad( c b*hSPaiTa" ved yad ca bhaspati veda and that which Bhaspati knows,
ukrcrya and Bhaspati are the teachers of higher beings.

Tad( XaaS}aMa( Sv>aaveNa Wv tad stram sva-bhvena eva that scripture is naturally
S}aqbuaE SauPa]iTaiTaMa( str-buddhau supratihitam well-established in the intelligence (buddhi) of
women (str).

Tad( AailNaMa( AvlaeKYa tad liganam avalokya Witnessing that embrace

SaMaqPaviTaRNaq ku= Naq AicNTaYaTa( sampa-vartin kuan acintayat a neighboring bawd thought:
Ak==SMaaTa( akasmt For what reason
wYaMa( WNaMa( oPaGaU!vTaq wiTa iyam enam upaghavat iti does she embrace him?
TaTa" TaYaa ku= NYaa tata tay kuany Then by that bawd
Tad( k==ar<aMa( PairjaYa tad kraam parijya that reason being ascertained
Saa lqlavTaq GauPTaeNa di<@Taa s llvat guptena dait that Llvat was secretly fined.
Level 6

ATa" AhMa( b]vqiMa ata aham bravmi Therefore I say:

Ak==SMaaTa( YauvTaq v*Ma( wTYaaid akasmt yuvat vddham itydi Why does the young woman [kiss]
the old man, etc. (verse above)

MaUizk==bloPaSTaM>aeNa mika-bala-upastambhena Supporting the strength of the mouse

ke= NaaiPa k==ar<aeNa A}a >aivTaVYaMa( kenpi kraena atra bhavitavyam it must be by some reason.
+a<aMa( ivicNTYa kaam vicintya After thinking a moment (kaa)
Pairv]aJake= Na o==Ma( parivrjakena uktam the mendicant said:




















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in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he kaa

he kaau

he ka

k==ar<aMa( c A}a kraam ca atra And the reason for this

DaNabahuLYaMa( Wv Pa[iTa>aaiTa dhana-bhulyam eva pratibhti appears to be abundance of wealth.
TaTa" %iNa}aMa( AadaYa tata khanitram dya Then, taking a shovel
ivvrMa( %iNaTva vivaram khanitv and digging up the hole
icrSaiTaMa( MaMa DaNaMa( cira-sacitam mama dhanam my wealth, collected for a long time
TaeNa Pairv]aJake= Na Ga*hqTaMa( tena parivrjakena ghtam was taken by that mendicant.
TaTa" Pa[>a*iTa tata prabhti From that time
SatvoTSaahrihTa" sattva-utsha-rahita without energy and enthusiasm
iNaJaXai==hqNa" nija-akti-hna [and thus] bereft of my strength
MaNdMa( MaNdMa( oPaSaPaRNa( mandam mandam upasarpan while slowly slowly crowling
cU@ak==<aeRNa Avlaeik==Ta" ckarena avalokita I was seen by Ckara.
TaTa" TaeNa o==Ma( tata tena uktam Then he said:

TaaNaqiNd]Yaa<Yaivk==laiNa Tadev NaaMa Saa buirPa[iTahTaa vcNa& Tadev )

AQaaeRZMa<aa ivrihTa" Pauz" Sa Wv ANYa" +a<aeNa >avTaqiTa ivic}aMaeTaTa( ))















ndri y ya

ddhi ra


a nya ka e na bha va
The verse meter is vasanta-tilak.

va ca na

n ma




ta pu ru






tra me tat

TaaiNa Aivk==laiNa wiNd]Yaai<a tni a-vikalni indriyi Those [same] unimpaired senses (indriya)
Tad( Wv NaaMa tad eva nma that same name (nman)
Saa APa[iTahTaa bui" s a-pratihat buddhi that [same] unimpaired intelligence (buddhi)
Tad( Wv vcNaMa( tad eva vacanam that same speech
Sa" Wv Pauz" sa eva purua that same person (purua)
AQaRoZMa<aa ivrihTa" artha-uma virahita when left by the heat of wealth (artha)
+a<aeNa ANYa" >aviTa kaena anya bhavati becomes different within a moment (kaa)


wiTa WTad( ivic}aMa( iti etad vicitram this is amazing.

WTad( SavRMa( Aak==<YaR etad sarvam karya Hearing all this
MaYaa AalaeicTaMa( may locitam I considered:
MaMa A}a AvSQaaNaMa( mama atra avasthnam My staying here
AYau= Ma( wdaNaqMa( a-yuktam idnm is now improper.
TaQaa c o==Ma( tath ca uktam As it is also said:

MaNaSvq iMa]YaTae k==aMa& k==aPaR<Ya& Na Tau GaC^iTa ) AiPa iNavaR<aMaaYaaiTa NaaNalae YaaiTa XaqTaTaaMa( ))

ma na sv mri ya




k ma

rv a m y

k rpa ya na tu ga ccha








MaNaSvq k==aMaMa( iMa]YaTae manasv kmam mriyate A wise man [rather] dies at will
k==aPaR<YaMa( Na Tau GaC^iTa krpayam na tu gacchati but weakness he does not attain.
iNavaR<aMa( AiPa AaYaaiTa nirvam api yti Although it attains extinction (nirva)
ANal" XaqTaTaaMa( Na YaaiTa anala tatm na yti the fire (anala) does not attain coolness.

















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in / at









he deva

he devau

he dev

he anala

he analau

he anal

wiTa AalaeCYa AiPa iti locya api Even after thus considering
lae>aaTa( PauNa" AiPa lobht puna api again, out of greed
TadqYaMa( AaMa( Ga]hqTauMa( tadyam annam grahtum to take his food
Ga]hMa( Ak==rvMa( graham akaravam I made up my mind (graham).
TaTa" MaNdMa( MaNdMa( oPaSaPaRNa( tata mandam mandam upasarpan Then, while slowly approaching
TaeNa vq<aak==<aeRNa tena vkarena by that Vkara
JaJaRrv&Xa%<@eNa Taai@Ta" jarjara-vaa-khaena tita being beaten with a piece of broken

AhMa( AicNTaYaMa( aham acintayam I thought:

luuBDa" ih ASaNTau" lubdha hi a-santua One who is greedy and discontented
iNaYaTaMa( AaTMad]aehq >aviTa niyatam tma-droh bhavati is ever harming himself.




SavaR" SaMPataYaSTaSYa SaNTau& YaSYa MaaNaSaMa( ) oPaaNaU!PaadSYa NaNau cMaaRv*Taev >aU" ))

sa rv sa mpa




ya sta sya

sa ntu a


sya m na






ha p da sya


va bh

YaSYa MaaNaSaMa( SaNTauMa( yasya mnasam santuam One who has mental satisfaction
TaSYa SavaR" SaMPataYa" tasya sarv sampattaya he has all opulences (sampatti).
oPaaNad(GaU!PaadSYa upnad-gha-pdasya For one whose feet (pda) are covered (gha) with shoes
Na Nau cMaRAav*Tawv >aU" na nu carma-vta-iva bh is not the world as if covered with leather

wiTa AalaeCYa iti locya Considering thus

AhMa( iNaJaRNavNaMa( AaGaTa" aham nirjana-vanam gata I came to a lonely forest.
Level 2

TaTa" ASMad(Pau<YaodYaaTa(

tata asmad-puya-udayt Then by the manifestation of my merit (good


ANaeNa iMa}ae<a anena mitrea by this friend (the crow)

AhMa( SNaehANauv*tYaa ANauGa*hqTa" aham sneha-anuvtty

anughta I was favored with friendly


ADauNaa c adhun ca And today

Pau<YaParMParYaa >avTa(Aa]Ya" puya-paramparay bhavat-raya by a continuation of merit at your

SvGaR" Wv MaYaa Pa]aPTa"

svarga eva may prpta I have obtained the very heaven (svarga).


















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he deva

he devau

he dev

he svarga

he svargau

he svarg

MaNQar" ovac manthara uvca The tortoise Manthara said:

YauZMaai>a" AiTaSaYa" k*= Ta" yumbhi atisacaya kta You have done over-collection.
Xa*<au u Listen!

oPaaiJaRTaaNaa& ivtaaNaa& TYaaGa Wv ih r+a<aMa( ) Ta@aGaaedrSa&SQaaNaa& Parqvah wvaM>aSaaMa( ))

p rji t n

ta go da




sa sth n

ty ga


va hi ra

v ha



v mbha sm


The fifth syllable of the first pda should actually be short (laghu ) according to the
rule of this verse meter anuup. Such Exceptions are called ra license of a sage.

oPaaiJaRTaaNaaMa( ivtaaNaaMa( uprjitnm vittnm For earned riches (vitta)

TYaaGa" Wv ih r+a<aMa( tyga eva hi rakaam only renunciation (charity) means preservation,
... i.e., keeping it in good condition

Ta@aGaodrSa&SQaaNaaMa( AM>aSaaMa(

taga-udara-sasthnm ambhasm for waters (ambhas) stored in

the belly (udara) of a tank

Parqvah" wv

parvha iva like an outlet.


k==TaRVYa" SaYaae iNaTYa& Na Tau k==aYaaeR= _iTaSaYa" ) AiTaSaYaXaqlae= _Ya& DaNauza JaMbuk= ae hTa" ))

ka rta vya


ca yo ni tya





lo ya



k ryo

dha nu



sa ca ya

mbu ko



SaYa" iNaTYaMa( k==TaRVYa" sacaya nityam kartavya Accumulation (sacaya) should always be done
AiTaSaYa" Na Tau k==aYaR" atisacaya na tu krya but overaccumulation (ati.sacaya) one should not

AiTaSaYaXaql" AYaMa( JaMbuk= "

atisacaya-la ayam jambuka The overaccumulating jackal


DaNauza hTa" dhanu hata was killed by the bow (dhanus).

TaaE AahTau" k==QaMa( WTad( tau hatu, katham etad The two (crow and mouse) said: How was this?
MaNQar" k==QaYaiTa manthara kathayati Manthara says:
Level 8

AaSaqTa( k==LYaa<ak==$=k= vaSTaVYa"

st kalya-kaaka-vstavya There was in the country of

Kalya-kaaka (ring of fortune)

>aErv" NaaMa VYaaDa" bhairava nma vydha a hunter named Bhairava.

Sa" c Wk==da Maa&SaluBDa" sa ca ekad msa-lubdha He once, being greedy for meat
DaNau" AadaYa Ma*GaMa( AiNvZYaNa( dhanu dya mgam anviyan taking the bow and following a deer
ivNDYaaA$=vqMaDYaMa( GaTa" vindhy-aav-madhyam gata went inside the forest of the Vindhy

Ta}a TaeNa Wk==" Ma*Ga" VYaaPaaidTa" tatra tena eka mga vypdita There by him one deer was killed.
TaTa" Ma*GaMa( AadaYa tata mgam dya Then, taking up the deer
GaC^Taa TaeNa gacchat tena by him, while walking
gaaerAak*= iTa" XaUk= r" d*" ghora-kti kara da a fierce boar was seen.
TaTa" Ma*GaMa( >aUMaaE iNaDaaYa tata mgam bhmau nidhya Then, putting the deer down on the earth
TaeNa XaUk= r" Xare<a hTa" tena kara area hata the boar was hit by him with an arrow.
XaUk= re<a AiPa AaGaTYa karea api gatya [But] approached by the boar (kara) also
Sa" VYaaDa" MauZk==deXae hTa" sa vydha muka-dee hata that hunter, hit in the place of the groin
PaPaaTa papta he died (fell).




















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he deva

he devau

he dev

he kara

he karau

he kar

AQa TaYaae" PaadAaSf==alNaeNa atha tayo pda-sphlanena Now, by their both foot-trampling
Wk==" SaPaR" AiPa Ma*Ta" eka sarpa api mta one snake (sarpa) also died.
A}a ANTare atra antare Thereafter
dqgaRrav" NaaMa JaMbuk= " drgharva nma jambuka a jackal named Drgha-rva (long-howl)
Pair>a]MaNa( AaharAQaqR paribhraman hra-arth roaming and searching for food
TaaNa( Ma*TaaNa( Ma*GaVYaaDaSaPaRXaUk= raNa( tn mtn mga-vydha-sarpa-karn those dead deer, hunter,
snake and boar

APaXYaTa( apayat he saw.

AalaeKYa AicNTaYaTa( c lokya acintayat ca Seeing them he thought:
Ahae >aaGYaMa( aho bhgyam What good fortune!
A MahTa(>aaeJYaMa( adya mahat-bhojyam Today a great feast
Mae SaMauPaiSQaTaMa( me samupasthitam has come to me.
Pa[QaMabu>au+aaYaaMa( prathama-bubhukym In the first hunger
wdMa( iNa"Svadu aYaubNDaNaMa( idam nisvdu snyu-bandhanam this tasteless sinew-string (bandhana)
k==aed<@lGanMa( %adaiMa kodaa-lagnam khdmi which is fixed to the bow I eat.
... why should I leave it for someone else to eat?

wiTa oa TaQaa Ak==raeTa( iti uktv tath akarot Speaking thus, he did so.
TaTa" i^ae aYaubNDaNae tata, chinne snyu-bandhane Then, when the sinew-string was cut
d]uTaMa( oTPaiTaTaeNa DaNauza drutam utpatitena dhanu by the bow who was quickly jumping up
id iNai>aRa" hdi nirbhinna being pierced in the heart (hd)
Sa" dqgaRrav" PaTvMa( GaTa" sa drgharva pacatvam gata that jackal Drgharava attained death.
pacatva the fivefold state, when the body is dissolved into the five elements
Level 2

ATa" AhMa( b]vqiMa ata aham bravmi Therefore I say:

k==TaRVYa" SaYa" iNaTYaMa( wTYaaid kartavya sacaya nityam itydi Accumulation (sacaya) should
always be done, etc. [but no overaccumulation].


sakhe O friend [mouse]!


dXaaivXaeze XaaiNTa" k==r<aqYaa

da-viee nti karay In the present situation calmness (nti) is



yata Because:

Sau%MaaPaiTaTa& SaeVYa& du"%MaaPaiTaTa& TaQaa ) c==vTPairvTaRNTae du"%aiNa c Sau%aiNa c ))

su kha m


ca kra


ti ta






tpa ri

AaPaiTaTaMa( Sau%Ma( SaeVYaMa(

du kha m pa

du kh



ta ta th

ca su kh ni


patitam sukham sevyam Happiness (sukha) which comes should be


AaPaiTaTaMa( du"%Ma( TaQaa, patitam dukham tath as also misery (dukha) which comes.
du"%aiNa c Sau%aiNa c dukhni ca sukhni ca Miseries and happiness
c==vTa( PairvTaRNTae cakravat parivartante revolve like a wheel (cakra).
AParMa( c SaTaaMa( rhSYaMa( aparam ca satm rahasyam And another secret (rahasya) of the saints
Xa*<au, iMa}a u, mitra hear, my friend!
Verses for renunciation:

JaNaYaNTYaJaRNae du"%& TaaPaYaiNTa ivPaitazu ) MaaehYaiNTa c SaMPataaE k==QaMaQaaR" Sau%avha" ))


na ya ntya rja ne

mo ha ya











sa mpa


ka tha ma rth su kh va h

AJaRNae du"%Ma( JaNaYaiNTa arjane dukham janayanti In earning they cause misery (dukha)
ivPaitazu TaaPaYaiNTa vipattiu tpayanti in adversities they give pain
SaMPataaE c MaaehYaiNTa sampattau ca mohayanti and in prosperity they bewilder
k==QaMa( AQaaR" Sau%Aavha" katham arth sukha-vah how do riches (artha) bring happiness

DaMaaRQa| YaSYa ivtaeha vr& TaSYa iNarqhTaa ) Pa[+aalNaai PaSYa dUradSPaXaRNa& vrMa( ))

dha rm rtha ya






n ddhi pa ka sya

YaSYa ivtawRha DaMaRAQaRMa(

va ra ta sya



da spa ra na va ram

yasya vitta-h dharma-artham Whose desire for wealth (vitta) is for the

purpose (artha) of virtue (dharma)

... and if someone says he needs money to later do good

TaSYa iNarqhTaa vrMa( tasya nirhat varam for him desirelessness [for wealth] is better (vara).
PaSYa Pa[+aalNaaTa( ih pakasya praklant hi Than washing off the mud (paka)
ASPaXaRNaMa( dUraTa( vrMa( a-sparanam drt varam not touching [it] is far better.




Yadev ih vaH^eTa TaTaae vaH^a Pa[vTaRTae ) Pa[a WvaQaRTa" Saae= _QaaeR YaTaae vaH^a iNavTaRTae ))


dya de va






ta to v ch pra va rta te



v rtha ta

ya to v ch


va rta te

Yad( Yad( Wv ih vaH^eTa yad yad eva hi vcheta Whatever [object] one may desire
TaTa" vaH^a Pa[vTaRTae tata vch pravartate from that [achievement] the desire (vch) proceeds.
... even after obtaining a desired object, the same desire increases, i.e., the desire is
actually not fulfilled, the object not obtained, like a mirage in the desert which only
increases our thirst

YaTa" vaH^a iNavTaRTae yata vch nivartate That from which our desire turns back
Sa" AQaRTa" Pa[a" AQaR" sa arthata prpta artha that is an actually obtained object (artha).
wiTa [uTva lgauPaTaNak==" b]UTae iti rutv laghupatanaka brte Hearing this, [the crow] Laghupatanaka

DaNYa" AiSa MaNQar dhanya asi manthara Manthara, you are blessed!
SavRQaa Aa[Ya<aqYa" AiSa sarvath rayaya asi You are in all respect worth of taking shelter.
WvMa( Tae evam te Thus they
SvwC^aAaharivharMa( ku= vaR<aa" sva-icch-hra-vihram kurv while enjoying their favorite

SaNTaua" Sau%Ma( iNavSaiNTa SMa

santu sukham nivasanti sma being satisfied, they lived happily.

Level 1

AQa raJaPau}aE" SaAaNaNdMa( o==Ma(

atha rja-putrai sa-nandam uktam Now the princes spoke with


SaveR [uTavNTa" Saui%Na" vYaMa( sarve rutavanta sukhina vayam Hearing it, we are all happy.
iSaMa( Na" SaMaqihTaMa( siddham na samhitam Our (na) aspiration has been fulfilled.

The Sage and The Mouse

MauiNaMaUizk==k==Qaa muni-mika-kath The story of the muni and the mouse.

PauraTaNak==ale TaPaaevNae purtana-kle tapovane In old times in the Tapovana [forest]
k==id( MauiNa" AaSaqTa( kacid muni st some muni was living.
TaSYa NaaMa MahaTaPaa" tasya nma mahtap His name was Mahtap.
k==daicd( Sa" MauiNa" kadcid sa muni Once this muni
Aa[MaSYa SaMaqPae ramasya sampe near (sampa) the rama
k==ak==Mau%aTa( Pair>a]Ma( kka-mukht paribhraam from a crows beak (kka-mukha) fallen
Wk==Ma( MaUizk==Xaavk==Ma( d*vaNa( ekam mika-vakam davn a baby (vaka) mouse he saw.
k==<aYaa TaMa( MaUizk==Xaavk==Ma( karuay tam mika-vakam Mercifully that baby mouse
Aa[MaMa( AaNaqTavaNa( ramam ntavn to the rama he brought.
Pa[iTaidNaMa( DaaNYak==<aaNa( dtva pratidinam dhnya-kan dattv Giving every day pieces of grain
TaMa( Pa[qTYaa PaaeizTavaNa( tam prty poitavn he nourished it with affection.
ALPaeNa Wv k==aleNa alpena eva klena Within a very short time
MaUizk==" SaMYak(= Pa[v*" mika samyak pravddha the mouse was fully grown up.
AQa k==daicd( k==Na MaaJaaRl" atha kadcid kacana mrjla Then once some cat
mrjla, same as mrjr cat

Ta}a AaGaTavaNa( tatra gatavn came there.

MaaJaaRlaTa( >aqTa" Mauizk==" mrjlt bhta mika The mouse, fearful of the cat
MauNae" SaMaqPaMa( AaGaTYa o==vaNa( mune sampam gatya uktavn coming near the muni, said:
PaUJYa== = Wz" MaaJaaRl" pjya, ea mrjla Sir! this cat
MaaMa( :aaidTauMa( AaGaC^iTa mm khditum gacchati comes to eat me.
k*= PaYaa MaaJaaRlaTa( kpay mrjlt Please, from the cat
MaaMa( r+aTau >avaNa( wiTa mm rakatu bhavn iti You must protect me!
MauiNa" >aqiTa" Maa ASTau muni, bhti m astu The muni [said]: Do not fear!
>avNTaMa( AiPa bhavantam api You also
AhMa( MaaJaaRlMa( k==raeiMa aham mrjlam karomi I make a cat.
wiTa oKTVaa iti uktv Saying this
SvTaPa"Pa[>aave<a sva-tapa-prabhvea by the power of his austerities (tapa)
TaMa( MaUizk==Ma( MaaJaaRlMa( k*= TavaNa( tam mikam mrjlam ktavn that mouse he made a cat.
PauNa" k==daicd( k==Na XauNak==" puna kadcid kacana unaka Again once some dog
Ta}a AaGaTavaNa( tatra gatavn came there.
XauNak==aTa( >aqTa" MaaJaaRl" unakt bhta mrjla The cat, fearful of the dog (unaka)
MauNae" SaMaqPaMa( AaGaTYa o==vaNa( mune sampam gatya uktavn coming close to the muni, said:
PaUJYa, PaXYaTau WTaMa( duXauNak==Ma( pjya payatu etam dua-unakam Sir! See this rascal dog!
Sa" MaaMa( :aaidTauMa( wC^iTa sa mm khditum icchati He wants to eat me.
k*= PaYaa XauNak==aTa( kpay unakt Please, from the dog




MaaMa( r+aTau >avaNa( wiTa mm rakatu bhavn iti You must protect me.
MauiNa" icNTaa Maa ASTau muni, cint m astu The muni [said] : Do not worry!
>avNTaMa( AiPa bhavantam api You also
AhMa( XauNak==Ma( k==raeiMa aham unakam karomi I make a dog.
wiTa oKTVaa iti uktv Speaking thus
TaMa( MaaJaaRlMa( XauNak==Ma( k*= TavaNa( tam mrjlam unakam ktavn he made that cat a dog.
PauNa" k==daicd( puna kadcid Again, once
k==Na VYaaga[" Ta}a AaGaTavaNa( kacana vyghra tatra gatavn some tiger (vyghra) came there.
VYaaga[aTa( >aqTa" XauNak==" vyghrt bhta unaka The dog, afraid of the tiger
PauNa" AiPa MauNae" SaMaqPaMa( Wv puna api mune sampam eva again near to the muni
Xar<aMa( GaTavaNa( araam gatavn he went for shelter.
MauiNaMa( o==vaNa( c PaUJYa munim uktavn ca, pjya And he said to the muni: Sir!
WTaSMaaTa( >aYaraTa( VYaaga[aTa( etasmt bhayakart vyghrt From this fearsome tiger
MaaMa( r+aTau >avaNa( wiTa mm rakatu bhavn iti you must protect me.
MauiNa" YaQaaPaUvRMa( muni yath-prvam The muni [said] as before:
icNTaaMa( Maa k==raeTau >avaNa( cintm m karotu bhavn You should not worry.
>avNTaMa( AiPa bhavantam api You also
AhMa( VYaaga[Ma( k==raeiMa aham vyghram karomi I make a tiger.
wiTa oKTva iti uktv Speaking thus
TaMa( XauNak==Ma( VYaaga[Ma( k*= TavaNa( tam unakam vyghram ktavn he made that dog a tiger.
ANaNTarMa( c Sa" VYaaga[" anantaram ca sa vyghra And then that tiger
iNa>aRYaeNa Aa[Mae SavR}a A$=iTa nirbhayena rame sarvatra aati roams fearlessly everywhere in the

MauiNa" Tau muni tu But the muni

TaMa( VYaaga[Ma( tam vyghram that tiger
MaUizk==Ma( wv PaXYaiTa SMa mikam iva payati sma saw like a mouse.
TaSMaaTa( VYaaga[aTa( tasmt vyghrt From that tiger
TaSYa Tau ik==id( AiPa >aYaMa( Na AaSaqTa( Wv tasya tu kicid api bhayam na st eva his fear was not
the least.

Aa[Mae ANYae AiPa JaNaa" rame anye api jan In the rama also other people
vaSaMa( ku= vRiNTa SMa vsam kurvanti sma were living (made a home).
TaMa( VYaaga[Ma( d*a tam vyghram dv Seeing that tiger,
Tae SaveR vdiNTa SMa te sarve vadanti sma they all used to say:
Wz" VYaaga[" vaSTaivk==" VYaaga[" Na ea vyghra vstavika vyghra na This

tiger is actually

(vstavika) not a tiger.

Sa" Tau k==Na MaUizk==" sa tu kacana mika He is just a mouse.

Wz" MauiNa" TaPa"Pa[>aave<a ea muni tapa-prabhvea This muni, by the power of austerities


TaMa( MaUizk==Ma( VYaaga[Ma( k*= TavaNa(= = AiSTa tam mikam vyghram ktavn asti made that mouse a tiger.
ATa" Wz" ata ea Therefore, this is
VYaaga[Pa" MaUizk==" Wv wiTa vyghra-rpa mika eva iti just a mouse in the shape of a tiger.
Tad( [uTva VYaaga[" iciNTaTavaNa( tad rutv vyghra cintitavn Hearing this, the tiger thought:
YaavTa(PaYaRNTaMa( Wz" MauiNa" JaqviTa yvat-paryantam ea muni jvati As long as this muni lives
TaavTa(PaYaRNTaMa( tvat-paryantam so long
JaNaa" WvMa( Wv vdiNTa jan evam eva vadanti people will speak in this way.
Tae MaaMa( MaUizk==Ma( Wv MaNYaNTae te mm mikam eva manyante They consider me just a mouse
Na Tau VYaaga[Ma( na tu vyghram and not a tiger.
Wza APak==IiTaR" dUrqk==r<aqYaa ced( e apakrti dr-karay ced If this infamy is to be removed
MaYaa MauiNa" Maar<aqYa" Wv may muni mraya eva the muni has to be killed by me.
ATa" TaMa( wdaNaqMa( Wv MaarYaaiMa ata tam idnm eva mraymi Therefore, right now I kill him.
wiTa icNTaiYaTva iti cintayitv Thinking thus
MauNae" SaMaqPaMa( GaTavaNa( mune sampam gatavn he went to the muni.
ParNTau MauiNa" parantu muni But the muni
VYaaga[SYa duralaecNaMa( jaTavaNa( vyghrasya durlocanam jtavn understood the evil intention (durlocana) of the tiger.

k==aePaeNa VYaaga[Ma( d*a kopena vyghram dv Looking with anger (kopa) at the tiger
PauNa" MaUizk==" >av wiTa oKTva puna mika bhava iti uktv saying, Again become a mouse
TaMa( VYaaga[Ma( PauNa" AiPa MaUizk==Ma( k*= TavaNa( tam vyghram puna api mikam ktavn he made that
tiger again a mouse.

MaUizk==" lYaa mika lajjay The mouse out of shame (lajj)

TaTa" PalaYaNaMa( k*= TavaNa( tata palyanam ktavn ran away from there.



Hinduism Dharma

Daar<aaMaRiMaTYaahuDaRMaeR<a ivDa*Taa" Pa]Jaa" ) Ya" SYaaar<aSa&Yau= " Sa DaMaR wiTa iNaYa" ))

dhrad dharmam ity hur dharmea vidht praj, ya syd dhraa-sayukta sa dharma iti nicaya

Daar<aaTa( Because it maintains (dhraa)

DaMaRMa( wiTa Aahu" they (sages) called it dharma.
dharma that which maintains

DaMaeR<a Pa]Jaa" ivDa*Taa" By dharma the people (praj) are maintained.

Ya" Daar<aSa&Yau= " SYaaTa( Whatever is connected with maintainance (dhraa)
Sa" DaMaR" that is called dharma
wiTa iNaYa" this is the conclusion.

PauzSv>aavivihTaaNYaQaav<a| YaQaa[MaMa( ) vEraGYaraGaaePaaiDa>YaaMaaMNaaTaae>aYal+a<aaNa( ))

purua-sva-bhva-vihitn yath-vara yathramam, vairgya-rgopdhibhym mntobhaya-lakan

daNaDaMaaRNraJaDaMaaRNMaae+aDaMaaRiNv>aaGaXa" ) qDaMaaRN>aGavMaaRNSaMaaSaVYaaSaYaaeGaTa" ))
dna-dharmn rja-dharmn moka-dharmn vibhgaa, str-dharmn bhagavad-dharmn samsa-vysayogata

DaMaaRQaRk= aMaMaae+aa& SahaePaaYaaNYaQaa MauNae ) NaaNaa:YaaNaeiTahaSaezu v<aRYaaMaaSa TatvivTa( ))

dharmrtha-kma-mok ca sahopyn yath mune nnkhynetihseu varaymsa tattva-vit
The first pda of the first verse has an extra (short) syllable.

MauNae O sage (muni)!

NaaNaaAa:YaaNawiTahaSaezu In many narrations (khyna) and histories (itihsa)
Tatvivd( the knower of the principles (tattva) [Bhma]
YaQaa v<aRYaaMaaSa duly (yath for yathvat) described
YaQaav<aRMa( YaQaaAa[MaMa( according to social class (vara) and stage of life (rama)
PauzSv>aavivihTaaNa( and according to the character (sva-bhva) of a man (purua)
vEraGYaraGaoPaaiDa>YaaMa( AaMNaaTao>aYal+a<aaNa( characterizing both in terms of what is mentioned
(mnta) as detachment (vairgya, nivtti) and attachment (rga, pravtti)

iv>aaGaXa" with their [sub-] divisions

SaMaaSaVYaaSaYaaeGaTa" in summary (samsa) and explicit (vysa)
SahoPaaYaaNa( together with their means (upya):
... the following Bhma described

daNaDaMaaRNa( raJaDaMaaRNa( Duties (dharma) for charity (dna), duties for kings (rjan)
Maae+aDaMaaRNa( duties for liberation (moka)
qDaMaaRNa( >aGavTa(DaMaaRNa( duties for women (str), duties towards the Lord (Bhagavn)
DaMaRAQaRk==aMaMaae+aaNa( c and also dharma-artha-kma-moka.



Sa Wv DaMaR" Saae= _DaMaaeR deXak==ale Pa]iTaiTa" )

sa eva dharma so dharmo dea-kle pratihita

Sa" Wv DaMaR" Sa" ADaMaR" That this is dharma, and this is not dharma (a-dharma)
deXak==ale Pa]iTaiTa" is established according to (in) place (dea) and time (kla).

SaveR DaMaaR" k*= Tae JaaTaa" SaveR Naa" k==laE YauGae ) caTauvR<YaRSaMaacar& ik==iTSaaDaar<a& vd ))
sarve dharm kte jt sarve na kalau yuge, cturvarya-samcra kicit sdhraa vada

... ANYae k*= TaYauGae DaMaaRS}aeTaaYaa& aPare Pare ) ANYae k==ilYauGae Na<aa& YauGaPaaNauSaarTa" ))
anye kta-yuge dharms trety dvpare pare, anye kali-yuge n yuga-rpnusrata

TaPa" Par& k*= TaYauGae }aeTaaYaa& jaNaMauCYaTae ) aPare YajiMaTYaUcudaRNaMaek&= k==laE YauGae ))
tapa para kta-yuge trety jnam ucyate, dvpare yajam ity cur dnam eka kalau yuge

SaveR DaMaaR" k*= Tae JaaTaa" [Parara asks:] All the laws (dharma) made in satya-yuga (kta)
SaveR k==laE YauGae Naa" all are lost in kali-yuga.
... the laws of a former pious age are not valid in this age of quarrel


[Therefore,] on the conduct (samcra) in the fourfold social system


ik==id( SaaDaar<aMa( vd please speak something general (sdhraa). ...

YauGaPaANauSaarTa" [Vysadeva answers:] According to the symptoms (rpa form) of the age (yuga)
k*= TaYauGae Na<aaMa( ANYae DaMaaR" in satya-yuga (kta-yuga) there are other duties (dharma) for men (n)
The word nara can be declined nm or nm. For the sake of the meter, here nm
is used.

}aeTaaYaaMa( aPare Pare other [duties] in tret-yuga and dvpara-yuga

k==ilYauGae ANYae and others in kali-yuga.
k*= TaYauGae TaPa" ParMa( oCYaTae In satya-yuga penance (tapas) is said to be the highest [dharma]
}aeTaaYaaMa( jaNaMa( in tret-yuga knowledge (jna)
aPare YajMa( wiTa Ocu" in dvpara-yuga they (sages) say it is sacrifice (yaja)
k==laE YauGae daNaMa( Wk==Ma( and in kali-yuga charity (dna) alone.

deXa>ae Pa]vaSae va VYaaiDazu VYaSaNaeZviPa ) r+aedev Svdehaid PaaMa| SaMaacreTa( ))

dea-bhage pravse v vydhiu vyasanev api, raked eva sva-dehdi pacd dharma samcaret

...== AaPaTk==ale= =Tau= =SaMPa]aPTae= =XaaEcacar&= =Na== icNTaYaeTa(= =)= =SvYa&= =SaMaureTPaaTSvSQaae= =DaMa|= =SaMaacreTa( ))
pat-kle tu samprpte auccra na cintayet, svaya samuddharet pact svastho dharma samcaret

deXa>ae Pa]vaSae va When the country (dea) is ruined (bhaga) or when living abroad (pravsa)
VYaaiDazu VYaSaNaezu AiPa in diseases (vydhi) and also calamities (vyasana)
SvdehAaid r+aeTa( Wv one should just protect ones body (sva-deha) and other [belongings].
PaaTa( DaMaRMa( SaMaacreTa( Later one can perform dharma. ...
AaPad(k==ale Tau SaMPa]aPTae But when a time (kla) of distress (pad) has come



XaaEcAacarMa( Na icNTaYaeTa( one need not consider purity (auca) and good manner (cra).
SvYaMa( SaMaureTa( One should lift up himself
PaaTa( SvSQa" and later, when healthy
DaMaRMa( SaMaacreTa( one can perform dharma.

JaqivTaaTYaYaMaaPaaae Yaae= _aMaita TaTaSTaTa" ) Aak==aXaiMav PaeNa Na Sa PaaPaeNa ilPYaTae ))

jvittyayam panno yo nnam atti tatas tata, kam iva pakena na sa ppena lipyate

JaqivTaATYaYaMa( AaPaa"

When a risk of life (jvita) has come

atyaya passing, danger

Ya" TaTa" TaTa" AaMa( Aita

one who eats food (anna) from anywhere

... just to survive

Sa" PaaPaeNa Na ilPYaTae he is not tainted by sin (ppa),

Aak==aXaMa( wv PaeNa as the space (ka) [is not tainted] by mud (paka).

YaQaa k==SMaaviTa >aUMaaE Paa&SauivRlaeilTa" ) TaQaEveh >aveMaR" SaU+Ma" SaU+MaTarSTaQaa ))

yath hy akasmd bhavati bhmau psur vilolita, tathaiveha bhaved dharma skma skmataras tath

YaQaa ih Ak==SMaaTa( As for some reason

>aUMaaE ivlaeilTa" Paa&Sau" sand (psu), which is tossed (vilolita) on earth (bhmi),
... becomes pounded

TaQaa Wv wh

in the same way, here

... in our discussion

DaMaR" SaU+Ma" TaQaa SaU+MaTar" >aveTa(

dharma becomes fine (skma) and finer.


k==ar<aaMaRMaiNvC^ea laek= cirTa& creTa( )

krad dharmam anvicchen na loka-carita caret

k==ar<aaTa( [Guided] by reasoning

DaMaRMa( AiNvC^eTa( one should perform dharma
laek= cirTaMa( Na creTa( and not follow the conduct of the world (loka) [blindly].

WTaavNMaSaaf==LYa& deihNaaiMah deihzu ) Pa[a<aErQaiDaRYaa vaca [eYa Aacr<a& Sada ))

etvaj janma-sphalya dehinm iha dehiu, prair arthair dhiy vc reya caraa sad

wh deihNaaMa( For those embodied (dehin) in this world (iha)

WTaavTa( JaNMaSaaf==LYaMa( this much is the success (sphalya) of a birth (janman)
deihzu Sada [eYa" Aacr<aMa( to always do good (reyas) towards [other] embodied beings (dehin)
Pa[a<aE" AQa" iDaYaa vaca with life (pra), wealth (artha), intelligence (dh) and words (vc).

Ya}a DaMaaeR uiTa" k==aiNTa" )

yatra dharmo dyuti knti
Where there is dharma there are glory (dyuti) and beauty (knti).




SaaMaaNYaMaeTaTPaXaui>aNaRra<aaMa( )

DaMaaeR ih TaezaMaiDak==ae ivXaezae DaMaeR<a hqNaa" PaXaui>a" SaMaaNaa" ))

hra-nidr-bhaya-maithuna ca smnyam etat paubhir narm
dharmo hi tem adhiko vieo dharmea hn paubhi samn

AahariNad]a>aYaMaEQauNaMa( c

Eating (hra), sleeping (nidr), defending (bhaya fear) and mating


Naara<aaMa( WTad( PaXaui>a" SaaMaaNYaMa( this is for men (nara) common (smnya) with animals (pau);
DaMaR" ih TaezaMa( AiDak==" ivXaez" only dharma is their (mens) extra (adhika) characteristic (viea).
DaMaeR<a hqNaa" PaXaui>a" SaMaaNaa" Those without (hna) dharma are equal (samna) to animals (pau).

Wk== Wv SauMaaeR iNaDaNae= _PYaNauYaaiTa Ya" ) Xarqre<a SaMa& NaaXa& SavRMaNYaidh GaC^iTa ))
eka eva suhd dharmo nidhane py anuyti ya, arrea sama na sarvam anyad iha gacchati
The fourth pda has an extra syllable.

DaMaR" Wk==" Wv Saud( Dharma is the only friend (suhd)

Ya" iNaDaNae AiPa ANauYaaiTa who follows even at death (nidhana).
Xarqre<a SaMaMa( Along with the body (arra)
wh SavRMa( ANYaTa( everything else in this world
NaaXaMa( GaC^iTa goes to destruction (na).

DaNaSYa YaSYa raJaTaae >aYa& Na caiSTa caerTa" ) Ma*Ta& c Yaa MauiTa SaMaJaRYaSv TaNaMa( ))
dhanasya yasya rjato bhaya na csti corata, mta ca yan na mucati samarjayasva tad dhanam
This verse meter is called pramik.

YaSYa DaNaSYa Wealth (dhana) for which

raJaTa" caerTa" c >aYaMa( Na AiSTa there is no fear (bhaya) from a king (rjatas) or thief (coratas)
Yad( Ma*TaMa( c Na MauiTa and which (yad) one does not loose (mucati) when dead (mta),
Tad( DaNaMa( SaMaJaRYaSv that wealth acquire!

idvSaeNaEv TaTku= YaaReNa ra}aaE Sau:a& vSaeTa( ) AMaaSaeNa TaTku= YaaReNa vzaR" Sau:a& vSaeTa( ))
divasenaiva tat kuryd yena rtrau sukha vaset, aa-msena tat kuryd yena var sukha vaset

PaUveR vYaiSa TaTku= YaaReNa v*" Sau:a& vSaeTa( ) YaavaqveNa TaTku= YaaReNa Pa]eTYa Sau:a& vSaeTa( ))
prve vayasi tat kuryd yena vddha sukha vaset, yvaj jvena tat kuryd yena pretya sukha vaset

Jaq<aRMaa& Pa]Xa&SaiNTa >aaYaa| c GaTaYaaEvNaaMa( ) XaUr& iviJaTaSaaMa& GaTaPaar& TaPaiSvNaMa( ))

jram anna praasanti bhry ca gata-yauvanm, ra vijita-sagrma gata-pra tapasvinam

DaNaeNaaDaMaRlBDaeNa YaiC^d]MaiPaDaqYaTae ) ASa&v*Ta& TaviTa TaTaae= _NYadvdqYaRTae ))

dhanendharma-labdhena yac chidram apidhyate, a-savta tad bhavati tato nyad avadryate

YaeNa ra}aaE Sau:aMa( vSaeTa(

That by which one can live happily (sukham) at night (rtri)



Tad( idvSaeNa Wv ku= YaaRTa( that one should do by day (divas).

YaeNa vzaR" Sau:aMa( vSaeTa( That by which one can live happily during the rainy season (var)
... the equivalent to the rainy season is the winter of the North

Tad( AMaaSaeNa ku= YaaRTa( that one should do during [the other] eight (aa) months (msa).
YaeNa v*" Sau:aMa( vSaeTa( That by which an old man (vddha) can live happily
Tad( PaUveR vYaiSa ku= YaaRTa( that he should do during the first part (prva) of life.
YaeNa Pa]eTYa Sau:aMa( vSaeTa( That by which one can life happily after death (pretya),
pretya after departing

Tad( YaavTa( JaqveNa ku= YaaRTa( that one should do as long as one lives.
Jaq<aRMa( AaMa( Pa]Xa&SaiNTa They (people) glorify food (anna) after it is [well-] digested (jra)
GaTaYaaEvNaaMa( >aaYaaRMa( c and a wife (bhry) after her youth (yauvana) has passed
iviJaTaSaaMaMa( XaUrMa( a hero (ra) after he has conquered in battle (sagrma)
GaTaPaarMa( TaPaiSvNaMa( and an ascetic (tapasvin) after he has gone to the other side [of life].
ADaMaRlBDaeNa DaNaeNa With wealth (dhana) gained by sin (a-dharma)
Yad( i^d]Ma( AiPaDaqYaTae whatever hole (chidra) is closed,
Tad( ASa&v*TaMa( >aviTa that remains uncovered (a-savta)
TaTa" ANYaTa( AvdqYaRTae and then another (anyat) is split open.

SavRTa" XaTae STaeNaae Ma*Gaae Ga]aMaiMaveiYavaNa( ) bhuDaacirTa& PaaPaMaNYa}aEvaNauPaXYaiTa ))

sarvata akate steno mgo grmam iveyivn, bahudh-carita ppam anyatraivnupayati

STaeNa" SavRTa" XaTae A thief (stena) has fear from all sides
Ga]aMaMa( wRiYavaNa( Ma*Ga" wv like (iva) a deer (mga) which has gone (yivat) to a village (grma).
ANYa}a Wv Everywhere
bhuDaa AacirTaMa( performed (carita) in many ways [by others]
PaaPaMa( ANauPaXYaiTa he (the thief) sees sin (ppa).

Ak*= TaeZvev k==aYaeRzu Ma*TYauvER SaMPa]k= zRiTa ) YauvEv DaMaRXaql" SYaadiNaiMata& ih JaqivTaMa( )
a-ktev eva kryeu mtyur vai samprakarati, yuvaiva dharma-la syd a-nimitta hi jvitam

k*= Tae DaMaeR >aveTPa]qiTairh Pa]eTYa c XaaTaq ))

kte dharme bhavet prtir iha pretya ca vat

k==aYaeRzu Ak*= Taezu Wv [Even] when ones undertakings (krya) are not [yet] accomplished (a-kta)
Ma*TYau" vE SaMPa]k= zRiTa death (mtyu) drags one away.
JaqivTaMa( AiNaiMataMa( ih [Therefore,] since life (jvita) is uncertain
a-nimitta causeless

Yauva Wv DaMaRXaql" SYaaTa( one should be dedicated to dharma since youth (yuvan).
DaMaeR k*= Tae When dharma is practiced,
wh Pa]eTYa c [then] both in this world and in the next
XaaTaq Pa]qiTa" >aveTa( there will be eternal (vat) pleasure (prti).



Wk== Wv creMa| NaaiSTa DaMaeR SahaYaTaa ) ke= vl& iviDaMaaSaa SahaYa" ik&= k==irZYaiTa ))
eka eva cared dharma nsti dharme sahyat kevala vidhim sdya sahya ki kariyati

DaMaRMa( Wk==" Wv creTa( One can practice dharma himself alone (eka).
DaMaeR SahaYaTaa Na AiSTa In [practicing] dharma there is no [need of any] help (sahyat).
ke= vlMa( iviDaMa( AaSaa Just following the injunction / law (vidhi)
SahaYa" ik==Ma( k==irZYaiTa what will a companion (sahya) do?

Wk== Wv creMa| Na DaMaRDviJak==ae >aveTa( ) DaMaRvai<aJak==a eTae Yae DaMaRMauPa>auaTae ))

eka eva cared dharma na dharma-dhvajiko bhavet, dharma-vijak hy ete ye dharmam upabhujate

DaMaRMa( Wk==" Wv creTa( One should practice dharma himself alone (eka)
DaMaRDviJak==" Na >aveTa( and not be a proclaimer of his own dharma.
dharma-dhvajika on whose banner (dhvaja) is dharma, who makes dharma a show,
calling himself a pious man or believer

Yae DaMaRMa( oPa>auaTae Those who enjoy their dharma,

WTae DaMaRvai<aJak==a" ih are only traders (vijaka) in dharma.

Ab]uvNvaiTa Sauri>aGaRNDa" SauMaNaSaa& Xauic" ) TaQaEvaVYaahrN>aaiTa ivMalae >aaNaurMbre ))

a-bruvan vti surabhir gandha sumanas uci, tathaivvyharan bhti vimalo bhnur ambare
The sixth and seventh syllable should be long.


Without speaking
... of own excellences

SauMaNaSaaMa( Xauic" GaNDa" the pure (uci) fragrance (gandha) of flowers (sumanas)
Sauri>a" vaiTa spreads by [its] excellences.
TaQaa Wv AVYaahrNa( Likewise, without speaking (a-vyharan)
ivMal" >aaNau" AMbre >aaiTa the pure (vimala) sun (bhnu) shines in the sky (ambara).

DaMaeR<aaiPaihTaae DaMaaeR DaMaRMaevaNauvTaRTae )

dharmepihito dharmo dharmam evnuvartate

DaMaR" DaMaeR<a AiPaihTa" When dharma is concealed (apihita) by dharma

DaMaRMa( Wv ANauvTaRTae dharma alone results (anuvartate follows).

Wk==aik==Naa TaPaae a>Yaa& Pa#=Na& GaaYaNa& i}ai>a" ) cTaui>aRGaRMaNa& +ae}a& Pai>abRhu>aq r<a" ))
ekkin tapo dvbhy pahana gyana tribhi, caturbhir gamana ketra pacabhir bahubh raa

TaPa" Wk==aik==Naa Penance (tapas) [should be done] by one [alone]

Pa#=NaMa( a>YaaMa( studying (pahana) by [at least] two
GaaYaNaMa( i}ai>a" singing (gyana) by three
GaMaNaMa( cTaui>aR" travelling (gamana) by four
+ae}aMa( Pai>a" agriculture (ketram) by five


r<a" bhui>a"


[and] playing by many (bahu).

raa delight, pleasure


Hinduism Self-Preservation

Xarqr& DaMaRSavRSv& r+a<aqYa& Pa]YaTNaTa" ) XarqraCCYavTae DaMaR" PavRTaaTSaill& YaQaa ))

arra dharma-sarvasva rakaya prayatnata, arrc cyavate dharma parvatt salila yath

DaMaRSavRSvMa( XarqrMa(

The body (arra), being the source of dharma

sarvasva sum of all, source

Pa]YaTNaTa" r+a<aqYaMa( is carefully to be protected (rakaya).

XarqraTa( DaMaR" CYavTae From the body springs virtue (dharma)
YaQaa PavRTaaTa( SaillMa( like water (salila) from a mountain (parvata) [side].

Aaharae MaEQauNa& iNad]a SaeVYaa NaaiTa ih G>aveTa( )

hro maithuna nidr sevy nti hi rug bhavet

Aahar" MaEQauNaMa( iNad]a SaeVYaa" Eating, mating and sleeping should be done
Na AiTa ih k(= >aveTa( but not excessively, because [then] there is disease (ruj).

Av*ita>aRYaMaNTYaaNaa& MaDYaaNaa& Mar<aaYaMa( ) otaMaaNaa& Tau MaTYaaRNaaMavMaaNaaTPar& >aYaMa( ))

a-vttir bhayam antyn madhyn marad bhayam, uttamn tu martynm avamnt para

ANTYaaNaaMa( MaTYaaRNaaMa( For low-class (antya) people (martya)

>aYaMa( Av*ita" the [great] fear/danger (bhaya) is unemployment (a-vtti)
MaDYaaNaaMa( Mar<aaTa( >aYaMa( for middle-class (madhya) people the fear is of death (maraa)
otaMaaNaaMa( Tau AvMaaNaaTa( ParMa( >aYaMa( and for higher-class (uttama) people the great fear is of insult

Yaid Tv& >aJaMaaNaa& Maa& Pa]TYaa:YaaSYaiSa MaaNad ) ivzMaiGNa& Jal& rauMaaSQaaSYae Tav k==ar<aaTa( ))
yadi tva bhajamn m pratykhysyasi mnada, viam agni jala rajjum sthsye tava krat

MaaNad O bestower of honor (mna)!

Yaid TvMa( If you
>aJaMaaNaaMa( MaaMa( Pa]TYaa:YaaSYaiSa forsake me who am worshiping (bhajamn) [you]
Tav k==ar<aaTa( [then] because of you
ivzMa( AiGNaMa( JalMa( rauMa( to poison (via), fire (agni), water (jala) or a rope (rajju)
AaSQaaSYae I will resort.

AiTaMaaNaadiTak]= aeDaaTehaa Yaid va >aYaaTa( ) oDNaqYaaTS}aq PauMaaNva GaiTareza ivDaqYaTae )

atimnd atikrodht snehd v yadi v bhayt, udbadhnyt str pumn v gatir e vidhyate

PaUYaXaaei<aTaSaMPaU<aeR ANDae TaMaiSa MaaiTa ))

pya-oita-sampre andhe tamasi majjati



The verse meter is not regular.

AiTaMaaNaaTa( AiTak]= aeDaaTa( Out of pride (atimna) or anger (krodha)

ehaTa( va Yaid va >aYaaTa( out of love (sneha) or fear (bhaya)
S}aq PauMaaNa( va oDNaqYaaTa( when a woman (str) or man (pus) will hang [himself]
Wza GaiTa" ivDaqYaTae this is the destiny (gati) ordained:
PaUYaXaaei<aTaSaMPaU<aeR ANDae TaMaiSa Into thick (andha blind) darkness (tamas), full of pus (pya) and
blood (oita)


he [or she] sinks.


Yadak==LPa" Svi==YaaYaa& VYaaiDai>aJaRrYaaQava ) AaNvqi+aKYaa& va ivaYaa& ku= YaaRdNaXaNaaidk==Ma( ))

yadkalpa sva-kriyy vydhibhir jaraythav, anvkiky v vidyy kuryd an-aandikam
The verse meter is not regular.

VYaaiDai>a" JarYaa AQava By diseases (vydhi) or old age (jar)

Svi==YaaYaaMa( for his [daily] duty
AaNvqi+aKYaaMa( ivaYaaMa( va or his philosophical (anvkik) study (vidy)
Yada Ak==LPa" when he (a hermit) is unable,
ANaXaNaAaidk==Ma( ku= YaaRTa( [then] he may do fasting (an-aana) etc.
... fasting to death

XaBde SPaXaeR rSae Pae GaNDae c rMaTae MaNa" ) Taezu >aaeGaezu SaveRzu Na >aqTaae l>aTae Sau:aMa( ))
abde spare rase rpe gandhe ca ramate mana, teu bhogeu sarveu na bhto labhate sukham

XaBde SPaXaeR rSae Pae GaNDae c

In sound (abda), touch (spara), taste (rasa), form (rpa) and smell


MaNa" rMaTae the mind (manas) enjoys.

>aqTa" [But] one who is afraid (bhta)
Taezu SaveRzu >aaeGaezu in all those enjoyments (bhoga)
Sau:aMa( Na l>aTae he does not derive happiness (sukha).

SaNTaaPaad(= =>a]XYaTae= =Pa&= =SaNTaaPaad(= =>a]XYaTae= =blMa(= =)= =SaNTaaPaad(= =>a]XYaTae= =jaNa&= =SaNTaaPaad(= =VYaaiDaMa*C^iTa ))
santpd bhrayate rpa santpd bhrayate balam, santpd bhrayate jna santpd vydhim cchati


PaMa( >a]XYaTae From sorrow (santpa) beauty (rpa) is destroyed

blMa( >a]XYaTae from sorrow strength (bala) is destroyed
jaNaMa( >a]XYaTae from sorrow knowledge (jna) is destroyed
VYaaiDaMa( C^iTa from sorrow one gets disease (vydhi).

iNaTSaahSYa dqNaSYa Xaaek= PaYaaRku= laTMaNa" ) SavaRQaaR VYavSaqdiNTa VYaSaNa& caiDaGaC^iTa ))

nirutshasya dnasya oka-parykultmana, sarvrth vyavasdanti vyasana cdhigacchati

iNaTSaahSYa dqNaSYa

For one who is despirited (nir.utsha) and poor (dna)


Xaaek= PaYaaRku= lAaTMaNa" and full of lamentation (oka) and confusion (pari.kula)
SavRAQaaR" VYavSaqdiNTa all purposes (artha) [of life] are frustrated (sink down)
VYaSaNaMa( c AiDaGaC^iTa and he attains ruin (vyasana).

iivDae JaaYaTae VYaaiDa" Xaarqrae MaaNaSaSTaQaa ) ParSPar& TaYaaeJaRNMa iNaRN& NaaePaPaTae ))

dvi-vidhe jyate vydhi rro mnasas tath, paraspara tayor janma nirdvandva nopapadyate

Xaarqr" MaaNaSa" Bodily and mentally

VYaaiDa" iivDae JaaYaTae disease (vydhi) comes two-fold.
TaYaae" JaNMa ParSParMa( Their origin (janman) is mutual.
... by interaction of body and mind

iNaRNMa( Na oPaPaTae

It (disease) does not come without interaction (nirdvandva) [of these two].

MaaNaSaeNa ih du":aeNa XarqrMauPaTaaPYaTae ) AYa"iPa<@eNa TaPTaeNa ku= M>aSa&SQaiMavaedk==Ma( ))

mnasena hi dukhena arram upatpyate, aya-piena taptena kumbha-sastham ivodakam

MaaNaSaeNa ih du":aeNa By mental suffering (dukha)

XarqrMa( oPaTaaPYaTae the body (arra) is heated,
ku= M>aSa&SQaMa( odk==Ma( wv as water (udaka) [is heated] in a pot (kumbha)
TaPTaeNa AYa"iPa<@eNa by a hot (tapta) lump (pia) of iron.

Pa]jYaa MaaNaSa& du":a& hNYaaC^arqrMaaEzDaE" )

prajay mnasa dukha hanyc chrram auadhai

Pa]jYaa MaaNaSaMa( du":aMa( hNYaaTa( By wisdom (praj) one should remove mental distress (dukha)
AaEzDaE" XaarqrMa( and by medicines (auadha) bodily [distress].

MaiTaMaNTaae Taae vEa" XaMa& Pa]aGaev ku= vRTae ) MaaNaSaSYa iPa]Yaa:YaaNaE" SaM>aaeGaaePaNaYaENa*R<aaMa( ))
matimanto hy ato vaidy ama prg eva kurvate, mnasasya priykhynai sambhogopanayair nm

ATa" Pa]ak(= Wv ih Therefore, first of all

MaiTaMaNTa" vEa" intelligent physicians (vaidya)
MaaNaSaSYa iPa]YaAa:YaaNaE" by conversations (khyna) pleasing (priya) to the mind
SaM>aaeGaoPaNaYaE" and by offerings (upanaya) of desirable objects (sambhoga)
Na*<aaMa( XaMaMa( ku= vRTae they give peace (ama) to persons (n) [who are suffering].

Ma*Ta& va Yaid va Na& Yaae= _TaqTaMaNauXaaeciTa ) du":aeNa l>aTae du":a& avNaQaaER Pa]PaTae ))
mta v yadi v naa yo ttam anuocati, dukhena labhate dukha dvv anarthau prapadyate

... >aEzJYaMaeTad( du":aSYa YadeTaaaNauicNTaYaeTa( ) icNTYaMaaNa& ih Na VYaeiTa >aUYaaiPa Pa]vDaRTae ))

bhaiajyam etad dukhasya yad etan nnucintayet, cintyamna hi na vyeti bhya cpi pravardhate

Ma*TaMa( va Yaid va NaMa(

Whether dead (mta) or lost (naa)



ATaqTaMa( for what is gone

Ya" ANauXaaeciTa one who laments,
du":aeNa du":aMa( l>aTae by [that] sorrow (dukha) he gets [another] sorrow
aE ANaQaaER Pa]PaTae and [thus] two evils (anartha) occur. ...
Yad( WTad( Na ANauicNTaYaeTa( That one should not think of it
WTad( du":aSYa >aEzJYaMa( this is the remedy (bhaiajya) for sorrow,
icNTYaMaaNaMa( ih because when being thought of
Na VYaeiTa it does not go
>aUYa" c AiPa Pa]vDaRTae but increases more (bhyas).

Ya}a NaEv XarE" k==aYa| Na >a*TYaENaR c bNDaui>a" ) AaTMaNaEke= Na YaaeVYa& Tatae YauMauPaiSQaTaMa( ))
yatra naiva arai krya na bhtyair na ca bandhubhi, tmanaikena yoddhavya tat te yuddham

Ya}a NaEv XarE" k==aYaRMa( In which [fight] there is no use of arrows (ara)
Na >a*TYaE" Na c bNDaui>a" nor of attendants (bhtya), nor of friends (bandhu)
AaTMaNaa Wke= Na YaaeVYaMa( and which is to be fought by oneself alone (eka),
Tad( YauMa( Tae oPaiSQaTaMa( that fight (yuddha) has arrived for you.
... the struggle against sorrow

dMaMaev Pa]Xa&SaiNTa v*a" ]uiTaSaMaaDaYa" ) SaveRzaMaev v<aaRNaa& b]a<aSYa ivXaezTa" ))

damam eva praasanti vddh ruti-samdhaya sarveam eva varn brhmaasya vieata

v*a" ]uiTaSaMaaDaYa" The ancients (vddha), absorbed in the Vedas (ruti)

dMaMa( Wv Pa]Xa&SaiNTa glorify self-control (dama)
SaveRzaMa( Wv v<aaRNaaMa( [as duty] for all the social classes (varas)
b]a<aSYa ivXaezTa" and especially for the brhmaas.

AdaNTa" Pauz" e= XaMa>aq+<a& Pa]iTaPaTae ) ANaQaa| bhUNaNYaaNPa]Sa*JaTYaaTMadaezJaaNa( ))

a-dnta purua kleam abhka pratipadyate, an-arth ca bahn anyn prasjaty tma-doa-jn

AdaNTa" Pauz" An uncontrolled (a-dnta) man (purua)

A>aq+<aMa( e= XaMa( Pa]iTaPaTae perpetually (abhkam) undergoes misery (klea).
bhUNa( ANYaaNa( ANaQaaRNa( Pa]Sa*JaiTa He creates many (bahu) other calamities (anartha)
AaTMadaezJaaNa( all begotten by his own fault (tma-doa).

Na YaMa& YaMaiMaTYaahuraTMaa vE YaMa oCYaTae ) AaTMaa Sa&YaiMaTaae YaeNa Ta& YaMa" ik&= k==irZYaiTa ))
na yama yamam ity hur tm vai yama ucyate, tm sayamito yena ta yama ki kariyati

Na TaQaaiSaSTaQaa Taq+<a" SaPaaeR va duriDaiTa" ) YaQaa k]= aeDaae ih JaNTaUNaa& XarqrSQaae ivNaaXak==" ))
na tathsis tath tka sarpo v duradhihita, yath krodho hi jantn arra-stho vinaka

Na YaMaMa(

Not Yamarja (yama)


YaMaMa( wiTa Aahu" they (the wise) call controller (yama) [of destiny],
AaTMaa vE YaMa" oCYaTae the mind (tman) alone is called controller.
YaeNa AaTMaa Sa&YaiMaTa" By whom the mind (tman) is controlled (sayamita)
TaMa( YaMa" ik==Ma( k==irZYaiTa what can Yamarja do to him?
Taq+<a" AiSa" A sharp (tka) sword (asi)
duriDaiTa" SaPaR" va or an infuriated snake (sarpa)
dur.adhihita badly managed

Na TaQaa TaQaa is not as much

JaNTaUNaaMa( ivNaaXak==" a destroyer (vinaka) of creatures (jantu)
YaQaa ih XarqrSQa" k]= aeDa" as is anger (krodha) which resides right in [ones own] body (arra).

AaTMaa JaeYa" Sada raja TaTaae JaeYaa Xa}av" )

tm jeya sad rj tato jey ca atrava

raja By a king (rjan)

AaTMaa Sada JaeYa" the Self (tman) is always (sad) to be conquered [first]
TaTa" Xa}av" JaeYaa" c and then enemies (atru) can be conquered.

bleNa Parra\ai<a Ga*Na( XaUrSTau NaaeCYaTae ) iJaTaae YaeNaeiNd]YaGa]aMa" Sa XaUr" k==QYaTae buDaE" ))
balena para-rri ghan ras tu nocyate, jito yenendriya-grma sa ra kathyate budhai

bleNa Parra\ai<a Ga*Na( When taking by force (bala) kingdoms (rra) of others
XaUr" Tau Na oCYaTae one is not called a hero (ra).
YaeNa wiNd]YaGa]aMa" iJaTa" By whom the group of senses (indriya) is conquered (jita)
grma multitude, village

Sa" buDaE" XaUr" k==QYaTae

he is called a hero by the wise (budha).


iJaEk= Taae= _CYauTa ivk==zRiTa MaaivTa*a iXaXNaae= _NYaTaSTvGaudr& [v<a& ku= TaiTa( )

ga]a<aae= _NYaTaPald*KKv c k==MaRXai==bRy" SaPaTNYa wv GaehPaiTa& luNaiNTa ))

jihvaikato cyuta vikarati mvitpt ino nyatas tvag udara ravaa kutacit
ghro nyata capala-dk kva ca karma-aktir bahvya sapatnya iva geha-pati lunanti
The verse meter is vasanta-tilak.

ACYauTa O Lord (Acyuta)!

AivTa*a iJaa The unsatiable (a-vitpta) tongue (jihv)
Wk==Ta" Maa ivk==zRiTa pulls me (m) from one (ekatas) [side]
iXaXNa" ANYaTa" the genital (ina) from another
Tvk(= odrMa( [v<aMa( ku= Taid( the sense of touch (tvac),

ga]a<a" ANYaTa"

the nose (ghra) from another [side]

belly (udara) and ears (ravaa) from



cPald*k(= Kv c the restless eyes (capala-dk) somewhere

k==MaRXai==" [and also] the active senses (karma-akti),
... legs and arms

by" SaPaTNYa" wv just as many (bahu) co-wives (sa-patn)

GaehPaiTaMa( luNaiNTa ruin the master of the house (geha-pati).

wiNd]Yaai<a Pa]MaaQaqiNa buya Sa&YaMYa YaTNaTa" ) SavRTaae iNaZPaiTaZ<aUiNa iPaTaa balaiNavaTMaJaaNa( ))

indriyi pramthni buddhy sayamya yatnata, sarvato nipatini pit bln ivtmajn

SavRTa" iNaZPaiTaZ<aUiNa Which are running out (nipatiu) in all directions

Pa]MaaQaqiNa wiNd]Yaai<a the maddening senses (indriya)
YaTNaTa" buya Sa&YaMYa [after] carefully (yatnatas) controlling [them] with the intelligence (buddhi)
iPaTaa wv AaTMaJaaNa( balaNa( like a father (pit) his own children (bla), ...

TaaviTaeiNd]Yaae Na SYaaiiJaTaaNYaeiNd]Ya" PauMaaNa( ) Na JaYaed]SaNa& YaaviTa& Sav| iJaTae rSae ))

tvaj jitendriyo na syd vijitnyendriya pumn, na jayed rasana yvaj jita sarva jite rase

iviJaTaANYawiNd]Ya" PauMaaNa( A man (pus) who has conquered (vijita) all other senses (indriya),
YaavTa( rSaNaMa( Na JaYaeTa( as long as (yvat) he can not conquer the tongue (rasana = rasa)
... the urges of eating and speaking

TaavTa( iJaTawiNd]Ya" Na SYaaTa( so long (tvat) he is not sense-controlled (jita-indriya).

rSae iJaTae When the tongue (rasa) is conquered (jita)
SavRMa( iJaTaMa( everything is conquered.

iNaz<<aaiPa :aadeTa Na Tau GaC^Nk==dacNa )

niaa cpi khdeta na tu gacchan kadcana

iNaz<<a" c AiPa :aadeTa One should eat (khdeta) seated (niaa)

Na Tau k==dacNa GaC^Na( never while walking (gacchan).

dqPaae >a+aYaTae aNTa& k==l& c Pa[SaUYaTae ) Yada& >a+YaTae iNaTYa& JaaYaTae Taad*Xaq Pa[Jaa ))
dpo bhakayate dhvnta kajjala ca prasyate, yad anna bhakyate nitya jyate td praj

dqPa" aNTaMa( >a+aYaTae A lamp (dpa) eats up darkness (dhvnta)

k==lMa( c Pa[SaUYaTae and produces lamp black (kajjala).
Yad( AaMa( iNaTYaMa( >a+YaTae [Similarly,] whatever the food (anna) is which is daily eaten
... whether it is in goodness, passion or ignorance

Taad*Xaq Pa[Jaa JaaYaTae

such offspring (praj) comes into being.


Ahaera}ae iv>aJaTae SaUYaaeR MaaNauzlaEik==ke= ) rai}a" SvPNaaYa >aUTaaNaa& ceaYaE k==MaR<aaMah" ))

aho-rtre vibhajate sryo mnua-laukike, rtri svapnya bhtn ceyai karmam aha

MaaNauzlaEik==ke= Ah"ra}ae

Day (ahar) and night (rtri) of the world of man


SaUYaR" iv>aJaTae the sun (srya) divides.

rai}a" >aUTaaNaaMa( SvPNaaYa The night (rtri) is for the sleep (svapna) of [all] beings (bhta)
Ah" k==MaR<aaMa( ceaYaE the day (ahar) is for the undertaking (ce) of activities (karman).

ANaaYauZYa& idva SvPNa& TaQaa>YauidTaXaaiYaTaa )

an-yuya div svapna tathbhyudita-yit

idva SvPNaMa( Sleeping (svapna) during the day (divan)

TaQaa A>YauidTaXaaiYaTaa and lying [in bed] when [the sun has] risen (abhyudita)
ANa(AaYauZYaMa( [both] shortens life.

Na==cYaa| idvaSvPNaMaalSYa& PaEXauNa& MadMa( ) AiTaYaaeGaMaYaaeGa& c ]eYaSaae= _QaqR PairTYaJaeTa( ))

nakta-cary div-svapnam lasya paiuna madam, atiyogam a-yoga ca reyaso rth parityajet

Na==cYaaRMa( idvaSvPNaMa(

Working at night (nakta) and sleeping during the day

div (from div) by day

AalSYaMa( PaEXauNaMa( MadMa(

AiTaYaaeGaMa( AYaaeGaMa( c
]eYaSa" AQaqR PairTYaJaeTa(

idleness (lasya), wickedness (paiuna) and intoxication (mada)

excessive endulgence ( and total abstention (a-yoga)
one who desires his welfare (reyas) should give up [these].

DaMaRMaUlae= _QaRiv$=PaSTaQaa k==aMaf==lae MahaNa( ) i}avGaRPaadPaSTa}a r+aYaa f==l>aaG>aveTa( ))

dharma-mlo rtha-viapas tath kma-phalo mahn, tri-varga-pdapas tatra rakay phala-bhg bhavet

DaMaRMaUl" AQaRiv$=Pa" With (1) dharma as root (mla), (2) artha as branches
TaQaa k==aMaf==l" and (3) kma as fruits (phala)
Ta}a MahaNa( i}avGaRPaadPa" there is a big (mahat) tree (pdapa) of tri-varga.
r+aYaa f==l>aak(= >aveTa( By its protection (rak) one receives the fruits.

oPaaYa& DaMaRMaevahuiS}avGaRSYa ivXaaMPaTae ) ilPSaMaaNaae ih TaeNaaXau k==+ae= _iGNairv vDaRTae ))

upya dharmam evhus tri-vargasya vim-pate, lipsamno hi tenu kake gnir iva vardhate


O King!
vim-pati lord (pati) of the people, king

i}avGaRSYa oPaaYaMa( As means (upya) to tri-varga

DaMaRMa( Wv Aahu" they (sages) described dharma alone.
TaeNa ilPSaMaaNa" ih Desiring to get (lipsamna) [tri-varga] by that (dharma)
AaXau vDaRTae one quickly prospers
k==+ae AiGNa" wv like fire (agni) in dry grass (kaka).

vDaRTYaDaMaeR<a NarSTaTaae >ad]ai<a PaXYaiTa ) TaTa" SaPaTNaaNa( JaYaiTa SaMaUlSTau ivNaXYaiTa ))

vardhaty a-dharmea naras tato bhadri payati, tata sapatnn jayati sa-mlas tu vinayati

ADaMaeR<a Nar" vDaRiTa

By sin (a-dharma) a man (nara) prospers



TaTa" >ad]ai<a PaXYaiTa then he sees fortunes (bhadra)

TaTa" SaPaTNaaNa( JaYaiTa then he defeats his rivals (sapatna)
SaMaUl" Tau ivNaXYaiTa but [ultimately] he is destroyed to the root (sa-mla).

Sau:a& du":aaNTaMaalSYa& da+Ya& du":a& Sau:aaedYaMa( ) >aUiTa" ]qqRDa*RiTa" k==IiTaRdR+ae vSaiTa NaalSae ))
sukha dukhntam lasya dkya dukha sukhodayam, bhti rr hrr dhti krtir dake vasati

AalSYaMa( Idleness (lasya)

Sau:aMa( du":aANTaMa( is pleasent (sukham) but ends in misery (dukha);
da+YaMa( exertion (dksya ability)
du":aMa( Sau:aodYaMa( is painful (dukham) but gives rise to happiness (sukha).
>aUiTa" ]q" q" Da*iTa" k==IiTaR" Opulence (bhti), fortune (r), modesty (hr), determination (dhti) and
fame (krti)

d+ae vSaiTa resides in activity (daka ability)

Na AalSae and not in idleness (lasa).

"k==aYaRMa ku= vsTa PaUvaRe caParaik==Ma( ) Na ih Pa[Taq+aTae Ma*TYau" k*= Ta& vaSYa Na va k*= TaMa( ))
va-kryam adya kurvta prvhe caparhikam, na hi pratkate mtyu kta vsya na v ktam

A "k==aYaRMa( ku= vsTa Today (adya) one should do the work (krya) of tomorrow (vas),
PaUvRAe c AParAik==Ma( and in the forenoon the work of the afternoon.
prva-ahna the earlier part (prva) of the day (ahna, in comp. for ahan)

ASYa k*= TaMa( k*= TaMa( va Na va Whether ones work (kta) is done (kta) or not
Ma*TYau" Na ih Pa[Taq+aTae death (mtyu) does not consider.

DaNaMaaJaRYa k==aku= TSQa DaNaMaUliMad& JaGaTa( ) ANTar& Naai>aJaaNaaiMa iNaDaRNaSYa Ma*TaSYa c ))

dhanam rjaya kkutstha dhana-mlam ida jagat, antara nbhijnmi nirdhanasya mtasya ca

k==aku= TSQa

O Rma (Kkutstha),
... descendant of Kakutstha

DaNaMa( AaJaRYa Acquire wealth (dhana)!

wdMa( JaGaTa( DaNaMaUlMa( This world (jagat) has wealth for its root (mla).
iNaDaRNaSYa Ma*TaSYa c Between a poor man (nirdhana) and a dead man (mta)
ANTarMa( Na Ai>aJaaNaaiMa I do not see the difference.

APau}aSYa Ga*h& XaUNYa& SaiNMa}arihTaSYa c ) MaU%RSYa c idXa" XaUNYaa" SavRXaUNYaa dird]Taa ))

a-putrasya gha nya san-mitra-rahitasya ca, mrkhasya ca dia ny sarva-ny daridrat

APau}aSYa For one without child (putra)

SaTa(iMa}arihTaSYa c and for one without true (sat) friend (mitra)
Ga*hMa( XaUNYaMa( his house (gha) is void (nya),


MaU%RSYa c idXa" XaUNYaa" for a fool (mrkha) [all] directions are void
dird]Taa SavRXaUNYaa [but] poverty (daritra.t) means all is void.

Yaa vedDviNaDvaNTa& Na c Gaaei>arlx(= k*= TaMa( ) Yaa balE" Pairv*Ta& XMaXaaNaiMav Tad( Ga*hMa( ))
yan na veda-dhvani-dhvnta na ca gobhir alaktam, yan na blai parivta manam iva tad gham

Yad( Na vedDviNaDvaNTaMa( [The house] which does not resound with Vedic sound (dhvani)
Gaaei>a" Na c Alx(= k*= TaMa( which is not adorned (alakta) with cows (go)
Yad( balE" Na Pairv*TaMa( and which is not filled with children (bla),
Tad( Ga*hMa( XMaXaaNaMa( wv that house (gha) is like a cremation-ground (mana).

i}avGa| NaaiTak*= C^\e<a >aJaeTa Ga*hMaeDYaiPa ) YaQaadeXa& YaQaak==al& YaavEvaePaPaaidTaMa( ))

tri-varga ntikcchrea bhajeta gha-medhy api, yath-dea yath-kla yvad daivopapditam

Ga*hMaeDaq AiPa Even a strict householder (gha-medh)

i}avGaRMa( Na AiTak*= C^\e<a >aJaeTa should perform tri-varga not too hardly
YaQaadeXaMa( YaQaak==alMa( [but] according to place (dea) and time (kla)
YaavTa( dEvoPaPaaidTaMa( and as much is effected by daiva.



Hinduism Non-Violence

oeGaJaNaNa& ih&Saa SaNTaaPak==r<a& TaQaa ) *= iTa" Xaaei<aTak*= iTa" PaEXau<Yak==r<a& TaQaa ))

udvega-janana his santpa-karaa tath, ruk-kti oita-kti paiunya-karaa tath

ihTaSYaaiTaiNazeDa MaMaaeRa$=NaMaev c ) Sau%aPauiTa" Sa&raeDaae vDaae dXaivDaa c Saa ))

hitasytiniedha ca marmodghanam eva ca, sukhpahnuti sarodho vadho daa-vidh ca s

ih&Saa oeGaJaNaNaMa( SaNTaaPak==r<aMa( TaQaa

Violence (his) means causing anxiety (udvega) and pain


k(= k*= iTa" Xaaei<aTak*= iTa" PaEXauNYak==r<aMa( TaQaa

causing injury (ruj), blood (oita) and misery


ihTaSYa AiTaiNazeDa" c obstructing something beneficial (hita)

MaMaRoa$=NaMa( Wv c breaking (opening) the heart (marma)
Sau%APauiTa" Sa&raeDa" vDa" denying happiness (sukha), confining (sarodha) and killing (vadha)
Saa c dXaivDaa thus it is tenfold.

Na c+auza Na MaNaSaa Na vaca dUzYaediPa ) Na Pa]TYa+a& Parae+a& va dUz<a& VYaahreTKvicTa( ))

na caku na manas na vc dayed api, na pratyaka paroka v daa vyharet kvacit

Na ih&SYaaTSavR>aUTaaiNa MaE}aaYa<aGaTareTa( ) Naed& JaqivTaMaaSaa vEr& ku= vqRTa ke= NaicTa( ))

na hisyt sarva-bhtni maitryaa-gata caret, neda jvitam sdya vaira kurvta kenacit

Na c+auza Na MaNaSaa Na vaca AiPa Not even with eyes (cakus), mind (manas) or words (vc)
dUzYaeTa( one should offend [others].
Na Pa]TYa+aMa( Parae+aMa( va Neither directly (pratyaka) [to the person] nor indirectly [to others]
Kvicd( dUz<aMa( VYaahreTa( one should ever (kvacid) utter an offence.
SavR>aUTaaiNa Na ih&SYaaTa( One should not injure any creature (bhta).
MaE}aaYa<aGaTa" creTa( One should act benevolent.
maitryaa the course of the sun, like the sun

wdMa( JaqivTaMa( AaSaa Having attained (sdya) this [human form of] life
ke= Naicd( vErMa( Na ku= vqRTa one should not inact enmity (vaira) with anyone.

Ad]aehe<aEv >aUTaaNaaMaLPad]aehe<a va PauNa" ) Yaa v*ita" Sa Parae DaMaRSTaeNa JaqvaiMa JaaJale ))

a-droheaiva bhtnm alpa-drohea v puna, y vtti sa paro dharmas tena jvmi jjale

Yaa v*ita" The mode of life (vtti)

>aUTaaNaaMa( Ad]aehe<a Wv with no harm (droha) towards all creatures (bhta)
ALPad]aehe<a va PauNa" or else with a minimum (alpa) of such harm
Sa" Par" DaMaR" that is the highest dharma.
JaaJale O Jjali!


TaeNa JaqvaiMa

By that [mode] I live.


AaTMaaEPaMYaeNa MaNTaVYa& buiMai" k*= TaaTMai>a" )

tmaupamyena mantavya buddhimadbhi kttmabhi

buiMai" k*= TaaTMai>a" By men with intelligence (buddhi) and merit (kta-tma)
AaTMaoPaMYaeNa MaNTaVYaMa( [everything] is to be considered by comparison (upamya) with oneself.

YadNYaEivRihTa& NaeC^edaTMaNa" k==MaR PaUz" ) Na TaTParezu ku= vqRTa JaaNaaiPa]YaYaaTMaNa" ))

yad anyair vihita necched tmana karma prua, na tat pareu kurvta jnann a-priyaytmana

Yad( k==MaR An activity (karman) which

ANYaE" AaTMaNa" ivihTaMa( [if] by others (anya) done to himself
PaUz" Na wC^eTa( a person (prua) would not like,
Tad( Parezu Na ku= vqRTa that [activity] he should not do to others (para)
AaTMaNa" AiPa]YaYaa JaaNaNa( knowing (jnan) [it] to be unpleasing for himself.

MaaTa*vTPardarezu Pard]VYaezu lae\vTa( ) AaTMavTSavR>aUTaezu Ya" PaXYaiTa Sa Pai<@Ta" ))

mtvat para-dreu para-dravyeu loravat, tmavat sarva-bhteu ya payati sa paita

Ya" Pardarezu MaaTa*vTa( PaXYaiTa One who sees in others (para) wives (dra) a mother
Pard]VYaezu lae\vTa( in others wealth (dravya) stones
SavR>aUTaezu AaTMavTa( in all beings (bhta) himself,
Sa" Pai<@Ta" he is a learned man (paita).

Na >aUTaaNaaMaih&SaaYaa JYaaYaaNDaMaaeR= _iSTa k==Na )

na bhtnm a-hisy jyyn dharmo sti kacana

>aUTaaNaaMa( Aih&SaaYaaMa( Compared to harmlessness (a-his) to all beings

k==Na JYaaYaaNa( DaMaR" any higher (jyyas) dharma
Na AiSTa does not exist.

Aih&Saa ParMa& iMa}aMaih&Saa ParMa& Sau:aMa( )

a-his parama mitram a-his parama sukham

Aih&Saa ParMaMa( iMa}aMa(

Aih&Saa ParMaMa( Sau:aMa(

Non-violence (a-his) is the best friend (mitra)

non-violence is the greatest happiness (sukha).

NaaiSTa== SaTYaaTParae= =DaMaaeR= =NaaNa*TaaTPaaTak&= = =ParMa(= =)= =iSQaiTaihR= =SaTYa&= =DaMaRSYa== TaSMaaTSaTYa&= =Na== laePaYaeTa( ))
nsti satyt paro dharmo nntt ptaka param, sthitir hi satya dharmasya tasmt satya na lopayet

SaTYaaTa( Par" DaMaR" Na AiSTa There is no higher (para) virtue (dharma) than truth (satya)
Na ANa*TaaTa( ParMa( PaaTak==Ma( nor a greater (para) sin (ptaka) than untruth (an-ta).



SaTYaMa( DaMaRSYa iSQaiTa" ih Truth (satya) is the very basis (sthiti) of dharma
TaSMaaTa( SaTYaMa( Na laePaYaeTa( therefore truth one should not give up.

SaTYaSYa vcNa& ]eYa" SaTYaadiPa ihTa& vdeTa( ) YaUTaihTaMaTYaNTaMaeTaTSaTYa& MaTa& MaMa ))

satyasya vacana reya satyd api hita vadet, yad bhta-hitam atyantam etat satya mata mama

SaTYaSYa vcNaMa( ]eYa" A word of truth (satya) is best (reyas)

SaTYaaTa( AiPa ihTaMa( vdeTa( [but] even more than truth (satya) one should speak what is beneficial

Yad( >aUTaihTaMa( ATYaNTaMa( That which is of the greatest (atyanta) benefit (hita) for all creatures (bhta),
WTad( SaTYaMa( MaMa MaTaMa( that is satya in my opinion.

SavRSvSYaaPahare Tau v==VYaMaNa*Ta& >aveTa( ) Ta}aaNa*Ta& >aveTSaTYa& SaTYa& caPYaNa*Ta& >aveTa( ))

sarva-svasypahre tu vaktavyam an-ta bhavet, tatrnta bhavet satya satya cpy an-ta bhavet

... TaSMaaMaaRQaRMaNa*TaMauKTva NaaNa*Ta>aaG>aveTa( )

tasmd dharmrtham an-tam uktv nnta-bhg bhavet

SavRSvSYa APahare Tau But when ones entire (sarva) possession (sva) is taken away (apahra)
ANa*TaMa( v==VYaMa( >aveTa( untruth (an-ta) becomes utterable (vaktavya).
Ta}a ANa*TaMa( SaTYaMa( >aveTa( Then untruth becomes truth (satya)
SaTYaMa( c AiPa ANa*TaMa( >aveTa( and even truth becomes untruth. ...
TaSMaaTa( DaMaRAQaRMa( ANa*TaMa( oKTva Therefore, [after] speaking untruth (an-ta) for the course of
... for the course of a-his

Na ANa*Ta>aak(= >aveTa(

one does not become liable to falsehood.


wRXaavaSYaiMad& Sav| YaiTk== JaGaTYaa& JaGaTa( ) TaeNa TYae= Na >auqQaa Maa Ga*Da" k==SYaiSvNaMa( ))
vsyam ida sarva yat kica jagaty jagat, tena tyaktena bhujth m gdha kasyasvid dhanam
The second pda is not regular.

Yad( ik== JaGaTYaaMa( JaGaTa( Whatever is moving (jagat) on earth (jagat)

wdMa( SavRMa( wRXaAavaSYaMa( all this is pervaded (vsya) by the Lord (a).
TaeNa TYae= Na >auqQaa With what is allotted (tyakta) by Him, you may enjoy.
k==SYaiSvd( DaNaMa( The wealth (dhana) of anyone [else]
Maa Ga*Da" do not take.

Yae Mae TaNaUiRJavraNduhTaqMaRdqYaa >aUTaaNYalBDaXar<aaiNa c >aedbuya )

d]+YaNTYaga+aTad*Xaae ihMaNYavSTaaNGa*Da]a za MaMa ku= zNTYaiDad<@NaeTau" ))

ye me tanr dvija-varn duhatr mady bhtny a-labdha-arani ca bheda-buddhy
drakyanty agha-kata-do hy ahi-manyavas tn gdhr ru mama kuanty adhidaa-netu



The brhmaas
dvija-vara best of the twice-born (dvija), brhmaa

MadqYaa" duhTaq" my daughters (i.e., cows)

AlBDaXar<aaiNa >aUTaaiNa c and helpless creatures (bhta)
a-labdha-araa who got no shelter

Mae TaNaU" [these] my forms (tanu)

Yae >aedbuya d]+YaiNTa those who see [them] different [from Me]
bheda-buddhi the concept of difference

Aga+aTad*Xa" ih because their vision is impaired (kata) by sin (agha)

AihMaNYav" and their temper (manyu) is like a snake (i.e., angry),
MaMa AiDad<@NaeTau" za" Ga*Da]a" the angry (rua) vultures (gdhra) of Yamarja
... of my superintendent of punishment (adhidaa-net)

TaaNa( ku= ziNTa

[will] tear (kuanti) them apart.


A>YacRiYaTva Pa[iTaMaaSau ivZ<au& iNaNdNa( JaNae SavRGaTa& TaMaev )

A>YaCYaR PaadaE ih iJaSYa MaUiDNaR d]uiavajae Nark&= Pa[YaaiTa ))

abhyarcayitv pratimsu viu nindan jane sarva-gata tam eva
abhyarcya pdau hi dvijasya mrdhni druhyann ivjo naraka prayti

ivZ<auMa( Pa[iTaMaaSau A>YacRiYaTva [After] worshiping the Lord (Viu) in His images (pratim)
SavRGaTaMa( TaMa( Wv JaNae iNaNdNa( [while] disrespecting that same all-pervading [Lord] in a creature
... worshiping the Lord in His deity forms in a tempel, while at the same time
disrespecting Him in the heart of all beings

iJaSYa PaadaE ih A>YaCYaR MaUiDNaR d]uNa( wv

which is like beating on the head (mrdhan) of a

brhmaa (dvija) [after] worshiping his feet (pda)

Aj" Nark==Ma( Pa[YaaiTa

[such] an ignorant man (a-ja) goes to hell.


raJaPau}a icr& Jaqv Maa Jaqv MauiNaPau}ak== ) Jaqv va Mar va SaaDaae VYaaDa Maa Jaqv Maa Mar ))
rja-putra cira jva m jva muni-putraka, jva v mara v sdho vydha m jva m mara

raJaPau}a icrMa( Jaqv

O prince, live long (cira)!

rja-putra son of a king

MauiNaPau}ak== Maa Jaqv

O brahmacr, do not live!

muni-putraka son of a sage

SaaDaae Jaqv va Mar va

VYaaDa Maa Jaqv Maa Mar

O saint (sdhu), either live or die!

O butcher (vydha), do neither live nor die!

ANauMaNTaa ivXaiSaTaa iNahNTaa ==Yaiv==Yaq ) Sa&Sk==TaaR caePahTaaR c %adk==eiTa gaaTak==a" ))

anumant viasit nihant kraya-vikray, saskart copahart ca khdaka ceti ghtak

ANauMaNTaa iNahNTaa

The permitter (anumant), killer (nihant)



ivXaiSaTaa ==Yaiv==Yaq cutter (viasit), dealer (buyer and seller)

Sa&Sk==TaaR c oPahTaaR c cook (saskart preparer), offerer (upahart)
%adk==" c and the eater (khdaka)
wiTa gaaTak==a" these are the [seven] killers (ghtaka).

Naae dYaa Maa&Sa>aaeiJaNa" )

no day msa-bhojina

Maa&Sa>aaeiJaNa" Naae dYaa

Of a meat-eater (msa-bhojin) there is no (no) mercy (day).


Yae= =TvNaev&ivdae= _SaNTa"== STaBDaa"== Sadi>aMaaiNaNa"== )= =PaXaUNd]uiNTa== iv[BDaa"== Pa[eTYa== %adiNTa== Tae= =c= =TaaNa( ))
ye tv an-eva-vido santa stabdh sad-abhimnina, pan druhyanti virabdh pretya khdanti te ca tn

Yae Tau ANa(WvMa(ivd" But those who do not know this

ASaNTa" STaBDaa" the unholy (a-sat), stubborn (stabdha)
SaTa(Ai>aMaaiNaNa" thinking themselves to be saintly (sat)
iv[BDaa" PaXaUNa( d]uiNTa who harm the animals (pau), being trusted [by them]
Pa[eTYa Tae c TaaNa( %adiNTa next life (pretya) those [animals] also eat them.

Maa& Sa >a+aiYaTaaMau}a YaSYa Maa&SaiMahayhMa( ) WTaNMaa&SaSYa Maa&SaTv& Pa[vdiNTa MaNaqiz<a" ))

m sa bhakayitmutra yasya msam ihdmy aham, etan msasya msatva pravadanti mania

YaSYa Maa&SaMa( AhMa( wh Ai He whose meat (msa) I eat (admi) in this life (iha here),
Sa" MaaMa( AMau}a >a+aiYaTaa he will eat me in the next life (amutra).
WTad( Maa&SaSYa Maa&SaTvMa( This is the explanation of the word msa for meat
MaNaqiz<a" Pa[vdiNTa [thus] the wise (manin) declare.

Ga*he Gauravr<Yae va iNavSaaaTMavaiNJa" ) NaavedivihTaa& ih&SaaMaaPaiPa SaMaacreTa( ))

ghe gurv araye v nivasann tmavn dvija, nveda-vihit hism pady api samcaret

... SaMauTPaita& c Maa&SaSYa vDabNDaaE c deihNaaMa( ) Pa[SaMaq+Ya iNavTaeRTa SavRMaa&SaSYa >a+a<aaTa( ))

samutpatti ca msasya vadha-bandhau ca dehinm, prasamkya nivarteta sarva-msasya bhakat

AaTMavaNa( iJa" A self-realized brhmaa (dvija)

Ga*he GauraE Ar<Yae va iNavSaNa( whether living at home (gha), at [the place of] a teacher (guru), or in the
forest (araya)
... as student, householder or mendicant, in all stages of his life

AaPaid AiPa even in emergency (pad)

AvedivihTaaMa( ih&SaaMa( violence (his) which is not sanctioned in the Vedas
... in the Vedas certain animal sacrifices were sanctioned

Na SaMaacreTa( he should not perform. ...

Maa&SaSYa SaMauTPaitaMa( c The [disgusting] origin (samutpatti) of meat (msa)


deihNaaMa( vDabNDaaE c and the binding (bandha) and slaying (vadha) of embodied beings (dehin)
Pa[SaMaq+Ya [after] well considered [these]
SavRMaa&SaSYa >a+a<aaTa( from the eating (bhakaa) of all [kinds of] meat
iNavTaeRTa he should abstain.

^}aak&= ivrah& c lXauNa& Ga]aMaku= u= $=Ma( ) Pala<@u& Ga*Na& cEv MaTYaa JaGa PaTaed( iJa" ))
chatrka vi-varha ca launa grma-kukkuam, palu gjana caiva maty jagdhv pated dvija

^}aak==Ma( iv@(vrahMa( c

A mushroom (chatrka), a village-pig

vi-varha a pig (varha) living on stool (vi) in a village

lXauNaMa( Ga]aMaku= u= $=Ma( garlic (launa), a village-cock (grma-kukkua)

Pala<@uMa( Ga*NaMa( c Wv onion (palu), or [other kinds of] leeks (gjana)
MaTYaa JaGa after knowingly eating (jagdhv, from jak[a]) them
iJa" PaTaeTa( a brhmaa (dvija) will fall down.

cTauZPaaTSak==lae DaMaaeR b]a<aSYa ivDaqYaTae ) Paadavk*= ae raJaNYae TaQaa DaMaaeR ivDaqYaTae ))

catupt sakalo dharmo brhmaasya vidhyate, pdvako rjanye tath dharmo vidhyate


Out of the set of four (catupa) [virtues]

... namely truth, purity, mercy (a-his) and austerity

b]a<aSYa for a brhmaa

Sak==l" DaMaR" ivDaqYaTae all dharma is prescribed.
PaadAvk*= " TaQaa DaMaR" The same dharma reduced (avaka) by one fourth (pda)
... minus a-his

raJaNYae ivDaqYaTae

is prescribed for (in) royality.


NaaTMaaNaMaPairTYaJYa Ma*GaYaa NaaMa ivTae ) SaMaTaaMauPaSaMYa >aUTa& hNYaiNTa hiNTa va ))

ntmnam a-parityajya mgay nma vidyate, samatm upasagamya bhta hanyanti hanti v

ATaae raJazRYa" SaveR Ma*GaYaa& YaaiNTa >aarTa ) Na ih ilPYaiNTa PaaPaeNa Na cETaTPaaTak&= ivdu" ))
ato rjaraya sarve mgay ynti bhrata, na hi lipyanti ppena na caitat ptaka vidu

AaTMaaNaMa( APairTYaJYa Without risking ones life

Ma*GaYaa NaaMa Na ivTae there is certainly (nma) no hunting (mgay).
>aUTaMa( oPaSaMYa When meeting an animal (bhta)
SaMaTaaMa( there is equality (samat) [of risk]
hNYaiNTa hiNTa va either he is killed or he kills.
ATa" >aarTa Therefore, O Yudhihira!
SaveR raJazRYa" All the saintly kings (rja-_i)
Ma*GaYaaMa( YaaiNTa would go hunting.
PaaPaeNa Na ih ilPYaiNTa They are not stained by sin (ppa)
WTad( PaaTak==Ma( Na c ivdu" nor is this considered a sin (ptaka).




YajaYa JaiGDaMaa|SaSYaeTYaez dEvae iviDa" SMa*Ta" ) ATaae= _NYaQaa Pa[v*itaSTau ra+aSaae iviDaCYaTae ))
yajya jagdhir msasyety ea daivo vidhi smta, ato nyath pravttis tu rkaso vidhir ucyate

YaaviNTa PaXauraeMaai<a TaavTk*= Tvae h Maar<aMa( ) v*QaaPaXaugNa" Pa[aPNaaeiTa Pa[eTYa JaNMaiNa JaNMaiNa ))
yvanti pau-romi tvat-ktvo ha mraam, vth-pau-ghna prpnoti pretya janmani janmani

AaezDYa" PaXavae v*+aaiSTaYaR" Pai+a<aSTaQaa ) YajaQa| iNaDaNa& Pa[aa" Pa[aPNauvNTYauTSa*Taq" PauNa" ))

oadhya paavo vks tiryaca pakias tath, yajrtha nidhana prpt prpnuvanty utst puna

Maa&SaSYa JaiGDa" YajaYa

The eating (jagdhi, jak[a]) of meat (msa) is [befitting only] for sacrifices


wiTa Wz" dEv" iviDa" SMa*Ta" this is daiva-vidhi (rule of the gods).
ATa" ANYaQaa Pa[v*ita" Tau But to do it otherwise
ra+aSa" iviDa" oCYaTae is called a rkasa-vidhi (rule of the demons). ...
YaaviNTa PaXauraeMaai<a As many hairs (roma) there are of the [slain] animal (pau)
TaavTa(k*= Tv" h v*QaaPaXaugNa" just (ha) so many times (tvat-ktvas) the vain (vth) animal killer
... who kills not for yaja but for his tongue

Maar<aMa( Pa[aPNaaeiTa

attains killing (mraa)

... i.e., a violent death

Pa[eTYa JaNMaiNa JaNMaiNa thereafter (pretya after leaving) in birth (janman) after birth. ...
AaezDYa" PaXav" v*+aa" Herbs (oadhi), beasts (pau), trees (vka)
iTaYaR" TaQaa Pai+a<a" animals (tiryak going horizontally) and birds (pakin)
YajAQaRMa( iNaDaNaMa( Pa[aa" having attained death (nidhana) for yaja
PauNa" oTSa*Taq" Pa[aPNauviNTa they again (punas) attain [a higher] birth.

YaQaa PaeNa PaaM>a" SaurYaa va Saurak*= TaMa( ) >aUTahTYaa& TaQaEvEk= a& Na YajEMaaRuRMahRiTa ))
yath pakena pakmbha suray v surktam, bhta-haty tathaivaik na yajair mrum arhati

YaQaa PaeNa

As by mud (paka)
... by filtering it through mud

PaAM>a" MaauRMa( Na AhRiTa

one is not able to purify muddy water

mrum (mj[] to wash, purify) to wash, purify

SaurYaa Saurak*= TaMa( va

or by wine (sur) wine-stain,

... as one is not able to purify wine-stain by wine

TaQaa Wv YajE"

even so by [animal] sacrifices (yaja)

... one is not able to purify

Wk==aMa( >aUTahTYaaMa(

the killing of [even] one creature (bhta).


AhSTaaiNa SahSTaaNaaMaPadaiNa cTauZPadaMa( ) f==LGaUiNa Ta}a MahTaa& Jaqvae JaqvSYa JaqvNaMa( ))

a-hastni sa-hastnm a-padni catu-padm, phalgni tatra mahat jvo jvasya jvanam

AhSTaaiNa SahSTaaNaaMa( Those without hands (a-hasta) for those with hands (sa-hasta)
APadaiNa cTauZPadaMa( those without legs (a-pada) for the four-legged (catu-pada)


Ta}a f==LGaUiNa MahTaaMa(

and there (in each group) those who are small (phalgu) for those who are big


Jaqv" JaqvSYa JaqvNaMa(

one being (jva) is the subsistence (jvana) of [another] being.


TaTaSTaa>Yaae ddavaMaaezDaq" SQaavrai<a c ) JaMaaiNa c >aUTaaiNa dubRlaiNa blqYaSaaMa( ))

tatas tbhyo dadv annam oadh sthvari ca, jagamni ca bhtni durbalni balyasm

AaezDaq" SQaavrai<a c Herbs (oadhi) and plants (sthvara)

JaMaaiNa >aUTaaiNa c and moving creatures (jagama)
dubRlaiNa blqYaSaaMa( the weak (durbala) for the strong (balyas)
TaTa" Taa>Ya" AaMa( ddaE he (Brahm) then gave as their (mens) food (anna).

AaezDYaae vqDaEv PaXavae Ma*GaPai+a<a" ) Aaaid>aUTaa >aUTaaNaaiMaTYaiPa ]UYaTae ]uiTa" ))

oadhyo vrudha caiva paavo mga-pakia, anndi-bht bhtnm ity api ryate ruti

k*= iz& SaaiDviTa MaNYaNTae Ta}a ih&Saa Para SMa*Taa ) k==zRNTaae lalE" Pau&Saae gNaiNTa >aUiMaXaYaaNbhUNa( )
ki sdhv iti manyante tatra his par smt, karanto lgalai puso ghnanti bhmi-ayn bahn

JaqvaNaNYaa& bhuXaSTa}a ik&= Pa]iTa>aaiTa Tae ))

jvn any ca bahuas tatra ki pratibhti te

Jaqva ih bhvae b]Nv*+aezu c f==lezu c ) odke= bhvaiPa Ta}a ik&= Pa]iTa>aaiTa Tae ))
jv hi bahavo brahman vkeu ca phaleu ca, udake bahava cpi tatra ki pratibhti te

AaezDYa" vqDa" c Wv That herbs (oadhi) and vegetables (vrudha)

PaXav" Ma*GaPai+a<a" animals (pau), deer (mga) and birds (pak)
AaAaid>aUTaa" >aUTaaNaaMa( are food etc. (anna-di) for all creatures (bhta)
wiTa AiPa ]UYaTae ]uiTa" this also is revelation (ruti) which is heard (ryate). ...
k*= izMa( SaaDau wiTa MaNYaNTae They consider agriculture (ki) as virtuous (sdhu)
Ta}a Para ih&Saa SMa*Taa but it is known that in it there is great (para) violence (his).
lalE" k==zRNTa" Pau&Sa" Men (1.3 of pus) ploughing (karat[]) with ploughs (lgala)
bhUNa( >aUiMaXaYaaNa( JaqvaNa( many creatures who live in the ground (bhmi)
ANYaaNa( c and others
bhuXa" gNaiNTa they kill in great number.
Ta}a Tae ik==Ma( Pa]iTa>aaiTa How do you like this?
... does this appear good to you?

b]Na( O brhmaa!
v*+aezu c f==lezu c Among trees (vka) and fruits (phala)
bhv" Jaqva" ih there are many (bahu) living beings [also killed]
odke= bhv" c AiPa and also many in the water (udaka).
Ta}a Tae ik==Ma( Pa]iTa>aaiTa How do you like this?




Pa SaUNaa Ga*hSQaSYa cuq Paez<YauPaSk==r" ) k==<@Naq caedku= M>a bDYaTae YaaSTau vahYaNa( ))
paca sn ghasthasya cull peay upaskara, kaan coda-kumbha ca badhyate ys tu vhayan

Ga*hSQaSYa Pa SaUNaa The five slaughter places (sn) of a householder (ghastha)

cuq Paez<aq oPaSk==r" are the hearth (cull), grinding-stone (pea), broom (upaskara any utensil)
k==<@Naq c odku= M>a" c mortar (kaan) and waterpot (uda-kumbha),
Yaa" Tau vahYaNa( bDYaTae using which he is bound.

AaaXaGau<a& iPa& iPaaXaGau<a& PaYa" ) PaYaSaae= _Gau<a& Maa&Sa& Maa&SaaXaGau<a& ga*TaMa( ))

annd daa-gua pia pid daa-gua paya, payaso a-gua msa msd daa-gua

AaaTa( dXaGau<aMa( iPaMa( Ten times [better] than grain (anna) is flour (pia)
iPaaTa( dXaGau<aMa( PaYa" ten times better than flour is milk (payas)
PaYaSa" AGau<aMa( Maa&SaMa( eight times better than milk is meat (msa)
Maa&SaaTa( dXaGau<aMa( ga*TaMa( and ten times better than meat is ghee (ghta).

Na Maa&SaaTParMa& ik==id]SaTaae ivTae >auiv )

na mst parama kicid rasato vidyate bhuvi

+aTa+aq<aai>aTaPTaaNaa& Ga]aMYaDaMaRrTaaTMaNaaMa( ) ADvNaa k==iXaRTaaNaa& c Na Maa&SaaiTae ParMa( ))

kata-kbhitaptn grmya-dharma-rattmanm, adhvan karitn ca na msd vidyate param

... SvMaa&Sa& ParMaa&SaeNa Yaae vDaRiYaTauiMaC^iTa ) NaaiSTa +aud]TarSTaSMaaa Na*Xa&SaTarae Nar" ))

sva-msa para-msena yo vardhayitum icchati, nsti kudrataras tasmn na nasataro nara

rSaTa" Maa&SaaTa( ParMaMa( From [the point of] taste (rasa) superior to meat (msa)
>auiv Na ik==id( ivTae there exists nothing on earth (bh).
+aTa+aq<aAi>aTaPTaaNaaMa( For those who are wounded (kata), exhausted (ka) or afflicted (abhitapta)
... with disease


for those addicted to sex

grmya-dharma a villagers occupation, sex

ADvNaa k==iXaRTaaNaaMa( c and for those emaciated (karita) by a journey (adhvan)

Maa&SaaTa( ParMa( Na ivTae something superior to meat (msa) does not exist. ...

ParMaa&SaeNa By the meat of another [creature]

Ya" SvMaa&SaMa( vDaRiYaTauMa( wC^iTa one who

desires to increase (vardhayitum) his own flesh (sva-


TaSMaaTa( +aud]Tar" Na*Xa&SaTar" more mean (kudra) and cruel (nasa) than him
Nar" Na AiSTa there is no man (nara).

rSavqYaRivPaak==a ih Maa&SaSYaaiPa vEke= ) k==IiTaRTaa wiTa TaiTk&= SYaa+a<aqYa& ivc+a<aE" ))


rasa-vrya-vipk hi va-msasypi vaidyake, krtit iti tat ki syd bhakaya vicakaai

Maa&SaSYa AiPa Even of the flesh (msa) of dogs (van)

rSavqYaRivPaak==a" ih the taste (rasa), energy (vrya) and digestive quality (vipka)
vEke= k==IiTaRTaa" are glorified in medicine (vaidyaka).
wiTa ik==Ma( But does it follow
Tad( ivc+a<aE" >a+a<aqYaMa( SYaaTa( that it should be eaten (bhakaya) by the wise (vicakaa)?

SaveR veda Na TaTku= YauR" SaveR Yaja >aarTa ) Yaae >a+aiYaTva Maa&SaaiNa PaadiPa iNavTaRTae ))
sarve ved na tat kuryu sarve yaj ca bhrata, yo bhakayitv msni pacd api nivartate

duZk==r& c rSajaNae Maa&SaSYa PairvJaRNaMa( ) cTau| v]TaiMad& ]e& SavRPa]a<Ya>aYaPa]dMa( ))

dukara ca rasa-jne msasya parivarjanam, cartu vratam ida reha sarva-pry-a-bhayapradam

>aarTa O Yudhihira!
Maa&SaaiNa >a+aiYaTva AiPa

[After] having eaten meat (msa)

... having tasted it

Ya" PaaTa( iNavTaRTae one who refrains later on (pact),

SaveR veda" SaveR Yaja" c [studying] all the Vedas and [performing] all sacrifices (yaja)
Na Tad( ku= YauR" can not give (do) that [equal merit].
Maa&SaSYa rSajaNae When one knows the taste (rasa) of meat
PairvJaRNaMa( duZk==rMa( c to refrain is very difficult (dukara).
SavRPa]ai<aA>aYaPa]dMa( Which gives fearlessness (a-bhaya) to all living being
pri, in comp. for prnin

wdMa( v]TaMa( cTauRMa( ]eMa(

to perform this vow (vrata) is the best.



Hinduism Mother Cow


PaYaSaa hivza dDNaa Xak*= Taa caQa cMaR<aa ) AiSQai>aaePaku= vRiNTa Xa*EvaRlE >aarTa )
payas havi dadhn akt ctha carma, asthibhi copakurvanti gair vlai ca bhrata

NaaSaa& XaqTaaTaPaaE SYaaTaa& SadETaa" k==MaR ku= vRTae ))

ns ttapau syt sadait karma kurvate

>aarTa O Yudhihira!
PaYaSaa hivza dDNaa With milk (payas), ghee (havis) and curd (dadhi)
Xak*= Taa c AQa cMaR<aa with dung (akt) and skin (carman)
AiSQai>a" c Xa*E" valE" c with bones (asthi), horns (ga) and hairs (vla) [of the tail]
oPaku= vRiNTa they (cows) give benefit.
XaqTaAaTaPaaE Cold (ta) and heat (tapa)
AaSaaMa( Na SYaaTaaMa( do not exist for them.
sm (from idam) of/for them; sytm (vidhi 1.2 as[a] to be) they two should be

WTaa" Sada k==MaR ku= vRTae

They always (sad) do their work (karman).

kurvate (tmane-pada) they do

Gaavae l+MYaaSTaQaa MaUl& Gaaezu dta& Na NaXYaiTa )

gvo lakmys tath mla gou datta na nayati

TaQaa Gaav" Thus cows (go) are

l+MYaa" MaUlMa( the root (mla) of prosperity (lakm).
Gaaezu dtaMa( [Anything] given (datta) to cows
Na NaXYaiTa does not perish.
... it gives a pious result

ADa]uva cPala c Tv& SaaMaaNYaa bhui>a" Sah ) Na TvaiMaC^aMa >ad]& Tae GaMYaTaa& Ya}a r&SYaSae ))
a-dhruv capal ca tva smny bahubhi saha, na tvm icchma bhadra te gamyat yatra rasyase

AvXYa& MaaNaNaa k==aYaaR TavaSMaai>aYaRXaiSviNa ) Xak*= NMaU}ae iNavSa Tv& Pau<YaMaeTai Na" Xau>ae ))
avaya mnan kry tavsmbhir yaasvini, akn-mtre nivasa tva puyam etad dhi na ubhe

TvMa( ADa]uva cPala c You are uncertain (a-dhruva), restless (capala)

bhui>a" Sah SaaMaaNYaa and common [object of enjoyment] with many.
TvaMa( Na wC^aMa" We do not want you.
>ad]Ma( Tae Blessed be you!
Ya}a r&SYaSae GaMYaTaaMa( Please go wherever you like!
After being solicited again by Lakm they said:

YaXaiSviNa O famous [Lakm]!

Tav MaaNaNaa ASMaai>a" AvXYaMa( k==aYaaR

Certainly your honor should be done by us.


... we should not disrespect you

Xau>ae O goddess [Lakm]!

TvMa( Na" Xak*= Ta(MaU}ae iNavSa You please reside in our (na) dung (akt) and urine (mtra)
WTad( Pau<YaMa( ih because it is sacred.

MaaTar" SavR>aUTaaNaa& Gaav" SavRSau%Pa[da" ) v*iMaak==aTaa iNaTYa& Gaav" k==aYaaR" Pa[di+a<aa" ))

mtara sarva-bhtn gva sarva-sukha-prad, vddhim kkat nitya gva kry pradaki

Gaav" Cows (go) are

SavR>aUTaaNaaMa( MaaTar" the mothers (mt) of all beings (bhta)
SavRSau%Pa[da" and givers of all happiness (sukha).
v*iMa( Aak==aTaa By one desiring prosperity (vddhi)
iNaTYaMa( Gaav" Pa[di+a<aa" k==aYaaR" cows (go) should always be circumambulated.

SaveR deva GavaMae TaqQaaRiNa TaTPadezu c ) Tauezu SvYa& l+MaqiSTaTYaev Sada iPaTa" ))
sarve dev gavm age trthni tat-padeu ca, tad-guhyeu svaya lakms tihaty eva sad pita

... GaaviSTaiNTa== Ya}aEv= =TataqQa|= =Pairk==IiTaRTaMa( )

gvas tihanti yatraiva tat trtha parikrtitam

iPaTa" O father (pit)!

GavaMa( Ae SaveR deva" In the body (aga) of cows (go) are [situated] all the devas,
Tad(Padezu c TaqQaaRiNa and in their legs (pada) are all the holy places (trtha)
Tad(Gauezu in their hearts (guhya)
SvYaMa( l+Maq" Sada iTaiTa Wv Lakm herself always resides. ...
Ya}a Wv Gaav" iTaiNTa Wherever cows stay
Tad( TaqQaRMa(= =Pairk==IiTaRTaMa( that [place] is glorified as a holy place (trtha).

k==ITaRNa& ]v<a& daNa& dXaRNa& caiPa PaaiQaRv ) Gava& Pa]XaSYaTae vqr SavRPaaPahr& iXavMa( ))
krtana ravaa dna darana cpi prthiva, gav praasyate vra sarva-ppa-hara ivam

iNaiv& Gaaeku= l& Ya}a aSa& MauiTa iNa>aRYaMa( ) ivraJaYaiTa Ta& deXa& PaaPa& caSYaaPak==zRiTa ))
nivia go-kula yatra vsa mucati nirbhayam, virjayati ta dea ppa csypakarati

PaaiQaRv vqr O King [Yudhihira], O hero!

GavaMa( k==ITaRNaMa( ]v<aMa( The chanting and hearing (ravaa) about cows (go)
daNaMa( dXaRNaMa( c AiPa giving away (dna) and even seeing (darana) them
SavRPaaPahrMa( iXavMa( Pa]XaSYaTae is praised (praasyate) as purifying and auspicious (iva). ...
sarva-ppa-hra destroyer of all sin

Ya}a Gaaeku= lMa( iNaivMa( Where a herd (kula) of cows (go) is placed (nivia)
iNa>aRYaMa( aSaMa( MauiTa and where it fearlessly (nir.bhayam) breathes (?),
TaMa( deXaMa( ivraJaYaiTa that land (dea) it makes shining [in beauty]



ASYa PaaPaMa( c APak==zRiTa

and all its sin (ppa) it removes.


SauPaa bhuPaa ivPaa MaaTar" ) Gaavae MaaMauPaiTaNTaaiMaiTa iNaTYa& Pa]k= ITaRYaeTa( ))

surp bahu-rp ca viva-rp ca mtara, gvo mm upatihantm iti nitya prakrtayet

SauPaa" bhuPaa" c [Cows are] of a beautiful form (su.rpa) and of various forms
ivPaa" c MaaTar" of a universal form and the mothers (mt) [of all].
Gaav" MaaMa( oPaiTaNTaaMa( Let cows come to me.
wiTa iNaTYaMa( Pa]k= ITaRYaeTa( Thus one should always (nityam) glorify.

Gaa== vE= =PaXYaaMYah&= =iNaTYa&= =Gaav"== PaXYaNTau= =Maa&= =Sada== )= =Gaavae= _SMaak&= = =vYa&= =TaaSaa&= =YaTaae= =GaavSTaTaae= =vYaMa( ))
g vai paymy aha nitya gva payantu m sad, gvo smka vaya ts yato gvas tato vayam

Gaa" vE AhMa( iNaTYaMa( PaXYaaiMa At cows (go) I always look.

Gaav" MaaMa( Sada PaXYaNTau Let cows always look at me.
Gaav" ASMaak==Ma( vYaMa( TaaSaaMa( Cows are ours and we are theirs.
YaTa" Gaav" TaTa" vYaMa( Where there are cows there are we.

AuMaa}a" SQaUlae va bahuMaa}a" Pa]Maa<aTa" ) Aad]RSTau SaPalaXa d<@ wTYai>aDaqYaTae ))

agua-mtra sthlo v bhu-mtra pramata, rdras tu sa-pala ca daa ity abhidhyate

AuMaa}a" Pa]Maa<aTa" Measuring (pramatas) [the width of] a thumb (agua)

SQaUl" va or thicker (sthla thick)
bahuMaa}a" and the length of an arm (bhu)
Aad]R" Tau SaPalaXa" c and fresh (rdra) and with foliage [at the end]
d<@" wiTa Ai>aDaqYaTae this is said to be a [proper] stick (daa).
... for goading cattle

AaTMaMaaTaa Gaurae" PaTNaq b]a<aq raJaPaiTNak==a ) DaeNauDaaR}aq TaQaa Pa*Qvq SaETaa MaaTar" SMa*Taa" ))
tma-mt guro patn brhma rja-patnik, dhenur dhtr tath pthv saptait mtara smt

AaTMaMaaTaa Gaurae" PaTNaq The own mother (tma-mt) and the wife (patn) of the priest (guru)
b]a<aq raJaPaiTNak==a the wife of the teacher (brhmaa) the wife of the king (rjan)
DaeNau" Daa}aq TaQaa Pa*Qvq the cow (dhenu), nurse (dhtr) and earth (pthv)
Sa WTaa" MaaTar" SMa*Taa" these seven (sapta) are considered mothers (mt).

GavaXaNaezu ivk]= I<a&STaTa" Pa]aPNaaeiTa GaaevDaMa( )

gavaneu vikras tata prpnoti go-vadham

Gaaev*za<aa& ivPataaE c YaavNTa" Pa]e+ak==a JaNaa" ) Na varYaiNTa Taa& Taeza& SaveRza& PaaTak&= >aveTa( ))
go-v vipattau ca yvanta prekak jan, na vrayanti t te sarve ptaka bhavet

GavAXaNaezu ivk]= I<aNa(

When selling (vikran) [cows] to cow-eaters (gava-aana)

TaTa" GaaevDaMa( Pa]aPNaaeiTa then one attains [the sin of] cow-killing (go-vadha). ...
Gaaev*za<aaMa( ivPataaE c In the slaughter (vipatti destruction) of cows (go) and bulls (va)
YaavNTa" JaNaa" Pa]e+ak==a" as many (yvat) persons (jana) are whitnesses (prekaka)
TaaMa( Na varYaiNTa who do not prevent that [slaughter],
SaveRzaMa( TaezaMa( for all of them
PaaTak&= >aveTa( there is the sin (ptaka) [of cow-killing].




Hinduism Virtue

TaPa" XaaEc& dYaa SaTYaiMaiTa Paada" k*= Tae k*= Taa" ) ADaMaa|XaEYaae >aGNaa" SMaYaSaMadESTav ))
tapa auca day satyam iti pd kte kt, a-dharmais trayo bhagn smaya-saga-madais tava

TaPa" XaaEcMa( dYaa SaTYaMa(

(4) Austerity (tapas), (2) purity (auca), (3) mercy (day) and (1)

truthfulness (satya)
Tapas includes fasting and silence (mauna).

wiTa Paada" k*= Tae k*= Taa"

these your legs (pda) were established in kta-yuga.

Sometimes, charity (dna) is mentioned in place of purity (auca).


By (4) intoxication (mada), (2) womanizing and (3) pride (smaya)

saga association

ADaMaRA&XaE" by [these] limbs (aa) of a-dharma

Tav }aYa" >aGNaa" three of your [legs] are [already] broken (bhagna).
... tapas by mada, day by smaya, and auca by saga

A>YaiQaRTaSTada TaSMaE SQaaNaaiNa k==lYae ddaE ) UTa& PaaNa& iYa" SaUNaa Ya}aaDaMaRTauivRDa" ))
abhyarthitas tad tasmai sthnni kalaye dadau, dyta pna striya sn yatrdharma catur-vidha

PauNa YaacMaaNaaYa JaaTaPaMadaTPa[>au" ) TaTaae= _Na*Ta& Mad& k==aMa& rJaae vEr& c PaMaMa( ))
puna ca ycamnya jta-rpam adt prabhu, tato n-ta mada kma rajo vaira ca pacamam


[King Parkit,] being solicited (abhyarthita) [by Kali]

... Kali, the personified sin

TaSMaE k==lYae to that Kali

Tada SQaaNaaiNa ddaE he then gave places (sthna)
... as residence

Ya}a cTauivRDa" ADaMaR" where there is the fourfold a-dharma [namely]

UTaMa( PaaNaMa( (1) gambling (dyta), (4) drinking (pna)
iYa" SaUNaa (2) prostitution (striya womanizing) and (3) slaughter (sn).
PauNa" c YaacMaaNaaYa To the again (punas) begging (ycamna) [Kali]
Pa[>au" JaaTaPaMa( AdaTa( King [Parkit] gave gold (jta-rpa),
TaTa" [because] from that come
ANa*TaMa( MadMa( k==aMaMa( (1) falsehood (an-ta), (4) intoxication (mada), (2) lust (kma)
rJa" vErMa( c PaMaMa( (3) passion (rajas) and as fifth enmity (vaira).

vedSYaaePaiNazTSaTYa& SaTYaSYaaePaiNazMa" ) dMaSYaaePaiNazaNa& daNaSYaaePaiNaztaPa" )

vedasyopaniat satya satyasyopaniad dama, damasyopaniad dna dnasyopaniat tapa

TaPaSaaePaiNaztYaaGaSTYaaGaSYaaePaiNazTSau:aMa( ))
tapasopaniat tygas tygasyopaniat sukham


The sandhi between tapasa and upaniad should be tapasa upaniad, but further sandhi
was made to tapasopaniad. (?)

vedSYa oPaiNazd( SaTYaMa(

The purpose of the Veda is (1) truth (satya)

upaniad secret meaning, purpose

SaTYaSYa oPaiNazd( dMa" the purpose of satya is (2) sense-control (dama)

dMaSYa oPaiNazd( daNaMa( the purpose of dama is (3) charity (dna)
daNaSYa oPaiNazd( TaPa" the purpose of dna is (4) penance (tapas)
TaPaSa" oPaiNazd( TYaaGa" the purpose of tapas renunciation (tyga)
TYaaGaSYa oPaiNazd( Sau:aMa( and the purpose of tyga is happiness (sukha).

iNaTYa& k]= aeDaataPaae r+aeiC^\Ya& r+ae MaTSaraTa( ) iva& MaaNaavMaaNaa>YaaMaaTMaaNa& Tau Pa]MaadTa" ))
nitya krodht tapo rakec chriya rakec ca matsart, vidy mnvamnbhym tmna tu

AaNa*Xa&SYa& Parae DaMaR" +aMaa c ParMa& blMa( ) AaTMajaNa& Par& jaNa& Na SaTYaaiTae ParMa( ))
nasya paro dharma kam ca parama balam, tma-jna para jna na satyd vidyate param

TaPa" iNaTYaMa( k]= aeDaaTa( r+aeTa( One should always (nityam) protect penance (tapas) from anger (krodha)
i]YaMa( c MaTSaraTa( r+aeTa( one should protect prosperity (r) from pride (matsara envy)
ivaMa( MaaNaAvMaaNaa>YaaMa( education (vidy) from honor (mna) and dishonor (avamna)
AaTMaaNaMa( Tau Pa]MaadTa" and oneself (tman) from illusion (pramda).
AaNa*Xa&SYaMa( Par" DaMaR" Mercy (nasya) is the supreme virtue (dharma)
+aMaa c ParMaMa( blMa( forgiveness (kam) the supreme strength (bala)
AaTMajaNaMa( ParMa( jaNaMa( and self-realization (tma-jna) the supreme knowledge (jna).
SaTYaaTa( ParMa( Na ivTae [But] there exists nothing higher (para) than truthfulness (satya).

SaTYaSYa vcNa& SaaDau Na SaTYaaiTae ParMa( ) SaTYaeNa ivDa*Ta& Sav| Sav| SaTYae Pa]iTaiTaMa( ))
satyasya vacana sdhu na satyd vidyate param satyena vidhta sarva sarva satye pratihitam

AiPa PaaPak*= Taae raEd]a" SaTYa& k*= Tva Pa*QaKPa*Qak(= ) Ad]aehMaivSa&vad& Pa]vTaRNTae Tada]Yaa" ))
api ppa-kto raudr satya ktv pthak pthak, a-droham a-visavda pravartante tad-ray

SaTYaSYa vcNaMa( SaaDau Speaking (vacana) of the truth (satya) is virtuous (sdhu).
SaTYaaTa( ParMa( Na ivTae There exists nothing superior (para) to truth.
SavRMa( SaTYaeNa ivDa*TaMa( Everything (sarva) is supported by truth.
SavRMa( SaTYae Pa]iTaiTaMa( Everything depends (is based) on truth.
PaaPak*= Ta" raEd]a" AiPa Even sinful (ppa-kt) and dreadful (raudra) persons
SaTYaMa( k*= Tva Pa*Qak(= Pa*Qak(= after swearing [to keep] (doing) truth amongst each other (pthak pthak)
Tad(Aa]Yaa" relying on that [truth]
Ad]aehMa( AivSa&vadMa( Pa]vTaRNTae act without injury and lying.
droha injury; visavda false assertion




SaTYa& vd== =) DaMa| cr== =) SvaDYaaYaaNMaa Pa]Mad" )

satya vada, dharma cara, svdhyyn m pramada

MaaTa*devae >av== =) iPaTa*devae >av== =) AacaYaRdevae >av== =) AiTaiQadevae >av )

mt-devo bhava, pit-devo bhava, crya-devo bhava, atithi-devo bhava

SaTYaMa( vd Speak the truth (satya).

DaMaRMa( cr Practice virtue (dharma).
SvaDYaaYaaNa( Maa Pa]Mad" Do not neglect your daily recitations (svdhyya).
MaaTa*dev" >av Worship your mother (mt).
iPaTa*dev" >av Worship your father (pit).
AacaYaRdev" >av Worship your teacher (crya).
AiTaiQadev" >av Worship your guests (atithi).

luBDaMaQaeRNa Ga*qYaaTSTaBDaMailk==MaR<aa ) MaU%| ^Ndae_Nauv*tYaa c YaQaaQaRTveNa Pai<@TaMa( ))

lubdham arthena ghyt stabdham ajali-karma, mrkha chando-nuvtty ca yathrthatvena

luBDaMa( AQaeRNa Ga*qYaaTa( One can conciliate (captivate) a greedy man (lubdha) with wealth (artha)
STaBDaMa( Ailk==MaR<aa an obstinate man (stabdha) with folded hands [in salutation]
MaU%RMa( ^Nd"ANauv*tYaa c a fool (mrkha) by compliance with his desire (chandas)
Pai<@TaMa( YaQaaAQaRTveNa and a learned man (paita) with truthfulness.

AaJaRv& DaMaRiMaTYaahurDaMaaeR iJa oCYaTae ) AaJaRveNaeh Sa&Yau= ae Narae DaMaeR<a YauJYaTae ))

rjava dharmam ity hur a-dharmo jihma ucyate, rjaveneha sayukto naro dharmea yujyate

AaJaRvMa( DaMaRMa( wiTa Aahu" Honesty (rjava) means (hu they call) virtue (dharma)
iJa" ADaMaR" oCYaTae and crookedness (jihma) means vice (a-dharma).
AaJaRveNa wh Sa&Yau= " Endowed (sayukta) with honesty in this world
Nar" DaMaeR<a YauJYaTae a man (nara) is endowed with virtue (dharma).

Na SaTYaaTParae= _DaMaR wiTa haevac >aUirYaMa( ) Sav| Saae!uMal& MaNYae Tae= _lqk==Par& NarMa( ))
na hy a-satyt paro dharma iti hovca bhr iyam, sarva sohum ala manye te lka-para naram

ASaTYaaTa( Na ih Par" ADaMaR" There is no greater sin (a-dharma) than untruthfulness (a-satya).
Alqk==ParMa( NarMa( Tae Except for a person (nara) who is given to falsehood (alka)
SavRMa( Saae!uMa( AlMa( MaNYae I consider [myself] able (alam) to tolerate everything.
... to bear the greatest mountains

wiTa wYaMa( >aU" h ovac

This the earth (bh) [once] said.


Aih&SaYaEv= =>aUTaaNaa&= =k= aYa|= =[eYaae= _NauXaaSaNaMa(= =)= =vaKcEv= =MaDaura== +<aa== Pa[YaaeJYaa== DaMaRiMaC^Taa ))


a-hisayaiva bhtn krya reyo nusanam, vk caiva madhur lak prayojy dharmam icchat

Aih&SaYaa Wv Without giving any pain (a-his)

>aUTaaNaaMa( to all beings (bhta)
[eYa" ANauXaaSaNaMa( k==aYaRMa( good (reya) instruction (anusana) must be given.
DaMaRMa( wC^Taa By one desiring (icchat) virtue (dharma)
MaDaura +<aa vak(= c Wv only sweet (madhura) and gentle (laka) speech (vc)
Pa[YaaeJYaa should be used.

SaTYa& b]UYaaiTPa[Ya& b]UYaaa b]UYaaTSaTYaMaiPa[YaMa( ) iPa[Ya& c NaaNa*Ta& b]UYaadez DaMaR" SaNaaTaNa" ))

satya bryt priya bryn na bryt satyam a-priyam, priya ca nnta bryd ea dharma

SaTYaMa( b]UYaaTa( One should say (bryt) the truth (satya)

iPa[YaMa( b]UYaaTa( and one should say what is pleasing (priya).
AiPa]YaMa( SaTYaMa( Na b]UYaaTa( One should not say unpleasing (a-priya) truth
Na c iPa[YaMa( ANa*TaMa( b]UYaaTa( nor should one say pleasing untruth (an-ta).
Wz" SaNaaTaNa" DaMaR" This is eternal (santana) law (dharma).

DaaiMaRk= a Gau<aSaMPaaa" SaTYaaJaRvSaMaiNvTaa" ) du==vacai>aihTaE" Pa]aPNauvNTaqh duZk*= TaMa( ))

dhrmik gua-sampann satyrjava-samanvit, durukta-vcbhihitai prpnuvantha duktam

ivMa*XYa TaSMaaTPa]ajeNa v==VYa& DaMaRiMaC^Taa ) SaTYaaNa*TaeNa ih k*= Ta oPadeXaae ihNaiSTa ih ))

vimya tasmt prjena vaktavya dharmam icchat, satyntena hi kta upadeo hinasti hi

Gau<aSaMPaaa" Who are endued with all good qualities (gua)

SaTYaAJaRvSaMaiNvTaa" and endued with truth (satya) and honesty (rjava)
DaaiMaRk= a" [even such] rigtheous persons (dhrmika)
du==vacaAi>aihTaE" by declarations (abhihita declared) of improper (durukta) words (vc)
duZk*= TaMa( wh Pa]aPNauviNTa they get sin (dukta) in this world (iha). ...
TaSMaaTa( Therefore
DaMaRMa( wC^Taa Pa]ajeNa by a wise man (prja) desiring (icchat) merit (dharma)
ivMa*XYa v==VYaMa( [an instruction] is to be spoken (vaktavya) after consideration.
SaTYaANa*TaeNa ih k*= Ta" oPadeXa" And the instruction done as a trade
satya-anta practice of truth and falsehood, commerce

ihNaiSTa ih

violates [the instructor].


NaaPa*" k==SYaicd( b]UYaaaaPYaNYaaYaeNa Pa*C^Ta" ) jaNavaNaiPa MaeDaavq Ja@vTSaMauPaaivXaeTa( ))

npa kasyacid bryn npy a-nyyena pcchata, jnavn api medhv jaavat samupviet

APa*" Without being asked

k==SYaicd( Na b]UYaaTa( one should not speak to anyone



Na AiPa ANYaaYaeNa Pa*C^Ta" nor to one who is asking improperly (a-nyyena).

jaNavaNa( AiPa MaeDaavq An intelligent man, even when knowledgeable (jnavat)
Ja@vTa( SaMauPaaivXaeTa( should [then] sit like dumb (jaavat).

PaYa"PaaNa& >auJaaNaa& ke= vl& ivzvDaRNaMa( ) oPadeXaae ih MaU%aR<aa& Pa[k= aePaaYa Na XaaNTaYae ))
paya-pna bhujagn kevala via-vardhanam, upadeo hi mrkh prakopya na ntaye

>auJaaNaaMa( PaYa"PaaNaMa(

Giving milk to snakes

paya-pna milk-drink, milk; bhujaga ( curved-going, a snake

ke= vlMa( ivzvDaRNaMa( is just enhancing (vardhana) their poison (via).

MaU%aR<aaMa( oPadeXa" ih An advice (upadea) for rascals (mrkha)
Pa[k= aePaaYa is for [their] anger (prakopa)
Na XaaNTaYae not for [their] pacification (nti).

Saul>aa" Pauza raJaNSaTaTa& iPa]YavaidNa" ) AiPa]YaSYa c PaQYaSYa v==a ]aeTaa c dulR>a" ))

sulabh puru rjan satata priya-vdina, a-priyasya ca pathyasya vakt rot ca durlabha

raJaNa( O King!
SaTaTaMa( iPa]YavaidNa" Pauza" Persons (purua) who always (satatam) speek pleasing (priya) words
Saul>aa" are easy to find.
AiPa]YaSYa c PaQYaSYa Of something unpalatable but suitable (pathya)
v==a ]aeTaa c dulR>a" [both] a speaker (vakt) and a hearer (rot) is rare.

Pa*" iPa]YaihTa& b]UYaaa b]UYaadihTa& iPa]YaMa( ) AiPa]Ya& va ihTa& b]UYaaC^*<vTaae= _NauMaTaae iMaQa" ))
pa priya-hita bryn na bryd a-hita priyam, a-priya v hita bryc chvato numato mitha

Pa*" When asked [by the king]

iPa]YaihTaMa( b]UYaaTa( he (the courtier) should say the pleasing (priya) truth (hita what is beneficial).
iPa]YaMa( AihTaMa( Na b]UYaaTa( He should not say the pleasing untruth.
ANauMaTa" [Only when] allowed,
iMaQa" Xa*<vTa" for [the king who is] secretly (mithas mutually) listening
AiPa]YaMa( va ihTaMa( b]UYaaTa( he should say the unpleasing truth also.

XaaEc& c iivDa& Pa]ae&= baMaa>YaNTar& TaQaa ) Ma*ala>Yaa& SMa*Ta& ba& >aavXauiSTaQaaNTarMa( ))

auca ca dvi-vidha prokta bhyam bhyantara tath, mj-jalbhy smta bhya bhva-uddhis

AaXaaEcai vr& ba& TaSMaada>YaNTar& vrMa( ) o>aa>Yaa& c XauicYaRSTau Sa XauicNaeRTar" Xauic" ))

aucd dhi vara bhya tasmd bhyantara varam, ubhbhy ca ucir yas tu sa ucir netara uci

XaaEcMa( c iivDaMa( Pa]ae= Ma( Purity (auca) is said to be of two kinds (dvi-vidha)
baMa( TaQaa Aa>YaNTarMa( external (bhya) and internal (bhyantara).


Ma*d(Jala>YaaMa( baMa( SMa*TaMa( [Purity] with earth (md) and water (jala) is said to be external
TaQaa >aavXaui" ANTarMa( and purity of thought (bhva) is internal (antara).
AaXaaEcaTa( ih baMa( vrMa( Better (vara) than impurity (auca) is external [purity]
TaSMaaTa( Aa>YaNTarMa( vrMa( and better than that is internal [purity].
Ya" Tau o>aa>YaaMa( c Xauic" One who is pure (uci) by both (ubha)
Sa" Xauic" [only] he is pure,
Na wTar" Xauic" no one else (itara) is pure.

:aNaNaahNaazaRaei>arak]= Ma<aadiPa ) cTaui>aR" XauDYaTae >aUiMa" PaMaaaePalePaNaaTa( ))

khanand dahand vard gobhir kramad api, caturbhi udhyate bhmi pacamc copalepant

rJaSaa XauDYaTae Naarq Nadq veGaeNa XauDYaiTa ) >aSMaNaa XauDYaTae k==a&SYa& TaaMa]MaMleNa XauDYaiTa ))
rajas udhyate nr nad vegena udhyati, bhasman udhyate ksya tmram amlena udhyati

:aNaNaaTa( dhNaaTa( vzaRTa( By (from) digging (khanana), burning (dahana), by rain (vara)
Gaaei>a" Aak]= Ma<aaTa( AiPa and also by being trodden by cows (go)
cTaui>aR" >aUiMa" XauDYaTae by [these] four [means] land (bhmi) is purified;
PaMaaTa( c oPalePaNaaTa( and by a fifth, by smearing (upalepana) [it with cow-dung].
Naarq rJaSaa XauDYaTae A woman (nr) is purified by her course (rajas)
Nadq veGaeNa XauDYaiTa a river (nad) is purified by its current (vega)
k==a&SYaMa( >aSMaNaa XauDYaTae bell-metal (ksya) is purified by ashes (bhasman)
TaaMa]Ma( AMleNa XauDYaiTa and copper (tmra) is purified by a sour substance (amla).

AiSTau Pa]ae+a<a& XaaEc& bhUNaa& DaaNYavaSaSaaMa( ) Pa]+aalNaeNa TvLPaaNaaMai" XaaEc& ivDaqYaTae ))

adbhis tu prokaa auca bahn dhnya-vsasm, praklanena tv alpnm adbhi auca vidhyate

MaaJaaRrMai+ak==ak==I$=PaTak*= iMadduRra" ) MaeDYaaMaeDYa& SPa*XaNTYaeNa& NaaeiC^aNMaNaurb]vqTa( ))

mrjra-makik-ka-pataga-kmi-dardur, medhymedhya spanty ena nocchin manur abravt

Adua" SaNTaTaa Daara vaTaaeUTaa re<av" ) iS}aYaae v*a bala Na duZYaiNTa k==dacNa ))
a-du santat dhr vtoddht ca reava, striyo vddh ca bl ca na duyanti kadcana

bhUNaaMa( DaaNYavaSaSaaMa( Of large (bahu) [measures] of grain (dhnya) and cloth (vsas)
Ai" Tau Pa]ae+a<aMa( XaaEcMa( there is consecration (prokaa) for purity (auca) [by sprinkling] with
ap (water) >>> adbhi

ALPaaNaaMa( Tau but of small (alpa) [measures]

Ai" Pa]+aalNaeNa by washing (praklana) with water
XaaEcMa( ivDaqYaTae purity is prescribed. ...
MaaJaaRrMai+ak==ak==I$= Cats (mrjra), flies (makik), crawling insects (ka)
PaTak*= iMadduRra" flying insects (pataga), worms (kmi) and frogs (dardura)
MaeDYaAMaeDYaMa( WNaMa( SPa*XaiNTa touch both this what is pure and impure,



medhya fit for an offering, pure

Na oiC^aNa( MaNau" Ab]vqTa(

[but] Manu did not call them impure. ...

ucchia left, to be rejected, impure

SaNTaTaa" Daara" [Continually] flowing (santata) rivers

vaTaoUTaa" re<av" c and dusts (reu) raised (uddhta) by the wind (vta)
Adua" are not impure.
iS}aYa" v*a" c bala" c Women (str), the old (vddha) and young (bla)
Na k==dacNa duZYaiNTa never become impure.

Ma*da JaleNa Xaui" SYaaa e= Xaae Na DaNaVYaYa" )

md jalena uddhi syn na kleo na dhana-vyaya

Ma*da JaleNa With earth (md) and water (jala)

Xaui" SYaaTa( purification (uddhi) can be effected.
Na e= Xa" [Thus] there is no trouble (klea)
Na DaNaVYaYa" and no expenditure (vyaya loss) of money (dhana).

oTQaaYa Nae}ae Pa]+aaLYa Xauic>aURTva SaMaaihTa" ) PairJaPYa c MaN}aai<a >a+aYaeNTaDaavNaMa( ))

utthya netre praklya ucir bhtv samhita, parijapya ca mantri bhakayed danta-dhvanam

AaYaubRl& YaXaae vc| Pa]Jaa" PaXaUNvSaUiNa c ) b] Pa]ja& c MaeDaa& c Tv& Naae Daeih vNaSPaTae ))
yur bala yao varca praj pan vasni ca, brahma praj ca medh ca tva no dhehi vanaspate

oTQaaYa Nae}ae Pa]+aaLYa [After] rising, washing the two eyes (netra)
Xauic" SaMaaihTa" >aUTva becoming pure (uci) and self-restrained (samhita)
MaN}aai<a PairJaPYa c and [after] reciting mantras
dNTaDaavNaMa( >a+aYaeTa( one should chew (eat) a tooth-cleaner (danta-dhvana).
[One such mantra is:]


O tree (vanaspati)!
... from which the tooth-stick is taken

AaYau" blMa( YaXa" vcRMa( Long life (yus), strength (bala), fame (yaas), energy (varcas)
Pa]Jaa" PaXaUNa( vSaUiNa c children (praj), cattle (pau), wealth (vasu)
b] Pa]jaMa( c MaeDaaMa( c Vedic knowledge (brahma), wisdom (praj) and intelligence (medh)
TvMa( Na" Daeih you please give us (na).

Aa& bu>au+aMaa<aSTau i}aMauR:aeNa SPa*XaedPa"== =) >auKTva caa& TaQaEv i}aiR" PauNa" PairMaaJaRYaeTa( ))
anna bubhukamas tu trir mukhena sped apa, bhuktv cnna tathaiva trir dvi puna parimrjayet

AaMa( bu>au+aMaa<a" Tau And when desiring to eat (bubhukama) food (anna)
i}a" Mau:aeNa APa" SPa*XaeTa( thrice (tri) one should touch water (ap) with the mouth (mukha).
... i.e., washing the mouth thrice

AaMa( >auKTva c

And after eating food also

TaQaa Wv i}a" i" PauNa" PairMaaJaRYaeTa(


one should similarly wash [the mouth] thrice and again twice


valeNa Tau Na >auaqTa )

vlena tu na bhujta

valeNa Tau But [food] with hair (vla) [in it]

Na >auaqTa one should not eat.



Hinduism Charity

AhNYahiNa daTaVYaMadqNaeNaaNTaraTMaNaa ) STaaek= adiPa Pa]YaTNaeNa daNaiMaTYai>aDaqYaTae ))

ahany ahani dtavyam a-dnenntartman, stokd api prayatnena dnam ity abhidhyate

AhiNa AhiNa Pa]YaTNaeNa Carefully, every day (ahan)

AdqNaeNa ANTaraTMaNaa with a liberal (a-dna non-wretched) mind
STaaek= aTa( AiPa daTaVYaMa( even from a little (stoka) [income something] one should give
daNaMa( wiTa Ai>aDaqYaTae this is called charity (dna).

Wk==a& Gaa& dXaGaudRaXa da GaaeXaTaq ) XaTa& SahGaudRaTSaveR TauLYaf==la ih Tae ))

ek g daa-gur dadyd daa dadyc ca go-at, ata sahasra-gur dadyt sarve tulya-phal hi te

dXaGau" Wk==aMa( GaaMa( daTa( The owner of ten (daa) cows (gu = go) should give one cow
GaaeXaTaq dXa daTa( c the owner of a hundred should give ten
SahGau" XaTaMa( daTa( the owner of a thousand (sahasra) cows should give a hundred (ata)
Tae SaveR TauLYaf==la" ih they all get an equal merit (phala fruit, result).

YadaiTa iviXae>Yaae YaauhaeiTa idNae idNae ) Tatau ivtaMah& MaNYae Xaez& k==SYaaiPa r+aiTa ))
yad dadti viiebhyo yaj juhoti dine dine, tat tu vittam aha manye ea kasypi rakati

Yad( iviXae>Ya" ddaiTa Whatever one gives to worthy persons

Yad( idNae idNae JauhaeiTa and whatever one offers daily [as a homa],
Tad( Tau AhMa( ivtaMa( MaNYae that I consider as [true] wealth (vitta).
... because this goes to our credit in the next life

XaezMa( k==SYa AiPa r+aiTa

The rest one keeps for someone else.


Na Tae>Yaae= _iPa DaNa& deYa& XaKYae SaiTa k==QaNa ) PaaPae>Yaae ih DaNa& dta& daTaarMaiPa Paq@YaeTa( ))
na tebhyo pi dhana deya akye sati kathacana, ppebhyo hi dhana datta dtram api payet

k==QaNa XaKYae SaiTa If somehow able

Tae>Ya" AiPa DaNaMa( Na deYaMa( one should not give them wealth (dhana),
... even when one is attacked by robbers, which is the context of this verse

PaaPae>Ya" ih dtaMa( DaNaMa( because wealth given (datta) to sinners

daTaarMa( AiPa Paq@YaeTa( will afflict also the giver (dt).

k==" k==SYa caePaku= Tae k== k==SMaE Pa]YaC^iTa ) Pa]a<aq k==raeTYaYa& k==MaR SavRMaaTMaaQaRMaaTMaNaa ))
ka kasya copakurute ka ca kasmai prayacchati, pr karoty aya karma sarvam tmrtham tman

k==" c k==SYa oPaku= Tae Who (ka) does good (upakurute) to anyone?
k==" c k==SMaE Pa]YaC^iTa And who gives to anyone?
SavRMa( AYaMa( k==MaR All such activity (karman)


AaTMaNaa AaTMaAQaRMa( by himself [only] for himself

Pa]a<aq k==raeiTa a living being (prin) does.

daTaVYaiMaTYaYa& DaMaR o==ae >aUTaihTae rTaE" ) Ta& MaNYaNTae DaNaYauTaa" k*= Pa<aE" SaMPa]viTaRTaMa( )
dtavyam ity aya dharma ukto bhta-hite ratai, ta manyante dhana-yut kpaai sampravartitam

Yada iNaYaiTak==aPaR<YaMaQaEzaMaev raecTae ))

yad niyati-krpayam athaim eva rocate

>aUTaihTae rTaE" By those engaged (rata) in the welfare (hita) of all beings (bhta)
AYaMa( DaMaR" o==" it is described as virtue (dharma)
daTaVYaMa( wiTa that one should do charity (dtavyam).
TaMa( k*= Pa<aE" SaMPa]viTaRTaMa( That this is [actually] expounded by the poor (kpaa)
DaNaYauTaa" MaNYaNTae [thus] the rich people think.
dhana-yuta who is possessed of wealth, a rich man

Yada iNaYaiTak==aPaR<YaMa( [But] when there is poverty (krpaya) [for them] by destiny (niyati)
AQa WzaMa( Wv raecTae then (atha) it becomes pleasing for them also.

daNaaa duZk==r& TaaTa Pa*iQaVYaaMaiSTa ik==Na ) AQaeR c MahTaq Ta*Z<aa Sa c du":aeNa l>YaTae ))
dnn na dukara tta pthivym asti kicana, arthe ca mahat t sa ca dukhena labhyate

PairTYaJYa iPa]YaaNPa]a<aaNDaNaaQa| ih MahaMaTae ) Pa]ivXaiNTa Nara vqra" SaMaud]Ma$=vq& TaQaa ))

parityajya priyn prn dhanrtha hi mah-mate, pravianti nar vr samudram aav tath

k*= izGaaer+YaiMaTYaeke= Pa]iTaPaiNTa MaaNava" ) Pauza" Pa]eZYaTaaMaeke= iNaGaRC^iNTa DaNaaiQaRNa" ))

ki-go-rakyam ity eke pratipadyanti mnav, puru preyatm eke nirgacchanti dhanrthina

TaaTa O beloved [Yudhihira]!

Pa*iQaVYaaMa( On earth (pthiv)
daNaaTa( Na ik==Na duZk==rMa( AiSTa there is nothing as difficult (dukara) as charity (dna).
AQaeR c MahTaq Ta*Z<aa For wealth (artha) there is a great thirst (t)
Sa" c du":aeNa l>YaTae and it is obtained with difficulty.
MahaMaTae O great soul (mah-mati) [Yudhihira]!
DaNaAQaRMa( ih For the sake of wealth (dhana)
iPa]YaaNa( Pa]a<aaNa( PairTYaJYa [after] staking (forsaking) [even their] dear life (pra)
vqra" Nara" heroic (vra) men (nara)
SaMaud]Ma( TaQaa A$=vqMa( Pa]ivXaiNTa enter the ocean (samudra) and the forest (aav).
DaNaAiQaRNa" Wke= MaaNava" Some men (mnava) who desire wealth (dhana)
k*= izGaaer+YaMa( wiTa iNaGaRC^iNTa take to agriculture (ki) and tending cows (go-rakya)
Wke= Pauza" Pa]eZYaTaaMa( and some men (purua) to service (preyat).

XaTaezu JaaYaTae XaUr" Sahezu c Pai<@Ta" ) v==a XaTaSahezu daTaa >aviTa va Na va ))



ateu jyate ra sahasreu ca paita, vakt ata-sahasreu dt bhavati v na v

Na r<ae ivJaYaaC^Urae= _DYaYaNaaa c Pai<@Ta" ) Na v==a vaKPa$=uTveNa Na daTaa caQaRdaNaTa" ))

na rae vijayc chro dhyayann na ca paita, na vakt vk-pautvena na dt crtha-dnata

wiNd]Yaa<aa& JaYae XaUrae DaMa| criTa Pai<@Ta" ) ihTaiPa]Yaaei==i>avR= a daTaa SaMMaaNadaNaTa" ))

indriy jaye ro dharma carati paita, hita-priyoktibhir vakt dt sammna-dnata

XaTaezu XaUr" JaaYaTae Among hundreds (ata) [only one] hero (ra) is born
Sahezu c Pai<@Ta" and among thousands (sahasra) one wise man (paita)
XaTaSahezu v==a among hundred thousands one orator (vakt)
daTaa >aviTa va Na va [but] a man of [true] charity (dt giver) is born or not.
... i.e., there is doubt whether one will be born at all

r<ae ivJaYaaTa( Na XaUr" [Because just] by conquest (vijaya) in battle (raa) one is not a hero (ra)
ADYaYaNaaTa( c Na Pai<@Ta" and [just] by studying (adhyayana) one is not a wise man
vak(= Pa$=uTveNa Na v==a by eloquence one is not an orator (vakt)
vk-pautva sharpness of speech (vc)

AQaRdaNaTa" c Na daTaa and by a donation of wealth (artha) one is not a man of charity (dt).
wiNd]Yaa<aaMa( JaYae XaUr" When there is conquest (jaya) of the senses (indriya) one is a hero
DaMaRMa( criTa Pai<@Ta" one who [actually] practices virtue (dharma) is wise
ihTaiPa]Yaoi==i>a" v==a by beneficial (hita) and pleasing (priya) words (ukti) one is an orator
SaMMaaNadaNaTa" daTaa by a donation with giving honor (sammna) one is a man of [true] charity.

Ai>aGaMYaaetaMa& daNaMaahUTa& cEv MaDYaMaMa( ) ADaMa& vacMaaNa& SYaaTSaevadaNa& c iNaZf==lMa( ))

abhigamyottama dnam hta caiva madhyamam, adhama vcamna syt sev-dna ca niphalam

Ai>aGaMYa otaMaMa( daNaMa( (1) Going to the receiver (abhigamya after visiting) is the best gift (dna)
AahUTaMa( c Wv MaDYaMaMa( (2) to someone invited (hta called) is the middle best [gift]
vacMaaNaMa( ADaMaMa( SYaaTa( (3) to one who is asking (vcamna) is the lowest [gift].
SaevadaNaMa( c iNaZPalMa( The gift for some service (sev-dna) is fruitless.

ParSParSYa daNaaiNa laek= Yaa}aa Na DaMaRTa" )

parasparasya dnni loka-ytr na dharmata

ParSParSYa daNaaiNa Gifts (dna) of reciprocation (paraspara)

laek= Yaa}aa are a worldly affair
Na DaMaRTa" and not from a virtues motive.

DaMaaRdQaaRYaaTk==aMaaTk==a<YaaidiTa )
dharmd arthd bhayt kmt kruyd iti

DaMaaTa( AQaaRTa( [From a desire] for virtue (dharma), for profit (artha)
>aYaaTa( k==aMaaTa( out of fear (bhaya), freely (kma)
k==a<YaaTa( wiTa or out of pity (kruya).


... charity is given


ihr<YadaNaEGaaeRdaNaE>aURiMadaNaE SavRXa" ) Maa&SaSYaa>a+a<ae DaMaaeR iviXa wiTa Na" ]uiTa" ))

hiraya-dnair go-dnair bhmi-dnai ca sarvaa, msasybhakae dharmo viia iti na ruti

ihr<YadaNaE" [Compared] with gifts (dna) of gold (hiraya)

GaaedaNaE" >aUiMadaNaE" c with gifts of cows (go) and gifts of land (bhmi)
Maa&SaSYa A>a+a<ae DaMaR" the virtue (dharma) in not eating (a-bhakaa) of meat (msa)
... thus offering fearlessness to animals

SavRXa" iviXa" is in every respect (sarvaas) superior

wiTa Na" ]uiTa" thus we have heard.

A>aYaSYa ih Yaae daTaa TaSYaEv SauMahTf==lMa( ) Na ih Pa]a<aSaMa& daNa& i}azu laeke= zu ivTae ))
a-bhayasya hi yo dt tasyaiva sumahat phalam, na hi pra-sama dna triu lokeu vidyate

Ya" A>aYaSYa ih daTaa

One who is a giver (dt) of fearlessness (a-bhaya)

... who gives protection and does not kill any creature

TaSYa Wv SauMahTa( f==lMa( for him there is very great (su.mahat) merit (phala fruit).
i}azu laeke= zu In all the three worlds (loka)
Pa]a<aSaMaMa( daNaMa( a gift (dna) equal to life (pra)
Na ih ivTae does not exist.

>aUiMa>aURiTaMaRhadevq daTaar& ku= Tae iPa]YaMa( )

bhmir bhtir mah-dev dtra kurute priyam

... MaaMaevadta Maa& dta Maa& dtva MaaMavaPSYaQa )

mm evdatta m datta m dattv mm avpsyatha

>aUiMa" >aUiTa" Mahadevq

The earth (Bhmi) is prosperity (bhti) [personified] and a great goddess


daTaarMa( iPa]YaMa( ku= Tae She makes the giver (dt) [of land] her beloved (priya). ...
MaaMa( Wv Aadta [She orders a king:] Receive (datta) me [as a gift]
MaaMa( dta [and then] give me (datta) away!
MaaMa( dtva [After] giving me away
MaaMa( AvaPSYaQa you will obtain (avpsyatha) me [again].
... next life again, i.e., you will again be a king

YaQaaPSau PaiTaTa" SaSTaElibNdu" Pa]SaPaRiTa ) Wv& >aUiMak*= Ta& daNa& XaSYae XaSYae Pa]raehiTa ))
yathpsu patita sadyas taila-bindu prasarpati, eva bhmi-kta dna asye asye prarohati

APSau PaiTaTa" When fallen on water (ap)

YaQaa TaElibNdu" Sa" Pa]SaPaRiTa as a drop (bindu) of oil (taila) immediately (sadya) spreads,
WvMa( >aUiMak*= TaMa( daNaMa( thus [the merit of] a gift (dna) of earth (bhmi)



XaSYae XaSYae Pa]raehiTa

grows with (in) every grain (asya).

... of every harvest

SavaRNk==aMaaNPa]YaC^iNTa Yae Pa]YaC^iNTa k==aNaMa( )

sarvn kmn prayacchanti ye prayacchanti kcanam

Yae k==aNaMa( Pa]YaC^iNTa Those who make a gift of gold (kcana)

SavaRNa( k==aMaaNa( Pa]YaC^iNTa make a gift of everything desirable (kma).

AGNaerPaTYa& Pa]QaMa& Sauv<aaeR >aUvERZ<avq SaUYaRSauTaa Gaav" )

laek= aS}aYaSTaeNa >aviNTa dtaa Ya" k==aNa& Gaa& c Mahq& c daTa( ))

agner apatya prathama suvaro bhr vaiav srya-sut ca gva
loks trayas tena bhavanti datt ya kcana g ca mah ca dadyt

Sauv<aR" Gold (suvara)

AGNae" Pa]QaMaMa( APaTYaMa( is the first (prathama) offspring (apatya) of fire (agni)
>aU" vEZ<avq the earth (bh) is [a daughter] of the Lord
vaiava in relation to Viu

Gaav" SaUYaRSauTaa" c and cows (go) are daughters (sut) of the sun (srya).
Ya" k==aNaMa( GaaMa( c MahqMa( c daTa( [Therefore,] one who gives gold (kcana), a cow and land

TaeNa }aYa" laek= a" dtaa" >aviNTa

by him the three worlds (loka) are given.

... i.e., Agni, Viu and Srya

Yaae b]UYaaaiPa iXaZYaaYa DaMYaa| b]aq& SarSvTaqMa( ) Pa*iQavqGaaePa]daNaa>Yaa& TauLYa& Sa f==lMaXNauTae ))

yo bryc cpi iyya dharmy brhm sarasvatm, pthiv-go-pradnbhy tulya sa phalam anute

DaMYaaRMa( b]aqMa( SarSvTaqMa(

Knowledge (sarasvat) on dharma and on the Absolute (brahma)

dharmya relating to dharma; brhma relating to brahma

Ya" iXaZYaaYa b]UYaaTa( c AiPa one who will speak to a disciple (iya),
Pa*iQavqGaaePa]daNaa>YaaMa( TauLYaMa( f==lMa( a result (phala) equal to the gift of earth (pthiv) and kine (go)
Sa" AXNauTae he obtains.

YaeNa JaqviTa Tad( dtva f==lSYaaNTaae Na ivTae )

yena jvati tad dattv phalasynto na vidyate

Tad( dtva YaeNa JaqviTa

[After] giving that [education] by which he (the disciple) lives

... a craft or a trade

f==lSYa ANTa" Na ivTae

there is no end to the merit.

... the teacher obtains

AaeNa Sad*Xa& daNa& Na >aUTa& Na >aivZYaiTa )


annena sada dna na bhta na bhaviyati

AaeNa Sad*XaMa( daNaMa( A gift (dna) equal to food (anna)

Na >aUTaMa( Na >aivZYaiTa has not been (bhta) nor will it be.

AaEzDa& PaQYaMaahar& eha>Ya& Pa]iTa]YaMa( ) Ya" Pa]YaC^iTa raeiGa>Ya" SavRVYaaiDaivviJaRTa" ))

auadha pathyam hra snehbhyaga pratirayam, ya prayacchati rogibhya sarva-vydhi-vivarjita

... daNaaNYaeTaaiNa deYaaiNa NYaaiNa c ivXaezTa" ) dqNaaNDak*= Pa<aaid>Ya" ]eYaSk==aMaeNa DaqMaTaa ))

dnny etni deyni hy anyni ca vieata, dnndha-kpadibhya reyas-kmena dhmat

AaEzDaMa( PaQYaMa( AaharMa(

Medicine (auadha) and suitable (pathya) food (hra)

... suitable for treatment

ehA>YaMa( Pa]iTa]YaMa( oil (sneha) for rubbing the body (abhyaga) and shelter (pratiraya)
Ya" raeiGa>Ya" Pa]YaC^iTa one who gives this to the diseased (rogin),
SavRVYaaiDaivviJaRTa" he is freed from all diseases (vydhi) [himself]. ...
DaqMaTaa ]eYa"k==aMaeNa By an intelligent (dhmat) man, desiring [his own] good (reyas)
ivXaezTa" dqNaANDak*= Pa<aAaid>Ya" especially to the poor (dna), blind (andha), distressed (kpaa),

WTaaiNa ANYaaiNa c daNaaiNa these and other gifts (dna)

deYaaiNa ih should be given (deya).

PaaNaqYa& ParMa& daNa& daNaaNaa& MaNaurb]vqTa( ) TaSMaaTkU= Paa& vaPaq Ta@aGaaiNa c :aaNaYaeTa( ))
pnya parama dna dnn manur abravt, tasmt kp ca vp ca tagni ca khnayet

daNaaNaaMa( Of all gifts (dna)

PaaNaqYaMa( ParMaMa( daNaMa( water (pnya) is the best gift
MaNau" Ab]vqTa( said Manu (Manu-sahit).
TaSMaaTa( Therefore
kU= PaaNa( c vaPaq" c Ta@aGaaiNa c wells (kpa), ponds (vp) and tanks (taga)
:aaNaYaeTa( one should excavate.

TaSYa Pau}aa >avNTYaeTae PaadPaa Naa}a Sa&XaYa" )

tasya putr bhavanty ete pda-p ntra saaya

... PauiZPaTaa" f==lvNTa TaPaRYaNTaqh MaaNavaNa( ) v*+ad& Pau}avd( v*+aaSTaarYaiNTa Par}a Tau ))
= = pupit phalavanta ca tarpayantha mnavn, vka-da putravad vks trayanti paratra tu
WTae PaadPaa" These trees [which one has planted]
pda-pa who drinks through his feet, a plant, tree

TaSYa Pau}aa" >aviNTa become his children (putra),

A}a Na Sa&XaYa" there is no doubt. ...
PauiZPaTaa" f==lvNTa" c Bearing flowers and fruits (phala)



wh MaaNavaNa( TaPaRYaiNTa in this world (iha) they please men (mnava)

Par}a Tau and in the other world (paratra)
v*+aa" Pau}avTa( [those] trees (vka), just like [own] children (putravat[i])
v*+adMa( TaarYaiNTa they save the planter of the trees [from hell].
vka-da who gives trees

PauaaMNaae Nark==aSMaaT}aaYaTae iPaTar& SauTa" ) TaSMaaTPau}a wiTa Pa[ae= " SvYaMaev SvYaM>auva ))
pun-nmno narakd yasmt tryate pitara suta, tasmt putra iti prokta svayam eva svayambhuv

PauTa(NaaMNa" Nark==aTa( From the hell (naraka) called put

YaSMaaTa( SauTa" iPaTarMa( }aaYaTae because a child (suta) delivers (tra) the father (pit),
TaSMaaTa( SvYaMa( Wv SvYaM>auva therefore, by Brahm (Svayambh) himself
Pau}a" wiTa Pa[ae= " it (a child) is called putra (from put-tra).

Ga*aiTa TaT+a<aaaeGae Xarqr& caiTavaihk==Ma( ) Aak==aXavaYauTaeJaa&iSa ivGa]hadURGaaiMaNa" ))

= = ghti tat-kad yoge arra ctivhikam, ka-vyu-tejsi vigrahd rdhva-gmina
AaiTavaihk==Ma( XarqrMa( c [At death] a body called tivhika
tivhika (from ati.vha) which is fleeter than wind, the subtle body, liga-arra,

Tad(+a<aaTa( YaaeGae Ga*aiTa it (the soul) immediately takes on,

Aak==aXavaYauTaeJaa&iSa ether (kaa), air (vyu) and fire (tejas)
... i.e., the more subtle elements

ivGa]haTa( ORGaaiMaNa"

taking up from the body (vigraha).


+ai}aYaae= _h& Na JaaNaaiMa dehqiTa vcNa& KvicTa( ) Pa]YaC^ YauiMaTYaev&vaidNa" SMaae iJaaetaMa ))
katriyo ha na jnmi dehti vacana kvacit, prayaccha yuddham ity eva-vdina smo dvijottama

iJaotaMa, AhMa( +ai}aYa" O brhmaa! I am a katriya.

deih wiTa vcNaMa( The word give (dehi) [me]
Kvicd( Na JaaNaaiMa I do not know whatsoever.
Pa]YaC^ YauMa( wiTa Give (prayaccha) me battle (yuddha)!
WvMa(vaidNa" SMa" We are (sma) those who say [this].

b]a<aae= _NaQaRNaaDa*iTa" )
brhmao n-arthan-dhti

b]a<a" A brhmaa
ANaQaRNaaDa*iTa" [is one who] has a resolution (dhti) for not begging (an-arthan).



Na Tau PaaPak*= Taa& raja& Pa]iTaGa*iNTa SaaDav" ) WTaSMaaTk==ar<aajEYaRJaed]aJaaPTadi+a<aE" ))

na tu ppa-kt rj pratighanti sdhava, etasmt krad yajair yajed rjpta-dakiai

SaaDav" Tau Saintly people (sdhu)

PaaPak*= TaaMa( rajaMa( [gifts] of kings who are [usually] sinful
Na Pa]iTaGa*iNTa they do not accept.
WTaSMaaTa( k==ar<aaTa( For this reason (kraa)
AaPTadi+a<aE" YajE" through sacrifices (yaja) accompanied by abundant (pta) gifts (dakia)
raJaa YaJaeTa( the king (rjan) should offer.

Ya oTaMaNaad*TYa k==INaaXaMai>aYaacTae ) +aqYaTae TaXa" Sf==ITa& MaaNaavjYaa hTa" ))

ya udyatam an-dtya knam abhiycate, kyate tad-yaa sphta mna cvajay hata

oTaMa( ANa(Aad*TYa [After] not accepting what is offered (udyata)

Ya" k==INaaXaMa( Ai>aYaacTae one who [later] asks a miser (kna),
Sf==ITaMa( Tad(YaXa" +aqYaTae his great (sphta) reputation (yaas) [of being self-satisfied] is ruined
MaaNa" c AvjYaa hTa" and his pride is humbled by insult (avaj).

PaaNaMa+aa" iYaEv Ma*GaYaa c YaQaa==MaMa( ) WTaTk==TaMa& ivaTauZk&= k==aMaJae Ga<ae ))

pnam ak striya caiva mgay ca yath-kramam, etat kaatama vidyc catuka kma-je gue

PaaNaMa( A+aa" (4) Drinking (pna) and (1) dice (aka a die for gambling)
iYa" c Wv Ma*GaYaa c (2) womanizing (striya) and (3) hunting (mgay)
YaQaa==MaMa( [as enumerated] in succession
k==aMaJae Ga<ae in the group (gaa) [of vices] springing from lust (kma-ja),
WTad( cTauZk==Ma( this quadruple
k==TaMaMa( ivaTa( one should know to be most troublesome (kaa.tama).

Pard]VYaeZvi>aDYaaNa& MaNaSaaiNaicNTaNaMa( ) ivTaQaai>aiNaveXa i}aivDa& k==MaR MaaNaSaMa( ))

para-dravyev abhidhyna manasnia-cintanam, vitathbhinivea ca tri-vidha karma mnasam

PaaZYaMaNa*Ta& cEv PaEXauNYa& caiPa SavRXa" ) ASaMbPa[laPa vax(= MaYa& SYaaTauivRDaMa( ))

pruyam an-ta caiva paiunya cpi sarvaa, a-sambaddha-pralpa ca vmaya syc catur-vidham

AdtaaNaaMauPaadaNa& ih&Saa cEvaivDaaNaTa" ) PardaraePaSaeva c Xaarqr& i}aivDa& SMa*TaMa( ))

a-dattnm updna his caivvidhnata, para-dropasev ca rra tri-vidha smtam

Pard]VYaezu Ai>aDYaaNaMa( Longing for anothers (para) property (dravya)

MaNaSaa AiNaicNTaNaMa( thinking (cintana) in one's heart of what is undesirable (an-a)
ivTaQaaAi>aiNaveXa" c and adherence to the false
vi.tath not so, a false doctrine

i}aivDaMa( MaaNaSaMa( k==MaR

is the threefold (tri-vidha) [sinful] mental action (karman).



PaaZYaMa( ANa*TaMa( c Wv Harshness (pruya), untruth (an-ta)

SavRXa" PaEXauNYaMa( c AiPa and also faultfinding (paiunya) everywhere
ASaMbPa[laPa" c and incoherent (a-sambaddha unconnected) speech (pralpa)
..., i.e., talking idly

cTauivRDaMa( vax(= MaYaMa( SYaaTa( will be the fourfold [sinful] verbal [action].
AdtaaNaaMa( oPaadaNaMa( Taking what has not been given (a-datta)
AivDaaNaTa" ih&Saa c Wv and violence (his) not sanctioned (a-vidhnatas)
PardaroPaSaeva c and intercourse with anothers wife (para-dra)
i}aivDaMa( XaarqrMa( SMa*TaMa( are declared to be the threefold [sinful] bodily [action].

Ga*haSa==SYa Naae iva Naae dYaa Maa&Sa>aaeiJaNa" ) d]VYaluBDaSYa Naae SaTYa& E<aSYa Na Paiv}aTaa ))
ghsaktasya no vidy no day msa-bhojina, dravya-lubdhasya no satya straiasya na pavitrat

Ga*hAaSa==SYa Naae iva For one attached to family life (gha) there is no knowledge (vidy)
Maa&Sa>aaeiJaNa" Naae dYaa for a meat-eater there is no mercy (day)
d]VYaluBDaSYa Naae SaTYaMa( for one greedy for wealth there is no truthfulness (satya)
E<aSYa Na Paiv}aTaa and for a woman-hunter there is no purity (pavitrat).

AjaNaeNaav*Taae laek= ae MaaTSaYaaRa Pa]k= aXaTae ) lae>aatYaJaiTa iMa}aai<a SaaTSvGa| Na GaC^iTa ))

a-jnenvto loko mtsaryn na prakate, lobht tyajati mitri sagt svarga na gacchati

laek= " AjaNaeNa Aav*Ta" The world (loka) is covered (vta) by ignorance (a-jna).
MaaTSaYaaRTa( Na Pa]k= aXaTae Out of envy (mtsarya) one does not shine,
lae>aaTa( iMa}aai<a TYaJaiTa out of greed (lobha) one renounces friends (mitra),
SaaTa( SvGaRMa( Na GaC^iTa out of attachment (saga) one does not attain heaven (svarga).

UTaMaeTaTPaura k==LPae d*& vErk==r& MahTa( ) TaSMaad( UTa& Na SaeveTa haSYaaQaRMaiPa buiMaaNa( ))
dytam etat pur kalpe da vaira-kara mahat, tasmd dyta na seveta hsyrtham api buddhimn

Paura k==LPae WTad( UTaMa( In a former age (kalpa) this gambling (dyta)
MahTa( vErk==rMa( d*Ma( has been seen to cause great (mahat) enmity (vaira).
TaSMaad( buiMaaNa( Therefore, a wise man (buddhimat)
UTaMa( Na SaeveTa should not practise gambling (dyta)
haSYaAQaRMa( AiPa even for the sake (artha) of amusement (hsya).

SaMaaNak==MaaRcr<a& PaiTaTaaNaa& Na PaaTak==Ma( )

samna-karmcaraa patitn na ptakam


The performance of an equal activity

... an activity which would degrade elevated persons

PaiTaTaaNaaMa( Na PaaTak==Ma(

does not degrade those who are [already] fallen.



Na Maa&Sa>a+a<ae daezae Na Mae Na c MaEQauNae ) Pa[v*itareza >aUTaaNaa& iNav*itaSTau Mahaf==la ))

na msa-bhakae doo na madye na ca maithune, pravttir e bhtn nivttis tu mah-phal

Maa&Sa>a+a<ae Na daez" In meat-eating there is no fault (doa)

Na Mae Na MaEQauNae c nor in drinking alcohol (madya) nor in sex (maithuna).
Wza >aUTaaNaaMa( Pa[v*ita" This is the tendency (pravtti) of all creatures (bhta).
iNav*ita" Tau Mahaf==la But abstention (nivtti) brings great rewards (phala fruit).



6. Sanskrit Sandhi 1
The word sandhi means junction, connection, combination, union. In grammar, sandhi is made between
two immediate sounds, either inside a word or between words. The rules of sandhi reflect the natural
change of sounds when joined. In this way, words can be joined as a natural flow of sounds, which has
given to Sanskrit a great fluidity and an aesthetically pleasing and melodious sound.
For example, the words sat, cit and nanda (eternity, knowledge and bliss) combine to sac-cid-nanda. In
English too, in-pure and in-regular become impure, irregular, and he is becomes hes.
We have selected and simplified a few prominent rules, giving them the name of a well-known example.
Rules 1-7 describe sandhi between vowels, rules 8-9 sandhi between consonants, and rules 10-12 sandhi
after visarga (the echo ). There is a practical list of sandhi rules in 17. Summary Grammar.
(1) paramtm
Rule: Vowels of the same class (like a-, i-, ...) combine into a long vowel.
a + a, a + , + a, + all combine into .

ParMaaTMaa paramtm supreme soul, Supersoul

nitya-_nanda >>> iNaTYaaNaNd nitynanda everlasting bliss (nanda)

parama-_tm >>>

The same is with i- and u-:

]qXa ra the lord (a) of r (Lakm), Viu

bahu-_udara >>> bhUdr bahdara one who has many bellies (udara)

r-_a >>>


Hinduism Karma 1

YaSMaa YaeNa c YaQaa c Yada c Ya Yaav Ya}a c Xau>aaXau>aMaaTMak==MaR )

TaSMaa TaeNa c TaQaa c Tada c Ta Taav Ta}a c ivDaaTa*vXaaduPaEiTa ))
yasmc ca yena ca yath ca yad ca yac ca yvac ca yatra ca ubhubham tma-karma
tasmc ca tena ca tath ca tad ca tac ca tvac ca tatra ca vidht-vad upaiti
sandhi: ubha-_aubham

YaSMaaTa( c YaeNa c From which [cause] and by which [means]

YaQaa c Yada c Yad( c how, when and of what kind
YaavTa( c Ya}a c in which amount and where
Xau>aAXau>aMa( AaTMak==MaR ones good or bad action (karman) [is performed],
TaSMaaTa( c TaeNa c from that [same cause] and by that [means]
TaQaa c Tada c Tad( c in that way, at that time and of that kind
TaavTa( c Ta}a c in that amount and in that place
ivDaaTa*vXaaTa( by the will of the Lord (vidht)
oPaEiTa one attains [such reaction].

balae Yauva c v* YaTk==raeiTa Xau>aaXau>aMa( ) TaSYaa& TaSYaaMavSQaaYaa& TaTf==l& Pa]iTaPaTae= = ))

blo yuv ca vddha ca yat karoti ubhubham, tasy tasym avasthy tat-phala pratipadyate
sandhi: ubha-_aubham

YaQaa DaeNauSahezu vTSaae ivNdiTa MaaTarMa( ) TaQaa PaUvRk*= Ta& k==MaR k==TaaRrMaNauGaC^iTa== =))
yath dhenu-sahasreu vatso vindati mtaram, tath prva-kta karma kartram anugacchati

bal" Yauva c v*" c A boy (bla), youth (yuvan) or old man (vddha)
Yad( Xau>aAXau>aMa( k==raeiTa whatever good (ubha) or bad (a-ubha) he does,
TaSYaaMa( TaSYaaMa( AvSQaaYaaMa( in that same particular stage (avasth) [of life]
Tad(f==lMa( Pa]iTaPaTae one attains its result [in the next life].
YaQaa DaeNauSahezu As among thousands (sahasra) of cows (dhenu)
vTSa" MaaTarMa( ivNdiTa a calf (vatsa) finds (obtains) its mother (mt),
TaQaa PaUvRk*= TaMa( k==MaR so does a previously done (prva-kta) activity (karman)
k==TaaRrMa( ANauGaC^iTa follow the doer (kart).

k==MaR<aa dEvNae}ae<a JaNTaudeRhaePaPataYae ) iYaa" Pa[iv odr& Pau&Saae reTa"k==<aa[Ya"== =))

karma daiva-netrea jantur dehopapattaye, striy pravia udara puso reta-karaya
sandhi: kaa-_raya

dehoPaPataYae For attaining a body (deha)

k==MaR<aa dEvNae}ae<a by [ones] karma and under the supervision of daiva (fate / the Lord)
JaNTau" a living being (jantu)
Pau&Sa" reTa"k==<aAa[Ya" taking shelter of a particle (kaa) of semen (retas) of a man (pus)
iYaa" odrMa( Pa[iv" it has entered the womb (udara) of a woman (str).




MaaNauzezu MaharaJaNDaMaaRDaMaaER Pa]vTaRTa" ) Na TaQaaNYaezu >aUTaezu MaNauZYarihTaeiZvh== =))

mnueu mah-rjan dharmdharmau pravartata, na tathnyeu bhteu manuya-rahitev iha
sandhi: dharma-_adharmau, tath_anyeu

MaharaJaNa( wh O King [Janaka]! In this world

DaMaRADaMaaER virtue (dharma) and sin (a-dharma)
MaaNauzezu Pa]vTaRTa" exist [only] among men (mnua),
Na TaQaa ANYaezu >aUTaezu and not so among other beings (bhta)
MaNauZYarihTaezu who are not humans (manuya).

DaMaRk= aYa|= =YaTaNa(= =XaKTYaa== Naae= =ceTPa]aPNaaeiTa== MaaNav"== )= =Pa]aPTaae= =>aviTa== TaTPau<YaMa}a== Mae= =NaaiSTa== Sa&XaYa"== =))
dharma-krya yatan akty no cet prpnoti mnava, prpto bhavati tat-puyam atra me nsti saaya
sandhi: na_asti

MaNaSaa icNTaYaNPaaPa& k==MaR<aa NaaiTaraecYaNa( ) Na Pa]aPNaaeiTa f==l& TaSYaeTYaev& DaMaRivdae ivdu"= = ))

manas cintayan ppa karma ntirocayan na prpnoti phala tasyety eva dharma-vido vidu
sandhi: na_atirocayan

XaKTYaa YaTaNa( MaaNav" A man (mnava), [while] endeavoring with [all] energy (akti)
DaMaRk==aYaRMa( Naae Pa]aPNaaeiTa ced( if (ced) he does not (no) accomplish an act (krya) of virtue (dharma),
Tad(Pau<YaMa( Pa]aPTa" >aviTa its merit (puya) is [still] achieved;
... just by the good intention and endeavor

Ta}a Mae Sa&XaYa" Na AiSTa in this I have no doubt (saaya).

PaaPaMa( MaNaSaa icNTaYaNa( [On the other hand,] thinking of a sin (ppa) [only] within the mind
k==MaR<aa Na AiTaraecYaNa( [but] not accomplishing it by [actual] activity (karman)
TaSYa f==lMa( Na Pa]aPNaaeiTa one does not get its [negative] result (phala)
... bad karma

wiTa WvMa( DaMaRivd" ivdu"

thus know those conversant with dharma.


NaaNauei k==il& SaMa]a$(= Saar wv Saar>auk(= ) ku= XalaNYaaXau iSaDYaiNTa NaeTarai<a k*= TaaiNa YaTa(= = ))
nnudvei kali samr sraga iva sra-bhuk, kualny u sidhyanti netari ktni yat
sandhi: (1) na_anudvei, (2) na_itari

SaMa]a$(= King [Parkit]

Saar" wv Saar>auk(= who was taking the essence (sra) like a bee (sraga)
k==ilMa( Na ANauei would not hate Kali,
... the personified kali-yuga, this age of quarrel

Yad( k*= TaaiNa ku= XalaiNa in which (kali-yuga) performed pious acts (kuala)
AaXau iSaDYaiNTa immediately effect
Na wTarai<a [but] not others (sins).

jaNaPaUvRk*= Ta& PaaPa& ^adYaTYabhu]uTa" ) NaENa& MaNauZYaa" PaXYaiNTa PaXYaNTYaev idvaEk= Sa"== =))
jna-prva-kta ppa chdayaty a-bahu-ruta, naina manuy payanti payanty eva divaukasa


One who is ignorant

a-bahu-ruta not very learned


jaNaPaUvRk*= TaMa( purposefully (jna-prva)

PaaPaMa( ^adYaiTa he hides (covers) his sin (ppa).
MaNauZYaa" WNaMa( Na PaXYaiNTa [But although other] men (manuya) do not see this [sin]
idvaEk= Sa" PaXYaiNTa Wv the devas certainly see it.
divas-okas heaven-dweller, a deva

aE>aURiMaraPaae dYa& cNd]ak==aRiGNaYaMaaiNala" ) rai}a" SaNDYae c DaMaR v*taja" SavRdeihNaaMa( ))

dyaur bhmir po hdaya candrrkgni-yamnil, rtri sandhye ca dharma ca vtta-j sarvadehinm
sandhi: (1) candra-_arka-_agni-yama-_anil

aE" >aUiMa" AaPa" dYaMa( Sky (dyau), earth (bhmi), water (ap) and Supersoul (hdaya heart)
cNd]AkR= AiGNaYaMaAiNala" moon (candra), sun (arka), fire (agni), Yamarja and wind (anila)
rai}a" SaNDYae c DaMaR" c night (rtri), the two sandhyas, and Dharma (justice)
SavRdeihNaaMa( v*taja" are knowers (-ja) of the conduct (vtta) of all embodied beings (dehin).

Wk==" Pa[JaaYaTae JaNTaurek= Wv Pa[lqYaTae ) Wk==ae= _Nau>aue Sauk*= TaMaek= Wv c duZk*= TaMa( ))
eka prajyate jantur eka eva pralyate, eko nubhukte suktam eka eva ca duktam

JaNTau" Wk==" Pa[JaaYaTae A living being (jantu) is born alone (eka one)
Wk==" Wv Pa[lqYaTae and alone it dies
Wk==" Sauk*= TaMa( ANau>aue alone it enjoys [the reward of] its virtue (sukta) [after death]
Wk==" Wv c duZk*= TaMa( and alone [it suffers the punishment of] its sin (dukta).

Pau<YaaTz@(>aaGaMaadtae NYaaYaeNa PairPaalYaNa( ) SavRdaNaaiDak&= YaSMaaTPa]JaaNaa& PairPaalNaMa(= = ))

puyt a-bhgam datte nyyena pariplayan, sarva-dndhika yasmt prajn pariplanam
sandhi: dna-_adhika

Ar+YaMaa<aa"== ku= vRiNTa== YaiTk==iiTk==iLbz&= =Pa]Jaa"== )= =TaSMaatau= =Na*PaTaerDa|= =YaSMaad(= =Ga*aTYaSaaE= =k= raNa(= =))
a-rakyam kurvanti yat kicit kilbia praj, tasmt tu n-pater ardha yasmd ghty asau karn

NYaaYaeNa PairPaalYaNa(

By protecting righteously
nyyena ... according to rule (nyya)

Pau<YaaTa( z@(>aaGaMa( Aadtae

he (the king) gets the sixth part (bhga) of the virtue (puya) [of the


YaSMaaTa( Pa]JaaNaaMa( PairPaalNaMa( because the protection of the citizens (praj)

SavRdaNaAiDak==Ma( is greater than all gifts (dna). ...
Ar+YaMaa<aa" Pa]Jaa" Tau But citizens, not being protected
Yad( ik==id( ik==iLbzMa( ku= vRiNTa whatever sin (kilbia) they perform,
TaSMaaTa( Na*PaTae" ADaRMa( from that is half (ardha) for the king (n-pati)
... or to the modern politicians

YaSMaad( ASaaE k==raNa( Ga*aiTa

because he accepts taxes (kara).


Aaade >a]U<aha MaaiR PaTYaaE >aaYaaRPacair<aq ) GauraE iXaZYa YaaJYa STaeNaae raJaiNa ik==iLbzMa( ))
annde bhra-h mri patyau bhrypacri, gurau iya ca yjya ca steno rjani kilbiam
sandhi: bhry_apacri




A murderer
bhra-han killer of an embryo

AaAde ik==iLbzMa( MaaiR

throws his sin (kilbia) on him who eats his food (anna-ada),
mri he washes

APacair<aq >aaYaaR PaTYaaE an adulterous (apacri) wife (bhry) on her husband (pati)
iXaZYa" c YaaJYa" c GauraE a disciple (iya) and a sacrificer (yjya) on their guru
... a disciple on his teacher, a sacrificer on his priest

STaeNa" raJaiNa

and a thief (stena) on the king.


PaTaTYaDa| XarqrSYa YaSYa >aaYaaR Saura& iPabeTa(= = )

pataty ardha arrasya yasya bhry sur pibet

YaSYa >aaYaaR He whose wife (bhry)

SauraMa( iPabeTa( drinks wine (sur),
XarqrSYa ADaRMa( half (ardha) of his body (arra)
PaTaiTa degrades (falls).

YaTaYae k==aNa& dtva TaaMbul& b]cair<ae ) caere>Yaae= _PYa>aYa& dtva daTaaiPa Nark&= v]JaeTa(= = ))
yataye kcana dattv tmbula brahmacrie, corebhyo py a-bhaya dattv dtpi naraka vrajet
sandhi: dt_api

k==aNaMa( YaTaYae dtva By giving gold (kcana) to an ascetic (yati)

TaaMbulMa( b]cair<ae betel (tmbula) to a student (brahmacr)
A>aYaMa( caere>Ya" AiPa or fearlessness (a-bhaya) to thieves (cora)
... i.e., by tempting someone

daTaa AiPa Nark==Ma( v]JaeTa(

the giver (dt) also goes to hell (naraka).

Sanskrit Sandhi 2
(1) paramtm
(2) gaea
Rule: a- and i- combine into e.

Ga<aeXa gaea the leader of a host [of devas], Gaea

sarva-_vara >>> SaveRr sarvevara the lord (vara) of all

gaa-_a >>>

(3) om
Rule: a- and u- combine into o.

AaeMa( om, that is how, according to some authorities, the sacred syllable om is derived
purua-_uttama >>> PauzaetaMa puruottama supreme person (purua)
a-_um >>>

(4) naiva
Rule: a- and e-ai combine into ai.

NaEv naiva never

sad_eva >>> SadEv sadaiva always
na_eva >>>




Hinduism Karma 2

AaDYaaiTMak==ae vE iivDa" Xaarqrae MaaNaSaSTaQaa== =)

dhytmiko vai dvi-vidha rro mnasas tath

AaDYaaiTMak==" vE iivDa" dhytmika is of two kinds (vidha)

Xaarqr" MaaNaSa" TaQaa bodily and mental.

Wv& Sa >aaEiTak&= du"%& dEivk&= dEihk&= c YaTa( ) >aae= VYaMaaTMaNaae id& Pa[a& Pa[aMabuDYaTa== =))
eva sa bhautika dukha daivika daihika ca yat, bhoktavyam tmano dia prpta prptam

dEihk==Ma( >aaEiTak==Ma( dEivk==Ma( c (1) Daihika, (2) bhautika and (3) daivika
Yad( Pa[aMa( Pa[aMa( du"%Ma( whatever suffering is achieved,
AaTMaNa" idMa( >aae= VYaMa( ones own destiny is to be enjoyed
dia directed, destiny

WvMa( Sa" AbuDYaTa

thus he (the Avant brhmaa) understood.


du"%eZvek= Tare<aaiPa dEv>aUTaaTMaheTauzu ) JaqvSYa Na VYavC^ed" SYaaetataTPa[iTai==Yaa== =))

dukhev ekatarepi daiva-bhttma-hetuu, jvasya na vyavaccheda syc cet tat-tat-pratikriy
sandhi: (1) ekatarea_api, bhta-_tma

YaQaa ih Pauzae >aar& iXarSaa GauMauhNa( ) Ta& Sk==NDaeNa Sa AaDatae TaQaa SavaR" Pa[iTai==Yaa"== =))
yath hi puruo bhra iras gurum udvahan, ta skandhena sa dhatte tath sarv pratikriy

dEv>aUTaAaTMaheTauzu du"%ezu

Among the sufferings (dukha) which are caused by (3) daiva-hetu, (2)

bhta-hetu and (1) tma-hetu

Wk==Tare<a AiPa even from one kind (ekatara)

JaqvSYa Na VYavC^ed" there is no escape (vyavaccheda) for a living being (jva)
Tad(Tad(Pa[iTai==Yaa SYaaTa( ced( [even] if its respective counteraction (pratikriy) would be [attempted].
YaQaa ih Pauz" Just as a person (purua)
iXarSaa GauMa( >aarMa( ohNa( carrying (udvahan) a heavy (guru) burden (bhra) with the head (iras)
Sa" TaMa( Sk==NDaeNa AaDatae he holds that with the shoulder (skandha) [when tired]
TaQaa SavaR" Pa[iTai==Yaa" such are all counteractions.

AaYau" k==MaR c ivta& c iva iNaDaNaMaev c ) PaETaaiNa ih Sa*JYaNTae Ga>aRSQaSYaEv deihNa" ))

yu karma ca vitta ca vidy nidhanam eva ca, pacaitni hi sjyante garbha-sthasyaiva dehina
sandhi: (4) paca_etni, -sthasya_eva

AaYau" k==MaR c ivtaMa( c Life span (yus), work (karman) and wealth (vitta)
iva iNaDaNaMa( Wv c education (vidy) and death
Ga>aRSQaSYa Wv deihNa" for the embodied being (dehin) [even when still] situated in the womb (garbha)
Pa WTaaiNa ih Sa*JYaNTae these five (paca) are created.

NaaPa[ak==alae iMa]YaTae iv" XarXaTaEriPa ) ku= XaaGa]e<aaiPa Sa&SPa*" Pa[ak==alae Na JaqviTa== =))


nprpta-klo mriyate viddha ara-atair api, kugrepi saspa prpta-klo na jvati

sandhi: (1) na_aprpta-, kua-_agrea_api

XarXaTaE" AiPa iv" Even if pierced with a hundred (ata) of arrows (ara)
APa[ak==al" Na iMa]YaTae one whose time (kla) [of death] has not come, does not die.
ku= XaAGa]e<a AiPa Sa&SPa*" [But] even when touched with the [pointed] tip of kua grass
Pa[ak==al" Na JaqviTa one whose time (kla) has come, does not live.

+ae}a& Pauzk==arSTau dEv& bqJaMaudaTaMa( ) +ae}abqJaSaMaaYaaeGaataTa" SaSYa& SaMa*yTae= = ))

ketra purua-kras tu daiva bjam udhtam, ketra-bja-samyogt tata sasya samddhyate

Pauzk==ar" +ae}aMa( odaTaMa( A mans action (kra) is illustrated (udhta) as a field (ketra)
dEvMa( Tau bqJaMa( and destiny (daiva) as a seed (bja).
TaTa" +ae}abqJaSaMaaYaaeGaaTa( From that union ( of field (ketra) and seed (bja)
SaSYaMa( SaMa*yTae the crop (sasya) is made to grow.

YaQaa eke= Na ce= <a Na rQaSYa GaiTa>aRveTa( ) TaQaa Pauzk==are<a ivNaa dEv& Na iSayiTa ))
yath hy ekena cakrea na rathasya gatir bhavet, tath purua-krea vin daiva na siddhyati

YaQaa ih Wke= Na ce= <a Just as with [only] one (eka) wheel (cakra)
rQaSYa GaiTa" Na >aveTa( there is no movement of a chariot (ratha),
TaQaa Pauzk==are<a ivNaa so without a mans action (kra)
dEvMa( Na iSayiTa destiny (daiva) does not succeed.

oMaeNa ih iSayiNTa k==aYaaRi<a Na MaNaaerQaE" ) Na ih SauSYa iSa&hSYa Pa[ivXaiNTa Mau%e Ma*Gaa" ))

udyamena hi siddhyanti kryi na manorathai, na hi suptasya sihasya pravianti mukhe mg

oMaeNa ih Only by endeavor (udyama)

k==aYaaRi<a iSayiNTa works (krya) are accomplished
Na MaNaaerQaE" and not by [mere] imagination.
mana-ratha [carried by] a chariot in the mind

SauSYa iSa&hSYa Mau%e Into the mouth (mukha) of a sleeping lion (siha)
Ma*Gaa" Na ih Pa[ivXaiNTa deer (mga) never enter [on their own].

YaQaaiGNa" PavNaaeUTa" SauSaU+Maae= _iPa MahaN>aveTa( ) TaQaa k==MaRSaMaaYau&= dEv& SaaDau ivvDaRTae= = ))
yathgni pavanoddhta suskmo pi mahn bhavet, tath karma-samyukta daiva sdhu vivardhate
sandhi: (1) yath_agni, (3) pavana-_uddhta

YaQaa TaEl+aYaaqPa" Pa]aSaMauPaGaC^iTa ) TaQaa k==MaR+aYaaEv& Pa]aSaMauPaGaC^iTa== =))

yath taila-kayd dpa prahrsam upagacchati, tath karma-kayd daiva prahrsam upagacchati

YaQaa SauSaU+Ma" AiPa AiGNa" As even a very small (su.skma) fire (agni)
PavNaoUTa" when excited (uddhta) by the wind (pavana)
MahaNa( >aveTa( it becomes big (mahat),
TaQaa dEvMa( so does destiny (daiva)
k==MaRSaMaaYau= Ma( when joined by exertion (karman)
SaaDau ivvDaRTae grow powerful (sdhu efficient).



YaQaa dqPa" As a light (dpa)

TaEl+aYaaTa( after the oil (taila) is finished
Pa]aSaMa( oPaGaC^iTa undergoes diminution (prahrsa),
TaQaa dEvMa( so does destiny
k==MaR+aYaaTa( after the exertion (karman) is stopped
Pa]aSaMa( oPaGaC^iTa undergo diminution (prahrsa).

dEve Pauzk==are c k==MaRiSaiVYaRviSQaTaa ) Ta}a dEvMai>aVYa&= PaaEz& PaaEvRdeihk==Ma(= = ))

daive purua-kre ca karma-siddhir vyavasthit, tatra daivam abhivyakta paurua paurva-dehikam

dEve Pauzk==are c In [both] destiny (daiva) and a mans action (kra)

k==MaRiSai" VYaviSQaTaa the success (siddhi) of work (karman) rests.
Ta}a And there (among both)
PaaEvRdeihk==Ma( PaaEzMa( of a deed (paurua manliness) in a previous body (paurva-dehika)
dEvMa( Ai>aVYa==Ma( daiva [again] is the manifestation.


Sanskrit Sandhi 3


(5) yady api

Rule: i- becomes y before another vowel.


yadi_api >>>
yady api (say yadyapi) although
Although, for clarity, in the transcription there is still the space between yady and api, but now, after
making sandhi they are spoken as one word yadyapi.

vhaMYahMa( vahmy aham (say vahmyaham) I carry

mayi_sakta >>> MaYYaaSa== mayy sakta (say mayysakta) attached to Me

vahmi_aham >>>

(6) manvantara
Rule: u- becomes v before another vowel.

MaNvNTar manvantara the ruling period of Manu

tu_antagatam >>> TvNTaGaTaMa( tv antagatam (say tvantagatam) finished
manu-antara >>>

(7) vande ham

Rule: After words ending in e and o, a is dropped.

vNde= _hMa( vande ham I praise

dehe_asmin >>> dehe= _iSMaNa( dehe smin in this body
vande_aham >>>

Examples for words ending in o are given under rule (12).



Hinduism Penance

k==alae= _iGNa" k==MaR Ma*aYauMaRNaae jaNa& TaPaae JalMa( ) PaataaPaae iNarahar" SaveR= _Maq XauiheTav"== =))
klo gni karma md vyur mano jna tapo jalam, pacttpo nirhra sarve m uddhi-hetava
sandhi: (7) klo_agni, sarve_am

k==al" AiGNa" Time (kla), fire (agni)

k==MaR Ma*d( vaYau" rituals (karman), earth (md), air (vyu)
MaNa" jaNaMa( mind (manas), spiritual knowledge (jna)
TaPa" JalMa( penance (tapas), water (jala)
PaataaPa" iNarahar" atonement (pact-tpa) and fasting (nirhra)
SaveR AMaq XauiheTav" all these are means to purity (uddhi).
am 1.3 of adas, hetu cause, means

AiGNahae}a& TaPa" SaTYa& vedaNaa& cEv PaalNaMa( ) AaiTaQYa& vEdev& c wiMaTYai>aDaqYaTae= = ))

agni-hotra tapa satya vedn caiva planam, tithya vaivadeva ca iam ity abhidhyate
sandhi: (4) ca_eva, (5) iti_abhidhyate

AiGNahae}aMa( TaPa" SaTYaMa( Fire sacrifice (agni-hotra), penance (tapas) and truthfulness (satya)
vedaNaaMa( c Wv PaalNaMa( protection (plana) of the Vedas
AaiTaQYaMa( vEdevMa( c hospitality (tithya) and [worship (pj) of] the gods
wMa( wiTa Ai>aDaqYaTae are designated as rites (ia).

SaTaa& v*taMaiDaaYa iNahqNaa oiDaqzRv" ) MaN}avJa| Na duZYaiNTa ku= vaR<aa" PaaEik==I" ik]= Yaa"== =))
sat vttam adhihya nihn uddidhrava, mantra-varja na duyanti kurv pauik kriy

iNahqNaa" oiDaqzRv" Low persons (nihna) who desire to remove (uddidhru) [that lowness]
SaTaaMa( v*taMa( AiDaaYa [after] adopting the conduct (vtti) of the good (sat)
MaN}avJaRMa( [just] omitting the mantras
PaaEik==I" ik]= Yaa" ku= vaR<aa" when doing rites (kriy) promoting welfare (pauika)
pauika (from pui growth)

Na duZYaiNTa

they are not at fault.


SavRMaeTataPaaeMaUl& k==vYa" Pairc+aTae ) Na TaPTaTaPaa MaU!" ik]= Yaaf==lMavaPNauTae= = ))

sarvam etat tapo-mla kavaya paricakate, na hy a-tapta-tap mha kriy-phalam avpnute
sandhi: (5) hi_a-tapta-

SavRMa( WTad( TaPa"MaUlMa( All this [world] is rooted in penance (tapas)

k==vYa" Pairc+aTae thus sages (kavi poet) consider.
ATaPTaTaPaa" MaU!" A fool (mha) who has not undergone (a-tapta) penance (tapas)
ik]= Yaaf==lMa( Na ih AvaPNauTae does not obtain the fruits (phala) of activities (kriy).

wRhMaaNa" SaMaarM>aaNYaid NaaSaadYaeNaMa( ) oGa]& TaPa" SaMaaraehea NauPTa& Pa]raehiTa== =))

hamna samrambhn yadi nsdayed dhanam, ugra tapa samrohen na hy an-upta prarohati
sandhi: (1) na_sdayed, (5) hi_an-upta


SaMaarM>aaNa( wRhMaaNa"

When attempting works

samrambha undertaking, work

Yaid DaNaMa( Na AaSaadYaeTa( if one can not achieve wealth (dhana)

oGa]Ma( TaPa" SaMaaraeheTa( [then] one should begin (ascend) severe (ugra) austerity (tapas),
ANa(oPTaMa( Na ih Pa]raehiTa [because] what is unsown (an-upta) does never (na hi) grow.

v]Ta& ih k==Ta*RSaNTaaPaataPa wTYai>aDaqYaTae= = )

vrata hi kart-santpt tapa ity abhidhyate
sandhi: (5) iti_abhidhyate

v]TaMa( ih k==Ta*RSaNTaaPaaTa( A vow (vrata) taken by a doer out of repentance (santpa)

TaPa" wiTa Ai>aDaqYaTae is called tapas.

XarqrPaaTaNaaEv TaPaSaaDYaYaNaeNa c ) MauCYaTae PaaPak*= TPaaPaaaNaaaiPa Pa]MauCYaTae= = ))

arra-ptanc caiva tapasdhyayanena ca, mucyate ppa-kt ppd dnc cpi pramucyate
sandhi: (4) ca_eva, (1) tapas_adhyayanena, ca_api

XarqrPaaTaNaaTa( c Wv

By punishment
arra-ptana falling of the body, death, corporal punishment

TaPaSaa ADYaYaNaeNa c penance (tapas) and study (adhyayana)

PaaPak*= Ta( PaaPaaTa( MauCYaTae a sinner (ppa-kt) is freed from sin (ppa);
daNaaTa( c AiPa Pa]MauCYaTae he is also freed by charity (dna).

SaMauaMaGa]Taae vS}a& PaaC^uDYaiTa k==MaR<aa ) oPavaSaE" Pa]TaPTaaNaa& dqga| Sau:aMaNaNTak==Ma(= = ))

samunnam agrato vastra pacc chudhyati karma, upavsai prataptn drgha sukham anantakam

AGa]Ta" SaMauaMa( When first well-moistened (sam.unna)

PaaTa( vS}aMa( thereafter a cloth (vastra)
k==MaR<aa XauDYaiTa becomes clean by washing (work).
dqgaRMa( oPavaSaE" Pa]TaPTaaNaaMa( [Likewise,] for those who are [self-] afflicted (pratapta) by long fasts

ANaNTak==Ma( Sau:aMa(

there is [later] unending (an-antaka) happiness (sukha).


XaKYaTae iviDaNaa PaaPa& YaQaaee= Na VYaPaaeihTauMa( ) AaiSTake= ]DaaNae c iviDarez ivDaqYaTae= = ))

akyate vidhin ppa yathoktena vyapohitum, stike raddadhne ca vidhir ea vidhyate
sandhi: (3) yath-_uktena

YaQaaoe= Na iviDaNaa By the said rule (vidhi) [of atonement]

PaaPaMa( VYaPaaeihTauMa( XaKYaTae sin (ppa) is capable of being driven away,
AaiSTake= ]DaaNae c [but only] for one who is religious (stika theist) and faithful (raddadhna)
Wz" iviDa" ivDaqYaTae this rule (vidhi) is prescribed (vidhyate).

TaPaSaa k==MaR<aa cEv Pa]daNaeNa c >aarTa ) PauNaaiTa PaaPa& Pauz" PauNaea Pa]vTaRTae= = ))
tapas karma caiva pradnena ca bhrata, punti ppa purua puna cen na pravartate
sandhi: (4) ca_eva


O Yudhihira (Bhrata)!



TaPaSaa k==MaR<aa c Wv By penances (tapas), rites (karman)

Pa]daNaeNa c and gifts (pradna)
Pauz" PaaPaMa( PauNaaiTa a man (purua) purifies his sin (ppa),
PauNa" Na Pa]vTaRTae ced( [but only] if (ced) he does not commit it again (puna).

iTaqYaMaParaDa& Na k==SYaicT+aMaeTa(= = )
dvityam apardha na kasyacit kamet

k==SYaicd( iTaqYaMa( AParaDaMa( The second (dvitya) offence (apardha) of anyone

Na +aMaeTa( he (the king) should not forgive.

YaiTk==iiTk]= YaTae PaaPa& Sav| ke= Xaezu iTaiTa ) SavaRNke= XaaNSaMau*TYa C^edYaeduilYaMa(= = ))
yat kicit kriyate ppa sarva keeu tihati, sarvn ken samuddhtya cchedayed aguli-dvayam

Yad( ik==id( PaaPaMa( ik]= YaTae Whatever sin (ppa) is committed

SavRMa( ke= Xaezu iTaiTa everything stays in the hair (kea).
SavaRNa( ke= XaaNa( SaMau*TYa Lifting all hair
AuilYaMa( ^edYaeTa( one should cut it (chedayet) at two fingers (aguli) length.

Xak*= d( iGau<aGaaeMaU}a& SaiPaRdRaTauGauR<aMa( ) +aqrMaGau<a& deYa& PaGaVYae TaQaa diDa== =))

akd dvi-gua-go-mtra sarpir dadyc catur-guam, kram aa-gua deya paca-gavye tath dadhi

PaGaVYae In paca-gavya
Xak*= Ta( daTa( one should put [one part] dung (akt)
iGau<aGaaeMaU}aMa( two (dvi) parts (gua) cow-urine (go-mtra)
cTauGauR<aMa( SaiPaR" and four parts ghee (sarpis),
AGau<aMa( +aqrMa( and [each] eight parts milk (kra)
TaQaa diDa deYaMa( and curd (dadhi) one should put.

YatvGaiSQaGaTa& PaaPa& dehe iTaiTa deihNaaMa( ) b]kU= caeR dheTSav| YaQaEvaiGNairveNDaNaMa(= = ))

yat tvag-asthi-gata ppa dehe tihati dehinm, brahma-krco dahet sarva yathaivgnir ivendhanam
sandhi: (4,1) yath_eva_agnir, (2) iva_indhanam

deihNaaMa( PaaPaMa( The sin (ppa) of all embodied beings (dehin)

Yad( Tvk(= AiSQaGaTaMa( which has entered the skin (tvak) and bones (asthi)
Yad( dehe iTaiTa and which stays in the body (deha),
SavRMa( b]kU= cR" dheTa( all [this sin] a performer of brahma-krca will burn,
YaQaa Wv AiGNa" wv wNDaNaMa( just as a fire (agni) [burns] fuel (indhana).

SaaYa& Pa]aTaMaRNauZYaa<aaMaXaNa& vediNaiMaRTaMa( ) NaaNTara >aaeJaNa& d*MauPavaSaq TaQaa >aveTa(= = ))

sya prtar manuym aana veda-nirmitam, nntar bhojana dam upavs tath bhavet
sandhi: na_antar

SaaYaMa( Pa]aTa" AXaNaMa( Eating in the evening (syam) and in the morning (prta)
MaNauZYaa<aaMa( vediNaiMaRTaMa( is prescribed in the Vedas for men (manuya).
ANTara >aaeJaNaMa( Na d*Ma( [If] food (bhojana) is not taken (seen) in between


... between sunrise and sunset

oPavaSaq TaQaa >aveTa(

one is also [like] fasting.


iTaYaRGYaaeiNavDa& k*= Tva d]uMaaNa( i^tveTaraNbhUNa( ) i}ara}a& vaYau>a+a" SYaaTk==MaR c Pa]QaYaar"== =))
tiryag-yoni-vadha ktv drumn chittvetarn bahn, tri-rtra vyu-bhaka syt karma ca prathayan
sandhi: (2) chittv_itarn

iTaYaRk(= YaaeiNavDaMa( k*= Tva [After] doing the killing (vadha) of animal-species
d]uMaaNa( bhUNa( wTaraNa( i^tva [after] cutting trees (druma), or many other [plants]
Nar" a person (nara)
k==MaR c Pa]QaYaNa( [while] declaring the deed (karman) also [publicly]
prathayat spreading, declaring

i}ara}aMa( vaYau>a+a" SYaaTa(

he should fast for three days.

tri-rtra three nights, i.e., (here) for three days; vyu-bhaka who eats air

}Yah& SaaYa& }Yah& Pa]aTaS}Yah& >aue TvYaaicTaMa( ) }Yah& Par& c NaaXNaqYaaTPa]aJaaPaTYaae= iviDa" SMa*Ta"== =))
try-aha sya try-aha prtas try-aha bhukte tv aycitam, try-aha para ca nnyt prjpatyo
vidhi smta
sandhi: (5) tri-_aha, (6) tu_aycitam, (1) na_anyt

i}aAhMa( SaaYaMa( >aue

Three days one eats in the evening (sya)

try-aha (tri-_aha) three days

i}aAhMa( Pa]aTa" three days in the early morning (prtar)

i}aAhMa( Tau AYaaicTaMa( three days only what is unsolicited (a-ycita)
ParMa( i}aAhMa( c Na AXNaqYaaTa( and the last three days one should not eat (na anyt)
Pa]aJaaPaTYa" iviDa" SMa*Ta" this is described as prjpatya rule (vidhi).

}YahMauZ<a& iPabedaPaS}YahMauZ<a& PaYa" iPabeTa( ) }YahMauZ<a& ga*Ta& PaqTva vaYau>a+aae idNa+aYaMa(= = ))

try-aham ua pibed pas try-aham ua paya pibet, try-aham ua ghta ptv vyu-bhako dinakayam
sandhi: (5) tri-_aham

i}aAhMa( oZ<aMa( AaPa" iPabeTa( Three days (tri-aha) one should drink hot (ua) water (ap)
i}aAhMa( oZ<aMa( PaYa" iPabeTa( three days one should drink hot milk (payas)
i}aAhMa( oZ<aMa( ga*TaMa( PaqTva and [after] drinking three days hot ghee (ghta)
idNa+aYaMa( vaYau>a+a" for the last [three] days one lives on air (vyu).

WkE= k&= aSaYaeiTPa<@& k*= Z<ae XauKle c vDaRYaeTa( ) AMaavSYaa& Na >auaqTa Wz caNd]aYa<aae iviDa"== =))
ekaika hrsayet pia ke ukle ca vardhayet, amvasy na bhujta ea cndryao vidhi
sandhi: (4) eka-_eka

k*= Z<ae During waning moon (ka dark fortnight)

Wk==Wk==Ma( iPa<@Ma( one by one (each day) one morsel (pia)
aSaYaeTa( one should reduce (hrsayet) [the food],
XauKle c vDaRYaeTa( and during waxing moon (ukla bright fortnight) one should increase it.
AMaavSYaaMa( Na >auaqTa On the day of the new moon (amvasy = amvsy) one should not eat.



Wz" caNd]aYa<a" iviDa"

This is the cndryaa rule.


MaaSaPa+aaePavaSaeNa MaNYaNTae YataPaae JaNaa" ) AaTMaTaN}aaePagaaTaSTau Na TaPaSTaTSaTaa& MaTaMa(= = ))

msa-pakopavsena manyante yat tapo jan, tma-tantropaghtas tu na tapas tat sat matam
sandhi: (3) -paka-_upavsena, tantra-_upaghtas

TYaaGa SaaiTaEv iXaZYaTae TaPa otaMaMa( ) SadaePavaSaq c >aved( b]carq Sada >aveTa(= = ))
tyga ca sannati caiva iyate tapa uttamam, sadopavs ca bhaved brahmacr sad bhavet
sandhi: (4) ca-_eva, (3) sad_upavs

MaaSaPa+aoPavaSaeNa [Done] with fasting (upavsa) for months (msa) and forthnights (paka)
Yad( JaNaa" TaPa" MaNYaNTae that which people (jana) consider to be penance (tapas),
SaTaaMa( MaTaMa( in the opinion of saintly persons (sat)
Tad( Na TaPa" that is not penance (tapas)
AaTMaTaN}aoPagaaTa" Tau but a damage (upaghta) to the body.
tma-tantra self-sufficiency

TYaaGa" c SaaiTa" c Wv

Renunciation (tyga) and humility (sannati)

sannati (from sam.nam[a]) bowing down

iXaZYaTae otaMaMa( TaPa" is better and the highest penance (tapas).

Sada oPavaSaq c >aveTa( [Then] one is always (sad) [like] one fasting (upavsin)
Sada b]carq >aveTa( and one is always [like] a celibate (brahmacrin).

Aih&Saa SaTYavcNaMaaNa*Xa&SYa& dMaae ga*<aa ) WTataPaae ivduDaqRra Na XarqrSYa Xaaez<aMa(= = ))

a-his satya-vacanam nasya damo gh, etat tapo vidur dhr na arrasya oaam

Aih&Saa SaTYavcNaMa( Non-violence (a-his), true speech (satya-vacana)

AaNa*Xa&SYaMa( dMa" ga*<aa mildness (nasya), sense control (dama) and compassion (gh)
nasya (from a-nasa not cruel)

Daqra" WTad( TaPa" ivdu" the wise (dhra) know this as penance (tapas),
Na XarqrSYa Xaaez<aMa( and not the drying up (oaa) of the body (arra).

+aMaYaa k]= aeDaMauiC^NaTk==aMa& SaLPavJaRNaaTa( ) SatvSa&SaevNaaqrae iNad]a& c C^etauMahRiTa ))

kamay krodham ucchindyt kma sakalpa-varjant, sattva-sasevand dhro nidr ca cchettum

+aMaYaa k]= aeDaMa( oiC^NaTa( By forgiveness (kam) one should root out anger (krodha)
SaLPavJaRNaaTa( k==aMaMa( and by renouncing all intentions (sakalpa) lust (kma).
SatvSa&SaevNaaTa( By practicing goodness (sattva)
Daqr" iNad]aMa( c ^etauMa( AhRiTa the wise (dhra) should cut sleep (nidr) also.

Wk==Yaa== e= =iviNaiTYa== }aq&Taui>aRvRXae= =ku= = =)= =Pa== iJaTva== ividTva== z$(= = SaPTa== ihTva== Sau:aq== >av== ))
ekay dve vinicitya tr caturbhir vae kuru, paca jitv viditv a sapta hitv sukh bhava

Wk==Yaa By the one [buddhi intelligence]

e iviNaiTYa [after] discerning the two [right and wrong]
}aqNa( vXae ku= you must control the three [friend, enemy, indifferent]
cTaui>aR" by the four [political means].


... sma-dna-bheda-daa conciliation, gift, dissention and punishment

Pa iJaTva [After] conquering the five [senses]

z$(= ividTva knowing the six [faults]
... the six anarthas (an-artha which is useless, fault; misery): kma-krodha-lobhamoha-mada-mtsarya lust, anger, greed, illusion, fantasy and envy (Viu-smti 96.50)

SaPTa ihTva
Sau:aq >av

and avoiding the seven [sinful activities]

... dyta-striya-mgay-mada gambling, womanizing, hunting and intoxication; plus
harshness of speech, severity of punishment and misuse of wealth

be happy (sukhin)!

oPad]va&STaQaa raeGaaiNhTaJaq<aRiMaTaaXaNaaTa( ) lae>a& Maaeh& c SaNTaaezaizYaa&STatvdXaRNaaTa(= = ))

upadravs tath rogn hita-jra-mitant, lobha moha ca santod viays tattva-darant
sandhi: (1) mita-_aant

... oTQaaNaeNa JaYaetaNd]q& ivTak|= iNaYaaaYaeTa( ) MaaENaeNa bhu>aaZYa& c XaaEYaeR<a c >aYa& TYaJaeTa(= = ))
utthnena jayet tandr vitarka nicayj jayet, maunena bahu-bhya ca auryea ca bhaya tyajet

YaC^ed( vax(= MaNaSaq buya Taa& YaC^eJjaNac+auza ) jaNaMaaTMaavbaeDaeNa YaC^edaTMaaNaMaaTMaNaa== =))

yacched v-manas buddhy t yacchej jna-caku, jnam tmvabodhena yacched tmnam tman
sandhi: (1) tma-_avabodhena


By wholesome (hita), easily digestible (jra) and moderate (mita) diet


oPad]vaNa( TaQaa raeGaaNa( [one can remove] disorders (upadrava) and diseases (roga),
SaNTaaezaTa( lae>aMa( MaaehMa( c by contentment (santoa) [one can remove] greed (lobha) and illusion

TatvdXaRNaaTa( ivzYaaNa( and by knowledge of the truth (tattva) sense gratifications (viaya).
oTQaaNaeNa TaNd]qMa( JaYaeTa( By exertion (utthna standing up) one can conquer procrastination (tandr)
iNaYaaTa( ivTakR= Ma( by resolution (nicaya) doubt (vitarka)
MaaENaeNa c bhu>aaZYaMa( and by silence (mauna) talkativeness (bahu-bhya).
XaaEYaeR<a c >aYaMa( TYaJaeTa( By courage (aurya) one can give up fear/danger (bhaya).
buya vak(= MaNaSaq YaC^eTa( By intelligence (buddhi) one can control speech (vc) and mind (manas)
jaNac+auza TaaMa( YaC^eTa( by the eye of knowledge (jna) one can control that [buddhi]
AaTMaAvbaeDaeNa jaNaMa( YaC^eTa( by understanding the self/soul (tm) one can control jna
AaTMaNaa AaTMaaNaMa( and by the soul the soul.

k==aleNa== =aNaXaaEca>Yaa&= = Sa&Sk==arESTaPaSaeJYaYaa== =)= =XauDYaiNTa== =daNaE"= = SaNTauya== =d]VYaa<YaaTMaaTMaivYaa== ))

klena snna-aucbhy saskrais tapasejyay, udhyanti dnai santuy dravyy tmtma-vidyay
sandhi: (1) tm_tma-

k==aleNa By [the passing of] time (kla) [land and possessions are purified]
aNaXaaEca>YaaMa( by bathing (snna) and cleansing (auca) [the body and clothes]
Sa&Sk==arE" by purificatory ceremonies (saskra) [the child]
TaPaSaa wJYaYaa by austerity (tapas) [the senses], by worship (ijy) [the priests]
daNaE" SaNTauya by charities (dna) [ones wealth], by contentment (santui) [the mind]



d]VYaai<a XauDYaiNTa thus [different] materials (dravya) are purified,

AaTMaa AaTMaivYaa [but] the self (tman) [is purified] by knowledge (vidy) of the self.

devTaaiTaiQa>a*TYae>Ya" iPaTa*>YaaTMaNaSTaQaa ) <avaNa( JaaYaTae MaTYaRSTaSMaadNa*<aTaa& v]JaeTa(= = ))

devattithi-bhtyebhya pitbhya ctmanas tath, avn jyate martyas tasmd a-nat vrajet
sandhi: (1) devat-_atithi, ca_tmanas

SvaDYaaYaeNa MahizR>Yaae deve>Yaae Yajk==MaR<aa ) iPaTa*>Ya" ]adaNaeNa Na*<aaMa>YacRNaeNa c== =))

svdhyyena maharibhyo devebhyo yaja-karma, pitbhya rddha-dnena nm abhyarcanena ca

devTaaAiTaiQa>a*TYae>Ya" Towards (1) gods (deva), (4) guests (atithi), (4) servants (bhtya)
TaQaa AaTMaNa" iPaTa*>Ya" c and (3) ones forefathers (pit)
MaTYaR" <avaNa( JaaYaTae a mortal (martya) becomes a debtor (avat).
TaSMaaTa( ANa*<aTaaMa( v]JaeTa( Therefore one should become free from [those] debts
MahizR>Ya" SvaDYaaYaeNa to (2) sages by studying (svdhyya)
mahari (mah-_i) great sage

deve>Ya" Yajk==MaR<aa to (1) gods (deva) by sacrificial (yaja) ritual

iPaTa*>Ya" ]adaNaeNa to (3) forefathers (pit) by offering homage (rddha)
Na*<aaMa( A>YacRNaeNa c and to (4) men (n) by reverence (abhyarcana).

ADYaaPaNa& b]Yaj" iPaTa*YajSTau TaPaR<aMa( ) haeMaae dEvae bil>aaTaae Na*Yajae= _iTaiQaPaUJaNaMa(= = ))

adhypana brahma-yaja pit-yajas tu tarpaam, homo daivo balir bhauto n-yajo tithi-pjanam
sandhi: (7) -yajo_atithi-

b]Yaj" ADYaaPaNaMa( (2) Brahma-yaja means teaching (adhypana)

iPaTa*Yaj" Tau TaPaR<aMa( (3) pit-yaja means libation (tarpaa)
dEv" haeMa" (1) deva-yaja (daiva) means offering oblation (homa)
>aaETa" bil" (5) bhta-yaja (bhauta) means offering food (bali)
Na*Yaj" AiTaiQaPaUJaNaMa( and (4) n-yaja means worshiping guests (atithi-pjana).

vEvaihke= = _GNaaE ku= vsTa Ga*& k==MaR YaQaaiviDa ) PaYajivDaaNa& c Pai&= caNvaihk==I& Ga*hq ))
vaivhike gnau kurvta ghya karma yath-vidhi, paca-yaja-vidhna ca pakti cnvhik gh
sandhi: (7) vaivhike_agnau, (1) ca_anvhik

... devaNa*zqNMaNauZYaa& iPaTaNGa*a devTaa" ) PaUJaiYaTva TaTa" Paad( Ga*hSQa" Xaez>auG>aveTa( ))

devn n manuy ca pitn ghy ca devat, pjayitv tata pacd ghastha ea-bhug bhavet

vEvaihke= AGNaaE

In the wedding fire (agni)

vaivhika from the wedding (vivha); the wedding fire is installed in the new

Ga*hq YaQaaiviDa a householder (ghin) duly

Ga*Ma( k==MaR ku= vsTa should perform his household duty (ghya karma)
PaYajivDaaNaMa( c [i.e.,] the ritual of paca-yaja
ANvaihk==IMa( Pai==Ma( c and the daily cooking (pakti). ...
nvhik (from anu.aha) daily

devaNa( zqNa( MaNauZYaaNa( c Gods (deva), sages (i), men (manuya)

iPaTaNa( Ga*a" devTaa" c forefathers (pit) and household [guardian] deities (devat)


ghy devat 2.3 of ghy devat

PaUJaiYaTva [after] honoring [them],

TaTa" PaaTa( Ga*hSQa" afterwards the householder (ghastha)
Xaez>auk(= >aveTa( shall partake of what remains (ea).

NaaiSTa MaaTa*SaMa& dEv& NaaiSTa iPaTa*SaMaae Gau"== =)

nsti mt-sama daiva nsti pit-samo guru
sandhi: (1) na_asti

MaaTa*SaMaMa( dEvMa( A divinity (daiva) equal to the mother (mt)

Na AiSTa does not exist.
iPaTa*SaMa" Gau" An authority (guru) equal to the father (pit)
Na AiSTa does not exist.

>a*Taae v*ae Yaae Na ib>aiTaR Pau}a" SvYaaeiNaJa" iPaTar& MaaTar& c )

TaE PaaPa& >a]U<ahTYaaiviXa& TaSMaaaaNYa" PaaPak*= diSTa laeke= ))
bhto vddho yo na bibharti putra sva-yoni-ja pitara mtara ca
tad vai ppa bhra-haty-viia tasmn nnya ppa-kd asti loke
sandhi: (1) na-_anya

>a*Ta" v*" Having been maintained (bhta) and brought up (vddha)

SvYaaeiNaJa" Pau}a" the inborn child (putra)
sva-yoni-ja born from the own yoni or womb

Ya" iPaTarMa( MaaTarMa( c Na ib>aiTaR who does not maintain his father (pit) and mother (mt),
TaSMaaTa( ANYa" PaaPak*= Ta( another (greater) sinner (ppa-kt) than him
laeke= Na AiSTa does not exist in this world (loka).
Tad( vE PaaPaMa( That sin (ppa)
>a]U<ahTYaaiviXaMa( is worse (viia distinct) than killing (haty) an embryo (bhra).

ci==<aae dXaMaqSQaSYa raeiGa<aae >aair<a" iYaa" ) aTak==SYa c raj PaNQaa deYaae vrSYa c== =))
cakrio daam-sthasya rogio bhria striy, sntakasya ca rja ca panth deyo varasya ca

ci==<a" For a man in a carriage (cakrin)

dXaMaqSQaSYa for one who is above ninety years old
daam-stha who is in the tenth stage beween 91 and 100

raeiGa<a" >aair<a" for one diseased (rogin), a carrier of a burden (bhrin)

iYaa" aTak==SYa c for a woman (str) and a graduated student (sntaka)
raj" c vrSYa c for a king (rjan) and a bridegroom (vara)
PaNQaa deYa" way (pathin) is to be given (deya).

ADvNaqNaae= _iTaiQajeRYa" ]aei}aYaae vedPaarGa" ) MaaNYaaveTaaE Ga*hSQaSYa b]laek= Ma>aqPSaTa"== =))

adhvanno tithir jeya rotriyo veda-praga, mnyv etau ghasthasya brahma-lokam abhpsata
sandhi: (7) adhvanno_atithir

ADvNaqNa" AiTaiQa" jeYa"

A traveller (adhvanna) is known as guest (atithi)



vedPaarGa" ]aei}aYa" and one versed in the Vedas [is known] as learned brhmaa (rotriya).
b]laek= Ma( A>aqPSaTa" Ga*hSQaSYa For a householder (ghastha) who desires for the region (loka) of

WTaaE MaaNYaaE

these two are honorable (mnya).


AiTaiQaYaRSYa >aGanaXaae Ga*haTPa[iTaiNavTaRTae ) Sa dtva duZk*= Ta& TaSMaE Pau<YaMaadaYa GaC^iTa== =))
atithir yasya bhagno ght pratinivartate, sa dattv dukta tasmai puyam dya gacchati
sandhi: (1) bhagna-_o

>aGanAaXa" AiTaiQa" A guest (atithi), his hopes frustrated (bhagna broken)

YaSYa Ga*haTa( Pa[iTaiNavTaRTae from whose house (gha) he [thus] turns back,
TaSMaE duZk*= TaMa( dtva after transferring to him (the householder) [all his] sin (dukta)
Pau<YaMa( AadaYa and taking his (the householders) merit (puya)
Sa" GaC^iTa he (the guest) leaves.

Aak]= aeXaPairvada>Yaa& ivih&SaNTYabuDaa buDaaNa( ) v==a PaaPaMauPaadtae +aMaMaa<aae ivMauCYaTae= = ))

kroa-parivdbhy vihisanty a-budh budhn, vakt ppam updatte kamamo vimucyate
sandhi: (5) vihisanti_a-budh

Aak]= aeXaPairvada>YaaMa( By abuse (kroa) and accusation (parivda)

AbuDaa" buDaaNa( ivih&SaiNTa the ignorant (a-budha) injure the wise (budha).
v==a PaaPaMa( oPaadtae The speaker (vakt) [thus] takes up the sin (ppa)
+aMaMaa<a" ivMauCYaTae [which] the forgiving one (kamama) casts off.

APaMaaNaataPaaev*i" SaMMaaNaataPaSa" +aYa"== =)

apamnt tapo-vddhi sammnt tapasa kaya

APaMaaNaaTa( From [suffering] an insult (apamna)

TaPa"v*i" there is an increase (vddhi) of [ones] penance (tapas),
SaMMaaNaaTa( and from [receiving] honor (sammna)
+aYa" there is a decrease (kaya destruction) [of ones penance].

Wk==" +aMaavTaa& daezae iTaqYaae NaaePaPaTae ) YadeNa& +aMaYaa Yau= MaXa&= MaNYaTae JaNa"== =))
eka kamvat doo dvityo nopapadyate, yad ena kamay yuktam a-akta manyate jana
sandhi: (3) na_upapadyate

aivMaaE PauzaE raJaNSvGaRSYaaePair iTaTa" ) Pa]>au +aMaYaa Yau= ae dird] Pa]daNavaNa(= = ))

dvv imau puruau rjan svargasyopari tihata, prabhu ca kamay yukto daridra ca pradnavn
sandhi: (1) svargasya_upari

+aMaavTaaMa( For those who have forgiveness

Wk==" daez" there is [only] one (eka) disadvantage (doa fault)
iTaqYa" Na oPaPaTae there is no second one (dvitya)
Yad( +aMaYaa Yau= Ma( WNaMa( [namely] that this one who is endowed with forgiveness (kam)
JaNa" AXa==Ma( MaNYaTae people (jana) consider to be weak (a-akta unable). ...
raJaNa( O King!


aE wMaaE PauzaE These two persons (purua)

SvGaRSYa oPair iTaTa" are placed above heaven (svarga)
+aMaYaa Yau= " Pa]>au" c the master (prabhu) graced with forgiveness (kam)
Pa]daNavaNa( dird]" c and the poor man (daridra) who is charitable.

bui" Pa]<aqTaa YaeNaeYa& MaNa SauSaMaaihTaMa( ) Ta& Tau NaahaRiMa Sax(= e= u& Pa]v]iJaZYaaiMa Maa icrMa(= = ))
buddhi prat yeneya mana ca susamhitam, ta tu nrhmi sakleu pravrajiymi m ciram
sandhi: (1) na_arhmi

YaeNa wYaMa( bui" Pa]<aqTaa By whom this [Kaikeys] intelligence (buddhi) was directed
MaNa" c SauSaMaaihTaMa( and [by whom] her mind (manas) was kept very firm,
TaMa( Tau Sax(= e= uMa( Na AhaRiMa that [Lord] I should not offend.
Maa icrMa( Pa]v]iJaZYaaiMa Very soon (not late) I will leave [for exile].

ParvaCYaezu iNaPau<a" SavaeR >aviTa SavRda ) AaTMavaCYa& Na JaaNaqTae JaaNaaiPa Na MauiTa== =))
para-vcyeu nipua sarvo bhavati sarvad, tma-vcya na jnte jnann api na muhyati


In blaming others
vcya what is said about or against; blame

SavR" SavRda iNaPau<a" >aviTa everyone (sarva) is always (sarvad) expert (nipua),
AaTMavaCYaMa( Na JaaNaqTae [but] His own blame one does not know;
JaaNaNa( AiPa Na MauiTa and even when knowing it one is not ashamed.



Hinduism Punishment

GauraTMavTaa& XaaSTaa raJaa XaaSTaa duraTMaNaaMa( ) wh Pa]C^aPaaPaaNaa& XaaSTaa vEvSvTaae YaMa"== =))
gurur tmavat st rj st durtmanm, iha pracchanna-ppn st vaivasvato yama

Gau" AaTMavTaaMa( XaaSTaa The priest (guru) is the ruler (st) of the learned
raJaa duraTMaNaaMa( XaaSTaa the king (rjan) is the ruler of the evil-minded (dur.tman)
vEvSvTa" YaMa" and Yama, the son of Vivasvn
wh Pa]C^aPaaPaaNaaMa( XaaSTaa is the ruler of those whose sin (ppa) is hidden in this world.

DaNa& Tau YaSYaaPahretaSMaE daTSaMa& vSau ) ivivDaeNaa>YauPaaYaeNa Tada MauCYaeTa ik==iLbzaTa(= = ))

dhana tu yasypaharet tasmai dadyt sama vasu, vividhenbhyupyena tad mucyeta kilbit
sandhi: (1) yasya_apaharet, vividhena_abhyupyena

YaSYa DaNaMa( Tau APahreTa( Whose wealth (dhana) one might steal,
TaSMaE SaMaMa( vSau daTa( to him an equal (sama) value (vasu) one should give
ivivDaeNa A>YauPaaYaeNa by diverse means (abhyupya).
Tada ik==iLbzaTa( MauCYaeTa Then one is freed from sin (kilbia).

Ga*hqTaaNSaMaahTaaR PaaErJaaNaPadaNaa& dXaRYaeTa(= = ) caerGa]h<aq& ivaMaDaqTae raJaa== =)

ghtn samhart paurajnapadn darayet, cora-graha vidym adhte rj

TaSYaaePadeXaaidMae caera Ga*hqTaa"== =)

tasyopaded ime cor ght
sandhi: (3) tasya_upaded

PaaErJaaNaPadaNaaMa( For the citicens (paurajnapada)

SaMaahTaaR Ga*hqTaaNa( dXaRYaeTa( the collector (samhart) shall exhibit the arrested men (ghta),
caerGa]h<aqMa( ivaMa( [proclaiming that,] The science (vidy) of catching (grahaa) thieves (cora)
raJaa ADaqTae the king (rjan) has studied
TaSYa oPadeXaaTa( and on his instruction (upadea)
wMae caera" Ga*hqTaa" these thieves (cora) were arrested.

vaNaSPaTYa& MaUlf==l& davRGNYaQa| TaQaEv c ) Ta*<a& c Gaae>Yaae Ga]aSaaQaRMaSTaeYa& MaNaurb]vqTa( ))

vnaspatya mla-phala drv agny-artha tathaiva ca, ta ca gobhyo grsrtham a-steya manur
sandhi: (6,5) dru_agni-_artha, (4) tath_eva, (1) grsa-_artham

vaNaSPaTYaMa( MaUlf==lMa( [Taking] plants, roots (mla) and fruits (phala)

AiGNaAQaRMa( da TaQaa Wv c wood (dru) for a [sacrificial] fire (agni)
Gaae>Ya" Ga]aSaAQaRMa( Ta*<aMa( c and grass (ta) for cows to eat (grsa-artha)
MaNau" ASTaeYaMa( Ab]vqTa( Manu has declared to be no theft (a-steya).

k==MaR>Yaae ivPa]MauCYaNTae Yataa" Sa&vTSar& iS}aYa"== =)

karmabhyo vipramucyante yatt savatsara striya


iS}aYaSTvaXaiTaa" PaaPaa NaaePaGaMYaa ivJaaNaTaa ) rJaSaa Taa ivXauDYaNTae >aSMaNaa >aaJaNa& YaQaa== =))
striyas tv akit pp nopagamy vijnat, rajas t viudhyante bhasman bhjana yath
sandhi: (6) tu_akit, (3) na_upagamy

Sa&vTSarMa( Yataa" iS}aYa" Women (str) who lead a regular life (yatta) for one year (savatsara)
k==MaR>Ya" ivPa]MauCYaNTae are completely freed from karma. ...
AaXaiTaa" Tau PaaPaa" iS}aYa" Sinful women who are afraid (akita)
Na oPaGaMYaa" are not to be attacked (upagamya aproached)
ivJaaNaTaa by one who is understanding (vijnat).
Taa" rJaSaa ivXauDYaNTae They are purified by their menstrual flow (rajas)
YaQaa >aaJaNaMa( >aSMaNaa as a metallic plate (bhjana) [is purified] with ashes (bhasman).

Paura iDaGd<@ WvaSaqaGd<@STadNaNTarMa( ) AaSaqdadaNad<@ae= _iPa vDad<@ae= _ vTaRTae= = ))

pur dhig-daa evsd vg-daas tad-anantaram, sd dna-dao pi vadha-dao dya vartate
sandhi: (1) eva_sd, (7) dao_api, dao_adya

Paura First (pur)

iDaGa(d<@" Wv AaSaqTa( there was (st) only (1) dhig-daa
Tad(ANaNTarMa( vaGa(d<@" thereafter (2) vg-daa
AadaNad<@" AiPa AaSaqTa( [then] there was also (3) dna-daa (= dhana-daa)
A vDad<@" vTaRTae and today (adya) (4) vadha-daa is practiced.

MaNauZYaa<aa& PaXaUNaa& c du"%aYa Pa[Tae SaiTa ) YaQaa YaQaa Mahu"%& d<@& ku= YaaRtaQaa TaQaa ))
manuy pan ca dukhya prahte sati, yath yath mahad dukha daa kuryt tath tath

MaNauZYaa<aaMa( PaXaUNaaMa( c du"%aYa

Meant to give trouble (dukha) to men (manuya) and animals


Pa[Tae SaiTa when there is [such] an attack,

YaQaa YaQaa MahTa( du"%Ma( as much (mahat great) as the respective distress (dukha) is
TaQaa TaQaa d<@Ma( ku= YaaRTa( accordingly he (the king) must give punishment (daa).

AParaDaaNauPa& c d<@& PaaPaezu DaarYaeTa( ) ivYaaeJaYaeNaERaNaDaNaaNaQa bNDaNaE"= = ))

apardhnurpa ca daa ppeu dhrayet, viyojayed dhanair ddhn a-dhann atha bandhanai
sandhi: (1) apardha-_anurpa

AParaDaANauPaMa( c According to the offense (apardha) he (the king)

d<@Ma( PaaPaezu DaarYaeTa( should inflict (dhrayet) punishment (daa) to the sinners.
aNa( DaNaE" ivYaaeJaYaeTa( The rich (ddha) he should (3) deprive (viyojayet) of wealth (dhana)
AQa ADaNaaNa( bNDaNaE" and the poor (a-dhana) [he should punish] by (4) imprisonment (bandhana).

AiGNadae GardEv XaPaai<aDaRNaaPah" ) +ae}adarhrEv z@eTa AaTaTaaiYaNa"== =))

agni-do gara-da caiva astra-pir dhanpaha, ketra-dra-hara caiva a ete tatyina
sandhi: (4) ca_eva, (1) dhana-_apaha, (4) ca_eva

AiGNad" Gard" c Wv One who sets fire (agni), gives poison (gara)
XaPaai<a" [attacks] with weapon (astra) in hand (pi)



DaNaAPah" steals wealth (dhana)

+ae}adarhr" c Wv steals land (ketra) or [abducts anothers] wife (dra)
z@( WTae AaTaTaaiYaNa" these six are aggressors (tatyin).

NaaTaTaaiYavDae daezae hNTau>aRviTa k==Na )

ntatyi-vadhe doo hantur bhavati kacana
sandhi: (1) na_tatyi

AaTaTaaiYavDae In killing an aggressor (tatyin)

hNTau" Na k==Na daez" >aviTa there is not any sin (doa fault) for a killer (hant).

iNak*= TYaa iNak*= iTaPa]ja hNTaVYaa wiTa iNaYa" ) Na ih NaEk*= iTak&= hTva iNak*= TYaa PaaPaMauCYaTae= = ))
nikty nikti-praj hantavy iti nicaya, na hi naiktika hatv nikty ppam ucyate

iNak*= iTaPa]ja" Those whose intention (praj) is full of deceit (nikti)

iNak*= TYaa hNTaVYaa" are to be killed (hantavya) by deceit
wiTa iNaYa" this is sanctioned (nicaya certainty).
iNak*= TYaa NaEk*= iTak==Ma( hTva Killing a deceitful person (naiktika) with deceit
Na ih PaaPaMa( oCYaTae is never called a sin (ppa).

SvPa[a<aaNa( Ya" ParPa[a<aE" Pa[PauZ<aaTYaga*<a" %l" ) TaDaSTaSYa ih [eYaae YaaezaaTYaDa" PauMaaNa(= = ))

sva-prn ya para-prai praputy a-gha khala, tad-vadhas tasya hi reyo yad dod yty adha
sandhi: (5) praputi_a-gha, yti_adha

Ya" Aga*<a" %l" A merciless and mischievous person who

ParPa[a<aE" SvPa[a<aaNa( Pa[PauZ<aaiTa by [harming] other lives (para-pra) maintains his own life (svapra),

Tad(vDa" TaSYa ih [eYa" to kill him is for his best (reyas)

Yad( daezaTa( because [otherwise] by [continuing] such fault (doa)
PauMaaNa( ADa" YaaiTa a person (pus) goes down (adhas) [to hell].

XarqrSYa ivMaae+ae<a MauCYaTae k==MaR<aae= _Xau>aaTa( )

arrasya vimokea mucyate karmao ubht
sandhi: (7) karmao_aubht

XarqrSYa ivMaae+ae<a By giving up ones body (arra)

AXau>aaTa( k==MaR<a" MauCYaTae one is freed from [all] bad (a-ubha) karma.

raJai>a"== =k*= Tad<@aSTau= = k*= Tva== =PaaPaaiNa== =MaaNava"== =)= = iNaMaRla"== =SvGaRMaaYaaiNTa== =SaNTa"== =Sauk*= iTaNaae= = YaQaa== ))
rjabhi kta-das tu ktv ppni mnav, nirmal svargam ynti santa suktino yath

PaaPaaiNa k*= Tva After doing sins (ppa)

raJai>a" k*= Tad<@a" Tau MaaNava" men (mnava) who have been punished by the king (rjan)
YaQaa Sauk*= iTaNa" SaNTa" iNaMaRla" being pure (nir.mala) like pious (suktin) saints (sat)
SvGaRMa( AaYaaiNTa they attain heaven (svarga).



dSYaUiahiNTa vE raJaa >aUYaSaae vaPYaNaaGaSa" ) >aaYaaR MaaTaa iPaTaa Pau}aae hNYaNTae Pauze<a Tae= = ))
dasyn nihanti vai rj bhyaso vpy an-gasa, bhry mt pit putro hanyante puruea te
sandhi: (1,5) v_api_an-gasa

... ASaaDauEv Pauzae l>aTae XaqlMaek= da ) SaaDaaeaiPa SaaDau>Ya" Xaae>aNaa JaaYaTae Pa]Jaa== =))
a-sdhu caiva puruo labhate lam ekad, sdho cpi hy a-sdhubhya obhan jyate praj
sandhi: (4) ca_eva, (1) ca_api, (5) hi_a-sdhubhya

... Yada PauraeihTa& va Tae PaYaeRYau" Xar<aEiz<a" ) k==irZYaaMa" PauNab]Ra PaaPaiMaiTa vaidNa"== =)
yad purohita v te paryeyu araaiia, kariyma punar brahman na ppam iti vdina

Tada ivSaGaRMahaR" SYauirTaqd& DaaTa*XaaSaNaMa(= = ))

tad visargam arh syur itda dht-sanam
sandhi: (1) iti_ida

raJaa dSYaUNa( iNahiNTa vE The king (rjan) kills offenders (dasyu)

>aUYaSa" va AiPa ANaaGaSa" and [by this] still more (bhyas) innocent (an-gas) people.
>aaYaaR MaaTaa iPaTaa Pau}a" [Because,] the wife (bhry), mother (mt), father (pit) and child (putra)
Tae Pauze<a hNYaNTae these are killed (hanyante) together with that person (the offender). ...
Wk==da ASaaDau" c Wv Pauz" [Furthermore,] sometimes even a wicked (a-sdhu) man
SaaDaae" c AiPa XaqlMa( l>aTae gets [later] the conduct (la) of pious men (sdhu)
ASaaDau>Ya" ih and even from wicked men (a-sdhubhya)
Xaae>aNaa Pa]Jaa JaaYaTae bright (obhana) progeny (praj) is born. ...
Yada Xar<aEiz<a" va Or else, when they are seeking shelter (araaiin)
Tae PauraeihTaMa( PaYaeRYau" and circumambulate (paryeyu) the priest (purohita)
b]Na( Na PauNa" PaaPaMa( k==irZYaaMa" O brhmaa, we will not again commit sin!
wiTa vaidNa" Speaking thus,
Tada ivSaGaRMa( AhaR" SYau" they should deserve release (visarga) [without punishment].
wdMa( DaaTa*XaaSaNaMa( This is the command (sana) of the Lord (dht).



Sanskrit Sandhi 4

yady api
vande ham

(8) bhagavad-gt
Rule: Hard consonants change to soft consonants, before soft consonants and vowels. When you
examine the alphabet you can easily understand or just feel the difference between hard (unvoiced) and
soft (voiced) consonants. The soft consonants are marked in bold type:











This rule applies mainly to t, and occasionally to k.

>aGavqTaa bhagavad-gt the song of the Lord

jagat-_a >>> JaGadqXa jagad-a Lord of the universe (jagat)
bhagavat-_gt >>>

On the other hand, soft consonants become hard before hard consonants. This rule applies mainly to d.

SazTSaTaaMa( surt satm the friend (suhd) of His devotees

tad_tad_prpya >>> TataTPa]aPYa tat tat prpya after achieving that

suhd_satm >>>

(9) aha bhajmi

Rule: m becomes (the pure nasal) before a consonant. You will find examples in almost every verse of
tam aham_bhajmi >>>

TaMah& >aJaaiMa tam aha bhajmi I worship Him


Hinduism Society

bl& iva c ivPa[a<aa& raja& SaENYa& bl& TaQaa ) bl& ivta& c vEXYaaNaa& XaUd]a<aa& PaaircYaRk= Ma( ))
bala vidy ca vipr rj sainya bala tath, bala vitta ca vaiyn dr pricaryakam
sandhi: (9) balam_vidy, viprm_rjm_sainyam_balam_tath balam_vittam_ca

ivPa[a<aaMa( blMa( iva c As the strength (bala) of brhmaas (vipra) is learning (vidy)
TaQaa rajaMa( blMa( SaENYaMa( so the strength of katriyas (rjan king) is the army (sainya)
vEXYaaNaaMa( blMa( ivtaMa( c the strength of vaiyas is wealth (vitta)
XaUd]a<aaMa( PaaircYaRk= Ma( and [the strength] of dras is service.

blJYae& SMa*Ta& +a}a& MaN}aJYaea iJaaTaYa" ) DaNaJYaea" SMa*Taa vEXYaa" XaUd]aSTau vYaSaaiDak==a"== =))
bala-jyeha smta katra mantra-jyeh dvijtaya, dhana-jyeh smt vaiy drs tu
sandhi: (9) jyeham_smtam_katram_mantra

+a}aMa( blJYaeMa( SMa*TaMa(

A katriya (katra) is said to be superior by virtue of strength (bala)

... superior within his class

iJaaTaYa" MaN}aJYaea" brhmaas (dvi-jti) are superior by learning (mantra advice)

vEXYaa" DaNaJYaea" SMa*Taa" vaiyas are said to be superior by wealth (dhana)
XaUd]a" Tau vYaSaa AiDak==a" and dras are superior by age (vayas).

XaMaRvd( b]a<aSYa SYaad]ajae r+aaSaMaiNvTaMa( ) vEXYaSYa PauiSa&Yau&= XaUd]SYa Pa[eZYaSa&YauTaMa( ))

armavad brhmaasya syd rjo rak-samanvitam, vaiyasya pui-sayukta drasya preyasayutam
sandhi: (8) armavad_brhmaasya syd_rjo, (9) sayuktam_drasya

b]a<aSYa [The second part of the name] of a brhmaa

XaMaRvd( SYaaTa( should imply (have) happiness (arma)
raj" r+aaSaMaiNvTaMa( of a katriya (rjan) protection (rak)
vEXYaSYa PauiSa&Yau= Ma( of a vaiya prosperity (pui)
XaUd]SYa Pa[eZYaSa&YauTaMa( and of a dra servitude (preya).

YaSYa Ya+a<a& Pa[ae&= Pau&Saae v<aaRi>aVYak==Ma( ) YadNYa}aaiPa d*XYaeTa TataeNaEv iviNaidRXaeTa(= = ))

yasya yal lakaa prokta puso varbhivyajakam, yad anyatrpi dyeta tat tenaiva vinirdiet
sandhi: (9) lakaam_proktam_puso, (1) vara-_abhivyajakam, anyatra_api, (8,4)

YaSYa Pau&Sa" Of a person

v<aRAi>aVYak==Ma( indicating (manifesting) his vara
Yad( l+a<aMa( Pa[ae= Ma( the symptom (lakaa) which was described (prokta),
Yad( ANYa}a AiPa d*XYaeTa if it is seen elsewhere
... in another vara

Tad( TaeNa Wv iviNaidRXaeTa(

then he should be described by that [varna] alone.




XaUd]e cETave+Ya& iJae Ta Na ivTae ) Na vE XaUd]ae >aveC^Ud]ae b]a<aae Na c b]a<a"== =))

dre caitad bhavel lakya dvije tac ca na vidyate, na vai dro bhavec chdro brhmao na ca brhmaa
sandhi: (4) ca_etad, (9) lakyam_dvije

WTad( c l+YaMa( XaUd]e >aveTa(

If this symptom (lakya) [of a brhmaa] exists in a dra

... a symptom like satya, dna, kam, ...

Tad( c iJae Na ivTae and it does not exist in a brhmaa,

XaUd]" Na vE XaUd]" >aveTa( then the [so-called] dra is not at all a dra
... but a brhmaa

b]a<a" Na c b]a<a"

and the [so-called] brhmaa is not [actually] a brhmaa.


Na YaaeiNaNaaRiPa Sa&Sk==arae Na [uTa& Na c SaNTaiTa" ) k==ar<aaiNa iJaTvSYa v*taMaev Tau k==ar<aMa(= = ))

na yonir npi saskro na ruta na ca santati, krani dvijatvasya vttam eva tu kraam
sandhi: (1) na_api, (9) rutam_na

SavaeR= _Ya& b]a<aae laeke= v*taeNa Tau ivDaqYaTae ) v*tae iSQaTaSTau XaUd]ae= _iPa b]a<aTv& iNaYaC^iTa== =))
sarvo ya brhmao loke vttena tu vidhyate, vtte sthitas tu dro pi brhmaatva niyacchati
sandhi: (7,9) sarvo_ayam_brhmao, (7) dro_api, (9) brhmaatvam_niyacchati

Na YaaeiNa" Na AiPa Sa&Sk==ar" Neither birth (yoni) nor sacraments (saskra)

Na [uTaMa( Na c SaNTaiTa" nor learning (ruta) nor lineage (santati)
iJaTvSYa k==ar<aaiNa are causes (kraa) for being a brhmaa (dvija);
v*taMa( Wv Tau k==ar<aMa( only conduct (vtta) is the cause.
SavR" AYaMa( b]a<a" laeke= Every (sarva) brhmaa in this world
v*taeNa Tau ivDaqYaTae is known (vidhyate) by his conduct (vtta),
v*tae iSQaTa" Tau and established in [good] conduct (vtta)
XaUd]" AiPa even a dra
b]a<aTvMa( iNaYaC^iTa attains brhmaa-hood.

APaare Yaae >aveTPaarMaPlve Ya" Plvae >aveTa( ) XaUd]ae va Yaid vaPYaNYa" SavRQaa MaaNaMahRiTa== =))
a-pre yo bhavet pram a-plave ya plavo bhavet, dro v yadi vpy anya sarvath mnam arhati
sandhi: (1,5) v_api_anya

... iNaTYa& YaSTau SaTaae r+aedSaTa iNavTaRYaeTa( ) Sa Wv raJaa k==TaRVYaSTaeNa SavRiMad& Da*TaMa(= = ))
nitya yas tu sato raked a-sata ca nivartayet, sa eva rj kartavyas tena sarvam ida dhtam
sandhi: (9) nityam_yas, (8) raket_a-sata, (9) idam_dhtam

Ya" APaare PaarMa( >aveTa( He who becomes a shore (pra) in the boundless (a-pra) [ocean]
Ya" APlve Plv" >aveTa( he who becomes a boat (plava) in the boatless [current]
XaUd]" va Yaid va AiPa ANYa" if he be a dra or even another (an outcaste),
SavRQaa MaaNaMa( AhRiTa he deserves every respect (mna). ...
Ya" Tau iNaTYaMa( SaTa" r+aeTa( He who always protects the good (2.3 of sat)
ASaTa" c iNavTaRYaeTa( and wards off the wicked (a-sat),
Sa" Wv raJaa k==TaRVYa" he alone should be the king (rjan),
TaeNa SavRMa( wdMa( Da*TaMa( by him all this [world] is held up.



AadaE k*= TaYauGae v<aaeR Na*<aa& h&Sa wiTa SMa*Ta" ) k*= Tak*= TYaa" Pa[Jaa JaaTYaa TaSMaaTk*= TaYauGa& ivdu"= = ))
dau kta-yuge varo n hasa iti smta, kta-kty praj jty tasmt kta-yuga vidu
sandhi: (9) yugam_vidu

AadaE k*= TaYauGae

In the beginning (di), in satya-yuga

... also called kta-yuga

Na*<aaMa( v<aR" h&Sa" wiTa SMa*Ta" the only class (vara) of men (n) was called hasa (swan).
JaaTYaa By birth (jti)
Pa[Jaa" k*= Tak*= TYaa" all people (praj) were accomplished.
kta-ktya who has done what is to be done

TaSMaaTa( k*= TaYauGaMa( ivdu"

Therefore they (the sages) called it kta-yuga.


Na vE raJYa& Na raJaaSaqa c d<@ae Na dai<@k==" ) DaMaeR<aEv Pa]Jaa" SavaR r+aiNTa SMa ParSParMa(= = ))
na vai rjya na rjsn na ca dao na dika, dharmeaiva praj sarv rakanti sma parasparam
sandhi: (9) rjyam_na, (1) rj_sn, (4) dharmea_eva

Na vE raJYaMa( Na raJaa Neither a kingdom (rjya) nor a king (rjan)

Na c d<@" Na dai<@k==" and neither punishment (daa rod) nor punisher (dika)
AaSaqTa( existed (st) [at that time].
DaMaeR<a Wv SavaR" Pa]Jaa" Piously all people (praj)
ParSParMa( r+aiNTa SMa protected each other.

ivPa[+ai}aYaiv$(=XaUd]a Mau%bahUPaadJaa" )
vipra-katriya-vi-dr mukha-bhru-pda-j
sandhi: (1) bhu-_uru

Ga*ha[Maae JagaNaTaae b]cYa| dae MaMa ) v+a"SQalaNaevaSa" SaYaaSa" iXariSa iSQaTa"== =))
ghramo jaghanato brahmacarya hdo mama, vaka-sthald vane-vsa sannysa irasi sthita
sandhi: (1) gha-_ramo, (8) sthalt_vane; sandhi rule (9) we will not mark any more

ivPa[+ai}aYaiv$(=XaUd]a" [The Lord said:] The brhmaa (vipra), katriya, vaiya (vi) and dra
Mau%bahuoPaadJaa" are born from [My] mouth (mukha), arms (bhu), thighs (uru) and feet (pda).
... the brhmaas are born from the mouth of the Lord as Universal Form, the katriyas
from the arms, etc.

Ga*hAa[Ma" JagaNaTa" Domesticity (gha-rama) are from [My] loin (jaghana)

b]cYaRMa( MaMa d" study (brahmacarya) from My heart (hd)
vNaevaSa" v+a"SQalaTa( forest-life (vane-vsa) from the place of the chest (vakas)
SaYaaSa" iXariSa iSQaTa" and renunciation (sannysa) is situated in [My] head (iras).

v<aaR[MaacarvTaa Pauze<a Par" PauMaaNa( ) ivZ<auraraDYaTae PaNQaa NaaNYatataaezk==ar<aMa(= = ))

varramcravat puruea para pumn, viur rdhyate panth nnyat tat-toa-kraam
sandhi: (1) varrama-_cravat, (12) viu_rdhyate, (1) na_anyat, (8) tad-_toa

v<aaR[MaAacarvTaa Pauze<a By a person (purua) who follows the conduct (cra) in varrama
Par" PauMaaNa( ivZ<au" AaraDYaTae the Supreme Lord Viu is being worshiped.
Na ANYaTa( Tad(Taaezk==ar<aMa( PaNQaa" There is no other path (pathin) as means (kraa) for His (tad)
satisfaction (toa).




ATa" PauiM>aiRJa[ea v<aaR[Maiv>aaGaXa" ) SvNauiTaSYa DaMaRSYa Sa&iSaihRirTaaez<aMa(= = ))

ata pumbhir dvija-reh varrama-vibhgaa, svanuhitasya dharmasya sasiddhir hari-toaam
sandhi: (12) pumbhi_dvija, sasiddhi_hari


O brhmaas!
dvija-reha best of the twice-born

ATa" v<aaR[Maiv>aaGaXa" Therefore, according to varrama

PauiM>a" SvNauiTaSYa DaMaRSYa Sa&iSai" the perfection (sasiddhi)

of ones duty (dharma), well-

performed (su.anuhita) by men (pus)


is the satisfaction (toaa) of the Lord (Hari).


ra+aSaa" k==ilMaai[TYa JaaYaNTae b]YaaeiNazu ) oTPaaa b]a<aku= le baDaNTae [aei}aYaaNk*= XaaNa(= = ))

rkas kalim ritya jyante brahma-yoniu, utpann brhmaa-kule bdhante rotriyn kn

ra+aSaa" Devils (rkasa)

k==ilMa( Aai[TYa [after] taking shelter of kali-yuga
b]YaaeiNazu JaaYaNTae take birth in brhmaa families.
b]a<aku= le oTPaaa" Being raised in a brhmaa family (kula)
[aei}aYaaNa( k*= XaaNa( baDaNTae they trouble the learned (rotriya) and weak (ka).


Hinduism Sacraments

Ga>aaRDaaNa& Tau Pa[QaMa& TaTa" Pau&SavNa& SMa*TaMa( ) SaqMaNTaaeaYaNa& JaaTak==MaR NaaMaaNauXaaSaNaMa(= = )

garbhdhna tu prathama tata pusavana smtam, smantonnayana jta-karma nmnusanam

cU@ak*= iTa& v]TabNDa& vedv]TaaNYaXaezTa"== =))

c-kti vrata-bandha veda-vratny aeata

Ga>aaRDaaNaMa( Tau Pa[QaMaMa( SMa*TaMa(

The [saskra of] (1) garbhdhna is said to be the first

... for explanations see the list below

TaTa" Pau&SavNaMa( SaqMaNTaaeaYaNaMa( then come (2) pusavana, (3) smantonnayana

JaaTak==MaR NaaMaANauXaaSaNaMa( (5) jta-karma, (7) nma-karaa (nma-anusana)
cU@ak*= iTaMa( v]TabNDaMa( (11) c-karaa (c-kti), (14) upanayana (vrata-bandha)
vedv]TaaiNa AXaezTa" and completely the [four] Vedic observances.
veda-vrata a rite performed during the acquirement of the Vedas

YaSYaETae= _cTvair&XaTSa&Sk==ara" Sa b]a<a"== =)

yasyaite a-catvriat-saskr sa brhmaa
sandhi: (4,7) yasya_ete_aa-

YaSYa WTae AcTvair&XaTa( Sa&Sk==ara"

Sa" b]a<a" he is a brhmaa.

One who has these forty-eight saskras


MaaTaurGa]e= _iDaJaNaNa& iTaqYa& MaaEibNDaNae ) Ta*TaqYa& Yajdq+aaYaa& iJaSYa [uiTacaedNaaTa(= = ))

mtur agre dhijanana dvitya mauji-bandhane, ttya yaja-dky dvijasya ruti-codant
sandhi: (7,9) agre_adhijananam_dvityam_mauji, ttyam_yaja-dkym_dvijasya

AGa]e MaaTau" AiDaJaNaNaMa( First there is birth (adhijanana) (1) from a mother (mt)
iTaqYaMa( MaaEibNDaNae secondly (2) in initiation
mauji-bandhana binding the girdle of muja grass, symbol of initiation

Ta*TaqYaMa( [uiTacaedNaaTa( iJaSYa and thirdly, according to the Vedas (ruti), of that dvija
Yajdq+aaYaaMa( [there is birth] (3) in the initiation (dk) into yajas.

XarqrMaeTaaE Sa*JaTa" iPaTaa MaaTaa c >aarTa ) AacaYaRXaaSTaa Yaa JaaiTa" Saa SaTYaa SaaJaraMara== =))
arram etau sjata pit mt ca bhrata, crya-st y jti s saty sjarmar
sandhi: (1) s_ajar_amar

>aarTa O Yudhihira!
iPaTaa MaaTaa c Father (pit) and mother (mt)
WTaaE XarqrMa( Sa*JaTa" these two create the body (arra).
Yaa JaaiTa" AacaYaRXaaSTaa The birth (jti) [however]

which is ordained by the spiritual teacher


Saa SaTYaa that (s) is true (saty)

Saa AJara AMara and that is unfading (a-jar) and immortal (a-mar).




Ta}a Yad( b]JaNMaaSYa MaaEibNDaNaiciTaMa( ) Ta}aaSYa MaaTaa Saaiv}aq iPaTaa TvacaYaR oCYaTae ))
tatra yad brahma-janmsya mauji-bandhana-cihnitam, tatrsya mt svitr pit tv crya ucyate
sandhi: (1) janma_asya, tatra_asya, (6) tu_crya

Ta}a Yad( ASYa b]JaNMa His brahma-janma (birth for the Veda)
MaaEibNDaNaiciTaMa( is symbolised by the mauji-bandhana
mauji- or mauj-bandhana binding the girdle of muja grass

Ta}a ASYa MaaTaa Saaiv}aq

iPaTaa Tau AacaYaR" oCYaTae

where his mother (mt) is said to be Gyatr (Svitr)

and the father (pit) the guru (crya).

b]a<aa" +ai}aYaa vEXYaaS}aYaae v<aaR iJaaTaYa"== =)

brhma katriy vaiys trayo var dvi-jtaya

b]a<aa" +ai}aYaa" vEXYaa" Brhmaas, katriyas and vaiyas

}aYa" v<aaR" iJaaTaYa" these three classes (vara) are twiceborn (dvi-jti, dvi-ja).


Hinduism Brhmaa

SaTYa& daNa& +aMaa XaqlMaaNa*Xa&SYa& TaPaae ga*<aa ) d*XYaNTae Ya}a NaaGaeNd] Sa b]a<a wiTa SMa*Ta"== =))
satya dna kam lam nasya tapo gh, dyante yatra ngendra sa brhmaa iti smta
sandhi: (9) satyam_dnam_kam, nasyam_tapo, (2) nga-_indra

NaaGawNd] O king of snakes (nga)!

SaTYaMa( daNaMa( +aMaa XaqlMa( Truthfulness (satya), charity (dna), forgiveness (kam), good conduct

AaNa*Xa&SYaMa( TaPa" ga*<aa kindness (nasya), penance (tapas) and compassion (gh)
Ya}a d*XYaNTae in whom (where) they are seen,
Sa" b]a<a" wiTa SMa*Ta" he is called a brhmaa.

MaE}aae b]a<a oCYaTae= = )

maitro brhmaa ucyate

MaE}a" b]a<a" oCYaTae

Who is friendly (maitra) [to all] he is called a brhmaa.


XaUd]YaaeNaaE ih JaaTaSYa Sau<aaNauPaiTaTa" ) vEXYaTv& l>aTae b]N+ai}aYaTv& TaQaEv c )

dra-yonau hi jtasya sad-gun upatihata, vaiyatva labhate brahman katriyatva tathaiva ca,

AaJaRve vTaRMaaNaSYa b]a<YaMai>aJaaYaTae ))

rjave vartamnasya brhmayam abhijyate
sandhi: (8) sat-_gun, (9) vaiyatvam_labhate, (4) tath_eva

b]Na( O brhmaa!
XaUd]YaaeNaaE ih JaaTaSYa Even born as a dra (in dra-yoni)
SaTa(Gau<aaNa( oPaiTaTa" [if] possessing good qualities (sat-gua)
vEXYaTvMa( l>aTae one gets vaiya-hood
+ai}aYaTvMa( TaQaa Wv c and also katriya-hood.
AaJaRve vTaRMaaNaSYa [And] for one living in honesty (rjava)
b]a<YaMa( Ai>aJaaYaTae results brhmaa-hood (brhmaya).

AaJaRv& b]a<ae Saa+aaC^Ud]ae= _NaaJaRvl+a<a" ) GaaETaMaiSTviTa ivjaYa SaTYak==aMaMauPaaNaYaTa(= = ))

rjava brhmae skc chdro n-rjava-lakaa, gautamas tv iti vijya satyakmam upnayat
sandhi: (9) rjavam_brhmae, (7) chdro_an-rjava, (6) tu_iti

AaJaRvMa( Saa+aaTa( b]a<ae Honesty (rjava) is manifest in a brhmaa,

XaUd]" ANaaJaRvl+a<a" a dra is characterized by dishonesty (an-rjava).
Here dra refers to a low-class person.

wiTa ivjaYa Knowing this

GaaETaMa" Tau SaTYak==aMaMa( oPaaNaYaTa(

Gautama initiated Satyakma [as a brhmaa].


NaETadb]a<aae ivvu= MahRiTa== =) SaiMaDa& SaaEMYa Aahr== =) oPa Tva NaeZYae= = )

naitad a-brhmao vivaktum arhati, samidha saumya hara, upa tv neye
sandhi: (4) na_etad, (9) samidham_saumya



Ab]a<a" [Gautama said:] A non-brhmaa

WTad( ivvu= Ma( Na AhRiTa is not able to explain this.
SaaEMYa SaiMaDaMa( Aahr O gentle [Satyakma], bring the wood [for the fire sacrifice of initiation].
Tva oPa NaeZYae I will initiate you (upa neye I will lead you upwards >>> upa.nayana).

Aheirv Ga<aaqTa" SaaEihTYaaark==aidv ) ku= <aPaaidv c S}aq>YaSTa& deva b]a<a& ivdu"= = ))

aher iva gad bhta sauhityn narakd iva, kuapd iva ca strbhyas ta dev brhmaa vidu
sandhi: (8) gat_bhta, narakt_iva kuapt_iva, (9) tam_dev brhmaam_vidu

Ga<aaTa( >aqTa" Ahe" wv Who is afraid (bhta) of a crowd (gaa) as [he is] of a snake (ahi)
SaaEihTYaaTa( Nark==aTa( wv of sense gratification as of hell (naraka)
sauhitya (from su.hita) gratification

S}aq>Ya" ku= <aPaaTa( wv c and of [others] women (str) as of a corpse (kuapa),

TaMa( deva" b]a<aMa( ivdu" that one the gods (deva) consider as a brhmaa.

NaraMaezu SaveRzu Ya Wk==ae rMaTae MauiNa" ) ParezaMaNaNauDYaaYa&STa& deva b]a<a& ivdu"= = ))

dvandvrmeu sarveu ya eko ramate muni, parem an-anudhyyas ta dev brhmaa vidu
sandhi: (1) dvandva-_rmeu, (9) tam_dev brhmaam_vidu

MauiNa" That sage (muni)

Ya" SaveRzu NAaraMaezu

who in all [kinds of] pleasures (rma) of couples (dvandva)

... i.e., in which couples rejoice

Wk==" rMaTae

singly rejoices
... through his meditation

ParezaMa( ANaNauDYaaYaNa( not caring (an-anudhyyan) for [the joys of] others,
TaMa( deva" b]a<aMa( ivdu" that one the devas consider as a brhmaa.

JaNMaNaa JaaYaTae XaUd]" Sa&Sk==arai >aved( iJa" ) vedPaa#=aveiPa[ae b] JaaNaaTaqiTa b]a<a"== =))
janman jyate dra saskrd dhi bhaved dvija, veda-phd bhaved vipro brahma jntti brhmaa
sandhi: (8) saskrt_dhi bhavet_dvija, pht_bhavet_vipro, (1) jnti_iti

JaNMaNaa XaUd]" JaaYaTae By birth (janman) one is born a dra

Sa&Sk==araTa( ih iJa" >aveTa( by saskra one becomes twice-born (dvi-ja)
vedPaa#=aTa( ivPa[" >aveTa( by study (pha recitation) of the Vedas one becomes learned (vipra)
= third birth

b] JaaNaaiTa wiTa b]a<a"

[but only] one who knows the Supreme (brahma) is a brhmaa.


SPa*hYaaiMa iJaaiTa>Yaae Yaeza& b] Par& DaNaMa( ) Yaeza& SvPa]TYaYa" SvGaRSTaPa" SvaDYaaYaSaaDaNaMa(= = ))

sphaymi dvijtebhyo ye brahma para dhanam, ye sva-pratyaya svargas tapa svdhyyasdhanam
sandhi: (9) yem_brahma param_dhanam yem_sva

YaezaMa( ParMa( DaNaMa( b] Whose greatest wealth (dhana) is the Supreme (brahma)
YaezaMa( SvPa]TYaYa" SvGaR" whose heaven (svarga) is firm belief (pratyaya) in the self (sva)
TaPa" SvaDYaaYaSaaDaNaMa( and [whose] penance (tapas) is practice (sdhana) of study (svdhyya),
iJaaiTa>YaaMa( SPa*hYaaiMa those brhmaas (dvi-jti, dvi-ja) I like very much.



SadaePavqTaq cEv SYaaTSada biXa:aae iJa"== =)

sadopavt caiva syt sad baddha-ikho dvija
sandhi: (3) sad_upavt, (4) ca_eva

iJa" A brhmaa (dvija)

Sada oPavqTaq c Wv SYaaTa( should always (sad) wear sacred thread (upavta)
Sada biXa:a" and have his hair-tuft (ikh) always tied (baddha).

ADaqYaqr&Yaae v<aaR" Svk==MaRSQaa iJaaTaYa" ) Pa[b]UYaad( b]a<aSTveza& NaeTaraiviTa iNaYa"== =))

adhyras trayo var sva-karma-sth dvijtaya, prabryd brhmaas tv e netarv iti nicaya
sandhi: (8) prabryt_brhmaas, (6,9,2) tu_em_na_itarv

}aYa" iJaaTaYa" v<aaR" The three classes (vara) of twice-born (dvijti)

Svk==MaRSQaa" ADaqYaqrNa( while discharging their duties (sva-karma), let them study.
WzaMa( Tau But among these
b]a<a" Pa[b]UYaaTa( the brhmaa [alone] should teach
Na wTaraE [and] not the other two;
wiTa iNaYa" this is an established rule.

iva h vE b]a<aMaaJaGaaMa GaaePaaYa Maa XaeviDaSTae= _hMaiSMa )

ASaUYak==aYaaNa*Jave= _v]TaaYa Na Maa b]UYaa vqYaRvTaq TaQaa SYaaMa( ))
vidy ha vai brhmaam jagma gopya m evadhis te ham asmi
asyakynjave vratya na m bry vryavat tath sym
sandhi: (7) te_aham, (1,7) asyakya_anjave_avratya

iva h vE Learning (vidy) herself

b]a<aMa( AaJaGaaMa approached the brhmaa [and said]:
Maa GaaePaaYa Preserve me (m)!
gopya for gopaya (?)

AhMa( Tae XaeviDa" AiSMa I am your (te) treasure (evadhi).

ASaUYak==aYa ANa*Jave Av]TaaYa To one who is envious (asyaka), crooked or unprincipled
an-ju not straight, crooked; a-vrata not keeping vows

Maa Na b]UYaa do not reveal (speak) me (m).

TaQaa vqYaRvTaq SYaaMa( Then (tath) I will remain powerful (vryavat).

ADYaaPaNaMaDYaYaNa& YaJaNa& YaaJaNa& TaQaa ) daNa& Pa[iTaGa]h& cEv b]a<aaNaaMak==LPaYaTa(= = ))

adhypanam adhyayana yajana yjana tath, dna pratigraha caiva brhmanm akalpayat
sandhi: (9) adhyayanam_yajanam etc., (4) ca_eva

ADYaYaNaMa( ADYaaPaNaMa( (1) Studying (adhyayana), (2) teaching (adhypana)

YaJaNaMa( YaaJaNaMa( TaQaa (3) doing [his own] sacrifice (yajana), (4) officiating at a sacrifice of others

daNaMa( Pa[iTaGa]hMa( c Wv (5) charity (dna) and (6) accepting (pratigraha) [alms]
b]a<aaNaaMa( Ak==LPaYaTa( He (the Lord) assigned for brhmaas.




k==MaR ivPa]SYa YaJaNa& daNaMaDYaYaNa& TaPa"== =) Pa]iTaGa]hae= _DYaaPaNa& c YaaJaNa& ceiTa v*taYa"== =)
karma viprasya yajana dnam adhyayana tapa, pratigraho dhypana ca yjana ceti vttaya
sandhi: (9) yajanam_dnam etc., (7) pratigraho_adhypanam, (2) ca_iti

YaJaNaMa( daNaMa( ADYaYaNaMa( TaPa" (3) Yajana, (5) dna, (1) adhyayana, and penance (tapas)
ivPa]SYa k==MaR are the duty of a brhmaa (vipra);
Pa]iTaGa]h" ADYaaPaNaMa( c YaaJaNaMa( c (6) pratigraha, (2) adhypana, and (4) yjana
wiTa v*taYa" these are his means of livelihood (vtti).

Yaa}aaMaa}aPa[iSayQa| SvE" k==MaRi>arGaihRTaE" ) Ae= XaeNa XarqrSYa ku= vsTa DaNaSaYaMa( ))

ytr-mtra-prasiddhy-artha svai karmabhir a-garhitai, a-kleena arrasya kurvta dhana-sacayam
sandhi: (5,9) prasiddhi-_artham_svai

TaaMa*Taa>Yaa& Jaqvetau Ma*TaeNa Pa[Ma*TaeNa va ) SaTYaaNa*Taa>YaaMaiPa va Na v*tYaa k==dacNa ))

tmtbhym jvet tu mtena pramtena v, satyntbhym api v na va-vtty kadcana
sandhi: (1) ta-_amtbhym, satya-_antbhym

XarqrSYa Yaa}aaMaa}aPa[iSaiAQaRMa(

For accomplishing (prasiddhi) the bare subsistence (ytr) of the


SvE" AGaihRTaE" k==MaRi>a" by his prescribed (sva own) blameless (a-garhita) duties (karman)
Ae= XaeNa without fatique (a-klea)
DaNaSaYaMa( ku= vsTa he should do accumulation (sacaya) of wealth (dhana).
TaAMa*Taa>YaaMa( Tau JaqveTa( He should live by gleaning grain and by donations
ta truth, gleaning grain, i.e., gather leftover grain after a harvest; amta ambrosia,
what is given unasked

Ma*TaeNa Pa[Ma*TaeNa va

or by begging and agriculture

mta [like] death, begging; pra.mta what causes the death of many beings,

SaTYaANa*Taa>YaaMa( AiPa va

or even by commerce
satya-anta truth and falsehood, commerce and money-lending

v*tYaa Na k==dacNa

but never by paid service.

va-vtti dog-subsistence, paid service

AXa==" +a}aDaMaeR<a vEXYaDaMaeR<a vTaRYaeTa( ) k*= izGaaer+YaMaaSQaaYa VYaSaNae v*itaSaYae= = ))

a-akta katra-dharmea vaiya-dharmea vartayet, ki-go-rakyam sthya vyasane vtti-sakaye

... XaUd]DaMaaR Yada Tau SYaatada PaTaiTa vE iJa"== =)

dra-dharm yad tu syt tad patati vai dvija

VYaSaNae v*itaSaYae In misfortune (vyasana), when his lifelihood (vtti) is destroyed

+a}aDaMaeR<a AXa==" and when unable [to live even] by government service (katra-dharma),
k*= izGaaer+YaMa( AaSQaaYa [then] taking to agriculture (ki) and tending cattle (go-rakya)
vEXYaDaMaeR<a vTaRYaeTa( he may live by business (vaiya-dharma); ...
Yada Tau XaUd]DaMaaR SYaaTa( but when he becomes one who does payed service (dra-dharma)
Tada iJa" PaTaiTa vE then the brhmaa certainly falls.

b]a<a" +ai}aYaTv& ih YaaiTa XaS}aSaMauMaaTa(= = )


brhmaa katriyatva hi yti astra-samudyamt

sandhi: (9) katriyatvam_hi

XaS}aSaMauMaaTa( By taking up arms (astra) [to attack others]

b]a<a" +ai}aYaTvMa( ih YaaiTa a brhmaa attains katriya-hood.

Naarq Tau PaTYa>aave vE devr& ku= Tae PaiTaMa( ) Pa*iQavq b]a<aala>ae +ai}aYa& ku= Tae PaiTaMa(= = ))
nr tu paty-a-bhve vai devara kurute patim, pthiv brhmalbhe katriya kurute patim
sandhi: (5) pati-_a-bhve, (9) devaram_kurute, (1) brhmaa-_albhe, (9)

Naarq Tau [As] a women

PaiTaA>aave at the death (a-bhva absence) of her husband (pati)
devrMa( PaiTaMa( ku= Tae she makes the brother-in-law (devara) her husband (pati),
... the husbands [younger] brother

Pa*iQavq [similarly] the earth

b]a<aAla>ae not obtaining the brhmaa
... for her lord, because wise men (brhmaas) are not interested in ruling the world

+ai}aYaMa( PaiTaMa( ku= Tae

she makes the katriya her lord (pati).


AMaeDa& GavalM>a& SaYaaSa& PalPaETa*k= Ma( ) devre<a SauTaaeTPaita& k==laE Pa ivvJaRYaeTa(= = ))

ava-medha gavlambha sannysa pala-paitkam, devarea sutotpatti kalau paca vivarjayet
sandhi: (1) gava-_lambha, (3) suta-_utpatti

AMaeDaMa( Horse (ava) sacrifice (medha)

GavAalM>aMa( cow (go) sacrifice
lambha touching, sacrifice

SaYaaSaMa( [karma-] sannysa

PalPaETa*k= Ma( offering meat (pala) to the pits
devre<a SauTaoTPaitaMa( and [a woman] begetting a child (sta) with the brother-in-law (devara)
... when her husband dies

k==laE Pa ivvJaRYaeTa(

in kali-yuga (kali) one should avoid [these] five [activities].


k]= Tau& SaMaaPYa Tau Tada NYaaYaTa" PauzzR>a" ) iTvG>Yaae ih ddaE raJaa Dara& Taa& ku= lvDaRNa"== =))
kratu sampya tu tad nyyata puruarabha, tvigbhyo hi dadau rj dhar t kula-vardhana
sandhi: (9) kratum_sampya, dharm_tm_kula

k]= TauMa( SaMaaPYa Tau And after concluding the sacrifice (kratu)
Tada Pauzz>a" ku= lvDaRNa" raJaa then King [Daaratha], best of men and perpetuator of his line

NYaaYaTa" as is proper
TaaMa( DaraMa( that earth (dhar)
iTvG>Ya" ih ddaE he gave to the priests (tvik).

SvMaev b]a<aae >aue Sv& vSTae Sv& ddaiTa c ) GauihR SavRv<aaRNaa& JYae" ]e vE iJa"== =))
svam eva brhmao bhukte sva vaste sva dadti ca, gurur hi sarva-varn jyeha reha ca vai



sandhi: (9) svam_vaste svam_dadti, varnm_jyeha

b]a<a" SvMa( Wv >aue A brhmaa eats his own [food]

SvMa( vSTae wears (vaste) his own [cloth]
SvMa( ddaiTa c and gives his own [as charity].
... although he does not produce them

SavRv<aaRNaaMa( iJa" Of all classes (vara), the brhmaa (dvija)

Gau" ih JYae" ]e" c vE is the authority (guru), first-born (jyeha) and foremost (reha).

[uTav*tae ividTvaSYa v*ita& DaMYaa| Pa[k= LPaYaeTa( ) Sa&r+aeTSavRTaENa& iPaTaa Pau}aiMavaerSaMa( ))

ruta-vtte viditvsya vtti dharmy prakalpayet, saraket sarvata caina pit putram ivorasam
sandhi: (1) viditv_asya, (9) vttim_dharmym_prakalpayet, (4,9) ca_enam_pit, (3)

ASYa [uTav*tae ividTva [After] ascertaining his learning (ruta) and conduct (vtta)
DaMYaaRMa( v*itaMa( Pa[k= LPaYaeTa( he (the king) should provide a subsistence (vtti) in accordance with dharma
SavRTa" c WNaMa( Sa&r+aeTa( and he should protect him in every way (sarvatas)
iPaTaa orSaMa( Pau}aMa( wv as a father (pit) [protects] his beloved (uras bossom) child.

b]a<aaQa| ih SaveRza& XaS}aGa]h<aiMaZYaTae )

brhmartha hi sarve astra-grahaam iyate
sandhi: (1,9) brhmaa-_artham_hi, (9) sarvem_astra

b]a<aAQaRMa( ih For the sake of the brhmaas

XaS}aGa]h<aMa( to take up arms (astra)
SaveRzaMa( wZYaTae is prescribed (known) for all.

SavR}aaS%ilTaadeXa" SaqPaEk= d<@Da*k(= ) ANYa}a b]a<aku= ladNYa}aaCYauTaGaae}aTa"== =))

sarvatrskhalitdea sapta-dvpaika-daa-dhk, anyatra brhmaa-kuld anyatrcyuta-gotrata
sandhi: (1) sarvatra-_askhalita-_dea, (4) dvpa-_eka, (8,1) kult_anyatra_acyuta

SavR}a AS%ilTaAadeXa" His order (dea) being everywhere unimpeded (a-skhalita)

SaqPaWk==d<@Da*k(= He (King Pthu) was the sole (eka) ruler (daa-dhk) of the world
sapta-dvpa seven islands, the world with all continents

ANYa}a b]a<aku= laTa(

except for the brhmaas

brhmaa-kula the family of a brhmaa

ANYa}a ACYauTaGaae}aTa"

and except for devotees.

acyuta-gotra the family of the Lord (Acyuta), devotees and saints

Ab]a<aaNaa& ivtaSYa SvaMaq raJaeiTa vEidk==Ma( ) b]a<aaNaa& c Yae ke= icik==MaRSQaa >avNTYauTa== =))
a-brhman vittasya svm rjeti vaidikam, brhman ca ye kecid vikarma-sth bhavanty uta
sandhi: (9) a-brhmanm_vittasya, (2) rj_iti, (9) brhmanm_ca, (5) bhavanti_uta

Ab]a<aaNaaMa( ivtaSYa Of the wealth (vitta) of non-brhmaas

raJaa SvaMaq the king (rjan) is the master (svmin),
b]a<aaNaaMa( c and also of [the wealth of] all [so-called] brhmaas
Yae ke= icd( ivk==MaRSQaa" >aviNTa oTa the rare ones who are situated in sinful work (vikarma).

wiTa vEidk==Ma(


This is the opinion of the Vedas.


b]a<ae>Ya" k==radaNa& Na ku= YaaRTa(= = ) Tae ih rajae DaMaRk= rda"== =)

brhmaebhya kardna na kuryt, te hi rjo dharma-kara-d
sandhi: (9) kardnam_na

b]a<ae>Ya" From brhmaas

k==rAadaNaMa( Na ku= YaaRTa( he (the king) should not take (dna) tax (kara)
Tae ih raj" DaMaRk==rda" [because] they give to the king tax in the form of [their] merit (dharma).

Ak==r" ]aei}aYaae raJaPauMaaNaQa Pa]v]iJaTa ...== =)

a-kara rotriyo rja-pumn atha pravrajita- ...

Ak==r" Free from tax (kara)

]aei}aYa" raJaPauMaaNa( is a brhmaa (rotriya), a government servant (rja-pus man of the king)
AQa Pa]v]iJaTa and a mendicant (pravrajita who has gone away), [and others] ...

A]aei}aYaa" SavR Wv SaveR caNaaihTaaGNaYa" ) TaaNSavaRNDaaiMaRk= ae raJaa bil& ivi& c k==arYaeTa(= = ))

a-rotriy sarva eva sarve cnhitgnaya, tn sarvn dhrmiko rj bali vii ca krayet
sandhi: (1) ca_anhita-_agnaya, (9) balim_viim_ca

SaveR Wv A]aei}aYaa" All those [brhmaas] who are not learned (a-rotriya)
SaveR c ANaaihTaAGNaYa" and all those who have not entertained (an-hita) a sacrificial fire (agni),
TaaNa( SavaRNa( all those
DaaiMaRk= " raJaa a religious king
bilMa( iviMa( c k==arYaeTa( should compel (krayet) to tax (bali) and forced service (vii).

Av]Taa NaDaqYaaNaa Ya}a >aE+acra iJaa" ) Ta& Ga]aMa& d<@Yaed]aJaa caEr>au= Padae ih Sa"== =))
a-vrat hy an-adhyn yatra bhaika-car dvij, ta grma daayed rj caura-bhukta-pado hi sa
sandhi: (5) hi_an-adhyn, (9,8) tam_grmam_daayet_rj

... Ya k==aMaYaae hSTaq Ya cMaRMaYaae Ma*Ga" ) Ya ivPa]ae= _NaDaqYaaNaS}aYaSTae NaaMaDaark==a"== =))

ya ca khamayo hast ya ca carmamayo mga, ya ca vipro nadhynas trayas te nma-dhrak
sandhi: (7) vipro_anadhynas

Av]Taa" ih ANaDaqYaaNaa" iJaa" Unprincipled brhmaas (dvija) who do not study (an-adhyna)
Ya}a >aE+acra" where they live by begging (bhaika)
raJaa TaMa( Ga]aMaMa( d<@YaeTa( the king (rjan) should punish that village (grma),
Sa" caEr>au= Pad" ih because it is a place (pada) where robbers (caura) are supported (bhukta). ...
Ya" c hSTaq k==aMaYa" An elephant (hastin) which is made of wood (kha)
Ya" c Ma*Ga" cMaRMaYa" a deer (mga) which is made of leather (carma)
Ya" c ivPa]" ANaDaqYaaNa" and a brhmaa (vipra) who is not studying (an-adhyna),
}aYa" Tae NaaMaDaark==a" those three bear only the [respective] name (nman).

AJauRNa" SahSaajaYa hrehaRdRMaQaaiSaNaa ) Mai<a& Jahar MaUDaRNYa& iJaSYa SahMaUDaRJaMa(= = ))

arjuna sahasjya harer hrdam athsin, mai jahra mrdhanya dvijasya saha-mrdhajam
sandhi: (1) sahas_jya, atha_asin, (9) maim_jahra mrdhanyam_dvijasya



... vPaNa& d]iv<aadaNa& SQaaNaaiaYaaRPa<a& TaQaa ) Wz ih b]bNDaUNaa& vDaae NaaNYaae= _iSTa dEihk=="= = ))
vapana dravidna sthnn nirypaa tath, ea hi brahma-bandhn vadho nnyo sti daihika
sandhi: (9,1) vapanam_dravia-_dnam_sthnn nirypaam_tath, (9)
bandhnm_vadho, (1,7) na_anyo_asti

SahSaa hre" hadRMa( AajaYa

[After] immediately knowing the intention (hrda) of the Lord (Hari)

hrda relating to the heart

AQa AJauRNa" AiSaNaa then Arjuna with the sword

SahMaUDaRJaMa( iJaSYa Mai<aMa( Jahar he took the

jewel together with the hair of the brhmaa

[Avatthm]. ...

vPaNaMa( d]iv<aAadaNaMa( Shaving, taking away (dna) wealth

TaQaa SQaaNaaTa( iNaYaaRPa<aMa( and driving [him] from the residential place
Wz" ih b]bNDaUNaaMa( vDa" this only is the punishment for degraded brhmaas.
ANYa" dEihk==" Na AiSTa There is no other corporal [punishment].


Hinduism Katriya

k]= VYaay wv >aUTaaNaaMadaNTae>Ya" Sada >aYaMa( ) Taeza& ivPa]iTazeDaaQa| raJaa Sa*" SvYaM>auva== =))
kravydbhya iva bhtnm a-dntebhya sad bhayam, te vipratiedhrtha rj sa svayambhuv
sandhi: (1) kravya-_adbhya, (9,1) tem_vipratiedha-_artham_rj

k]= VYaAy" wv AdaNTae>Ya"

From uncontrolled men (a-dnta) who are like carnivorous animals

kravya-ad meat-eater, a meat-eating animal

>aUTaaNaaMa( Sada >aYaMa( there is constant (sad) danger (bhaya) for all beings (bhta).
TaezaMa( ivPa]iTazeDaAQaRMa( For their protection (vipratiedha)
SvYaM>auva raJaa Sa*" the king (rjan) was created by Brahm (svayam-bh the self-born one).

b]a<aaNaa& +aTa}aa<aataTa" +ai}aYa oCYaTae )

brhman kata-trt tata katriya ucyate
sandhi: (9) brhmanm_kata

b]a<aaNaaMa( +aTa}aa<aaTa( Because of protecting the brhmaas from injury (kata)

TaTa" +ai}aYa" oCYaTae therefore he (the king) is called katriya.

SavRvedMaYaae ivPa[" SavRdevMaYaae Na*Pa" )

sarva-vedamayo vipra sarva-devamayo npa

ivPa[" SavRvedMaYa" [As] the brhmaa (vipra) is the embodiment of all knowledge (Veda)
Na*Pa" SavRdevMaYa" so the king (npa) is the embodiment of all devas.
... the guardians of this world

YaiSMaN>aYaaidRTa"== SaMYak(= = =+aeMa&= =ivNdTYaiPa== +a<aMa(= =)= =Sa== SvGaRiJataMaae= _SMaak&= = =SaTYaMaeTad(= =b]vqiMa== Tae= = ))
yasmin bhayrdita samyak kema vindaty api kaam, sa svarga-jittamo smka satyam etad bravmi te
sandhi: (1) bhaya-_ardita, (9,5) kemam_vindati_api, (7) jittamo_asmkam_satyam

>aYaAidRTa" One afflicted with fear (bhaya)

+a<aMa( AiPa SaMYak(= +aeMaMa( complete protection (kema) even for a moment (kaa)
YaiSMaNa( ivNdiTa in whom (yasmin) he finds (enjoys),
Sa" ASMaak==Ma( SvGaRiJataMa" he is the best of us [katriyas] who are winning heaven (svarga-jit).
WTad( Tae SaTYaMa( b]vqiMa I tell this truly to you.

YaENaMauTPaadYaTae YaENa& }aaYaTae >aYaaTa( ) YaaSYa ku= Tae v*ita& SaveR Tae iPaTarS}aYa"== =))
ya cainam utpdayate ya caina tryate bhayt ya csya kurute vtti sarve te pitaras traya
sandhi: (4) ca_enam, (4,9) ca_enam_tryate, (1) ca_asya, (9) vttim_sarve

Ya" c WNaMa( oTPaadYaTae One who procreates him

Ya" c WNaMa( >aYaaTa( }aaYaTae one who rescues him from danger (bhaya)
Ya" c ASYa v*itaMa( ku= Tae and one who gives his means of livelihood (vtti)
Tae }aYa" SaveR iPaTar" those three are all [his] fathers (pit).

oNMaYaaRde Pa]v*tae Tau dSYaui>a" Sare k*= Tae ) SaveR v<aaR Na duZYaeYau" XaS}avNTaae YauiDair== =))
unmaryde pravtte tu dasyubhi sakare kte, sarve varn na duyeyu astravanto yudhihira



YauiDair O Yudhihira!
oNMaYaaRde Pa]v*tae Tau But when upheaval (unmaryda) prevails
dSYaui>a" Sare k*= Tae and chaos (sakara) is done by robbers (dasyu),
XaS}avNTa" SaveR v<aaR" when [at that time] all social classes (varas) take up arms (astra)
Na duZYaeYau" they will not commit sin.

Pa[JaaNaa& r+a<a& daNaiMaJYaaDYaYaNaMaev c ) ivzYaeZvPa[Sai== +ai}aYaSYa SaMaaidXaTa(= = ))

prajn rakaa dnam ijydhyayanam eva ca, viayev a-prasakti ca katriyasya samdiat
sandhi: (9) prajnm_rakaam_dnam, (1) ijy_adhyayanam, (6) viayeu_a-prasakti

Pa[JaaNaaMa( r+a<aMa( The protection (rakaa) of people (praj)

daNaMa( wJYaa ADYaYaNaMa( Wv c charity (dna), sacrifice (ijy), study (adhyayana)
ivzYaezu APa[Sai==" c and non-attachment (a-prasakti) to sensual pleasures (viaya)
+ai}aYaSYa SaMaaidXaTa( He (the Lord) prescribed for a katriya.

SaaMaaNYaTaae Ta& caErESTaE daTSvYa& Na*Pa" ) caErr+aaiDak==air>Yaae raJaaiPa TaMaaPanuYaaTa(= = ))

smnyato hta caurais tad vai dadyt svaya npa, caura-rakdhikribhyo rjpi htam pnuyt
sandhi: (3) a-aktena_upajvata

SaaMaaNYaTa" caErE" TaMa( Generally, what is stolen by thieves (caura)

Tad( vE SvYaMa( Na*Pa" daTa( that the king himself has to make good (give).
... to the owner


From his police officers

... from their saleries
caura-raka-adhikrin who supervises the protection from theft, a police officer

raJaa AiPa TaMa( AaPanuYaaTa(

the king can also take [the value of] what is stolen.

ADaMaR" +ai}aYaSYaEz Yad( VYaaiDaMar<a& Ga*he )

a-dharma katriyasyaia yad vydhi-maraa ghe
sandhi: (4) katriyasya_ea

Yad( Ga*he VYaaiDaMar<aMa( If there is death (maraa) from a disease (vydhi) at home (gha)
Wz" +ai}aYaSYa ADaMaR" it is a sin (a-dharma) for a katriya.
... a katriya should die in his duty

>aUiMareTaaE iNaiGariTa SaPaaeR iblXaYaaiNav ) raJaaNa& caivraear& b]a<a& caPa]vaiSaNaMa(= = ))

bhmir etau nigirati sarpo bila-ayn iva, rjna cviroddhra brhmaa cpravsinam
sandhi: (9,1) rjnam_ca_aviroddhram_brhmaam_ca_apravsinam

>aUiMa" WTaaE iNaiGariTa The earth (bhmi) devours these two

SaPaR" iblXaYaaNa( wv as a snake (sarpa) [devours] mice
bila-aya who lives in a hole, a mouse

AivraearMa( raJaaNaMa( c a king (rjan) who is not resisting

APa]vaiSaNaMa( b]a<aMa( c and a brhmaa who does not leave home [out of attachment].
a-pravsa who is not abroad



Ya}aad*& >aYa& b] Pa]JaaNaa& XaMaYaTYauTa ) d*& c raJaa bahu>Yaa& Tad]aJYa& Sau:aMaeDaTae= = ))

yatrda bhaya brahma prajn amayaty uta, da ca rj bhubhy tad rjya sukham edhate
sandhi: (1,9) yatra_adam_bhayam_brahma, (9,5) prajnm_amayati_uta, (9)
dam_ca etc.

Ya}a Pa]JaaNaaMa( Ad*Ma( >aYaMa(

Where the invisible danger (bhaya) for the inhabitants (praj)

a-da unseen, invisible

b] XaMaYaiTa oTa the brhmaa (brahma) pacifies

d*Ma( c and the visible [danger]
raJaa bahu>YaaMa( the king [pacifies] with his arms (bhu),
Tad( raJYaMa( Sau:aMa( WDaTae that kingdom (rjya) enjoys happiness (sukha).

k==alae= =va== k= ar<a&= =rajae= =raJaa== va== k= alk==ar<aMa(= =)= =wiTa== Tae= =Sa&XaYaae= =Maa== >aUd]aJaa== k= alSYa== k= ar<aMa(= =))
klo v kraa rjo rj v kla-kraam, iti te saayo m bhd rj klasya kraam
sandhi: (9) kraam_rjo

k==al" va raj" k==ar<aMa( Whether the age (kla) is the cause (kraa) of a king (rjan)
raJaa va k==alk==ar<aMa( or the king is the cause of the age
wiTa Tae Sa&XaYa" Maa >aUTa( this should not be your doubt (saaya)
raJaa k==alSYa k==ar<aMa( the king is the cause of the age.

}aEive>YaYaq&= =iva&= =d<@NaqiTa&= =c= =XaaTaqMa(= =)= =AaNvqi+ak==I&= =caTMaiva&= =vaTaaRrM>aa&= =laek= Ta" ))
traividyebhyas tray vidy daa-nti ca vatm, nvkik ctma-vidy vrtrambh ca lokata
sandhi: (9) traym_vidym_daa-ntim_ca, (9,1) nvkikm_ca_tma-vidym_vrt_rambh

}aEive>Ya" From those versed in the Vedas (traividya) [the prince should learn]
}aYaqMa( ivaMa( the threefold Veda (tray vidy)
XaaTaqMa( d<@NaqiTaMa( c plus the eternal [science of] politics
daa-nti the policy of punishment (daa), politics

AaNvqi+ak==IMa( logic (nvkik = nyya)

AaTMaivaMa( c and knowledge of the self (tman),
laek= Ta" and from the people [he should learn]
vaTaaRAarM>aaNa( c [all kinds of] business (vrt-rambha).

Yaui==XaaS}a& c Tae jeYa& XaBdXaaS}a& c >aarTa ) GaaNDavRXaaS}a& c k==la" PairjeYaa NaraiDaPa== =))
yukti-stra ca te jeya abda-stra ca bhrata, gndharva-stra ca kal parijey nardhipa
sandhi: (9) stram_ca, jeyam_abda-stram_ca, stram_ca

NaraiDaPa >aarTa O King Yudhihira!

Yaui==XaaS}aMa( c Logic (yukti-stra the science of argument)
XaBdXaaS}aMa( c grammar (abda-stra the science of words)
GaaNDavRXaaS}aMa( c and music (gndharva-stra the science of music)
Tae jeYaMa( should be known to you.
k==la" PairjeYaa" And the [64] arts (kal) should be known.




bilzeNa XauLke= Na d<@eNaaQaaParaiDaNaaMa( ) XaaS}aNaqTaeNa ilPSaeQaa veTaNaeNa DaNaaGaMaMa(= = ))

bali-ahena ulkena daenthpardhinm, stra-ntena lipseth vetanena dhangamam
sandhi: (1) daena_atha_apardhinm, dhana-_gamam

bilzeNa XauLke= Na With (1) a sixth [of the produce] as tax (bali), with (2) toll (ulka)
AQa AParaiDaNaaMa( d<@eNa and with (3) the fine (daa) for offenders
XaaS}aNaqTaeNa veTaNaeNa with [such] an income (vetana) according to the scriptures
DaNaAaGaMaMa( ilPSaeQaa" you should long for accession of wealth (dhana).

ODaiX^Natau Yaae DaeNva" +aqraQaqR Na l>aeTPaYa" ) Wv& ra\MaYaaeGaeNa Paqi@Ta& Na ivvDaRTae= = ))

dha chindyt tu yo dhenv krrth na labhet paya, eva rram a-yogena pita na vivardhate
sandhi: (1) kra-_arth, (9) evam_rram, pitam_na

Ya" Tau +aqrAQaqR If one who desires milk (kra)

DaeNva" ODa" i^NaTa( would cut off the udder (dhas) of the cow (dhenu),
PaYa" Na l>aeTa( he would not get milk (payas).
WvMa( Similarly
AYaaeGaeNa Paqi@TaMa( ra\Ma( a kingdom (rra) when afflicted (pita) improperly (a-yogena)
Na ivvDaRTae does not flourish.

k==ak==aNa( iXaiLPaNaEv XaUd]a&aTMaaePaJaqivNa" ) WkE= k&= k==arYaeTk==MaR MaaiSa MaaiSa MahqPaiTa" ))

krukn ilpina caiva dr ctmopajvina ekaika krayet karma msi msi mah-pati
sandhi: (4) ca_eva, (1,3) ca_tma-_upajvina, (4,9) eka-_ekam_krayet

k==ak==aNa( iXaiLPaNa" c Wv Mechanics, craftsmen (ilpin)

AaTMaoPaJaqivNa" XaUd]aNa( c and workers (dra) who live by their own [work]
Wk==Wk==Ma( MaaiSa MaaiSa once every month (ms = msa)
MahqPaiTa" k==MaR k==arYaeTa( the king (mah-pati) should engage them in [his own] work.


Hinduism Government

SvaMYaMaaTYaaE Paur& ra\& k==aeXad<@aE SautaQaa ) Sa Pa[k*= TaYaae eTaa" Saa& raJYaMauCYaTae ))
svmy-amtyau pura rra koa-daau suht tath, sapta praktayo hy et saptga rjyam ucyate
sandhi: (5) svmi-_amtyau, (9) puram_rram_koa, (8) suhd_tath, (5) hi_et, (1,9)

SaaNaa& Pa[k*= TaqNaa& Tau raJYaSYaaSaa& YaQaa==MaMa( ) PaUv| PaUv| GauTar& JaaNaqYaad( VYaSaNa& MahTa( ))
saptn praktn tu rjyasys yath-kramam, prva prva gurutara jnyd vyasana mahat
sandhi: (9) saptnm_praktnm_tu, (1,9) rjyasya_asm_yath, (9,8)
prvam_prvam_gurutaram_jnyt_vyasanam mahat

SvaiMaAMaaTYaaE PaurMa( ra\Ma(

(1) King (svmin), (2) minister (amtya), (3) capital (pura), (4) province
rra kingdom

k==aeXad<@aE Saud( TaQaa (5) treasury (koa), (6) army (daa) and (7) the ally (suhd)
WTaa" ih Sa Pa[k*= TaYa" these are the seven (sapta) constituents (prakti),
raJYaMa( SaAMa( oCYaTae [hence] a kingdom (rjya) is called of seven (sapta) limbs (aga).
AaSaaMa( SaaNaaMa( Among these (sm) seven (sapta)
raJYaSYa Pa[k*= TaqNaaMa( Tau constituents (prakti) of a kingdom (rjya)
YaQaa==MaMa( PaUvRMa( PaUvRMa( in this order each earlier (prva)
GauTarMa( JaaNaqYaaTa( one should know to be more important (guru.tara)
MahTa( VYaSaNaMa( and [its destruction] a great danger (vyasana).

Ga]aMaSYaaiDaPaiTa" k==aYaaeR dXaGa]aMYaaSTaQaa Par" ) iGau<aaYaa" XaTaSYaEv& SahSYa c k==arYaeTa(= = ))

grmasydhipati kryo daa-grmys tath para, dvi-guy atasyaiva sahasrasya ca krayet
sandhi: (1) grmasya_adhipati, (4,9) atasya_evam_sahasrasya

Ga]aMaSYa AiDaPaiTa" A headman (adhipati) of each village (grma)

k==aYaR" is to be appointed
TaQaa Par" dXaGa]aMYaa" and above him headmen of ten (daa) villages.
iGau<aaYaa" [And headmen] of 20 (dvi-gua two times)
XaTaSYa SahSYa c of hundred and thousand [villages]
WvMa( k==arYaeTa( he should thus appoint.

XaMaVYaaYaaMaYaaeYaaeRiNa" za@(Gau<YaMa(= = )
ama-vyymayor yoni guyam

XaMaVYaaYaaMaYaae" YaaeiNa" The source (yoni) of peace (ama) and industry (vyyma)
za@(Gau<YaMa(= is the sixfold policy (guya).

SaiNDaivGa]haSaNaYaaNaSa&]YaEDaq>aava" za@(Gau<YaiMaTYaacaYaaR"= = )
sandhi-vigrahsana-yna-saraya-dvaidh-bhv guyam ity cry
sandhi: (1) vigraha_sana, (5) iti_cry




Truce (sandhi), war (vigraha), maintaining a position

(sana halting), preparing for an attack (yna marching), allience (saraya surrender)
and dividing ones force (dvaidh-bhva)

za@(Gau<YaMa( wiTa AacaYaaR"

is the sixfold policy, the teachers (crya) declare.


Na Saae= _iSTa NaaMa daNaeNa vXaGaae Yaae Na JaaYaTae ) daNavaNaev Xa==aeiTa Sa&hTaaN>aeidTau& ParaNa(= = ))
na so sti nma dnena vaa-go yo na jyate, dnavn eva aknoti sahatn bheditu parn
sandhi: (7) so_asti

Sa" Na AiSTa NaaMa Perhaps that [person] does not exist

Ya" daNaeNa vXaGa" Na JaaYaTae who is not brought under control by a gift/bribe (dna).
ParaNa( Sa&hTaaNa( The most strong alliances (sahata)
sahata struck together, composite

daNavaNa( >aeidTauMa( Xa==aeiTa Wv

the giver is able to severe.


SaaMNaa daNaeNa >aedeNa SaMaSTaErQava Pa*Qak(= ) ivJaeTau& Pa[YaTaeTaarqa YaueNa k==dacNa ))

smn dnena bhedena samastair athav pthak, vijetu prayatetrn na yuddhena kadcana
sandhi: (9,1) vijetum_prayateta_arn

SaaMNaa daNaeNa >aedeNa By (1) conciliation (sman), (2) gift (dna) and (3) [sowing] dissension (bheda)
SaMaSTaE" AQava Pa*Qak(= either conjointly (samastai by all) or separately (pthak)
ArqNa( ivJaeTauMa( Pa[YaTaeTa he should try (prayateta) to conquer the enemies (ari),
YaueNa Na k==dacNa [and] never by (4) fight (yuddha).

YauMautarMauCYaTae= = )
yuddham uttaram ucyate

YauMa( (4) Fighting (yuddha)

otarMa( oCYaTae is said to be the ultimate (uttama) [means].

d<@STvGaiTak==a GaiTa"== =)
daas tv a-gatik gati
sandhi: (6) tu_agatik

d<@" Tau And (4) fighting (daa)

AGaiTak==a GaiTa" is the means (gati) when there is no [other] means (a-gatika).

Mata& Pa[MataMauNMata& Sau& bal& iYa& Ja@Ma( ) Pa[Paa& ivrQa& >aqTa& Na irPau& hiNTa DaMaRivTa(= = ))
matta pramatta unmatta supta bla striya jaam, prapanna viratha bhta na ripu hanti
sandhi: (9) mattam_pramattam ...

MataMa( Pa[MataMa( oNMataMa( Who is intoxicated (matta), inattentive (pramatta), insane (unmatta)
SauMa( balMa( iYaMa( asleep (supta), infantine (bla), female (striya)
Ja@Ma( Pa[PaaMa( ivrQaMa( >aqTaMa( foolish (jaa), surrendered (prapanna), without chariot (vi.ratha), or
afraid (bhta)


[such] an enemy (ripu)

DaMaRivd( Na hiNTa

a knower of dharma does not kill.


raJaa Pa[aPYa ivdeXa& Tau deXaacar& ih PaalYaeTa( ) devaNaa& PaUJaNa& ku= YaaRa iC^NaTaaYaMa}a Tau= = )
rj prpya videa tu decra hi playet, devn pjana kuryn na cchindyt yam atra tu

NaavMaNYaeTa TaeXYaaNaaGaTYa SvPaur& PauNa"== =))

nvamanyeta tad-deyn gatya sva-pura puna
sandhi: (9) videam_tu, (1,9) dea-_cram_ hi, (9) devnm_pjanam_kuryn, (1)
na_avamanyeta, (9) sva-puram_puna

ivdeXaMa( Tau Pa[aPYa [After] conquering a foreign country (videa)

raJaa deXaAacarMa( ih PaalYaeTa( the king (rjan) should protect the local customs (cra)
devaNaaMa( PaUJaNaMa( ku= YaaRTa( he should do the worship (pjana) of the [local] gods (deva)
A}a Tau AaYaMa( Na i^NaTa( and not cut its income (ya),
... the income of the temples from their properties

Tad(deXYaaNa( Na AvMaNYaeTa he should not insult its (the countrys) inhabitants

PauNa" SvPaurMa( AaGaTYa [and after] returning again to his capital, ...

MaN}aMaUl& c ivJaYaMa(= = )
mantra-mla ca vijayam
sandhi: (9) -mlam_ca

MaN}aMaUlMa( c ivJaYaMa(

Success (vijaya) has its root (mla) in consultation (mantra advice).


PaaePaDaaVYaTaqTaa& ku= YaaRd]aJaaQaRk= air<a" )

pacopadh-vyatt ca kuryd rjrtha-kria
sandhi: (3) paca_upadh, (8,1) kuryt_rj-_artha

raJaAQaRk==air<a" To do the kings work

Pa oPaDaaVYaTaqTaaNa( c five (paca) trusted persons
upadh-vyatta who has passed the test, a trusted person

ku= YaaRTa(

he (the king) should appoint (kuryt).


TaTa" SaMPa]ezYaed]a\e ra\qYaaYa c dXaRYaeTa( )

tata sampreayed rre rryya ca darayet
sandhi: (8) sampreayet_rre

TaTa" ra\e SaMPa]ezYaeTa( Then he should dispatch [the counsel] in the kingdom (rra)
ra\qYaaYa c dXaRYaeTa( and announce (show) it to the inhabitants (rrya).

ATaqTaidvSae v*ta& Pa]Xa&SaiNTa Na va PauNa" ) GauPTaEarErNauMaTaE" Pa*iQavqMaNauSaarYaeTa(= = ))

atta-divase vtta praasanti na v puna, guptai crair anumatai pthivm anusrayet
sandhi: (9) vttam_praasanti

ANauMaTaE" GauPTaE" carE" [After ascertaining] by approved (anumata) covered (gupta) agents (cra)
ATaqTaidvSae v*taMa( his [own] conduct (vtta) of the previous day (atta-divas)
Pa]Xa&SaiNTa Na va PauNa" whether they (people) approve of it (his conduct) or not,
Pa*iQavqMa( ANauSaarYaeTa( he should follow the world.





ANauraGak==r& k==MaR creairaGaJaMa( ) JaNaaNauraGaYaa l+MYaa raJaa SYaaNarNaaTa(= = ))

anurga-kara karma carej jahyd virga-jam, jannurgay lakmy rj syj jana-rajant
sandhi: (9) -karam_karma, (8) jahyt_virga-, (1) jana-_anurgay

ANauraGak==rMa( k==MaR creTa(

He (the king) should do acts (karman) which create love (anurga)

... in his subjects

ivraGaJaMa( JaaTa( and avoid what creates displeasure (virga).

JaNaANauraGaYaa l+MYaa By the grace (lakm) of the love (anurga) of the people (jana)
raJaa SYaaTa( one becomes king (rjan)
The strength of a king is the love of his subjects.


[which epithet is derived] from [the fact of his] pleasing the people (jana).

riaTaa Pa]Jaa" SavaRSTaeNa raJaeiTa XaBTae= = )

rajit ca praj sarvs tena rjeti abdyate
sandhi: (2) rj_iti

SavaR" Pa]Jaa" riaTaa" c All people (praj) were pleased [by King Pthu]
TaeNa raJaa wiTa XaBTae and thus he was called rj.

ParraJaGa*haTPa[aaNa( JaNaaNSa&[Yak==aMYaYaa ) duaNaPYaQa vaduaNSa&[YaeTa Pa[YaTNaTa"== =))

para-rja-ght prptn jann saraya-kmyay, dun apy atha vdun sarayeta prayatnata
sandhi: (5,1) api_atha v_adun

Sa&[Yak==aMYaYaa With the desire for [living under his] protection

ParraJaGa*haTa( Pa[aaNa( JaNaaNa( people (jana) who have arrived from another country
rja-gha kings house, city

duaNa( AiPa AQa va AduaNa(

[not considering] whether they [may be] wicked (dua) or honest (a-


Pa[YaTNaTa" Sa&[YaeTa

he (the king) should shelter them.


Ari+aTaar& hTaaRr& ivlaePTaarMaNaaYak==Ma( ) Ta& vE raJak==il& hNYau" Pa]Jaa" Saa iNaga*R<aMa(= = ))

a-rakitra hartra viloptram a-nyakam, ta vai rja-kali hanyu praj sannahya nirgham
sandhi: (9) a-rakitram_hartram_viloptram, tam_vai, kalim_hanyu

Ari+aTaarMa( hTaaRrMa( Being a non-protector (a-rakit), plunderer (hart)

ivlaePTaarMa( ANaaYak==Ma( destroyer (vilopt), misleader (a-nyaka)
iNaga*R<aMa( and merciless (nirgha)
TaMa( vE raJak==ilMa( that bad king (rja-kali)
Saa Pa]Jaa" hNYau" the subjects (praj) should kill, after arming (sannahya) themselves.


Hinduism Worker

PaXaUNaa& r+a<a& daNaiMaJYaaDYaYaNaMaev c ) vi<aKPaQa& ku= Saqd& c vEXYaSYa k*= izMaev c== =))
pan rakaa dnam ijydhyayanam eva ca, vaik-patha kusda ca vaiyasya kim eva ca
sandhi: (9) panm_rakaam_dnam, (1) ijy_adhyayanam, (9) patham_kusdam_ca

vEXYaSYa For a vaiya [the Lord prescribed]

PaXaUNaaMa( r+a<aMa( protection of animals (pau)
daNaMa( wJYaa ADYaYaNaMa( Wv c charity (dna), worship (ijy) and study (adhyayana)
vi<ak(= PaQaMa( ku= SaqdMa( c trade and lending money (kusda)
vaik-patha merchants path, trade

k*= izMa( Wv c

and agriculture (ki).


vauRiz& >a]U<ahTYaa& c TaulYaa SaMaTaaelYaTa( ) AiTad( >a]U<aha k==ae$=ya& vauRizNYaRKPaPaaTa h== =))
vrddhui bhra-haty ca tulay samatolayat, atihad bhra-h koy vrddhuir nyak papta ha
sandhi: (9) vrddhuim_bhra-hatym_ca, (8) atihat_bhra-, (9) koym_vrddhuir

... ik&= i}ak&= cTauZk&= c Pak&= c XaTa& SMa*TaMa( ) MaaSaSYa v*i& Ga*qYaa<aaRNaaMaNauPaUvRXa"== =))
dvika trika catuka ca pacaka ca ata smtam, msasya vddhi ghyd varnm anuprvaa
sandhi: (9) dvikam_trikam ..., (8) ghyt_varnm

vauRizMa( >a]U<ahTYaaMa( c

Usury (vrddhui) and embryo-killing (bhra-haty)

vrddhui (from vddha increased, interest) taking [too much] interest

TaulYaa SaMaTaaelYaTa( were weighed (sam.atolayat) with a balance (tul).

>a]U<aha k==ae$=yaMa( AiTaTa( Embryo-killing remained (atihat) at the top (koi)
vauRiz" NYak(= PaPaaTa h and usury sank (papta) down (nyak). ...
ik==Ma( i}ak==Ma( cTauZk==Ma( c Pak==Ma(= c XaTaMa( 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%
dvika ata two per hundred, 2%

SMa*TaMa( MaaSaSYa v*iMa( this allowed (smta) interest (vddhi) per month (msa)
Ga*qYaaTa( one can take
v<aaRNaaMa( ANauPaUvRXa" according to the order of the caste (vara).

SavR>a+ariTaiNaRTYa& SavRk= MaRk= rae= _Xauic" ) TYa==vedSTvNaacar" Sa vE XaUd]" wiTa SMa*Ta"== =))
sarva-bhaka-ratir nitya sarva-karma-karo uci, tyakta-vedas tv an-cra sa vai dra iti smta
sandhi: (9) nityam_sarva-, (7) karo_auci, (6) tu_an-cra

iNaTYaMa( SavR>a+ariTa" He who is always fond (rati) of all kinds (sarva) of food (bhaka)
SavRk==MaRk==r" AXauic" who does all [sorts of] work (karman) and is impure (a-uci)
TYa==ved" who has given up (tyakta) the Veda
ANaacar" Tau and has no good conduct (an-cra),
Sa" vE XaUd]" wiTa SMa*Ta" he alone is called dra.

vai<aJYa& PaaXauPaaLYa& c TaQaa iXaLPaaePaJaqvNaMa( ) XaUd]SYaaiPa ivDaqYaNTae Yada v*itaNaR JaaYaTae= = ))

vijya puplya ca tath ilpopajvanam, drasypi vidhyante yad vttir na jyate
sandhi: (9) vijyam_puplyam_ca, (3) ilpa-_upajvanam, (1) drasya_api

Yada v*ita" Na JaaYaTae

When there is no livelihood for a dra [by some service]



vai<aJYaMa( PaaXauPaaLYaMa( c

then trade (vijya) and tending cattle

puplya (from pau-pla herdsman)

TaQaa iXaLPaoPaJaqvNaMa( and living (upajvana) by handicraft (ilpa)

XaUd]SYa AiPa ivDaqYaNTae are also allowed for a dra.

lv<a& MaDauTaEl& c diDa Tak]&= ga*Ta& PaYa" ) Na duZYaeC^Ud]JaaTaqNaa& ku= YaaRTSavRSYa ivk]= YaMa(= = ))
lavaa madhu-taila ca dadhi takra ghta paya, na duyec chdra-jtn kuryt sarvasya vikrayam
sandhi: (9) lavaam_madhu- ...

... vEXYa" XaUd]" Sada ku= YaaRTk*= izvai<aJYaiXaLPak==aNa(= = )

vaiya dra sad kuryt ki-vijya-ilpakn

lv<aMa( MaDauTaElMa( c Salt (lavaa), honey (madhu) and oil (taila)

diDa Tak]= Ma( ga*TaMa( PaYa" curd (dadhi), buttermilk (takra), ghee (ghta) and milk (payas)
SavRSYa ivk]= YaMa( ku= YaaRTa( if one does the sale (vikraya) of all this,
XaUd]JaaTaqNaaMa( Na duZYaeTa( it will not stain [by sin] those from the dra class. ...
k*= izvai<aJYaiXaLPak==aNa( Agriculture (ki), trade (vijya) and handicraft (ilpaka)
vEXYa" XaUd]" Sada ku= YaaRTa( a vaiya or dra can always do.

d<@Pa]<aqTa" k==MaR<aa d<@MauPaNaYaeTa(= = )

daa-prata karma daam upanayet

d<@Pa]<aqTa" One sentenced (prata) to punishment (daa)

k==MaR<aa d<@Ma( oPaNaYaeTa( shall earn the fine (daa) by work (karman).

blaaSaqk*= TaaErEivRk]= ITaaiPa MauCYaTae )

bald ds-kta caurair vikrta cpi mucyate
sandhi: (8) balt_ds, (1) ca_api

caErE" blaTa( daSaqk*= Ta" When one is forcibly made a dsa by thieves (caura = cora)
ivk]= ITa" c AiPa even when already sold
MauCYaTae he is to be released.

AaTMaivk]= iYa<a" Pa]JaaMaaYaa| ivaTa(= = ) AaTMaaiDaGaTa& SvaiMak==MaaRiv& l>aeTa(= = ) iPa}Ya& c daYaMa(= = )

tma-vikrayia prajm ry vidyt, tmdhigata svmi-karmviruddha labhet, pitrya ca dyam
sandhi: (9) rym_vidyt etc. (1) tma-_adhigatam, karma-_a-viruddha

MaULYaeNa caYaRTv& GaC^eTa(= = )

mlyena cryatva gacchet
sandhi: (1) ca-_ryatvam

AaTMaivk]= iYa<a" Pa]JaaMa( The offspring (praj) of a man who sold himself (tma-vikrayin) [as a dsa]
AaYaaRMa( ivaTa( one should know as rya (free man).
SvaiMak==MaRAivMa( If it does not obstruct (a-viruddha) the work (karman) of his master (svmin)
AaTMaAiDaGaTaMa( l>aeTa( what he has earned (adhigata) himself [in his spare time] he can get.
iPa}YaMa( c daYaMa( The inheritance is also to be given [to him].
pitrya (from pit father) from the father, inheritance

MaULYaeNa c

And by [paying] the value (mlya) [for which he was once sold]

AaYaRTvMa( GaC^eTa(

he attains freedom (rya.tva being free (rya nobel)).


SvaiMaNa" SvSYaa& daSYaa& JaaTa& SaMaaTa*k= MadaSa& ivaTa(= = )

svmina svasy dsy jta sa-mtkam a-dsa vidyt
sandhi: (9) svasym_dsym, etc.

SvSYaaMa( daSYaaMa( In his own female servant (ds)

SvaiMaNa" JaaTaMa( a child (jta) [begotten] from a master (svmin)
SaMaaTa*k= Ma( AdaSaMa( ivaTa( is together with its mother to be known as free (a-dsa).




Sanskrit Sandhi 5

yady api
vande ham
aha bhajmi

(10) namas te
Rule: (visarga) changes to s before t/th, and to before c/ch.

NaMaSTae namas te obeisance (namas) unto You

vedai_ca >>> vedE vedai ca and by the study of theVedas

nama_te >>>


Hinduism Student

Mau<@ae va Jai$=lae va SYaadQava SYaaiC^%aJa$=" )

muo v jailo v syd athav syc chikh-jaa
sandhi: (8) syt_athav

Mau<@" va SYaaTa( [A brahmacr] can be either shaved (mua)

Jai$=l" va or with braids (jaila)
AQava iXa%aJa$=" SYaaTa( or else, with a tuft of hair (ikh-jaa crown-lock).

lalYaeTPavzaRi<a dXavzaRi<a Taa@YaeTa( ) Pa[ae Tau zae@Xae vzeR Pau}ae iMa}avdacreTa( ))

llayet paca-vari daa-vari tayet, prpte tu oae vare putre mitravad caret
sandhi: (8) mitravat_caret

PavzaRi<a lalYaeTa( For five (paca) years (vara) one should fondle [a child]
dXavzaRi<a Taa@YaeTa( for ten (daa) years one should control it
Pau}ae zae@Xae vzeR Pa[ae Tau and when the child (putra) has attained [the age of] sixteen (oaa) years
iMa}avTa( AacreTa( one should behave like a friend (mitravat).

AiTaPaircYaadvja== =)
atiparicayd avaj
sandhi: (8) atiparicayt_avaj

AiTaPaircYaaTa( Avja

From over-familiarity (ati.paricaya) [may come] disrespect (avaj).


b]carq Gauku= le vSaNdaNTaae GauraeihRTaMa( ) AacrNdaSavaqcae GauraE Saud*!SaaEd"== =))

brahmacr guru-kule vasan dnto guror hitam, caran dsavan nco gurau sudha-sauhda

b]carq A brahmacr
Gaurae" ihTaMa( for the benefit (hita) of the teacher (guru)
daNTa" Gauku= le/ vSaNa( living restrained (dnta) in the family (kula) of the teacher (guru)
daSavTa( Naqc" AacrNa( behaving submissively (nca low) like a servant (dsavat)
GauraE Saud*!SaaEd" with very firm (su.dha) friendship (sauhda) to the teacher, ...

%iNaTva ih %iNa}ae<a >aUTale vair ivNdiTa ) TaQaa GauGaTaa& iva& Xau[UzuriDaGaC^iTa ))

khanitv hi khanitrea bh-tale vri vindati, tath guru-gat vidy urur adhigacchati

>aUTale %iNa}ae<a %iNaTva ih

As [after] digging on the survace (tala) of the earth (bh) with a shovel


vair ivNdiTa one obtains water,

TaQaa Xau[Uzu" so does one who is obedient
GauGaTaaMa( ivaMa( AiDaGaC^iTa attain knowledge (vidy) which belongs to the teacher (guru).

k*= TaiXaLPaae= _iPa iNavSaeTk*= Tak==al& GauraeGa*Rhe ) ANTaevaSaq GauPa]aPTa>aaeJaNaSTaTf==lPa]d"== =))

kta-ilpo pi nivaset kta-kla guror ghe, antevs guru-prpta-bhojanas tat-phala-prada
sandhi: (7) ilpo_api, (10,8) bhojana_tad-_phala



k*= TaiXaLPa" AiPa Even if one has [already] mastered the art [or handicraft] (kta-ilpa)
k*= Tak==alMa( Gaurae" Ga*he iNavSaeTa( [still,] for the full period he must live in the house (gha) of the
teacher (guru).
kta-kla the time which was fixed before


A pupil
antevsin who dwells near or in the house [of his teacher]

GauPa]aPTa>aaeJaNa" having received his board (bhojana food) from the teacher (guru)
Tad(f==lPa]d" gives the result of all his work [to the teacher].

iTaqYa& Pa[aPYaaNauPaUVYaaRNMaaePaNaYaNa& iJa" ) vSaNGauku= le daNTaae b]aDaqYaqTa cahUTa"== =))

dvitya prpynuprvyj janmopanayana dvija, vasan guru-kule dnto brahmdhyta chta
sandhi: (1) prpya_anuprvyj, (3) janma_upanayana, (1) brahma_adhyta ca_hta

iJa" A brhmaa (dvija)

ANauPaUVYaaRTa( in due course [of the saskras]
iTaqYaMa( oPaNaYaNaMa( JaNMa Pa[aPYa [after] receiving second birth (janman), initiation (upanayana)
daNTa" Gauku= le/ vSaNa( living restrained (dnta) in the family (kula) of the teacher (guru)
AahUTa" b] ADaqYaqTa c he should also study the Veda (brahma) when invited (hta called).

>aUYa Wv Maa >aGaviNvjaPaYaiTviTa== =)

bhya eva m bhagavan vijpayatv iti
sandhi: (6) vijpayatu_iti

>aGavNa( O lord!
>aUYa" Wv Maa ivjaPaYaTau wiTa

Please instruct me further!


AMaavaSYaa Gau& hiNTa iXaZYa& hiNTa cTaudRXaq ) b]ak==PaaE<aRMaaSYaaE TaSMaataa" PairvJaRYaeTa( ))

amvsy guru hanti iya hanti caturda, brahmaka-pauramsyau tasmt t parivarjayet
sandhi: (1) brahma_aaka

AMaavaSYaa GauMa( hiNTa [Teaching on] the new-moon day (amvsy) destroys the teacher (guru)
cTaudRXaq iXaZYaMa( hiNTa the fourteenth day (caturda) destroys the pupil (iya)
Ak==PaaE<aRMaaSYaaE b] the eighth day (aaka) and the new-moon day (pauramsya) [destroy all
remembrance of] the Veda (brahma)

TaSMaaTa( Taa" PairvJaRYaeTa(

therefore one should avoid those [days for studying].


caTauivRa ivk==LPaq c AivMaRPaa#=k= " ) Aa]MaSQaaS}aYaae Mau:Yaa" PairzTSYaaXaavra== =))

cturvidy vikalp ca aga-vid dharma-phaka, rama-sths trayo mukhy pariat syd davar
sandhi: (10) sth trayo, (8,1) pariad syt daa-_avar

caTauivRa" [Four] knowers of the four Vedas (cturvidya)

ivk==LPaq c and one logician (vikalpin)
Aivd( one knower of the Vedgas
DaMaRPaa#=k= " one teacher of law (dharma)
}aYa" Mau:Yaa" Aa]MaSQaa" and three leading (mukhya) men of the [first three] ramas


The three leading men from the ramas are each one brahmacr, ghastha and
vnaprastha; the sannys had no such concern any more.

dXaAvra Pairzd( SYaaTa(

makes an assembly (pariad f.) of at least (avara) ten [members].


SaTYaeNa l>YaSTaPaSaa ez AaTMaa SaMYak(= jaNaeNa b]cYaeR<a iNaTYaMa(= = )

satyena labhyas tapas hy ea tm samyak jnena brahmacaryea nityam
sandhi: (10) labhya_tapas, (5) hi_ea

SaTYaeNa TaPaSaa By truthfulness (satya), austerity (tapas)

SaMYak(= jaNaeNa b]cYaeR<a complete knowledge (jna) and continence (brahmacarya)
ih Wz" AaTMaa this self / Lord (tm)
iNaTYaMa( l>Ya" is to be obtained eternally (nityam).

Mar<a& ibNduPaaTaeNa JaqvNa& ibNduDaar<aaTa(= = )

maraa bindu-ptena jvana bindu-dhrat

Mar<aMa( ibNduPaaTaeNa Death (maraa) is by loosing semen (bindu drop)

JaqvNaMa( ibNduDaar<aaTa( and life (jvana) is by keeping (dhraa) semen.

SvPNae iSaa b]carq iJa" Xau= Mak==aMaTa" ) aTvakR= MacRiYaTva i}a" PauNaMaaRiMaTYa*c& JaPaeTa( ))
svapne siktv brahmacr dvija ukram a-kmata, sntvrkam arcayitv tri punar mm ity ca japet
sandhi: (5) iti_cam

iJa" b]carq A twice-born (dvija) brahmacr

SvPNae Xau= Ma( Ak==aMaTa" iSaa [after] spilling semen (ukra) in sleep (svapna) without intention
aTva AkR= Ma( AcRiYaTva [after then] bathing and worshiping the sun (arka)
PauNaMaaRMa( wiTa cMa( the k-verse (ca) [beginning with] punar mm
punar mm aitu indriyam Let my sense power (indriya) again come (.etu) to me!

i}a" JaPaeTa(

he should mutter thrice (tri).


oPaku= vaR<ak==STvaae iTaqYaae NaEik==" SMa*Ta"== =)

upakurvakas tv dyo dvityo naihika smta
sandhi: (10,6) upakurvaka_tu_dyo

Aa" Tau The first (dya) [type]

oPaku= vaR<ak==" SMa*Ta" is called assistant (upakurvaka)
iTaqYa" NaEik==" the second determined (naihika).

ANaNYaS}aqJaNa" Pa]ajae b]carq TaQaa >aveTa( )

an-anya-str-jana prjo brahmacr tath bhavet


Without [knowing] another woman (str-jana)

... besides his wife, and this only in her season

TaQaa Pa]aj" then a wise man (prja)

b]carq >aveTa( is [also like] a brahmacr.

Na hqd*XaMaNaaYauZYa& laeke= ik==Na ivTae ) Yaad*Xa& PauzSYaeh PardaraePaSaevNaMa(= = ))

na hdam an-yuya loke kicana vidyate, yda puruasyeha para-dropasevanam



sandhi: (1) hi_dam, (2) puruasya_iha, (3) dra-_upasevanam

Yaad*XaMa( PauzSYa As is (ydam) of a man (purua)

PardaroPaSaevNaMa( the addiction (upasevana) to another mans wife (para-dra),
wRd*XaMa( ANa(AaYauZYaMa( as fatal to a long life (an-yuya)
wh laeke= here in this world (loka)
Na ih ik==Na ivTae absolutely nothing exists.


Sanskrit Sandhi 6
(1) paramtm
(2) gaea
(3) om
(4) naiva
(5) yady api
(6) manvantara
(7) vande ham
(8) bhagavad-gt
(9) aha bhajmi
(10) namas te
(11) namo nama
Rule: a becomes o before soft consonants and before a.

NaMaae NaMa" namo nama repeated obeisances

raja-_gua >>> rJaaeGau<a rajo-gua the mode of passion

nama_nama >>>

Because the ending -o was thus created, a following a will be also affected by sandhi rule (7).

NaMaae= _STau Tae namo stu te obeisances unto you

vata_ayam >>> (11) vato_ayam >>> (7) XaaTaae= _YaMa( vato yam this [soul] is ever-existing

nama_astu te >>> (11) namo astu te >>> (7)

(12) yur-veda
Rule: which is not preceded by a or changes to r before soft consonants and vowels.

AaYauveRd yur-veda the science (veda) of life

senayo_ubhayo_madhye >>> SaeNaYaae>aYaaeMaRDYae senayor ubhayor madhye in between both armies

yu-_veda >>>

There are much more sandhi rules. We have only given a few.



Hinduism Householder

Pa]JaaPaiTa" iS}aYa& ck]e= SvdehaDaRMa(= = )

praj-pati striya cakre sva-dehrdham
sandhi: (9) striyam_cakre, (1) -deha_ardham

Pa]JaaPaiTa" Brahm (praj-pati)

iS}aYaMa( SvdehADaRMa( ck]e= made a woman (str) half (ardha) of his own body (sva-deha).

iDaa k*= TvaTMaNaae dehMaDaeRNa Pauzae= _>avTa(= = ) ADaeRNa Naarq== =)

dvidh ktvtmano deham ardhena puruo bhavat, ardhena nr
sandhi: (1,11) ktv_tmana deham, (11,7) purua_abhavat

AaTMaNa" dehMa( iDaa k*= Tva After dividing (making) his own body (deha) into two (dvidh)
ADaeRNa Pauz" A>avTa( with [one] half (ardha), man (purua) came into existence
ADaeRNa Naarq and with [the other] half, woman (nr).

Yaava ivNdTae JaaYaa& TaavdDaaeR >aveTPauMaaNa( ) NaaDa| Pa]JaaYaTae Sav| Pa]JaaYaeTaeTYaiPa ]uiTa"== =))
yvan na vindate jy tvad ardho bhavet pumn, nrdha prajyate sarva prajyetety api ruti
sandhi: (8,11) tvad_ardha_bhavet, (1) na_ardha, (2,5) prajyeta_iti_api

YaavTa( PauMaaNa( As long as a man (pus)

JaaYaaMa( Na ivNdTae does not obtain a wife (jy who gives birth)
TaavTa( ADaR" >aveTa( so long he is incomplete (ardha half).
ADaRMa( Na Pa]JaaYaTae A half does not beget
SavRMa( Pa]JaaYaeTa [only] the whole can beget;
wiTa AiPa ]uiTa" this is also Veda (ruti).

cTauQaRMaaYauzae >aaGaMauizTva& GauraE iJa" ) iTaqYaMaaYauzae >aaGa& k*= Tadarae Ga*he vSaeTa( ))
caturtham yuo bhgam uitvdya gurau dvija, dvityam yuo bhga kta-dro ghe vaset
sandhi: (11) yua_bhgam, (1) uitv_dya, yua_bhga kta-dra_ghe

AaYauz" AaMa( cTauQaRMa( >aaGaMa( The first (dya) quarter part (bhga) of life (yus)
GauraE oizTva [after] dwelling at [the place of] the teacher (guru)
AaYauz" iTaqYaMa( >aaGaMa( the second part of life
k*= Tadar" having wedded a wife (dra)
iJa" Ga*he vSaeTa( a twice-born one (dvija) shall live at home (gha).

SvYaM>aUNaaRrd" XaM>au" ku= Maar" k==iPalae MaNau"= = ) Pa]adae JaNak==ae >aqZMaae bilvERYaaSaik==vRYaMa(= = ))
svayambhr nrada ambhu kumra kapilo manu, prahldo janako bhmo balir vaiysakir vayam
sandhi: (12) svayambh_nrada, etc., (11) kapila_manu, etc.

SvYaM>aU" Naard" XaM>au" Brahm (Svayambh), Nrada, iva (ambhu)

ku= Maar" k==iPal" MaNau" the four Kumras, Kapiladeva, Svyambhuva Manu
Pa]ad" JaNak==" >aqZMa" Prahlda, Janaka and Bhma
bil" vEYaaSaik==" vYaMa( Bali, ukadeva and Yamarj (we, the speaker of this verse).



ANa>YaaSae ivz& XaaMaJaq<aeR >aaeJaNa& ivzMa( ) dird]SYa ivz& Gaaeq v*SYa Ta<aq ivzMa(= = ))
an-abhyse via stram a-jre bhojana viam, daridrasya via goh vddhasya taru viam

ANa>YaaSae XaaMa( ivzMa(

When there is no practice (abhysa) scriptural instruction (stra) is poison


AJaq<aeR >aaeJaNaMa( ivzMa( when there is indigestion (a-jra) a meal (bhojana) is poison
dird]SYa Gaaeq ivzMa( for a poor man (daridra) a social gathering is poison
v*SYa Ta<aq ivzMa( and for an old man (vddha) a young wife is poison.

ivraeDa& NaaetaMaEGaRC^eaaDaMaE Sada buDa" ) ivvah ivvad TauLYaXaqlENa*RPaeZYaTae= = ))

virodha nottamair gacchen ndhamai ca sad budha, vivha ca vivda ca tulya-lair npeyate
sandhi: (3,12) na_uttamai_gacchen, (1,10) na_adhamai_ca, (10) vivha_ca
vivda_ca, (12) lai_npeyate

Na*Pa O King [Sagara]!

buDa" Sada otaMaE" ivraeDaMa( Na GaC^eTa(

A wise man should never enter a controversy (virodha) with

superiors (uttama)

Na c ADaMaE" nor with inferiors (adhama).

ivvah" c ivvad" c Marriage (vivha) and controversy (vivda)
TauLYaXaqlE" wZYaTae is permitted (known) with those of equal (tulya) culture.
la custom, conduct, piety

SvGaae}aad( >a]XYaTae Naarq oahaTSaPTaMae Pade ) >aTa*RGaae}ae<a k==TaRVYa& daNaiPa<@aedk==ik]= Yaa== =))
sva-gotrd bhrayate nr udvht saptame pade, bhart-gotrea kartavya dna-piodaka-kriy
sandhi: (8) gotrt_bhrayate, (3) pia-_udaka

SaPTaMae Pade

At the seventh (saptama) step (pada)

Bride and bridegroom walk together seven steps after which the marriage becomes

oahaTa( after marriage (udvha)

Naarq a woman (nr)
SvGaae}aaTa( >a]XYaTae is divorced from [the tradition of] her own family (sva-gotra).
daNaiPa<@odk==ik]= Yaa [Then] rituals (kriy) like charity (dna) and rddha (pia-udaka)
>aTa*RGaae}ae<a k==TaRVYaMa( should be done by [the tradition of] the husbands (bhart) family (gotra).

b]aae dEvSTaQaEvazR" Pa[aJaaPaTYaSTaQaaSaur" ) GaaNDavaeR ra+aSaEv PaEXaacaMaae= _DaMa" ))

brhmo daivas tathaivra prjpatyas tathsura, gndharvo rkasa caiva paica camo dhama
sandhi: (11,10,4,1) brhmo_daiva_tath_eva_ra, (10,1) prjpatya_tath_sura,
(11,10,4) gndharva_rkasa_ca_eva, (10,1,11,7) paica_ca_aama_adhama

b]a" dEv" TaQaa Wv AazR" (1) Brhma, (2) daiva and (3) ra
Pa[aJaaPaTYa" TaQaa GaaNDavR" (4) prjpatya and (5) gndharva
AaSaur" ra+aSa" c Wv (6) sura and (7) rkasa
PaEXaac" c AMa" ADaMa" and (8) paica as eigths and lowest (adhama).




Xaqlv*tae SaMaajaYa iva& YaaeiNa& c k==MaR c ) Sairev& Pa]daTaVYaa k==NYaa Gau<aYauTae vre= = ))
la-vtte samjya vidy yoni ca karma ca, sadbhir eva pradtavy kany gua-yute vare
sandhi: (12) sadbhi_eva

Xaqlv*tae [The bridegrooms] virtue (la) and good conduct (vtta)

ivaMa( YaaeiNaMa( c k==MaR c learning (vidy), birth (yoni) and work (karman)
SaMaajaYa [after] ascertaining [those],
Gau<aYauTae vre to [such] a qualified bridegroom (vara)
gua-yuta endowed with [good] qualities

k==NYaa WvMa( Pa]daTaVYaa the daughter (kany) is thus to be given

Sai" by pious [fathers].

AaTMaai>aPa]eTaMauTSa*JYa k==NYaai>aPa]eTa Wv Ya" ) Ai>aPa]eTaa c Yaa YaSYa TaSMaE deYaa YauiDair== =))
tmbhipretam utsjya kanybhipreta eva ya, abhipret ca y yasya tasmai dey yudhihira
sandhi: (1) tma-_abhipretam, kany-_abhipreta

YauiDair O Yudhihira!
Ya" k==NYaaAi>aPa]eTa" Wv One who is desired by the girl (kany)
YaSYa Yaa Ai>aPa]eTaa c and by (for) whom she is desired
TaSMaE deYaa to him she is to be given (deya),
AaTMaAi>aPa]eTaMa( oTSa*JYa [after] giving up what is desired by himself.

DaNaeNa bhuDaa k]= ITva SaMPa]lae>Ya c baNDavaNa( ) ASaura<aa& Na*PaETa& vE DaMaRMaahuMaRNaqiz<a"== =))
dhanena bahudh krtv sampralobhya ca bndhavn, asur npaita vai dharmam hur mania
sandhi: (4) npa_eta, (12) hur_mania

Na*Pa O King!
bhuDaa DaNaeNa k]= ITva [After] purchasing [the girl] with wealth (dhana) in many ways
baNDavaNa( SaMPa]lae>Ya c and alluring (sampralobhya) the relatives (bndhava),
ASaura<aaMa( DaMaRMa( tradition (dharma) of demons (asura)
MaNaqiz<a" WTaMa( vE Aahu" the wise call this.

YaaSaa& NaaddTae XauLk&= jaTaYaae Na Sa iv==Ya" ) AhR<a& TaTku= Maarq<aaMaaNa*Xa&SYa& c ke= vlMa( ))
ys ndadate ulka jtayo na sa vikraya, arhaa tat kumrm nasya ca kevalam
sandhi: (1) na_dadate, (11) jtaya_na, (8) tad_kumrm

YaaSaaMa( XauLk==Ma(

When her dowry (ulka)

... something given by either side

jaTaYa" Na AaddTae the relatives (jti) did not take [for themselves]
Sa" Na iv==Ya" that is not a sale (vikraya).
Tad( ku= Maarq<aaMa( That is towards the maidens (kumr)
ke= vlMa( AhR<aMa( AaNa*Xa&SYaMa( c just a honor (arhaa) and kindness (nasya).

Na k==aMaeNa Sa&vaSa& MaNaurev& Pa]Xa&SaiTa )

na hy a-kmena savsa manur eva praasati


sandhi: (5) hi_a-kmena, (12) manu_eva

... YaSTv}a MaN}aSaMaYaae >aaYaaRPaTYaaeiMaRQa" k*= Ta" ) TaMaevahuGaRrqYaa&Sa& YaaSaaE jaiTai>a" k*= Ta"== =))
yas tv atra mantra-samayo bhry-patyor mitha kta, tam evhur garysa ya csau jtibhi kta
sandhi: (10,6) ya_tu_atra, (11,12) -samaya_bhry-patyo_mitha, (1,12)
eva_hu_garysa, (10,1) ya ca_asau

Ak==aMaeNa Sa&vaSaMa( A marriage (savsa living together) without love (a-kma)

MaNau" Na ih WvMa( Pa]Xa&SaiTa Manu does not glorify much. ...
MaN}aSaMaYa" The agreement (sam.aya meeting) with mantras
Ya" Tau A}a >aaYaaRPaTYaae" iMaQa" k*= Ta" which is made mutually (mithas) between wife (bhry) and
husband (pati)

TaMa( Wv GarqYaa&SaMa( Aahu" that is said to be more important (garysa)

Ya" c ASaaE jaiTai>a" k*= Ta" than that which is made by kinsmen (jti).

SaveRza& Pa]qTYaaraePa<aMaPa]iTaiSaMa(= = )
sarve prty-ropaam a-pratiiddham
sandhi: (5) prti-_ropaam

SaveRza& Pa]qiTaAaraePa<aMa( Which is enhancing (ropaa) the pleasure (prti) of all [concerned]
APa]iTaiSaMa( [that marriage]s not forbidden.

Ak==aMaa& k==aMaYaaNaSYa XarqrMauPaTaPYaTae= = )

a-km kmaynasya arram upatapyate

Ak==aMaaMa( k==aMaYaaNaSYa

Of someone who is desiring (kmayna) a girl who does not desire (a-km)


XarqrMa( oPaTaPYaTae

the body (arra) is afflicted (heated).


MaU%aR Ya}a Na PaUJYaNTae DaaNYa& Ya}a SauSaiTaMa( ) daMPaTYae k==lhae NaaiSTa Ta}a [q" SvYaMaaGaTaa== =))
mrkh yatra na pjyante dhnya yatra susacitam, dmpatye kalaho nsti tatra r svayam gat
sandhi: (11,1) kalaha na_asti

Ya}a MaU%aR" Na PaUJYaNTae Where fools (mrkha) are not worshiped

Ya}a DaaNYaMa( SauSaiTaMa( where grain (dhnya) is well stored up
daMPaTYae k==lh" Na AiSTa [and where] in the relation between husband and wife there is no quarrel
dmpatya (from dam-pat husband and wife) relationship between husband and

Ta}a [q" SvYaMa( AaGaTaa

there Lakm (r) Herself has come.


ANaukU= lk==l}aae YaSTaSYa SvGaR whEv ih ) Pa]iTakU= lk==l}aSYa Nark==ae Naa}a Sa&XaYa"== =)
anukla-kalatro yas tasya svarga ihaiva hi, pratikla-kalatrasya narako ntra saaya

SvGaeR= _iPa dulR>a& eTadNauraGa" ParSParMa(= = ))

svarge pi durlabha hy etad anurga parasparam
sandhi: (11,10) kalatra_ya_tasya, (4) iha_eva, (11,1) naraka_na_atra, (7) svarge_api,
(5) hi_etad



Ya" ANaukU= lk==l}a" One who has a well-disposed (anukla favorable) wife (kalatra)
TaSYa wh Wv ih SvGaR" for him even this world is heaven (svarga).
Pa]iTakU= lk==l}aSYa For one whose wife is inimical (pratikla opposed)
Nark==" [even this world] is hell (naraka);
A}a Na Sa&XaYa" of this there is no doubt (saaya).
ParSParMa( ih WTad( ANauraGa" [Because] such attachment (anurga) which is mutual (paraspara)
SvGaeR AiPa dulR>aMa( is very rare (durlabha) even in heaven (svarga).

ParSPar& ezaNMaae+a"== =)
paraspara dven moka

ParSParMa( ezaTa( Maae+a"

Divorce (moka liberation) is from mutual hatred (dvea).


Nae Ma*Tae Pa[v]iJaTae ==Ibe c PaiTaTae PaTaaE ) PaSvaPaTSau Naarq<aa& PaiTarNYaae ivDaqYaTae= = ))
nae mte pravrajite klbe ca patite patau, pacasv patsu nr patir anyo vidhyate
sandhi: (6) pacatsu_patsu, (12,11) pati_anya_vidhyate

Nae Ma*Tae Pa[v]iJaTae PaTaaE When the husband (pati) is lost (naa), dead (mta), renounced
==Ibe PaiTaTae c impotent (klba) or [morally] fallen (patita)
PaSau AaPaTSau in [these] five (paca) misfortunes (pad)
Naarq<aaMa( ANYa" PaiTa" ivDaqYaTae another husband (pati) is allowed for women (nr).

q<aa& Sau%aeMaU= r& ivSPaaQa| MaNaaehrMa( ) MaLYa& dqgaRv<aaRNTaMaaXaqvaRdai>aDaaNavTa( ))

str sukhodyam a-krra vispartha manoharam, magalya drgha-varntam
sandhi: (3) sukha-_udyam, (1) vispaa-_artha, (3) mana-_haram, (1) vara-_antam

q<aaMa( [The names] of women

Sau%oMa( [should be] easy (sukha) to pronounce (udya)
AU= rMa( not dreadful (krra)
ivSPaAQaRMa( with very clear (vi.spaa) meaning (artha)
MaNa"hrMa( MaLYaMa( attractive and auspicious (magalya)
dqgaRv<aRANTaMa( ending in a long vowel (drgha-vara) [ or ]
AaXaqvaRdAi>aDaaNavTa( and containing an expression of benediction (r-vda).

Pa]JaaYaNTae SauTaaaaYaaeR du":aeNa MahTaa iv>aae ) PauZ<aiNTa caiPa MahTaa eheNa iJaPauv== =))
prajyante sutn nryo dukhena mahat vibho, puanti cpi mahat snehena dvija-pugava
sandhi: (11) nrya_dukhena, (1) ca_api

Yaa k]U= rezu Satvezu vTaRMaaNaa JauGauiPSaTaa" ) Svk==MaR ku= vRiNTa Sada duZk==r& Ta Mae MaTaMa(= = ))
y ca krreu sattveu vartamn jugupsit, sva-karma kurvanti sad dukara tac ca me matam
sandhi: (10) y_ca

iv>aae iJaPauv O great one (vibhu), best of the twice-born [Mrkaeya]!

MahTaa du":aeNa With great (mahat) difficulty (dukha)
NaaYaR" SauTaaNa( Pa]JaaYaNTae women (nr) raise children (suta)


MahTaa eheNa and with great affection (sneha)

PauZ<aiNTa c AiPa they also nourish [them].
Yaa" c JauGauiPSaTaa" That those who are [supposedly] disgusting (jugupsita)
k]U= rezu Satvezu vTaRMaaNaa" living in horrible (kra) existences (sattva)
Sada Svk==MaR ku= vRiNTa always do their duty (sva-karman),
Tad( c duZk==rMa( Mae MaTaMa( that is difficult (dukara) [to explain] in my opinion.

SaaeMa" XaaEc& ddavaSaa& GaNDavR Xau>aa& iGarMa( ) Paavk==" SavRMaeDYaTv& MaeDYaa vE YaaeizTaae Ta"== =))
soma auca dadv s gandharva ca ubh giram, pvaka sarva-medhyatva medhy vai yoito hy
sandhi: (10) gandharva_ca, (11,5) yoita_hi_ata

SaaeMa" AaSaaMa( XaaEcMa( ddaE The moon (soma) conferred (dadau) on them (women) purity (auca)
GaNDavR" c Xau>aaMa( iGarMa( the Gandharvas sweet (ubha auspicious) speech (gir)
Paavk==" SavRMaeDYaTvMa( and fire (pvaka) sacredness,
sarva-medhyatva universal purity

ATa" YaaeizTa" ih MaeDYaa" vE

therefore (ata) women (yoit) are holy.


PaUJYaa laliYaTaVYaa iS}aYaae iNaTYa& JaNaaiDaPa ) iS}aYaae Ya}a c PaUJYaNTae rMaNTae Ta}a devTaa"== =))
pjy llayitavy ca striyo nitya jandhipa, striyo yatra ca pjyante ramante tatra devat
sandhi: (10) llayitavy_ca, (11) striya_yatra

APaUiJaTaa Ya}aETaa" SavaRSTa}aaf==la" ik]= Yaa" ) Tada cETaTku= l& NaaiSTa Yada XaaeciNTa JaaMaYa"== =))
a-pjit ca yatrait sarvs tatrphal kriy, tad caitat kula nsti yad ocanti jmaya
sandhi: (10) a-pjit_ca, (4) yatra_et, (10,1) sarv_tatra_aphal, (4,8)
ca_etad_kula, (1) na_asti

JaNaaiDaPa O King!
iS}aYa" iNaTYaMa( Women (str) are always
PaUJYaa" laliYaTaVYaa" c to be honored (pjya) and fondled.
Ya}a c iS}aYa" PaUJYaNTae Wherever women are adored,
Ta}a devTaa" rMaNTae there the [very] gods (devat) delight.
Ya}a WTaa" APaUiJaTaa" c And where (yatra) these [women] are dishonored (a-pjita),
Ta}a SavaR" ik]= Yaa" Af==la" there (tatra) all activities/ rituals (kriy) are fruitless (a-phala).
Yada JaaMaYa" XaaeciNTa When the daughters-in-law (jmi) lament
Tada c WTad( ku= lMa( Na AiSTa then this family (kula) perishes.

daEdSYaaPa]daNaeNa Ga>aaeR daezMavaPNauYaaTa( ) vEPYa& Mar<a& vaiPa TaSMaaTk==aYa| iPa]Ya& iS}aYaa"== =))
dauhdasypradnena garbho doam avpnuyt, vairpya maraa vpi tasmt krya priya striy
sandhi: (1) dauhdasya_a-pradnena, (11) garbha_doam, (1) v_api

daEdSYa APa]daNaeNa

By not granting (a-pradna) the desire

... of a pregnant woman
dauhda, daurhda morbid longing

Ga>aR" daezMa( AvaPNauYaaTa( the embryo (garbha) may get a deficiency (doa),
vEPYaMa( Mar<aMa( va AiPa either deformation (vairpya) or death (maraa).



TaSMaaTa( Therefore
iS}aYaa" iPa]YaMa( k==aYaRMa(

what is pleasing (priya) for a woman (str) must be done.


>aaYaaRYaa& JaiNaTa& Pau}aMaadXaeRiZvv caNaNaMa( ) adTae JaiNaTaa Pa]e+Ya SvGa| Pa]aPYaev Pau<Yak*= Ta(= = ))
bhryy janita putram darev iva cnanam, hldate janit prekya svarga prpyeva puya-kt
sandhi: (6) dareu_iva, (1) ca_nanam, (2) prpya_iva

>aaYaaRYaaMa( JaiNaTaMa( Pau}aMa( Pa]e+Ya

[After] seeing (prekya) the child (putra), begotten (janita) in his wife


AadXaeRzu wv AaNaNaMa( c

and its face (nana) as if in mirrors (dara)

... i.e., as if seeing his own face

JaiNaTaa adTae the father (janit) rejoices

SvGaRMa( Pa]aPYa wv Pau<Yak*= Ta( like a pious man (puya-kt) [after] reaching heaven (svarga).

Pau}aPaaE}avDaU>a*TYaErak==I<aRMaiPa SavRTa" ) >aaYaaRhqNa& Ga*hSQaSYa XaUNYaMaev Ga*h& >aveTa(= = ))

putra-pautra-vadh-bhtyair kram api sarvata, bhry-hna ghasthasya nyam eva gha bhavet

Na Ga*h& Ga*hiMaTYaahuGa*Rih<aq Ga*hMauCYaTae )

na gha gham ity hur ghi gham ucyate
sandhi: (5,12) iti_hu_ghi


With children (putra), grandchildren (pautra), daughters-in-law (vadh) and

servants (bhtya)

SavRTa" Aak==I<aRMa( AiPa even if filled (kra) in every way (sarvatas)

>aaYaaRhqNaMa( [but] without wife (bhry)
Ga*hSQaSYa Ga*hMa( the home (gha) of a householder (ghastha)
XaUNYaMa( Wv >aveTa( is completely empty (nya).
Na Ga*hMa( Ga*hMa( wiTa Aahu" Not the house (gha) is called home (gha),
Ga*ih<aq Ga*hMa( oCYaTae the wife is called home (gha).
ghi mistress of the house, wife

oPaaSaTae Yae Ga*hSQaa" ParPaak==MabuYa" ) TaeNa Tae Pa[eTYa PaXauTaa& v]JaNTYaaaiddaiYaNa" ))

upsate ye ghasth para-pkam a-buddhaya, tena te pretya paut vrajanty anndi-dyina
sandhi: (5,1) vrajanti_anna-_di-

AbuYa" Ga*hSQaa" Foolish (a-buddhi) householders (ghastha)

Yae ParPaak==Ma( oPaaSaTae who partake (upsate) of the food of others
para-pka what is cooked (pka) by others

TaeNa Pa[eTYa by that [baseness], after death

Tae PaXauTaaMa( v]JaiNTa they attain the state of being cattle (pau animal)
AaAaiddaiYaNa" of the one who gives food, etc. (anndi-dyin).
i.e., a housholder should earn hs own money

YaaiMaNYaa" PaiMae YaaMae TYa==iNad]ae hir& SMareTa( ) AalaeKYa Mald]VYa& k==MaaRvXYak==MaacreTa(= = ))

yminy pacime yme tyakta-nidro hari smaret, lokya magala-dravya karmvayakam caret
sandhi: (11) nidra_hari, (1) karma_vayakam


YaaiMaNYaa" PaiMae YaaMae

In the last (pacima later) period (yma) of night (ymin)

yma a period, esp. of three hours; ymin which consists of ymas or periods,

TYa==iNad]" giving up sleep (nidr)

hirMa( SMareTa( he (the householder) should remember the Lord (Hari).
Mald]VYaMa( AalaeKYa [After] looking at auspicious (magala) articels (dravya)
AavXYak==Ma( k==MaR AacreTa( he should perform his prescribed duty.
vayaka (from a-vaya inevitable, necessary) prescribed

AaYauivRta& Ga*hiC^d]& MaN}aMaEQauNa>aezJaMa( ) TaPaae daNaavMaaNaaE c Nav GaaePYaaiNa YaTNaTa"== =))

yur vitta gha-cchidra mantra-maithuna-bheajam, tapo dnvamnau ca nava gopyni yatnata
sandhi: (12) yu_vittam, (11,1) tapa_dna-_avamnau

AaYau" iRvtaMa( Ga*hi^d]Ma(

Longevity (yus), wealth (vitta) and family dissension

gha-_chidra a breach in a house

MaN}aMaEQauNa>aezJaMa( counsel (mantra), sexual intercourse (maithuna) and medicines (bheaja)

TaPa" daNaAvMaaNaaE c penance (tapas), charity (dna) and dishonor (avamna)
Nav YaTNaTa" GaaePYaaiNa [these] nine are carefully to be concealed (gopya).

AQaRNaaXa& MaNaSTaaPa& Ga*he duirTaaiNa c== =) vNa& caPaMaaNa& c MaiTaMaaa Pa]k= aXaYaeTa(= = ))
artha-na manas-tpa ghe ducaritni ca, vacana cpamna ca matimn na prakayet
sandhi: (1) ca_apamnam

AQaRNaaXaMa( MaNa"TaaPaMa( Loss of wealth (artha), mental distress (tpa)

Ga*he duirTaaiNa c misbehavior at home (gha)
vNaMa( c APaMaaNaMa( c [suffered] cheating (vacana) and disrespect (apamna)
MaiTaMaaNa( Na Pa]k= aXaYaeTa( a thoughtful man should not reveal.

Pa]eTadeh& Xau>aE" aNaE" aiPaTa& iGv>aUizTaMa(= = ) dGDva Ga]aMaad( bih" aTva Sacela" SaillaXaYae= = ))
preta-deha ubhai snnai snpita srag-vibhitam, dagdhv grmd bahi sntv sa-cel salilaye
sandhi: (8) srak_vibhitam, grmt_bahi, (1) salila-_aye

Ya}a Ya}a iSQaTaaYaETadMauk= aYaeiTa vaidNa"== =) di+a<aai>aMau:aa dubaRNDava" SaillaailMa(= = ))

yatra yatra sthityaitad amukyeti vdina, dakibhimukh dadyur bndhav saliljalim
sandhi: (4) sthitya_etad, (2) amukya_iti, (1) dakia-_abhimukh, (12)
dadyu_bndhav, (1) salila-_ajalim

Pa]eTadehMa( The body (deha) of a deceased (preta departed)

Xau>aE" aNaE" aiPaTaMa( when washed with holy (ubha) waters
k(= iv>aUizTaMa( and decorated with garlands (sraj)
Ga]aMaad( bih" dGDva [after] having been burned outside the village (grma)
Sacela" [then] the relatives
SaillAaXaYae aTva [after] bathing [themselves] in a reservoir of water,
Ya}a Ya}a iSQaTaaYa WTad( AMauk= aYa Wherever he may stay, this is for such and such a person.
amuka such and such, a person or thing refered to without naming it
..., i.e., May this oblation reach him!



wiTa vaidNa" speaking thus

di+a<aAi>aMau:aa" baNDava" the relatives, facing south
SaillAailMa( du" should offer a handful of water (salila).


Hinduism Leaving Home


PaaXaaeDv| vNa& v]JaeTa(= = )

pacordhva vana vrajet
sandhi: (3) paca_rdhvam

PaaXaODvRMa( Above (rdhva) the 50th (paca) [year]

vNaMa( v]JaeTa( one should [leave family and] go to the forest (vana).

Ga*hSQaSTau Yada PaXYaelqPailTaMaaTMaNa" ) APaTYaSYaEv caPaTYa& vNaMaev Tada ]YaeTa(= = ))

ghasthas tu yad payed val-palitam tmana, apatyasyaiva cpatya vanam eva tad rayet
sandhi: (10) ghastha_tu, (8) payet_val, (4) apatyasya_eva, (1) ca_apatya

AaTMaNa" vlqPailTaMa( His wrinkles (val) and grey hair (palita)

APaTYaSYa Wv c APaTYaMa( and the offspring (apatya) of [his] offspring
... i.e., grandchildren

Yada Ga*hSQa" Tau PaXYaeTa( when the ghastha can see [these],
Tada vNaMa( Wv ]YaeTa( then he should take shelter of the forest (vana).

SaM>aaVYa Pau}aaNk==aleNa YaaEvNaSQaaiNvveXYa c ) SaMaQaaRNa( JaqvNae jaTva Mau= r YaQaaSau:aMa(= = ))

sambhvya putrn klena yauvana-sthn viveya ca, samarthn jvane jtv mukta cara yath-sukham
sandhi: (10) mukta_cara

k==aleNa Pau}aaNa( SaM>aaVYa After creating children (putra) in due time (kla)
YaaEvNaSQaaNa( ivveXYa c and marrying them when in youth (yauvana)
JaqvNae SaMaQaaRNa( jaTva [and after] knowing them to be competent (samartha) in life (jvana)
Mau= " [then] being free (mukta)
YaQaaSau:aMa( cr go (cara) where you like.

vaNaPa[SQaa[MaPadeZv>aq+<a& >aE+YaMaacreTa( )
vnaprasthrama-padev abhka bhaikyam caret
sandhi: (1,6) vnaprastha-_rama-padeu_abhka

vaNaPa[SQaAa[MaPadezu In the vnaprastha stages (padeu)

A>aq+<aMa( >aE+YaMa( AacreTa( one should always (abhkam) live by begging (bhaikya).

b]carq YaiTaEv ivaQaqR GauPaaezk==" ) ADvGa" +aq<av*ita z@eTae i>a+auk= a" SMa*Taa"== =))
brahmacr yati caiva vidyrth guru-poaka, adhva-ga ka-vtti ca a ete bhikuk smt
sandhi: (10,4) yati_ca_eva, (10) vtti_ca

b]carq YaiTa" c Wv A brahmacr and a sannys (yati)

ivaQaqR GauPaaezk==" a student and a supporter (poaka) of his teacher (guru)
vidy-arthin who desires education, student

ADvGa" +aq<av*ita" c

a traveller and a poor man

adhva-ga road-goer, traveller; ka-vtti who is out of employ

z@( WTae i>a+auk= a" SMa*Taa"

these six are called beggars (bhikuka = bhiku).




MauNaYaae= =vaTavaSaNaa== [Ma<aa== ORMaiNQaNa"== )= =b]a:Ya&= =DaaMa== Tae= =YaaiNTa== XaaNTaa"== SaYaaiSaNaae= _Mala"== =))
munayo vta-vsan rama rdhva-manthina, brahmkhya dhma te ynti nt sannysino mal
sandhi: (11) munaya_vta, (1) brahma-_khya, (11,7) sannysina_amal

vaTavaSaNaa" MauNaYa"

Naked sages (muni)

vta-vsana whose dress is air (vta), being naked

[Ma<aa" ORMaiNQaNa"

who are ascetic (ramaa) and celibate

ramaa who mortifies himself, an ascetic; rdhva-manthin whose semen goes
upwards, a celibate

XaaNTaa" SaYaaiSaNa" AMala" peaceful (nta), renounced (sannysin) and pure (a-mala),
Tae b]Aa:YaMa( DaaMa YaaiNTa they attain the abode (dhman) called brahma.

AiGNaPa]veXae iNaYaTa& b]laeke= MahqYaTae= = )

agni-pravee niyata brahma-loke mahyate

AiGNaPa]veXae When [a yog renounces his body by] entering a fire (agni)
b]laeke= iNaYaTaMa( MahqYaTae he is always (niyatam) glorified in Brahma-loka.

b]cYa| SaMaaPYa Ga*hq >aveTa(= = ) Ga*hq >aUTva vNaq >aveTa(= = ) vNaq >aUTva Pa]v]JaeTa(= = )
brahmacarya sampya gh bhavet, gh bhtv van bhavet, van bhtv pravrajet

Yaid va wTarQaa b]cYaaRdev Pa]v]Jaed( Ga*haa vNaaa== =)

yadi v itarath brahmacaryd eva pravrajed ghd v vand v
sandhi: (8) brahmacaryt-eva, etc.

... Yadhrev ivrJYaeTa Tadhrev Pa]v]JaeTa(= = )

yad ahar eva virajyeta tad ahar eva pravrajet
sandhi: (12) aha_eva

b]cYaRMa( SaMaaPYa After finishing (1) brahmacarya

Ga*hq >aveTa( one can become (2) a ghastha (ghin).
Ga*hq >aUTva vNaq >aveTa( After being a ghastha one can become (3) a vnaprastha (vanin).
vNaq >aUTva Pa]v]JaeTa( After being a vnaprastha one can (4) leave [to take sannysa].
Yaid va wTarQaa Or else (yadi v) otherwise (itarath)
b]cYaaRTa( Wv Pa]v]JaeTa( right after (1) brahmacarya one can (4) leave
Ga*haTa( va vNaaTa( va or after (2) [staying at] home (gha) or after (3) [staying in the] forest (vana). ...
Yad( Ah" Wv ivrJYaeTa The very day (ahan) one becomes detached (virajyeta)
Tad( Ah" Wv Pa]v]JaeTa( that very day one can (4) leave.

Sa vNae= _GNaqNYaQaaNYaaYaMaaTMaNYaaraePYa DaMaRivTa( ) iNaRNae vqTaraGaaTMaa b]a]MaPade vSaeTa(= = ))

sa vane gnn yath-nyyam tmany ropya dharma-vit, nirdvandvo vta-rgtm brahmrama-pade vaset
sandhi: (7) vane_agnn, (5) tmani_ropya, (11) nirdvandva_vta, (1) rga-_tm

iNaRN" vqTaraGaAaTMaa Being free from dualities (dvandva) and attachments (rga)
Sa" DaMaRivd( such a knower of dharma
vNae AGNaqNa( his [sacrificial] fires (agni) in the forest (vana)
... which he kept as vnaprastha in the forest


YaQaaNYaaYaMa( AaTMaiNa AaraePYa [after] properly (yath-nyyam) establishing [them] in himself (tman)
b]Aa]MaPade vSaeTa( he should live in the stage (pada) of sannysa (brahma-rama).

DYaaNa& XaaEc& TaQaa i>a+aa iNaTYaMaek= aNTaXaqlTaa ) i>a+aaeTvair k==MaaRi<a PaMaae NaaePaPaTae= = ))
dhyna auca tath bhik nityam eknta-lat, bhiko catvri karmi pacamo nopapadyate
sandhi: (10) bhiko_catvri, (11,3) pacama_na_upapadyate

DYaaNaMa( XaaEcMa( TaQaa i>a+aa Meditation (dhyna), purity (auca) and begging (bhik)
iNaTYaMa( Wk==aNTaXaqlTaa and the habit to always (nityam) live in solitude (eknta)
i>a+aae" cTvair k==MaaRi<a are the four duties (karman) of a sannys (bhiku);
PaMa" Na oPaPaTae there exists no fifth.

Na iXaZYaaNaNaubDNaqTa Ga]NQaaaEva>YaSaed( bhUNa( ) Na VYaa:YaaMauPaYauqTa NaarM>aaNaar>aeTKvicTa(= = ))

na iyn anubadhnta granthn naivbhyased bahn, na vykhym upayujta nrambhn rabhet kvacit
sandhi: (4,1,8) na_eva_abhyaset_bahn, (1) na_rambhn

iXaZYaaNa( Na ANaubDNaqTa He should not make (bind) disciples (iya) (!!)

bhUNa( Ga]NQaaNa( Na Wv A>YaSaeTa( he should not study many (bahu) books (grantha)
VYaa:YaaMa( Na oPaYauqTa he should not undertake discourses (vykhy)
... as a means of livelihood (?)

Kvicd( AarM>aaNa( Na Aar>aeTa(

and he should not in any way attempt enterprises (rambha).


ANaiGNariNake= Ta Ga]aMaMaaaQaRMaa]YaeTa( )
an-agnir a-niketa ca grmam annrtham rayet
sandhi: (12,10) agni_a-niketa_ca, (1) anna-_artham

ANa(AiGNa" One who has no [sacrificial] fire (an-agni)

AiNake= Ta" c and no [fixed] dwelling (a-niketa)
... i.e., a sannys

Ga]aMaMa( AaAQaRMa( Aa]YaeTa(

should enter a village (grma) [only] for food (anna-artham).


STaaek&= STaaek&= Ga]Saed( Ga]aSa& dehae vTaeRTa YaavTaa ) Ga*haNaih&SaaaiTaed( v*ita& MaaDauk= rq& MauiNa"== =))
stoka stoka grased grsa deho varteta yvat, ghn a-hisann tihed vtti mdhukar muni
sandhi: (8) graset_grsa, (11) deha_varteta, (8) tihet_vtti

STaaek= Ma( STaaek= Ma( From each [householder taking] a little (stoka)
Ga]aSaMa( Ga]SaeTa( [that much] food (grsa) he should eat,
YaavTaa deh" vTaeRTa just asmuch so that the body (deha) can function.
... just to stay alive

Ga*haNa( Aih&SaNa( [While thus] not harming the householders (gha, ghastha)
MauiNa" MaaDauk==rqMa( v*itaMa( AaiTaeTa( the sage (muni) should practice the occupation (vtti) of a bee.
madhu-kara honey-maker, a bee; mdhukar who like a madhukara (bee) collects
alms by going from door to door

bhUNaa& k==lhae iNaTYa& Yaae" SaQaNa& Da]uvMa( ) Wk==ak==I ivcirZYaaiMa ku= MaarqXak==ae YaQaa== =))
bahn kalaho nitya dvayo sakathana dhruvam, ekk vicariymi kumr-akhako yath
sandhi: (11) kalaha_nitya, akhaka_yath



bhUNaaMa( iNaTYaMa( k==lh" Among many (bahu) there is always (nityam) dispute (kalaha)
Yaae" Da]uvMa( SaQaNaMa( and [even] among two there is surely (dhruvam) some talk (sam.kathana)
YaQaa ku= MaarqXak==" as [illustrated in the story of] the conchshell-bracelet (akaka) of the maiden

Wk==ak==I ivcirZYaaiMa

[Therefore] I will wander alone (ekkin).


devTaaPa[iTaMaa& d*a YaiTa& cEv i}adi<@NaMa( ) NaMaSk==ar& Na ku= YaaReduPavaSaeNa XauyiTa== =))
devat-pratim dv yati caiva tri-dainam, namaskra na kuryc ced upavsena uddhyati
sandhi: (4) ca_eva


Who is an image (pratim) of the gods (deva)

... i.e., representing them

i}adi<@NaMa( YaiTaMa( d*a c Wv [after] seeing a sannys (yati) with his triple staff (tri-daa)
NaMaSk==arMa( Na ku= YaaRTa( ced( if someone does not offer his respect (namaskra),
oPavaSaeNa XauyiTa he becomes purified by fasting (upavsa) [for one day].

iXa%q YajaePavqTaq SYaaiT}ad<@q Sak==Ma<@lu" ) SaPaiv}a k==azaYaq GaaYa}aq& c JaPaeTSada== =))

ikh yajopavt syt tri-da sa-kamaalu, sa-pavitra ca ky gyatr ca japet sad
sandhi: (3) yaja-_upavt, (10) pavitra_ca

iXa%q SYaaTa(

He should have a tuft of hair

... a ikh; ikhin who has a ikh

YajoPavqTaq sacred thread (yaja-upavta)

i}ad<@q Sak==Ma<@lu" triple staff (tri-daa) and water-pot (kamaalu)
SaPaiv}a" c k==azaYaq a cup or kua for purifying water (pavitra), and saffron cloth (kya).
Sada GaaYa}aqMa( c JaPaeTa( And he should always chant Gyatr.

ve<aui>aNaR >aveiTa"== =)
veubhir na bhaved yati
sandhi: (12) veubhi_na, (8) bhavet_yati

ve<aui>a" [Just] with bamboos (veu, tri-daa) [in hand]

Na YaiTa" >aveTa( one does not become a sannys (yati).

ilaNYauTPaQa>aUTaaiNa Na Maae+aaYaeiTa Mae MaiTa"== =)

ligny utpatha-bhtni na mokyeti me mati
sandhi: (5) ligni_utpatha, (2) mokya_iti

oTPaQa>aUTaaiNa ilaiNa

[These] external (wrong) signs (liga) [of a sannys]

utpatha wrong way, bad

Na Maae+aaYa are not useful for liberation (moka),

wiTa Mae MaiTa" this is my opinion.

iNaTYa& NaEiMaitak&= k==aMYaiMaiTa k==MaR i}aDaa MaTaMa(= = )

nitya naimittika kmyam iti karma tridh matam

iNaTYaMa( NaEiMaitak==Ma( k==aMYaMa(


(1) Obligatory (nitya continual), (2) occasional (naimittika by some

nimitta or cause) and (3) optional (kmya for some desire)

wiTa k==MaR i}aDaa MaTaMa(

thus the duty (karman) [of a householder] is considered to be threefold.


iNaTYa& NaEiMaitak&= k==aMYa& k==MaR i}aivDaMauCYaTae ) SaYaaSa" k==MaR<aa& NYaaSaae NYaaSaq TaMaRMaacrNa(= = ))
nitya naimittika kmya karma tri-vidham ucyate, sannysa karma nyso nys tad dharmam
sandhi: (11) nysa_nys

iNaTYaMa( NaEiMaitak==Ma( k==aMYaMa(

(1) Regular duty (nitya), (2) occasional duty (naimittika) and (3) work

for enjoyment (kmya)

k==MaR i}aivDaMa( oCYaTae work (karman) is said to be of three kinds (tri-vidha).

SaYaaSa" k==MaR<aaMa( NYaaSa" Sannysa means renunciation (nysa) of [all kinds of] karma.
NYaaSaq Tad( DaMaRMa( AacrNa( A sannys (nys) is one who is practicing such dharma.

SaYaSaeTSavRk= MaaRi<a vedMaek&= Na SaYaSaeTa( ) vedSaYaaSaTa" XaUd]STaSMaaed& Na SaYaSaeTa(= = ))

sannyaset sarva-karmi vedam eka na sannyaset, veda-sannysata dras tasmd veda na sannyaset
sandhi: (10,8) dras_tasmt_veda

SavRk==MaaRi<a SaYaSaeTa( One may renounce all his duties (karman),

vedMa( Wk==Ma( Na SaYaSaeTa( only the [recitation of the] Veda one should not renounce.
vedSaYaaSaTa" XaUd]" By renouncing the Veda [one becomes] a dra
TaSMaaTa( vedMa( Na SaYaSaeTa( therefore one should not renounce the Veda.

vaGd<@ae= _Qa MaNaaed<@" k==aYad<@STaQaEv c ) YaSYaETae iNaihTaa buaE i}ad<@qiTa Sa oCYaTae ))

vg-dao tha mano-daa kya-daas tathaiva ca, yasyaite nihit buddhau tri-dati sa ucyate
sandhi: (8!,11,7) vk-_daa_atha, (11) mana-_daa, (4) tath_eva, yasya_ete, (1)

vak(= d<@" Control (daa) of (1) speech (vc)

AQa MaNa"d<@" and control of (2) the mind (manas)
k==aYad<@" TaQaa Wv c and also control of (3) the body (kya)
YaSYa buaE WTae iNaihTaa" in whose intelligence (buddhi) these [three] are fixed
Sa" i}ad<@q wiTa oCYaTae he is called tri-da (who controls three).

vacae veGa& MaNaSa" ==aeDaveGa& iJaaveGaMaudraePaSQaveGaMa( )

WTaaNveGaaNYaae ivzheTa Daqr" SavaRMaPaqMaa& Pa*iQavq& Sa iXaZYaaTa( ))
vco vega manasa krodha-vega jihv-vegam udaropastha-vegam
etn vegn yo viaheta dhra sarvm apm pthiv sa iyt
sandhi: (11) vca_vega, (3) udara-_upastha, (11) ya_viaheta, (1) api_im

vac" veGaMa( The urge (vega) of (1) speech (vc),

MaNaSa" ==aeDaveGaMa( (2) the minds urge of anger (krodha),
iJaaveGaMa( and (3) the [bodily] urge of the tongue (jihv)
odroPaSQaveGaMa( plus the urge of belly (udara) and genital (upastha)



Ya" WTaaNa( veGaaNa( ivzheTa one who can tolerate these urges (vega),
SavaRMa( AiPa wMaaMa( Pa*iQavqMa( all this world (pthiv)
Sa" Daqr" iXaZYaaTa( that sober person (dhra) can teach.

GaTaSvaQaRiMaMa& deh& ivr==ae Mau= bNDaNa" ) AivjaTaGaiTaJaRaTSa vE Daqr odaTa"== =))

gata-svrtham ima deha virakto mukta-bandhana, a-vijta-gatir jahyt sa vai dhra udhta
sandhi: (11) virakta_mukta, (12) gati_jahyt

ivr==" Mau= bNDaNa" Being detached (virakta) and free from bondage (bandhana)
AivjaTaGaiTa" and having gone to an unknown place
a-vijta-gati whose whereabout (gati) is unknown

GaTaSvaQaRMa( wMaMa( dehMa( JaaTa(

one who can give up this body (deha) when it has become useless,
gata-svrtha whose purpose (sva-artha) has gone

Sa" vE Daqr" odaTa"

he is known as sober (dhra).


Naai>aNaNdeTa Mar<a& Naai>aNaNdeTa JaqivTaMa( ) k==alMaev Pa[Taq+aeTa iNaveRXa& >a*Tak==ae YaQaa ))

nbhinandeta maraa nbhinandeta jvitam, klam eva pratketa nirvea bhtako yath
sandhi: (1) na_abhinandeta, na_abhinandeta, (11) bhtaka_yath

Mar<aMa( Na Ai>aNaNdeTa He should neither welcome death (maraa)

JaqivTaMa( Na Ai>aNaNdeTa nor should he welcome life (jvita).
k==alMa( Wv Pa[Taq+aeTa He should just await death (kla time)
YaQaa >a*Tak==" iNaveRXaMa( as a servant (bhtaka) [awaits] payment (nirvea).

i}ad<@VYaPadeXaeNa JaqviNTa bhvae Nara" ) Yaae ih b] Na JaaNaaiTa Na i}ad<@ahR Wv Sa"== =))

tri-daa-vyapadeena jvanti bahavo nar, yo hi brahma na jnti na tri-darha eva sa
sandhi: (11) bahava_nar, ya_hi, (1) daa-_arha

bhv" Nara" Many (bahu) people (nara)

i}ad<@VYaPadeXaeNa JaqviNTa live by the [false] designation (vyapadea) of sannysa (tri-daa).
Ya" ih b] Na JaaNaaiTa One who does not know the Supreme (brahma)
Sa" Na i}ad<@AhR" Wv he is certainly not worth (arha) of sannysa.

i}ad<@& k==Ma<@lu& ... wTYaeTaTSav| >aU" SvaheTYaPSau PairTYaJYaaTMaaNaMaiNvC^eTa(= = )

tri-daa kamaalu ... ity etat sarva bh svhety apsu parityajytmnam anvicchet
sandhi: (5,8) iti_etad_sarvam, (2,5)svh_iti_apsu, (1) parityajya_tmnam

i}ad<@Ma( k==Ma<@luMa( Triple staff (tri-daa), water-pot (kamaalu), etc. ...

wiTa WTad( SavRMa( all this
>aU" Svaha wiTa saying bh svh
APSau PairTYaJYa [after] abandoning it into water (ap)
AaTMaaNaMa( AiNvC^eTa( [in this stage (4)] one should seek out the soul / Lord (tm).

Ya" Pa[v]JYa Ga*haTPaUv| i}avGaaRvPaNaaTPauNa" ) Yaid SaeveTa TaaiN>a+au" Sa vE vaNTaaXYaPa}aPa"== =))

ya pravrajya ght prva tri-vargvapant puna, yadi seveta tn bhiku sa vai vnty apatrapa
sandhi: (1) varga-_vapant, (1,5) vnta-__apatrapa


i}avGaRAavPaNaaTa( Ga*haTa(

From home (gha), the field of tri-varga (dharma-artha-kma)

vapana sowing the seed

Ya" PaUvRMa( Pa[v]JYa one who, [after] at first departing [to take sannysa]
Yaid PauNa" TaaNa( SaeveTa if he again engages in those [material activities of tri-varga],
Sa" vE i>a+au" that sannys (bhiku)
APa}aPa" vaNTaAaXaq is indeed a shameless (apatrapa) eater of vomit (vnta-in).

Ga*hSQaSYa i==YaaTYaaGaae v]TaTYaaGaae v$=aeriPa ) TaPaiSvNaae Ga]aMaSaeva i>a+aaeiriNd]YalaelTaa== =))

ghasthasya kriy-tygo vrata-tygo vaor api, tapasvino grma-sev bhikor indriya-lolat
sandhi: (11,12) tyga_vrata-tyga_vao_api, (11) tapasvina_grma, (12)

Aa[MaaPaSada eTae %Lva[Maiv@MbNaa" ) devMaaYaaivMaU!a&STaaNauPae+aeTaaNauk= MPaYaa== =))

rampasad hy ete khalv rama-viamban, deva-my-vimhs tn upeketnukampay
sandhi: (1) rama-_apasad,(5) hi_ete, (6) khalu_rama, (1) upeketa_anukampay

v$=ae" AiPa v]TaTYaaGa"

The neglect (tyga) of observances (vrata, like study) by (of) a brahmacr

vau = bau brhmaa boy, brahmacr

Ga*hSQaSYa i==YaaTYaaGa" the neglect of his rituals (kriy) by a ghastha

TaPaiSvNa" Ga]aMaSaeva life in a village (grma) by a vnaprastha (tapasvin)
i>a+aae" wiNd]YalaelTaa and sense gratification by a sannys (bhiku)
indriya-lolat restlessness of the senses (indriya)

WTae ih Aa[MaAPaSada" :alu

these are certainly (khalu) degradations (apasada) of the rama (stage

of life)

Aa[Maiv@MbNaa" and derisions (viambana) of the rama.

TaaNa( devMaaYaaivMaU!aNa( Those who are [thus] bewildered (vimha) by the Lords (deva) illusory
energy (my)

ANauk= MPaYaa oPae+aeTa

one should neglect out of compassion (anukamp).


DaarYaeT}aqi<a k*= C^\ai<a caNd]aYa<aMaQaaiPa va ) JaaTak==MaaRidk&= Pa]ae&= PauNa" Sa&Sk==arMahRiTa== =))

dhrayet tri kcchri cndryaam athpi v, jta-karmdika prokta puna saskram arhati
sandhi: (1) atha_api, karma-_dika

}aqi<a k*= C^\ai<a DaarYaeTa( He should perform three [prjpatya] fasts (kcchra)
caNd]aYa<aMa( AQa AiPa va or one cndryaa [fast].
JaaTak==MaRAaidk==Ma( Beginning with the birth ceremony (jta-karma)
Pa]ae= Ma( Sa&Sk==arMa( the whole [process of] reformation (saskra) mentioned
PauNa" AhRiTa he has to do again.

TYa==Pa]v]JYaae rajae daSYa& ku= YaaRTa(= = )

tyakta-pravrajyo rjo dsya kuryt
sandhi: (11) -pravrajya_rja_dsyam

TYa==Pa]v]JYa" One who has given up (tyakta) sannysa (pravrajya)

raj" daSYaMa( ku= YaaRTa( shall do the kings service (dsya).



7. Sanskrit Alphabetical Word Order

In dictionaries and word lists all words are arranged in alphabetical order, e.g., in the order of the
Sanskrit alphabet, which you should now memorize: a--i--u- ...

Nasal & Echo


A a Aa
w i wR o u O
W e We ai Aae o AaE au


k== ka % kha
c ca ^ cha
$= a #= ha
Ta ta Qa tha
Pa pa f== pha
Ya ya r ra
Xa a z a

Ga ga
Ja ja
@ a
d da
b ba
l la
Sa sa

ga gha
! ha
Da dha
>a bha
v va
h ha

x== a
Ha a
<a a
Na na
Ma ma

E.g., the word karman appears in eleven different forms in the Bhagavad-gt. There is no difference in
the first four letters, but up from the fifth letter, the spelling differs. Note that the word with the short a
appears before the word with the long in a dictionary.


k a r m a
k a r m a

k a r m a

k a r m a

k a r m a

k a r m a bh

k a r m a

k a r m

k a r m

a m

k a r m

k a r m

In the following chapter, as you read the Bhagavad-gt, you can look for every word in 15. Word List


Hinduism Bhagavad-Gt

wiTa SaTYa& MaharaJa bae= _SMYaQaeRNa k==aErvE"= = )

iti satya mah-rja baddho smy arthena kauravai

MaharaJa wiTa SaTYaMa( O King [Yudhihira]! It is true

k==aErvE" AQaeRNa b" AiSMa I am bound by the Kauravas through wealth (artha).

Ah& vei Xauk= ae veita VYaaSaae veita Na veita va== =) ]qDar" Sak==l& veita ]qNa*iSa&hPa]SaadTa"== =))
aha vedmi uko vetti vyso vetti na vetti v, rdhara sakala vetti r-nsiha-prasdata

AhMa( vei I know [the purport of the Gt]

Xauk= " veita and ukadeva knows
VYaaSa" veita Na veita va and Vysadeva may know [it] or not,
]qNa*iSa&hPa]SaadTa" [but] by the mercy (prasda) of [the Lord as] r Nsiha
]qDar" Sak==lMa( veita rdhara Svm knows evrything.

NaMaae= _STau Tae VYaaSa ivXaalbue fu= arivNdaYaTaPa}aNae}a )

YaeNa TvYaa >aarTaTaElPaU<aR" Pa[JvailTaae jaNaMaYa" Pa[dqPa" ))
namo stu te vysa vila-buddhe phullravindyata-patra-netra
yena tvay bhrata-taila-pra prajvlito jnamaya pradpa

fu= ArivNdAaYaTaPa}aNae}a

Whose eyes (netra) resemble the extended (yata) petals (patra) of a

blooming (phulla) lotus (aravinda)

ivXaalbue VYaaSa O Vysadeva of great (vila) intelligence (buddhi)!

>aarTaTaElPaU<aR" jaNaMaYa" Pa[dqPa" The lamp (pradpa) of knowledge (jna), filled (pra) with the oil
(taila) of the Mahbhrata

YaeNa TvYaa Pa[JvailTa" by whom, namely You, it was lit

Tae (=Tau>YaMa(=) NaMa" ASTau let there be obeisance (namas) to You!

>aGavqTaa ik==idDaqTaa GaaJallvk==i<ak==a PaqTaa )

Sak*= diPa YaeNa MaurairSaMacaR ik]= YaTae TaSYa YaMaeNa Na ccaR ))
bhagavad-gt kicid adht gag-jala-lava-kaik pt
sakd api yena murri-samarc kriyate tasya yamena na carc

ik==id( ADaqTaa >aGavqTaa The Bhagavad-gt, when studied [even] a little bit (kicid)
PaqTaa GaaJallvk==i<ak==a a small (lava) drop (kaik) of Gag water (jala), when drunk (pta)
MaurairSaMacaR and the worship (samarc) of the Lord (Murri)
YaeNa Sak*= d( AiPa ik]= YaTae by whom this is done even once (sakt)
TaSYa YaMaeNa Na ccaR for him there is no inquiry (carc) by Yamarja.




PaaQaaRYa Pa[iTabaeiDaTaa& >aGavTaa NaaraYa<aeNa SvYa&

VYaaSaeNa Ga]iQaTaa& Paura<aMauiNaNaa MaDYaeMaha>aarTaMa( )
AETaaMa*TavizR<aq& >aGavTaqMaadXaaDYaaiYaNaqMa(
AMb TvaMaNauSaNdDaaiMa >aGavqTae >aveiz<aqMa( ))
prthya pratibodhit bhagavat nryaena svaya
vysena grathit pura-munin madhye-mahbhratam
advaitmta-vari bhagavatm adadhyyinm
amba tvm anusandadhmi bhagavad-gte bhava-dveim

SvYaMa( >aGavTaa NaaraYa<aeNa By Lord (bhagavn) Nryaa Himself (svayam)

PaaQaaRYa Pa[iTabaeiDaTaaMa( instructed to Arjuna (Prtha),
Paura<aMauiNaNaa VYaaSaeNa by Vysa, the ancient (pura) sage (muni)
MaDYaeMaha>aarTaMa( Ga]iQaTaaMa( interwoven within the Mahbhrata,
AETaAMa*TavizR<aqMa( a shower (var) of nectar (amta) of the Absolute
a-dvaita which is without a second, name of the Supreme Absolute

>aveiz<aqMa( an enemy (dve) to material existence (bhava)

AadXaADYaaiYaNaqMa( >aGavTaqMa( a Goddess (bhagavat) made up of eighteen chapters (adhyy)
AMb >aGavqTae O mother Bhagavad-gt!
TvaMa( ANauSaNdDaaiMa I meditate on You.

GaqTaaXaaiMad& Pau<Ya& Ya" Pa#e=TPa[YaTa" PauMaaNa( ) ivZ<aae" PadMavaPNaaeiTa >aYaXaaek= aidviJaRTa"== =))
gt-stram ida puya ya pahet prayata pumn, vio padam avpnoti bhaya-okdi-varjita

Pa[YaTa" PauMaaNa( A pious man (pus)

Ya" wdMa( Pau<YaMa( GaqTaaXaaMa( Pa#e=Ta(

who recites this (idam) teaching (stra) of the holy (puya)


>aYaXaaek= AaidviJaRTa" being freed (varjita) from fear (bhaya), lamentation (oka), etc. (di)
ivZ<aae" PadMa( AvaPNaaeiTa he attains the abode (pada) of the Lord (Viu).

GaqTaaDYaYaNaXaqlSYa Pa[a<aaYaaMaParSYa c ) NaEv SaiNTa ih PaaPaaiNa PaUvRJaNMak*= TaaiNa c== =))

gtdhyayana-lasya pryma-parasya ca, naiva santi hi ppni prva-janma-ktni ca

GaqTaaADYaYaNaXaqlSYa For one devoted (la) to the study (adhyayana) of the Gt

Pa[a<aaYaaMaParSYa c and for one dedicated to pryma
... which seems to refer to the recitation of Gyatr in the mode called pryma (?)

PaUvRJaNMak*= TaaiNa c PaaPaaiNa all sins (ppa), even done in previous (prva) births (janman)
Na Wv ih SaiNTa they are certainly no more.

MaliNaMaaeRcNa& Pau&Saa& JalaNa& idNae idNae ) Sak*= qTaaM>aiSa aNa& Sa&SaarMalNaaXaNaMa(= = ))

mala-nirmocana pus jala-snna dine dine, sakd gtmbhasi snna sasra-mala-nanam

idNae idNae JalaNaMa( Day by day (dina) a bath (snna) in water (jala)
Pau&SaaMa( MaliNaMaaeRcNaMa( cleanses the impurities (mala) of men (pus),


Sak*= Ta( GaqTaaAM>aiSa aNaMa( [but] even once a bath in the water (ambhas) of the Gt
Sa&SaarMalNaaXaNaMa( destroys [all] impurity of material existence (sasra).

SavaeRPaiNaZadae Gaavae daeGDaa GaaePaalNaNdNa" ) PaaQaaeR vTSa" SauDaq>aaeR= a duGDa& GaqTaaMa*Ta& MahTa(= = ))
sarvopaniado gvo dogdh gopla-nandana, prtho vatsa sudhr bhokt dugdha gtmta mahat

SavRoPaiNaZad" Gaav" All the Upaniads are [like] cows (go)

GaaePaalNaNdNa" daeGDaa Ka, the son (nandana) of a cowherd man (gopla), is the milkman (dogdh)
MahTa( GaqTaaAMa*TaMa( duGDaMa( the great (mahat) nectar (amta) of the Gt is the milk (dugdha)
PaaQaR" vTSa" Arjuna (Prtha) is the calf (vatsa)
SauDaq" >aae= a and [any] wise man (sudh) is the enjoyer (bhokt).
... of that milk

GaqTaa SauGaqTaa k==TaRVYaa ik==MaNYaE" XaaivSTarE" ) Yaa SvYa& PaNaa>aSYa Mau%PaaiiNa"Sa*Taa== =))
gt sugt kartavy kim anyai stra-vistarai, y svaya padma-nbhasya mukha-padmd vinist

SavRXaaS}aMaYaq GaqTaa SavRdevMaYaae hir" ) SavRTaqQaRMaYaq Gaa SavRvedMaYaae MaNau"= = ))

sarva-stramay gt sarva-devamayo hari, sarva-trthamay gag sarva-vedamayo manu

GaqTaa Gaa c GaaYa}aq GaaeivNdeiTa id iSQaTae ) cTauGaRk= arSa&Yaue= PauNaJaRNMa Na ivTae= = ))

gt gag ca gyatr govindeti hdi sthite, catur-ga-kra-sayukte punar-janma na vidyate

SvYaMa( PaNaa>aSYa Mau%PaaTa(

From the lotus (padma) mouth (mukha) of the Lord (Padmanbha)

padma-nbha whose navel (nbha) is beautiful like a lotus, name of the Lord

Yaa iviNa"Sa*Taa which has emanated

GaqTaa SauGaqTaa k==TaRVYaa [that] Gt has to be carefully recited (su.gta).
ik==Ma( ANYaE" XaaivSTarE" What is the need of the vastness (vistara) of other scriptures (stra)?
SavRXaaS}aMaYaq GaqTaa The Gt contains [the essence of] all scriptures (stra)
SavRdevMaYa" hir" the Lord (Hari) contains all the gods (deva)
SavRTaqQaRMaYaq Gaa the Gag contains all holy places (trtha)
SavRvedMaYa" MaNau" and Manu-sahit contains all the Vedas.
GaqTaa Gaa GaaYa}aq GaaeivNd c [The words] Gt, Gag, Gyatr and Govinda
wiTa cTau"Gak==arSa&Yaue= id iSQaTae when these four [words beginning] with ga, are placed in the
heart (hd)

PauNa"JaNMa Na ivTae

there is no rebirth.

p NaMaae >aGavTae vaSaudevaYa== =)

o namo bhagavate vsudevya

>aGavTae vaSaudevaYa To Lord (bhagavat) Ka (Vsudeva)

NaMa" my obeisance.



Hinduism Gt 1

AQaaJauRNaivzadYaaeGaae NaaMa Pa]QaMaae= _DYaaYa"== =)

athrjuna-vida-yogo nma prathamo dhyya

AJauRNaivzadYaaeGa" NaaMa Entitled (nma) The Yoga of Arjunas Despondence (vida)

AQa Pa]QaMa" ADYaaYa" now (atha) the first (prathama) chapter (adhyya).
553 BG 1.1

Da*Tara\ ovac
DaMaR+ae}ae ku= +ae}ae SaMaveTaa YauYauTSav" ) MaaMak==a" Paa<@vaEv ik==Maku= vRTa SaYa== =))
dharma-ketre kuru-ketre samavet yuyutsava, mmak pav caiva kim akurvata sajaya

Da*Tara\" ovac SaYa Dhtarra said: O Sajaya!

DaMaR+ae}ae ku= +ae}ae On the holy plane (ketra) of Kuruketra
YauYauTSav" SaMaveTaa" being assembled (samaveta), eager to fight
MaaMak==a" Paa<@va" c Wv my sons (mmaka mine) and the Pavas
... the sons of my brother Pu

ik==Ma( Aku= vRTa

what (kim) did they do?

... I hope they will not refrain from fighting under the influence of the holy place.
Sajaya, son of a Sta, was appointed minister of Dhtarra. In order to enable
Dhtarra to follow the events of the war, Vysadeva gave Sajaya the boon of divine
vision. While staying for some days on the battlefield and later with Dhtarra,
Sajaya was able to see everything that took place in the day and in the night, in open
and in secret. No weariness would affect him and no weapon could cut him.
BG 1.2

SaYa ovac
d*a Tau Paa<@vaNaqk&= VYaU!& duYaaeRDaNaSTada ) AacaYaRMauPaSaMYa raJaa vcNaMab]vqTa(= = ))
dv tu pavnka vyha duryodhanas tad, cryam upasagamya rj vacanam abravt

SaYa" ovac Sajaya said:

Paa<@vANaqk==Ma( VYaU!Ma( d*a [After] seeing the Pava army (anka) arrayed (vyha)
Tada Tau AacaYaRMa( oPaSaMYa and then (tad) [after] approaching Droa
... his teacher (crya) and general

raJaa duYaaeRDaNa" vcNaMa( Ab]vqTa(

King (rjan) Duryodhana spoke [the following] words.

BG 1.3

PaXYaETaa& Paa<@uPau}aa<aaMaacaYaR MahTaq& cMaUMa( ) VYaU!a& d]uPadPau}ae<a Tav iXaZYae<a DaqMaTaa== =))
payait pu-putrm crya mahat camm, vyh drupada-putrea tava iyea dhmat

AacaYaR O teacher [Droa]!

Tav DaqMaTaa iXaZYae<a d]uPadPau}ae<a

By your intelligent disciple (iya) Dhadyumna

drupada-putra the son of Drupada, Dhadyumna

VYaU!aMa( arrayed
Paa<@uPau}aa<aaMa( WTaaMa( MahTaqMa( cMaUMa(
PaXYa behold!

this great (mahat) army (cam) of the Pavas

BG 1.4-6

A}a XaUra MaheZvaSaa >aqMaaJauRNaSaMaa YauiDa ) YauYauDaaNaae ivra$= d]uPad MaharQa"== =))
atra r mahevs bhmrjuna-sam yudhi, yuyudhno vira ca drupada ca mah-ratha


Da*ke= Taueik==TaaNa" k==aiXaraJa vqYaRvaNa( ) PauiJaTku= iNTa>aaeJa XaEBYa NarPauv"== =))

dhaketu cekitna ki-rja ca vryavn, purujit kuntibhoja ca aibya ca nara-pugava

YauDaaMaNYau iv==aNTa otaMaaEJaa vqYaRvaNa( ) SaaE>ad]ae d]aEPadeYaa SavR Wv MaharQaa"== =))

yudhmanyu ca vikrnta uttamauj ca vryavn, saubhadro draupadey ca sarva eva mah-rath

A}a XaUra" MahawZvaSaa" Here (in their army) are heroic (ra) great bowmen
YauiDa >aqMaAJauRNaSaMaa" who are equal in battle (yudh) to Bhma and Arjuna
YauYauDaaNa" ivra$=" c [namely] Yuyudhna and Vira
MaharQa" d]uPad" c and the great chariot fighter (mah-ratha) Drupada
A mah-ratha is said to be able to fight 10,000 bowmen, an atiratha a large number [but
less than 10,000], a ratha one, and an ardha-ratha (half ratha) less than one, i.e., he is
not a good fighter.

Da*ke= Tau" ceik==TaaNa" Dhaketu and Cekitna

vqYaRvaNa( k==aiXaraJa" c and the powerful king of K
PauiJaTa( ku= iNTa>aaeJa" c Purujit and Kuntibhoja
NarPauv" XaEBYa" c and the hero aibya
iv==aNTa" YauDaaMaNYau" c and the mighty Yudhmanyu
vqYaRvaNa( otaMaaEJaa" c and the powerful Uttamauj
SaaE>ad]" d]aEPadeYaa" c the son of Subhadr (Abhimanyu) and the sons of Draupad.
SaveR Wv MaharQaa" All these are great chariot fighters.
Yuyudhna (Styaki) was a Ydava warrior of the Vi dynasty and a close friend of
Ka. In the war he killed six mahrathas of the Kaurava army. He also captured
Sajaya, but set him free on the advice of Vysa. He survived the war.
Vira was the king of the Matsya country, who sheltered the Pavas during their last
year in exile. His daughter Uttar became the wife of Arjunas son Abhimanyu, father of
Parkit. He was killed by Droa.
Dhaketu was the son of iupla, the king of Cedi. After the death of his father he
became a tributary king to the Pavas, and supplied one akauhi to the war. He was
killed by Droa.
Cekitna was killed by Duryodhana.
K (modern Vras/Benares) is reputed for its Vivantha (iva) temple. The actual
name of the king is not mentioned here.
Purujit was the son of King Kuntibhoja. He had a brother who also became known as
aibyas actual name was Govsa, and he was a father-in-law of Yudhihira. He and the
king of K had come with one akauhi to attend the marriage of Abhimanyu.
Yudhmanyu was a prince of the Pcla royal family, who took his position as the
bodyguard of Arjuna. He was killed by Avatthm.
Uttamauj belonged to the Pcla country. In the war he protected the right wheel of
Arjunas chariot. He was killed by Avatthm.
Draupad had five sons, namely Prativindhya, rutasena, rutakrti, atnka and
rutakarm one by each Pava. They were killed by Avatthm in the night after
the battle, when sleeping.
BG 1.7

ASMaak&= Tau iviXaa Yae TaaiabaeDa iJaaetaMa ) NaaYak==a MaMa SaENYaSYa Sa&jaQa| TaaNb]vqiMa Tae= = ))
asmka tu vii ye tn nibodha dvijottama, nyak mama sainyasya sajrtha tn bravmi te


O brhmaa [Droa]!
dvija-uttama best of the twice-born, brhmaa



ASMaak==Ma( Tau Yae iviXaa" But those who are our best men (viia)
MaMa SaENYaSYa NaaYak==a" the leaders (nyaka) of my army (sainya)
TaaNa( iNabaeDa you must know them!
Tae (=Tav=) Sa&jaAQaRMa( TaaNa( b]vqiMa I mention them for your information.
BG 1.8

>avaN>aqZMa k==<aR k*= Pa SaiMaiTaYa" ) ATQaaMaa ivk==<aR SaaEMaditaSTaQaEv c== =))

bhavn bhma ca kara ca kpa ca samitijaya, avatthm vikara ca saumadattis tathaiva ca

>avaNa( >aqZMa" c k==<aR" c Yourself (Droa), Bhma and Kara

SaiMaiTaaYa" k*= Pa" c and the victorious Kpa
ATQaaMaa ivk==<aR" c Avatthm and Vikara
SaaEMadita" TaQaa Wv c and also the son of Somadatta (Bhrirav).
Kpa and his sister Kp are children of the sage aradvn, which were found by King
ntanu and out of pity (kp) brought up in his palace. Kpa (Kpcrya) was taught
Dhanur-veda by his father aradvn, and later he taught many kings in archery. He
instructed Duryodhana in politics. He helped Avatthm in the night after the battle by
setting fire to the camp of the Pavas. After the war, Yudhihira appointed him as
the teacher of Parkit.
Avatthm, the son of Droa and Kp, was trained in archery by his father. In the war
he killed many kings and revenged the death of Droa. After the war he threw a
brahmstra at Uttars womb to kill the last grandchild of the Pavas. Ka protected
that child Parkit, and Arjuna diminished Avatthms power.
Vikara was one of the hundred sons of Dhtarra, but he did not listen to their bad
advice. Therefore he is called Vikara. He was the only Kaurava who protested, when
Draupad was about to be stripped naked in the open assembly.
Bhrirav, a son of Somadatta, was killed by Styaki.
BG 1.9

ANYae c bhv" XaUra MadQaeR TYa==JaqivTaa" ) NaaNaaXaPa[hr<aa" SaveR YauivXaarda"== =))

anye ca bahava r mad-arthe tyakta-jvit, nn-astra-prahara sarve yuddha-virad

ANYae c bhv" XaUra" And many other (bahu) heroes (ra)

Mad(AQaeR TYa==JaqivTaa" have staked (tyakta) their lives (jvita) for my sake.
SaveR NaaNaaXaPa[hr<aa" They are all wielding many weapons (astra)
YauivXaarda" and are experienced in battle (yuddha).
BG 1.10

APaYaaR& TadSMaak&= bl& >aqZMaai>ari+aTaMa( ) PaYaaR& iTvdMaeTaeza& bl& >aqMaai>ari+aTaMa(= = ))

a-parypta tad asmka bala bhmbhirakitam, parypta tv idam ete bala bhmbhirakitam

>aqZMaAi>ari+aTaMa( Well-protected by Bhma

Tad( ASMaak==Ma( blMa( APaYaaRMa( that our force (bala) is unlimited.
>aqMaAi>ari+aTaMa( Tau But, well-protected by Bhma
WTaezaMa( wdMa( blMa( PaYaaRMa( their force is limited (but sufficient).
* Tad( TaQaa>aUTaE" vqrE" Yau= Ma( AiPa Although endowed (yukta) with such heros (vra)
>aqZMae<a Ai>ari+aTaMa( AiPa and although protected by Bhma ASMaak==Ma( blMa(
(=SaENYaMa(=) APaYaaRMa( our army (bala) is insufficient; TaE" Sah YaaeuMa( ASaMaQaRMa(
>aaiTa to fight with them, it appears (bhti) not capable. wdMa( Tau WTaezaMa(


Paa<@vaNaaMa( blMa(

But the army (bala) of these Pavas

>aqMaeNa Ai>ari+aTaMa( SaTa(

PaYaaRMa( (=SaMaQaRMa( >aaiTa=) is sufficient, appears to be

>aqZMaSYa o>aYaPa+aPaaiTaTvaTa( Because of Bhmas siding with both

being protected by Bhma


(ubhaya) parties (paka).

Duryodhanas words are equivocal. His force consists of eleven akauhis (armies), the
Pavas of seven, and he seems to praise his superior numerical strength as aparyptam unlimited. But a-paryptam also means insufficient, incompetent. This
reading is also taken by Rmnuja and Vivantha.

=TaSMaaTa( >avi" WvMa( viTaRTaVYaMa(= Therefore this should be dealt with by You as

BG 1.11

AYaNaezu c SaveRzu YaQaa>aaGaMaviSQaTaa" ) >aqZMaMaevai>ar+aNTau >avNTa" SavR Wv ih== =))

ayaneu ca sarveu yath-bhgam avasthit, bhmam evbhirakantu bhavanta sarva eva hi

SaveRzu AYaNaezu c On all the roads (ayana) [of entrance into the army]
YaQaa>aaGaMa( AviSQaTaa" being arrayed at your respective position
>avNTa" SaveR Wv ih all of you
>aqZMaMa( Wv Ai>ar+aNTau Bhma alone you must protect on all sides!
* >aqZMableNa Wv ASMaak==Ma( JaqivTaMa( Our life depends on the strength of Bhma
alone. wiTa >aav" This is the idea.
BG 1.12

TaSYa SaNaYaNhz| ku= v*" iPaTaaMah" ) iSa&hNaad& ivNaaeE" Xa& dDMaaE Pa[TaaPavaNa(= = ))
tasya sajanayan hara kuru-vddha pitmaha, siha-nda vinadyoccai akha dadhmau

ku= v*" Pa[TaaPavaNa( iPaTaaMah"

The valiant Bhma, senior of the Kurus

... understanding that Droa was praising him

TaSYa hzRMa( SaNaYaNa( arousing his (Duryodhanas) joy (hara)

oE" iSa&hNaadMa( ivNa [after] roaring loudly like a lion (siha)
... (or:) which (the conch) was making a great sound like a lion

XaMa( dDMaaE

he blew his conchshell (akha).

BG 1.13

TaTa" Xaa >aeYaR Pa<avaNak==GaaeMau%a" ) SahSaEva>YahNYaNTa Sa XaBdSTauMaulae-= _>avTa(= = ))

tata akh ca bherya ca paavnaka-gomukh, sahasaivbhyahanyanta sa abdas tumulo bhavat

TaTa" Xaa" c >aeYaR" c Then conchshells and kettledrums

Pa<avAaNak==GaaeMau%a" tabors, drums and horns (go-mukha)
SahSaa Wv A>YahNYaNTa were suddenly sounded.
Sa" XaBd" TauMaul" A>avTa( That sound (abda) was tumultuous.
BG 1.14

TaTa" eTaEhRYaEYauRe= MahiTa SYaNdNae iSQaTaaE ) MaaDav" Paa<@vEv idVYaaE XaaE Pa[dDMaTau"= = ))
tata vetair hayair yukte mahati syandane sthitau, mdhava pava caiva divyau akhau

eTaE" hYaE" Yaue= Which was yoked (yukta) with white (veta) horses
MahiTa SYaNdNae iSQaTaaE seated in [such] an excellent chariot (syandana)



TaTa" MaaDav" Paa<@v" c Wv then Ka and Arjuna

idVYaaE XaaE Pa[dDMaTau" blew their divine (divya) conchshells.
BG 1.15

PaaJaNYa& zqke= Xaae devdta& DaNaYa" ) PaaE<@\& dDMaaE MahaXa& >aqMak==MaaR v*k= aedr"== =))
pcajanya hkeo devadatta dhanajaya, paura dadhmau mah-akha bhma-karm

zqk==wRXa" PaaJaNYaMa( The Lord [blew] the Pcajanya

DaNaYa" devdtaMa( Arjuna the Devadatta
>aqMak==MaaR v*k= odr" and Bhma (vka-udara) of awful (bhma) deeds (karman)
* v*k= vTa( odrMa( YaSYa Whose stomach is [voracious] like a wolf (vka) Sa" v*k= aedr"
he is called vkodara.

MahaXaMa( PaaE<@\Ma( dDMaaE

blew the great conch Paura.

When the Asura Pacajana, who lived inside a conch, carried away the son of Sndpani
Muni, the latter asked his disciples Ka and Balarma to get him back. With the help
of Varua they killed the demon and took the conch. Vius conch (akha) is named
Pcajanya, His disc (cakra) Sudarana, His club (gad) Kaumodak, His sword
(khaga) Nandaka, His jewel (mai) Kaustubha and His bow (dhanu) rga.
When Maya Dnava was rescued by Arjuna from the fire in the Khava forest, he was
obliged to build a palace in Indraprastha, and also presented that famous conch
BG 1.16

ANaNTaivJaYa& raJaa ku= NTaqPau}aae YauiDair" ) Naku= l" Sahdev SaugaaezMai<aPauZPak==aE= = ))

anantavijaya rj kunt-putro yudhihira, nakula sahadeva ca sughoa-maipupakau

ku= NTaqPau}a" raJaa YauiDair" King Yudhihira, the son of Kunt

ANaNTaivJaYaMa( [blew] the Anantavijaya
Naku= l" Sahdev" c and Nakula and Sahadeva
SaugaaezMai<aPauZPak==aE the Sughoa and Maipupaka.
BG 1.17-18

k==aXYa ParMaeZvaSa" iXa%<@q c MaharQa" ) Da*uMNaae ivra$= SaaTYaik==aParaiJaTa"== =))

kya ca paramevsa ikha ca mah-ratha, dhadyumno vira ca styaki cparjita

d]uPadae d]aEPadeYaa SavRXa" Pa*iQavqPaTae ) SaaE>ad] Mahabahu" XaaNdDMau" Pa*QaKPa*Qak(-= = = ))

drupado draupadey ca sarvaa pthiv-pate, saubhadra ca mah-bhu akhn dadhmu pthak pthak

ParMawZvaSa" k==aXYa" c And the mighty-bowed king of K

MaharQa" iXa%<@q c and the great warrior ikha
Da*uMNa" ivra$=" c Dhadyumna and Vira
AParaiJaTa" SaaTYaik==" c and the invincible Styaki
d]uPad" d]aEPadeYaa" c Drupada and the sons of Draupad
Mahabahu" SaaE>ad]" c and the mighty Abhimanyu
Pa*iQavqPaTae O King [Dhtarra]!
pthiv-pati lord of the earth, king

SavRXa" Pa*Qak(= Pa*Qak(= XaaNa( dDMau"

All blew their respective conchshells.


BG 1.19

Sa gaaezae DaaTaRra\a<aa& dYaaiNa VYadarYaTa( ) Na>a Pa*iQavq& cEv TauMaulae-= _>YaNauNaadYaNa(= = ))

sa ghoo dhrtarr hdayni vyadrayat, nabha ca pthiv caiva tumulo bhyanundayan

Sa" TauMaul" gaaez" That tumultous sound (ghoa)

Na>a" c Pa*iQavqMa( c Wv A>YaNauNaadYaNa( [while] making the sky and earth (pthiv) resound
* Pa[iTaiNai>a" AaPaUrYaNa( Filling [sky and earth] with echoes.
DaaTaRra\a<aaMa( dYaaiNa VYadarYaTa( it shattered the hearts (hdaya) of your sons.
dhrtarra son of Dhtarra
BG 1.20

AQa VYaviSQaTaaNd*a DaaTaRra\aNk==iPaJa" ) Pa[v*tae XaSaMPaaTae DaNauMYa Paa<@v"== =)

atha vyavasthitn dv dhrtarrn kapi-dhvaja, pravtte astra-sampte dhanur udyamya pava

zqke= Xa& Tada vaKYaiMadMaah MahqPaTae= = ))

hkea tad vkyam idam ha mah-pate

MahqPaTae= =

O King [Dhtarra]!
mah-pati lord of the earth, king

DaaTaRra\aNa( VYaviSQaTaaNa( d*a [After] seeing your sons arrayed

AQa XaSaMPaaTae Pa[v*tae now when the battle was starting
The word sati (being) is implied: astra-sampte pravtte [sati] the battle being
started, when the battle started. Therefore this construction is called sati-saptam.

k==iPaJa" Paa<@v" Arjuna, whose flag (dhvaja) bears the figure of the monkey [Hanumn]
DaNau" oMYa [after] raising the bow (dhanus)
Tada zqk==wRXaMa( wdMa( vaKYaMa( Aah then he spoke to the Lord the following words.
BG 1.21

AJauRNa ovac
SaeNaYaae>aYaaeMaRDYae rQa& SQaaPaYa Mae-=_CYauTa ) YaavdeTaaiarq+ae= _h& Yaaeuk= aMaaNaviSQaTaaNa(= = ))
senayor ubhayor madhye ratha sthpaya me cyuta, yvad etn nirke ha yoddhu-kmn avasthitn
The verse numbering is different in different editions.

AJauRNa" ovac ACYauTa== Arjuna said: O Lord (Acyuta)!

WTaaNa( AviSQaTaaNa( Yaaeuk==aMaaNa( Those arrayed who are eager to fight
YaavTa( AhMa( iNarq+ae so that I can I see [them],
o>aYaae" SaeNaYaae" MaDYae in the middle (madhya) of both armies (sena)
Mae (=MaMa=) rQaMa( SQaaPaYa place my chariot (ratha)!
BG 1.22

kE= MaRYaa Sah YaaeVYaMaiSMaNr<aSaMauMae= = ))

kair may saha yoddhavyam asmin raa-samudyame

AiSMaNa( r<aSaMauMae [I want to know:] In this battle

kE= " Sah MaYaa YaaeVYaMa( with whom I have to fight?
BG 1.23

YaaeTSYaMaaNaaNave+ae-= _h& Ya WTae-= _}a SaMaaGaTaa" ) DaaTaRra\SYa dubuReYauRe iPa[Yaick==IzRv"== =))

yotsyamnn aveke ha ya ete tra samgat, dhrtarrasya durbuddher yuddhe priya-cikrava

Yae WTae A}a SaMaaGaTaa" Those who are here assembled

dubuRe" DaaTaRra\SYa of the evil-minded Duryodhana (dhrtarra)



Yaue iPa[Yaick==IzRv" well-wishers in battle (yuddha)

YaaeTSYaMaaNaaNa( AhMa( Ave+ae those eager to fight I [want to] see.
BG 1.24-25

SaYa ovac
WvMau= ae zqke= Xaae Gau@ake= XaeNa >aarTa ) SaeNaYaae>aYaaeMaRDYae SQaaPaiYaTva rQaaetaMaMa(= = ))
evam ukto hkeo gukeena bhrata, senayor ubhayor madhye sthpayitv rathottamam

>aqZMad]ae<aPa[Mau%Ta" SaveRza& c Mahqi+aTaaMa( ) ovac PaaQaR PaXYaETaaNSaMaveTaaNku= iNaiTa== =))

bhma-droa-pramukhata sarve ca mah-kitm, uvca prtha payaitn samavetn kurn iti

SaYa" ovac >aarTa

Sajaya said: O Dhtarra!

bhrata descendant of Bharata

Gau@ak==awRXaeNa WvMa( o==" Thus being addressed by Arjuna

* Gau@ak==a (=iNad]a=) TaSYaa" wRXaeNa (=iJaTaiNad]e<a=) AJauRNaeNa

By Arjuna, the master of

sleep (guk, nidr), i.e., who had controlled sleep (ignorance).

zqk==wRXa" the Lord

o>aYaae" SaeNaYaae" MaDYae in the middle of both armies
rQaotaMaMa( SQaaPaiYaTva [after] placing the best of chariots (ratha)
>aqZMad]ae<aPa[Mau%Ta" in front of Bhma and Droa
SaveRzaMa( Mahqi+aTaaMa( c and [in front of] of all the kings
PaaQaR= = WTaaNa( SaMaveTaaNa( ku= Na( PaXYa O Arjuna, see these assembled Kurus!
wiTa ovac thus He (Ka) said.
BG 1.26

Ta}aaPaXYaiTSQaTaaNPaaQaR" iPaTaNaQa iPaTaaMahaNa( ) AacaYaaRNMaaTaulaN>a]aTaNPau}aaNPaaE}aaNSa%q&STaQaa== =)

tatrpayat sthitn prtha pitn atha pitmahn, cryn mtuln bhrtn putrn pautrn sakhs tath

XauraNSaudEv SaeNaYaae>aYaaeriPa== =))

vaurn suhda caiva senayor ubhayor api

iPaTaNa( AQa iPaTaaMahaNa( Fathers (pit) and grandfathers

* iPaTaNa( iPaTa*VYaAadqNa( Fathers (pit)

means uncles and similar [elderly male]


AacaYaaRNa( MaaTaulaNa( >a]aTaNa( teachers (crya), maternal uncles, brothers (bhrt)

Pau}aaNa( PaaE}aaNa( TaQaa Sa%qNa( sons (putra), grandsons (pautra) and companions
* duYaaeRDaNaAadqNaaMa( Yae Pau}aa" PaaE}aa" c TaaNa( The sons and grandsons of Duryodhana
and others.

XauraNa( Saud" c Wv fathers-in-law and also well-wishers (suhd)

Ta}a o>aYaae" AiPa SaeNaYaae" iSQaTaaNa( who were present there in both armies
PaaQaR" APaXYaTa( Arjuna saw.
Uncles of Arjuna are for example alya and akuni. Mdr, the second wife of Pu,
was alyas sister. Although alya blessed the Pavas to win the war, he had to
support Duryodhana with one akauhi. alya was killed by his nephew Yudhihira.
akuni was the brother of Gndhr, the wife of Dhtarra. By his evil tactics the
Pavas had to go to exile. akuni was killed by Sahadeva.


BG 1.27

TaaNSaMaq+Ya Sa k==aENTaeYa" SavaRNbNDaUNaviSQaTaaNa( ) k*= PaYaa ParYaaivae ivzqdiadMab]vqTa(= = ))

tn samkya sa kaunteya sarvn bandhn avasthitn, kpay parayvio vidann idam abravt

Sa" k==aENTaeYa" The son of Kunt

TaaNa( SavaRNa( bNDaUNa( AviSQaTaaNa( SaMaq+Ya [after] seeing all those relatives (bandhu) arrayed
ParYaa k*= PaYaa Aaiv" overcome with great compassion (kp)
ivzqdNa( wdMa( Ab]vqTa( [while] grieving he spoke thus.
BG 1.28

AJauRNa ovac
d*eMa& SvJaNa& k*= Z<a YauYauTSau& SaMauPaiSQaTaMa( ) SaqdiNTa MaMa Gaa}aai<a Mau%& c PairXauZYaiTa== =))
dvema sva-jana ka yuyutsu samupasthitam, sdanti mama gtri mukha ca pariuyati

AJauRNa" ovac k*= Z<a Arjuna said: O Ka!

YauYauTSauMa( SaMauPaiSQaTaMa( wMaMa( SvJaNaMa( These relatives, assembled so eager to fight
d*a [after] seeing
MaMa Gaa}aai<a SaqdiNTa my limbs (hands and feet) fail
Mau%Ma( c PairXauZYaiTa and [my] mouth (mukha) is drying up.
BG 1.29

vePaQau Xarqre Mae raeMahzR JaaYaTae ) Gaa<@qv& &SaTae hSTaatvK=cEv PairdTae= = ))

vepathu ca arre me roma-hara ca jyate, gva srasate hastt tvak caiva paridahyate

Mae (=MaMa=) Xarqre In my body (arra)

vePaQau" c raeMahzR" c JaaYaTae occur trembling and horripilation
Gaa<@qvMa( hSTaaTa( &SaTae the Gva [bow] slips from [my] hand
Tvk(= c Wv PairdTae and [my] skin is burning.
BG 1.30

Na c XaKNaaeMYavSQaaTau& >a]MaTaqv c Mae MaNa" ) iNaiMataaiNa c PaXYaaiMa ivParqTaaiNa ke= Xav== =))
na ca aknomy avasthtu bhramatva ca me mana, nimittni ca paymi vipartni keava

ke= Xav O Lord (Keava)!

AvSQaaTauMa( c Na Xa==aeiMa I am not able to stand [any longer]
Mae (=MaMa=) MaNa" c >a]MaiTa wv my mind (manas) is as if reeling
ivParqTaaiNa iNaiMataaiNa c PaXYaaiMa and I see inauspicious omens (nimitta).
BG 1.31

Na c [eYaae-= _NauPaXYaaiMa hTva SvJaNaMaahve ) Na k==ae ivJaYa& k*= Z<a Na c raJYa& Sau%aiNa c== =))
na ca reyo nupaymi hatv sva-janam have, na kke vijaya ka na ca rjya sukhni ca

Aahve SvJaNaMa( hTva [After] killing relatives (sva-jana) in battle

[eYa" c Na ANauPaXYaaiMa I do not foresee any good (reya) [result].
* =ivJaYaAaidk==Ma( f==lMa( ik==Ma( Na PaXYaiSa== `

[One might ask:] You do not see

results like victory (vijaya) etc.?

k*= Z<a [because] O Ka!

ivJaYaMa( Na k==ae I do not desire victory (vijaya)
Na raJYaMa( c Sau%aiNa c nor a kingdom (rjya) and pleasures (sukha).



BG 1.32-33

ik&= Naae raJYaeNa GaaeivNd ik&= >aaeGaEJasivTaeNa va== =) YaezaMaQaeR k==aiTa& Naae raJYa& >aaeGaa" Sau%aiNa c== =))
ki no rjyena govinda ki bhogair jvitena v, yem arthe kkita no rjya bhog sukhni ca

Ta wMae= _viSQaTaa Yaue Pa[a<aa&STYaa DaNaaiNa c ) AacaYaaR" iPaTar" Pau}aaSTaQaEv c iPaTaaMaha"== =)

ta ime vasthit yuddhe prs tyaktv dhanni ca, cry pitara putrs tathaiva ca pitmah

MaaTaula" Xaura" PaaE}aa" XYaala" SaMbiNDaNaSTaQaa== = ))

mtul vaur pautr yl sambandhinas tath

GaaeivNd O Lord (Govinda)!

Na" (=ASMa>YaMa(=) raJYaeNa ik==Ma( Of what use is a kingdom (rjya) to us?
>aaeGaE" JaqivTaeNa va ik==Ma( Of what use are luxuries (bhoga) or [even] life?
YaezaMa( AQaeR [Because,] they for whom
Na" (=ASMaak==Ma(=) raJYaMa( >aaeGaa" Sau%aiNa c our kingdom, luxuries and pleasures
k==aiTaMa( are desired
Tae wMae these very persons
DaNaaiNa Pa[a<aaNa( c TYaa [after] staking (giving up) [their] riches (dhana) and lives (pra)
Yaue AviSQaTaa" are arrayed on the battlefield
AacaYaaR" iPaTar" Pau}aa" [namely] teachers, fathers, sons
iPaTaaMaha" TaQaa Wv c and also grandfathers
MaaTaula" Xaura" PaaE}aa" maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons
XYaala" TaQaa SaMbiNDaNa" brothers-in-law and [other] relatives.
* NaNau Ka may argue: Yaid k*= PaYaa TvMa( WTaaNa( Na h&iSa But if, out of pity, you do
not kill them TaihR TvaMa( WTae raJYalae>aeNa hiNaZYaiNTa Wv then they will surely kill
you out of greed for the kingdom:
BG 1.34

WTaaa hNTauiMaC^aiMa gNaTaae-= _iPa MaDauSaUdNa ) AiPa }aElaeKYaraJYaSYa heTaae" ik&= Nau Mahqk*= Tae= = ))
etn na hantum icchmi ghnato pi madhusdana, api trailokya-rjyasya heto ki nu mah-kte

MaDauSaUdNa O Lord (Madhusdana)!

gNaTa" AiPa Even when killing [me]
WTaaNa( hNTauMa( Na wC^aiMa I do not want to kill them
}aElaeKYaraJYaSYa heTaae" AiPa even for the sovereignty (rjya) of the three worlds
ik==Ma( Nau Mahqk*= Tae what [to speak] of this earth.
* NaNau c Ka may argue: (verse without sandhi) AiGNad" (1) One who sets fire
Gard" c Wv (2) gives poison XaPaai<a" (3) has a weapon in hand [ready to
attack] DaNaAPah" (4) steals wealth +ae}adarhr" c Wv (5) steals land (ketra), or
(6) abducts [anothers] wife (dr) z@( WTae AaTaTaaiYaNa" these six are aggressors.
wiTa SMar<aaTa( This is from Smti (Vasiha-smti 3.19) AiGNadahAaidi>a" zi"
AiPa heTaui>a" And by all these six reasons (hetu) beginning with arson WTae TaavTa(
AaTaTaaiYaNa" they are aggressors. (They have done all this.) AaTaTaaiYaNaaMa( c vDa"
Yau= " Wv And for aggressors killing is justifiable [according to Artha-stra]:


BG 1.35

iNahTYa DaaTaRra\aa" k==a Pa[qiTa" SYaaNaadRNa ) PaaPaMaeva[YaedSMaaNhTvETaaNaaTaTaaiYaNa"== =))

nihatya dhrtarrn na k prti syj janrdana, ppam evrayed asmn hatvaitn tatyina

JaNaadRNa O Lord (Janrdana)!

DaaTaRra\aNa( iNahTYa [After] killing the sons of Dhtarra
Na" (=ASMaak==Ma(=) k==a Pa[qiTa" SYaaTa( what will be our pleasure (prti)?
WTaaNa( AaTaTaaiYaNa" hTva [After] killing these aggressors
ASMaaNa( PaaPaMa( Wv Aa[YaeTa( sin (ppa) will certainly overcome us.
According to artha-stra there is no fault in killing an aggressor. But dharma-stra
(which is considered higher than artha-stra) holds that one should not even quarrel
with (what to speak of killing) one who performs yaja, the family priest, teacher,
uncle, any elder or relative, a guest, dependent, or children. And ruti (the highest)
completely forbids any violence on spiritual grounds a-his paramo dharma (nonviolence is the highest command).
BG 1.36

TaSMaaaahaR vYa& hNTau& DaaTaRra\aNSabaNDavaNa(= = ) SvJaNa& ih k==Qa& hTva Saui%Na" SYaaMa MaaDav== =))
tasmn nrh vaya hantu dhrtarrn sa-bndhavn, sva-jana hi katha hatv sukhina syma

TaSMaaTa( Therefore
SabaNDavaNa( DaaTaRra\aNa( the sons of Dhtarra and our relatives
vYaMa( hNTauMa( Na AhaR" we should not kill.
MaaDav O Lord (Mdhava)!
SvJaNaMa( ih hTva [After] killing relatives
k==QaMa( Saui%Na" SYaaMa how can we be happy?
* NaNau Ka may argue: Tav WTaezaMa( AiPa To both you and them also bNDauvDa
daeze SaMaaNae SaiTa the fault of killing kinsmen being common, YaQaa Wv WTae just as
they bNDauvDadaezMa( AIk*= TYa accepting that fault of killing kinsmen Yaue Pa[vTaRNTae
engage in battle, TaQaa Wv >avaNa( AiPa Pa[vTaRTaaMa( so you should also engage:
BG 1.37-38

YaPYaeTae Na PaXYaiNTa lae>aaePahTaceTaSa" ) ku= l+aYak*= Ta& daez& iMa}ad]aehe c PaaTak==Ma(= = ))

yady apy ete na payanti lobhopahata-cetasa, kula-kaya-kta doa mitra-drohe ca ptakam

k==Qa& Na jeYaMaSMaai>a" PaaPaadSMaaiaviTaRTauMa( ) ku= l+aYak*= Ta& daez& Pa[PaXYaiJaRNaadRNa== =))

katha na jeyam asmbhi ppd asmn nivartitum, kula-kaya-kta doa prapayadbhir janrdana

YaiPa WTae Although they

lae>aoPahTaceTaSa" their discrimination destroyed by greed (lobha)
ku= l+aYak*= TaMa( daezMa( the evil (doa) in family (kula) destruction (kaya)
iMa}ad]aehe PaaTak==Ma( c and the sin (ptaka) in hostility to friends (mitra)
Na PaXYaiNTa do not see
JaNaadRNa [nevertheless] O Lord (Janrdana)!
ku= l+aYak*= TaMa( daezMa( Pa[PaXYai" by those who understand the evil resulting from family destruction
ASMaai>a" by us



ASMaaTa( PaaPaaTa( iNaviTaRTauMa( to refrain from this sin (ppa)

k==QaMa( Na jeYaMa( why is it not understood?
* TaMa( Wv daezMa( dXaRYaiTa That very evil he shows:
BG 1.39

ku= l+aYae Pa[<aXYaiNTa ku= lDaMaaR" SaNaaTaNaa" ) DaMaeR Nae ku= l& k*= TMaDaMaaeR= _i>a>avTYauTa== =))
kula-kaye praayanti kula-dharm santan, dharme nae kula ktsnam a-dharmo bhibhavaty uta

ku= l+aYae When there is destruction (kaya) of the family (kula)

SaNaaTaNaa" ku= lDaMaaR" Pa[<aXYaiNTa ancient family traditions (dharma) perish
DaMaeR Nae and when the tradition is lost
ADaMaR" k*= TMa( oTa ku= lMa( Ai>a>aviTa sin (a-dharma) overcomes the whole family.
BG 1.40

ADaMaaRi>a>avaTk*= Z<a Pa[duZYaiNTa ku= liYa" ) qzu duaSau vaZ<aeRYa JaaYaTae v<aRSar"== =))
a-dharmbhibhavt ka praduyanti kula-striya, stru dusu vreya jyate vara-sakara

k*= Z<a O Ka!

ADaMaRAi>a>avaTa( From the rise of sin (a-dharma)
ku= liYa" Pa[duZYaiNTa the women (str) of [high] family become polluted.
vaZ<aeRYa O Ka (Vreya)!
qzu duaSau When the women are polluted
v<aRSar" JaaYaTae there is confusion of the social order (vara).
BG 1.41

Sarae Nark==aYaEv ku= lgNaaNaa& ku= lSYa c ) PaTaiNTa iPaTarae eza& luiPa<@aedk==i==Yaa"== =))
sakaro narakyaiva kula-ghnn kulasya ca, patanti pitaro hy e lupta-piodaka-kriy

ku= lgNaaNaaMa( ku= lSYa c For the family destroyers and the [remaining] family
Sar" Nark==aYa Wv confusion [of vara] makes for hell.
luiPa<@odk==i==Yaa" The offerings of pia and udaka having stopped
WzaMa( iPaTar" PaTaiNTa ih even their ancestors fall down.
Pia and udaka are offered in the tarpaa ceremony, providing a dead relative the
opportunity to stay in pit-loka (a planet of pious forefathers).
BG 1.42

daezEreTaE" ku= lgNaaNaa& v<aRSark==arkE= " ) oTSaaNTae JaaiTaDaMaaR" ku= lDaMaaR XaaTaa"== =))
doair etai kula-ghnn vara-sakara-krakai, utsdyante jti-dharm kula-dharm ca vat

ku= lgNaaNaaMa( Of the destroyers of the family

WTaE" v<aRSark==arkE= " daezE" by these evils (doa) that lead to confusion of vara
XaaTaa" JaaiTaDaMaaR" ku= lDaMaaR" c the ancient traditions of caste (jti), family, etc.
oTSaaNTae are destroyed.
BG 1.43

oTSaaku= lDaMaaR<aa& MaNauZYaa<aa& JaNaadRNa ) Narke= iNaYaTa& vaSaae >avTaqTYaNauXau[uMa== =))

utsanna-kula-dharm manuy janrdana, narake niyata vso bhavatty anuuruma

JaNaadRNa O Lord (Janrdana)!

oTSaaku= lDaMaaR<aaMa( MaNauZYaa<aaMa( For men whose tradition of family [etc.] is destroyed
vaSa" Narke= iNaYaTaMa( >aviTa the residence (vsa) is always in hell (naraka)

wiTa ANauXau[uMa


thus we have learned.

Pa[aYaitaMa( Aku= vaR<aa" Not performing expiation PaaPaezu

iNarTaa" Nara" persons addicted to sin APaaTa(TaaiPaNa" who do not feel repentence
k==aNa( iNarYaaNa( YaaiNTa da<aaNa( go to terrible hells full of miseries. (Yjavalkya* (verse without sandhi:)

BG 1.44

Ahae bTa MahTPaaPa& k==Tau| VYaviSaTaa vYaMa( ) Yad[aJYaSau%lae>aeNa hNTau& SvJaNaMauTaa"== =))
aho bata mahat ppa kartu vyavasit vayam, yad rjya-sukha-lobhena hantu sva-janam udyat

Ahae bTa Alas!

MahTa( PaaPaMa( k==TauRMa( To commit great sin (ppa)
vYaMa( VYaviSaTaa" we are determined
Yad( raJYaSau%lae>aeNa that (because) out of greed (lobha) for royal happiness (sukha)
SvJaNaMa( hNTauMa( oTaa" we are prepared to kill kinsmen.
BG 1.45

Yaid MaaMaPa[Taqk==arMaXa& XaPaa<aYa" ) DaaTaRra\a r<ae hNYauSTaNMae +aeMaTar& >aveTa(= = ))

yadi mm a-pratkram a-astra astra-paya, dhrtarr rae hanyus tan me kematara bhavet

Yaid XaPaa<aYa" DaaTaRra\a" If the sons of Dhtarra, weapons in hand

APa[Taqk==arMa( AXaMa( MaaMa( me, unresisting and unarmed
r<ae hNYau" would kill in battle (raa)
Tad( Mae (=MaMa=) +aeMaTarMa( >aveTa( that would be better for me.
* PaaPaAiNaZPatae" Because [then] sin is not effected.
BG 1.46

SaYa ovac
WvMauaJauRNa" Saye rQaaePaSQa oPaaivXaTa( ) ivSa*JYa SaXar& caPa& Xaaek= Sa&ivGNaMaaNaSa"== =))
evam uktvrjuna sakhye rathopastha upviat, visjya sa-ara cpa oka-savigna-mnasa

SaYa" ovac Sajaya said:

Xaaek= Sa&ivGNaMaaNaSa" AJauRNa" The aggrieved Arjuna
Saye WvMa( oa [after] speaking thus on the battlefield
SaXarMa( caPaMa( ivSa*JYa [and after] casting aside bow (cpa) with arrows
rQaoPaSQae oPaaivXaTa( he sat down on the chariot (ratha).
* rQaoPaSQae rQaSYa oPair Ratha-upasthe means on the chariot.



p TaTSaidiTa
o tat sad iti

[qMaha>aarTae XaTaSaahya& Sa&ihTaaYaa& vEYaaiSaKYaa& >aqZMaPavRi<a

r-mahbhrate ata-shasry sahity vaiysiky bhma-parvai

[qMaGavqTaaSaUPaiNazTSau b[ivaYaa& YaaeGaXaaS}ae

rmad-bhagavad-gtspaniatsu brahma-vidyy yoga-stre

[qk*= Z<aaJauRNaSa&vade= _JauRNaivzadYaaeGaae NaaMa Pa[QaMaae= _DYaaYa"== =)

r-krjuna-savde rjuna-vida-yogo nma prathamo dhyya

AaeMa( Tad( SaTa( wiTa Thus [ends]

XaTaSaahyaMa( [qMaha>aarTae in the Mahbhrata of hundred thousand verses
vEYaaiSaKYaaMa( Sa&ihTaaYaaMa( in the epic of Vysadeva
>aqZMaPavRi<a in the Bhma-parva
[qMad(>aGavqTaaSau oPaiNazTSau in the rmad-Bhagavad-gt Upaniad
The Bhagavad-gt is not only counted as Upaniad (Gtopaniad), but as a very
important one, because it is referred to in plural (upaniatsu).

b[ivaYaaMa( YaaeGaXaaS}ae in the spiritual science and Yoga-stra

[qk*= Z<aAJauRNaSa&vade in the dialogue between r Ka and Arjuna
AJauRNaivzadYaaeGa" NaaMa named The Yoga of Arjunas Despondence
In Baladevas k (commentary) the chapter is entitled
observing the armies.

Pa[QaMa" ADYaaYa"

the first chapter.

SaENYadXaRNaYaaeGa" the yoga of


8. Sanskrit Dhtus
All Sanskrit words are originally derived from dhtus (essential elements, word roots). Pini gives a list
of about 2,300 dhtus, of which we have selected about 1,000 in 13. Dhtu List. Just read through this
short list to get an idea.

>auiv bhuvi to be, exist >>> sa asti he is, exists; sat existent, good; satya truth; sattva

as[a] 2P...

existence, goodness
The dhtu (word root) is as. Attached to it are certain footnotes, in this case [a] 2P, which are removed
in the process of forming words. Then the meaning is given as

>auiv bhuvi, which means that as[a]

is used for forming words with a sense of being, existing. Examples are verbs like asti (sa asti
he is) and words like sat, satya and sattva.
[u]k[] 8U...

k==r<ae karae to do >>> sa karoti he does, ... ; karma, kriy, krya work; karaa

instrument; kraa cause

GaTaaE gatau to go (with .: to come) >>> sa gacchati he goes; gati movement, goal
jan[]...Pa[adu>aaRve prdurbhve to be born >>> sa jyate; jana creature, man; janma birth; jti birth,



Pa[a<aDaar<ae pra-dhrae to live >>> sa jvati; jva living entity; jvana life, water
j 9U...AvbaeDaNae avabodhane to know >>> sa jnti; jna knowledge
tyaj[a]...haNaaE hnau to abandon >>> sa tyajati; tyga renunciation; tygin renunciate
div[u] 4P...k]= I@aivJaqiGazaVYavharuiTa... kr-vijgi-vyavahra-dyuti-... to play; desire to win;

deal; shine >>> sa dvyati; divya divine, heavenly; deva one who shines or enjoys, demigod

Pa[e+a<ae prekae to see >>> sa payati; di, darana vision

bhaj[a] 1U...SaevaYaaMa( sevym to serve, worship >>> sa bhajati; bhakta devotee; bhakti devotion;

bhajana worshiping

SataaYaaMa( sattym to be, exist, become >>> sa bhavati; bhva existence, mood; prabhva

bh 1P...


Pair>aaz<ae paribhae to speak >>> sa vakti; vc (vk) speech; vaktra mouth; pravacana


jaNae jne to know >>> sa vetti; Veda knowledge

ru...[v<ae ravae to hear, obey >>> sa oti; ruti, ravaa hearing; rotra ear
sth...SQaaNae sthne to stand (with ud.: to stand up) >>> sa tihati, ...; sthna place, land
sm...icNTaaYaaMa( cintym to think, remember >>> sa smarati; smti memory;

vid[a] 2P...





Hinduism Gt 2
Skhya-yoga The Yoga of Discrimination (skhya)
BG 2.1

SaYa ovac
Ta& TaQaa k*= PaYaaivMa[uPaU<aaRku= le+a<aMa( ) ivzqdNTaiMad& vaKYaMauvac MaDauSaUdNa"== =))
ta tath kpayviam aru-prkulekaam, vidantam ida vkyam uvca madhusdana

SaYa" ovac Sajaya said:

TaQaa k*= PaYaa AaivMa( TaMa( To him (Arjuna), who was thus filled with compassion (kp)
A[uPaU<aRAaku= lwR+a<aMa( ivzqdNTaMa( his perturbed eyes full of tears (aru), grieving
MaDauSaUdNa" wdMa( vaKYaMa( ovac the Lord spoke these words.
BG 2.2

ku= TaSTva k==XMaliMad& ivzMae SaMauPaiSQaTaMa( ) ANaaYaRJauMaSvGYaRMak==IiTaRk= rMaJauRNa== =))
kutas tv kamalam ida viame samupasthitam, an-rya-juam a-svargyam a-krti-karam arjuna

[q>aGavaNa( ovac AJauRNa The Lord said: O Arjuna!

ANa(AaYaRJauMa( Unbefitting for nobility (rya)
ASvGYaRMa( Ak==IiTaRk==rMa( degrading (not leading to heaven) and inglorious (giving infamy)
wdMa( k==XMalMa( this weakness (illusion)
ku= Ta" Tva (=TvaMa(=) ivzMae SaMauPaiSQaTaMa( how has it come upon you in danger (viama)?
BG 2.3

E= BYa& Maa SMa GaMa" PaaQaR NaETatvYYauPaPaTae ) +aud]& dYadaEbRLYa& TYaaeita ParNTaPa== =))
klaibya m sma gama prtha naitat tvayy upapadyate, kudra hdaya-daurbalya tyaktvottiha


O Arjuna!
prtha son of Pth (Kunt)

E= BYaMa( Maa SMa GaMa"

Do not yield to weakness (klaibya)!

Do not become a coward!

WTad( TviYa Na oPaPaTae [because] it does not befit you.

ParNTaPa O hero [Arjuna]!
parantapa destroyer of enemies, hero

+aud]Ma( dYadaEbRLYaMa( TYaa [After] abandoning this petty (kudra) faint-heartedness

oita arise [and fight]!
* YauaYa oita Rise for the fight!
* =Na AhMa( k==aTaYaeR<a YauaTa( oParTa" AiSMa I am withdrawn from battle not out of
cowerdice ik==NTau YauSYa ANYaaYYaTvaTa(= but because of the fights unrighteousness
wiTa Aah thus [Arjuna] says [now]:
BG 2.4

AJauRNa ovac
k==Qa& >aqZMaMah& Saye d]ae<a& c MaDauSaUdNa ) wzui>a" Pa[iTaYaaeTSYaaiMa PaUJaahaRvirSaUdNa== =))


katha bhmam aha sakhye droa ca madhusdana, iubhi pratiyotsymi pjrhv ari-sdana

AJauRNa" ovac MaDauSaUdNa AirSaUdNa== Arjuna said: O Lord!

k==QaMa( AhMa( How shall I
PaUJaaAha >aqZMaMa( d]ae<aMa( c the worshipable Bhma and Droa
Saye wzui>a" Pa[iTaYaaeTSYaaiMa attack with arrows in battle?
* Ya}a vaca AiPa =YaaeTSYaaiMa= wiTa vu= Ma( ANauicTaMa( When it is improper (anucitam) to say even in words that I shall fight [them] Ta}a ba<aE" k==QaMa( YaaeTSYaaiMa
then how can I [actually] fight them with arrows?
BG 2.5

GauNahTva ih MahaNau>aavaNa( [eYaae >aaeu&= >aE+YaMaPaqh laeke= )

hTvaQaRk= aMaa&STau GauiNahEv >auqYa >aaeGaaNiDarPa[idGDaaNa( ))
gurn a-hatv hi mahnubhvn reyo bhoktu bhaikyam apha loke
hatvrtha-kms tu gurn ihaiva bhujya bhogn rudhira-pradigdhn
Sandhi between n and (mahnubhvn reyo) is rarely made. See also verse 5.8.

MahaANau>aavaNa( GauNa( AhTva ih [After] not killing superiors (guru) of great authority
wh laeke= >aE+YaMa( AiPa >aaeu= Ma( [eYa" to live in this world (loka) even on alms is better.
AQaRk==aMaaNa( GauNa( Tau hTva But [after] killing superiors, who desire worldly gain (artha)
iDarPa[idGDaaNa( >aaeGaaNa( blood-stained luxuries (bhoga)
wh Wv >auqYa I would enjoy even in this life (iha here).
* Na ke= vlMa( Par}a du"%Ma( There will be misery (dukha) not only hereafter wh Wv
Tau but right here Nark==du"%Ma( ANau>aveYaMa( I shall experience the suffering of hell
(naraka). AQaRk==aMaaTMak==aNa( >aaeGaaNa( AhMa( >auqYa I shall enjoy pleasures like wealth
(artha) and the fulfillment of desires (kma) Yaa =AQaRk==aMaaNa(= wiTa =Gau<aaMa(=
ivXaez<aMa( or else artha-kmn is a qualifier of gurm. (This reading we have taken.
And this is what Bhma admitted to Yudhihira; verse without sandhi:) AQaRSYa
Pauz" daSa" Man is a servant (dsa) of wealth (artha) daSa" Tau AQaR" Na k==SYaicd(
but wealth is the servant of no one. wiTa SaTYaMa( MaharaJa This is the truth, O King
b" AiSMa I am bound AQaeRNa k==aErvE" by the Kauravas through wealth [to fight for
them]. (Mahbhrata)

ik&= c

Moreover ...
BG 2.6

Na cETai" k==Taraae GarqYaae Yaa JaYaeMa Yaid va Naae JaYaeYau" )

YaaNaev hTva Na iJaJaqivzaMaSTae= _viSQaTaa" Pa[Mau%e DaaTaRra\a" ))
na caitad vidma kataran no garyo yad v jayema yadi v no jayeyu
yn eva hatv na jijvimas te vasthit pramukhe dhrtarr

Na" (=ASMaak==Ma(=) k==TarTa( GarqYa" Which of the two is better for us

WTad( c Na iv" this also we do not know
Yad( va JaYaeMa whether we should conquer
Yaid va Na" (=ASMaaNa(=) JaYaeYau" or whether they should conquer us.



ASMaak==Ma( JaYa" AiPa f==lTa" ParaJaYa" Wv

Because even our victory would be

actually a defeat:

YaaNa( Wv hTva Na iJaJaqivzaMa"

Tae DaaTaRra\a" Pa[Mau%e AviSQaTaa"

[After] killing which we should not desire to live

those very sons of Dhtarra are arrayed before us.
554 BG 2.7

k==aPaR<YadaezaePahTaSv>aav" Pa*C^aiMa Tva& DaMaRSaMMaU!ceTaa" )

YaC^\eYa" SYaaiaiTa& b]Uih TaNMae iXaZYaSTae= _h& XaaiDa Maa& Tva& Pa[PaaMa( ))
krpaya-doopahata-svabhva pcchmi tv dharma-sammha-cet
yac chreya syn nicita brhi tan me iyas te ha dhi m tv prapannam


My nature [as a katriya] overcome by weakness (krpaya) and sin


WTaaNa( hTva k==QaMa( JaqivZYaaMa" Having killed them, how shall we live? (2.6) wiTa
k==aPaR<YaMa( this weakness. daez" c Svku= l+aYak*= Ta" And the [prospect of
committing] sin due to the destruction of ones family. Taa>YaaMa( oPahTa" (=Ai>a>aUTa"=)
Sv>aav" XaaEYaaRidl+a<a" YaSYa Sa" AhMa( I whose natural traits such as heroism are

overcome by these two.

DaMaRSaMMaU!ceTaa" and confused about my duty

TvaMa( Pa*C^aiMa I am asking You:
Yad( Mae (=MaMa=) iNaiTaMa( [eYa" SYaaTa( That which will be my definite best
Tad( b]Uih that [alone] tell!
AhMa( Tae (=Tav=) iXaZYa" I am Your disciple (fit to be instructed)
TvaMa( Pa[PaaMa( MaaMa( XaaiDa [therefore] instruct me, who am surrendered to You!
BG 2.8

Na ih Pa[PaXYaaiMa MaMaaPaNauaC^aek= MauC^aez<aiMaiNd]Yaa<aaMa( )

AvaPYa >aUMaavSaPaTNaMa*& raJYa& Saura<aaMaiPa caiDaPaTYaMa( ))
na hi prapaymi mampanudyd yac chokam ucchoaam indriym
avpya bhmv a-sapatnam ddha rjya surm api cdhipatyam

>aUMaaE ASaPaTNaMa( Ma( raJYaMa( An unrivaled prosperous kingdom (rjya) on earth (bhmi)
Saura<aaMa( AaiDaPaTYaMa( c and the supremacy of the demigods (sura)
AvaPYa AiPa even [after] obtaining [those],
Yad( APaNauaTa( that [course of action] which can remove
MaMa wiNd]Yaa<aaMa( oC^aez<aMa( Xaaek= Ma( the grief drying up my senses
Na ih Pa[PaXYaaiMa [that] I do not foresee.
BG 2.9

SaYa ovac
WvMaua zqke= Xa& Gau@ake= Xa" ParNTaPa" ) Na YaaeTSYa wiTa GaaeivNdMaua TaUZ<aq& b>aUv h== =))
evam uktv hkea gukea parantapa, na yotsya iti govindam uktv t babhva ha

SaYa" ovac Sajaya said:

zqk==wRXaMa( WvMa( oa [After] thus speaking to the Lord


Na YaaeTSYae wiTa GaaeivNdMa( oa [and after] saying to the Lord I shall not fight
Gau@ak==awRXa" ParNTaPa" TaUZ<aqMa( b>aUv h Arjuna became silent.
BG 2.10

TaMauvac zqke= Xa" Pa[hSaiav >aarTa ) SaeNaYaae>aYaaeMaRDYae ivzqdNTaiMad& vc"== =))

tam uvca hkea prahasann iva bhrata, senayor ubhayor madhye vidantam ida vaca

>aarTa O Dhtarra!
o>aYaae" SaeNaYaae" MaDYae Between both armies
ivzqdNTaMa( TaMa( to that grieving one (Arjuna)
zqk==wRXa" Pa[hSaNa( wv the Lord, being pleased
* Pa[hSaNa( wv Prahasan iva means Pa[SaaMau%" SaNa(

being placid-countenanced

(looking pleased, smiling).

wdMa( vc" ovac

spoke the following words.

dehAaTMaNaae" Aivvek= aTa( ASYa WvMa( Xaaek= " >aviTa [Finding that] his grieve
(oka) is due to lack of disrimination between body (deha) and soul (tman) wiTa Tad(
ivvek= Pa]dXaRNaAQaRMa( Aah thus He (Ka) spoke to show their distinction:

555 BG 2.11

AXaaeCYaaNaNvXaaecSTv& Pa[javada& >aazSae ) GaTaaSaUNaGaTaaSaU& NaaNauXaaeciNTa Pai<@Taa"== =))
a-ocyn anvaocas tva praj-vd ca bhase, gatsn a-gats ca nnuocanti pait

[q>aGavaNa( ovac The Lord said:

TvMa( AXaaeCYaaNa( ANvXaaec" [First] you lamented for those not be lamented for
Pa[javadaNa( c >aazSae and [then] you speak learned words.
After I instructed you (2.2-3) you argued with learned words (2.4).

Pai<@Taa" [But] the [actually] learned

GaTaASaUNa( AGaTaASaUNa( c for the dead and for the living
The word gatsu (life gone) refers either to a person who lost his life, or to the dead
body, from which the life has departed; a-gatsu (life not gone) may refer to a person
who is still alive, surviving the battle, or the soul, which is always alive. Therefore,
gatsn a-gatsn ca can be understood as: (1) those relatives who die and those who
survive the battle; (2) bodies, which are simultaneaously dead and alive; or (3) bodies
and souls, which are respectively always dead and always alive.

Na ANauXaaeciNTa

they do not lament.

556 BG 2.12

Na Tvevah& JaaTau NaaSa& Na Tv& NaeMae JaNaaiDaPaa" ) Na cEv Na >aivZYaaMa" SaveR vYaMaTa" ParMa(= = ))
na tv evha jtu nsa na tva neme jandhip, na caiva na bhaviyma sarve vayam ata param

AhMa( Tau JaaTau Na Wv Na AaSaMa( [Because] neither I did not exist at any time (jtu)
* lqlaivGa]hSYa Aaiv>aaRve iTarae>aave AiPa Even though there is appearance and
disappearance of the body in My pastime (ll).

Na TvMa( Na wMae JaNaAiDaPaa" nor you, nor [all] these kings

* Mad(A&XaTvaTa( Being parts of Me.
ATa" ParMa( c and hereafter



SaveR vYaMa( Na Wv Na >aivZYaaMa"

we all will never not exist.

557 BG 2.13

deihNaae-= _iSMaNYaQaa dehe k==aEMaar& YaaEvNa& Jara ) TaQaa dehaNTarPa[aiDasrSTa}a Na MauiTa== =))
dehino smin yath dehe kaumra yauvana jar, tath dehntara-prptir dhras tatra na muhyati

YaQaa AiSMaNa( dehe As in this (present) body (deha)

deihNa" for the embodied soul (dehin)
k==aEMaarMa( YaaEvNaMa( Jara there are childhood, youth and old age,
* PaUvRAvSQaaNaaXae Even at the end of a previous state AvSQaaANTaroTPataaE AiPa
and the attainment of another state =Sa" Wv AhMa(= wiTa Pa[TYai>ajaNaaTa( there is the
recognition that, I am the same person.

TaQaa dehANTarPa[ai" similarly there is the acquisition of another (antara) body.

Ta}a Daqr" Na MauiTa At this a wise/sober man (dhra) is not bewildered.
558 BG 2.14

Maa}aaSPaXaaRSTau k==aENTaeYa XaqTaaeZ<aSau%du"%da" ) AaGaMaaPaaiYaNaae-= _iNaTYaaSTaa&iSTaiTa+aSv >aarTa== =))

mtr-spars tu kaunteya toa-sukha-dukha-d, gampyino nitys ts titikasva bhrata


O Arjuna!
kaunteya son of Kunt

Maa}aaSPaXaaR" Tau

And the contacts of the sense-functions [with objects]

MaqYaNTae (=jaYaNTae=) ivzYaa" Aai>a" Those by which the sense objects (viaya) are
measured, perceived wiTa =Maa}aa"= (=wiNd]Yav*taYa"=) they are called mtrs or sense*



which give [rise to] cold and heat, happiness (sukha) and distress (dukha)

ta-ua and sukha-dukha are examples for all dualities experienced in a material

AaGaMaAPaaiYaNa" AiNaTYaa" are coming and going and are [therefore] impermanent
>aarTa [Therefore] O Arjuna!
TaaNa( iTaiTa+aSv You must tolerate them!
559 BG 2.15

Ya& ih Na VYaQaYaNTYaeTae Pauz& PauzzR>a ) SaMadu"%Sau%& Daqr& Saae-= _Ma*TaTvaYa k==LPaTae= = ))

ya hi na vyathayanty ete purua puruarabha, sama-dukha-sukha dhra so mtatvya kalpate


O hero [Arjuna]!
purua-abha best of men, hero

SaMadu"%Sau%Ma( DaqrMa( PauzMa( That wise man, being equal (sama) in distress and happiness
YaMa( WTae Na ih VYaQaYaiNTa whom these [dualities] do not perturb
Sa" AMa*TaTvaYa k==LPaTae he is eligible for liberation.
* DaMaRjaNaara Through his spiritual knowledge AMa*TaTvaYa (=Maae+aaYa=) k==LPaTae
is fit for immortality, liberation.
560 BG 2.16

NaaSaTaae ivTae >aavae Naa>aavae ivTae SaTa" ) o>aYaaeriPa d*ae-= _NTaSTvNaYaaeSTatvdiXaRi>a"== =))



nsato vidyate bhvo nbhvo vidyate sata, ubhayor api do ntas tv anayos tattva-daribhi

ASaTa" >aav" Na ivTae Of the unreal [body] there is no existence

* AaTMaiNa >aav" (=Sataa=) Na ivTae There is no existence in the self [of the unreal].
SaTa" A>aav" Na ivTae and of the real [soul] there is no non-existence.
o>aYaae" AiPa Tau ANaYaae" ANTa" The nature (conclusion) of both of these
TatvdiXaRi>a" d*" is seen by seers of the truth.
* WvM>aUTaivveke= Na SahSv With the help of such discrimination you better tolerate.
wiTa AQaR" This is the idea.
561 BG 2.17

AivNaaiXa Tau Taii YaeNa SavRiMad& TaTaMa( ) ivNaaXaMaVYaYaSYaaSYa Na k==iTk==TauRMahRiTa== =))

a-vini tu tad viddhi yena sarvam ida tatam, vinam a-vyayasysya na kacit kartum arhati

YaeNa SavRMa( wdMa( TaTaMa( That by which all this [world] is pervaded
Tad( Tau AivNaaiXa ivi that [soul] know to be indestructible!
ASYa AVYaYaSYa ivNaaXaMa( The destruction of this unchangeable (a-vyaya) [soul]
Na k==id( k==TauRMa( AhRiTa no one is able to bring about.
562 BG 2.18

ANTavNTa wMae deha iNaTYaSYaae= a" Xarqir<a" ) ANaaiXaNaae-= _Pa[MaeYaSYa TaSMaauDYaSv >aarTa== =))
antavanta ime deh nityasyokt arria, a-nino prameyasya tasmd yudhyasva bhrata

iNaTYaSYa ANaaiXaNa" Of the eternal (nitya), indestructible

APa[MaeYaSYa Xarqir<a" and immeasurable embodied soul (arrin)
wMae deha" ANTavNTa" o==a" these bodies (deha) are said to have an end.
TaSMaaTa( >aarTa YauDYaSv Therefore, O Arjuna, fight!
* YaSMaaTa( WvMa( AaTMaNa" Na ivNaaXa" Because thus there is no destruction for the soul
Na c Sau%du"%aidSaMbNDa" and no connection with pleasure, pain, etc. TaSMaaTa(
MaaehJaMa( Xaaek= Ma( TYaa therefore, giving up this grief born of confusion YauDYaSv
fight! SvDaMaRMa( Maa TYaa+aq" Do not give up your duty.
563 BG 2.19

Ya WNa& veita hNTaar& YaENa& MaNYaTae hTaMa( ) o>aaE TaaE Na ivJaaNaqTaae NaaYa& hiNTa Na hNYaTae= = ))
ya ena vetti hantra ya caina manyate hatam, ubhau tau na vijnto nya hanti na hanyate

Ya" WNaMa( hNTaarMa( veita One who thinks this [soul] the killer
Ya" c WNaMa( hTaMa( MaNYaTae and one who thinks it to be killed
o>aaE TaaE Na ivJaaNaqTa" both of them do not really know
AYaMa( Na hiNTa Na hNYaTae [because] it neither kills nor is it killed.
* =Na hNYaTae= wiTa That it is not killed WTad( Wv z@(>aavivk==arXaUNYaTveNa d]!YaiTa
this is confirmed by its freedom (nya) from the six transformations (vikra) of [all
material] existence

Tad( WvMa( JaaYaTae

It (the material body) thus (1) is born

AiSTa (2) exists [after being born] (astitva) vDaRTae (3) grows (vddhi)
ivPair<aMaTae (4) modifies [to something new] (viparima) APa+aqYaTae (5) decays
(apakaya) NaXYaiTa and (6) dies (vina). [But the soul:]



564 BG 2.20

Na JaaYaTae iMa]YaTae va k==daicaaYa& >aUTva >aivTaa va Na >aUYa" )

AJaae iNaTYa" XaaTaae-= _Ya& Paura<aae Na hNYaTae hNYaMaaNae Xarqre ))
na jyate mriyate v kadcin nya bhtv bhavit v na bhya
a-jo nitya vato ya puro na hanyate hanyamne arre

k==daicd( At any time

AYaMa( Na JaaYaTae iMa]YaTae va it is (1) not born and (6) does not die
Na >aUTva >aivTaa it (2) does not exist by coming into existence
Na >aUYa" va nor will it again [come into existence]
* ik==NTau Pa[ak(= Wv But from the very beginning SvTa" SaTa(Pa" it is by itself (by
nature) of the form of existence.

AJa" [because] it is unborn.

AYaMa( iNaTYa" XaaTa" Paura<a"

It is (3) permanent (always the same), (5) ever-existing and (4)


iNaTYa" (=SavRda Wk==Pa"=) Constant means always the same (no growth).
Xarqre hNYaMaaNae Na hNYaTae When the body is killed it is not killed.

565 BG 2.21

vedaivNaaiXaNa& iNaTYa& Ya WNaMaJaMaVYaYaMa( ) k==Qa& Sa Pauz" PaaQaR k&= gaaTaYaiTa hiNTa k==Ma(= = ))
vedvinina nitya ya enam a-jam a-vyayam, katha sa purua prtha ka ghtayati hanti kam

PaaQaR O Arjuna!
WNaMa( AJaMa( AVYaYaMa( This unborn, unchangeable
AivNaaiXaNaMa( iNaTYaMa( indestructible and permanent [soul]
Ya" ved he who knows,
Sa" Pauz" that person
k==QaMa( k==Ma( gaaTaYaiTa how does he cause (instigate) anyone to be killed
* ANaeNa By this [statement] =MaiYa AiPa Pa[YaaeJak==TvaTa( daezd*iMa( Maa k==azs"= Do
not accuse Me also of instigating [you to kill] wiTa o==Ma( >aviTa this is also said.
k==Ma( hiNTa and whom does he kill?
* NaNau Arjuna may argue: =AaTMaNa" AivNaaXa" AiPa Though the self is not destroyed
TadqYaXarqrNaaXaMa( PaYaaRlaeCYa XaaecaiMa= wiTa ced( but I grieve considering the
destruction of its body (arra). Ta}a Aah On this He says:
566 BG 2.22

vaSaa&iSa Jaq<aaRiNa YaQaa ivhaYa NavaiNa Ga*aiTa Narae-= _Parai<a )

TaQaa Xarqrai<a ivhaYa Jaq<aaRNYaNYaaiNa Sa&YaaiTa NavaiNa dehq ))
vssi jrni yath vihya navni ghti naro pari
tath arri vihya jrny anyni sayti navni deh

YaQaa Nar" As a person

Jaq<aaRiNa vaSaa&iSa ivhaYa [after] discarding old garments
AParai<a NavaiNa Ga*aiTa takes other new (nava) ones,


TaQaa dehq so the embodied soul (dehin)

Jaq<aaRiNa Xarqrai<a ivhaYa [after] giving up old bodies
ANYaaiNa NavaiNa Sa&YaaiTa gets [surely] other new ones.
* Na Jaq<aRdehNaaXae Xaaek= Avk==aXa" At the destruction of worn out bodies there is no
room for lamentation (oka).
567 BG 2.23

NaENa& i^NdiNTa Xaai<a NaENa& dhiTa Paavk==" ) Na cENa& e= dYaNTYaaPaae Na XaaezYaiTa MaaTa"== =))
naina chindanti astri naina dahati pvaka, na caina kledayanty po na oayati mruta

Xaai<a WNaMa( Na i^NdiNTa Weapons (astra) do not cut it

Paavk==" WNaMa( Na dhiTa fire does not burn it
AaPa" c WNaMa( Na e= dYaiNTa water also does not dissolve it
MaaTa" Na XaaezYaiTa and wind does not dry [it] up.
568 BG 2.24

AC^eae-= _YaMadaae-= _YaMae= ae-= _XaaeZYa Wv c ) iNaTYa" SavRGaTa" SQaa<aurclae-= _Ya& SaNaaTaNa"== =))
a-cchedyo yam a-dhyo yam a-kledyo oya eva ca, nitya sarva-gata sthur a-calo ya santana

AYaMa( A^e" AYaMa( Ada" This [soul] is indivisible, it can not be burned
Ae= " AXaaeZYa" Wv c it can not be dissolved and dried up
AYaMa( iNaTYa" SavRGaTa" SQaa<au" it is permanent, everywhere, static
Acl" SaNaaTaNa" unmoving and eternal.
569 BG 2.25

AVYa==ae-= _YaMaicNTYaae-= _YaMaivk==aYaaeR-= _YaMauCYaTae ) TaSMaadev& ividTvENa& NaaNauXaaeicTauMahRiSa== =))

a-vyakto yam a-cintyo yam a-vikryo yam ucyate, tasmd eva viditvaina nnuocitum arhasi

AYaMa( AVYa==" AYaMa( AicNTYa" It is unmanifest, it is inconceivable

AYaMa( Aivk==aYaR" oCYaTae it is called immutable.
TaSMaaTa( WNaMa( WvMa( ividTva Therefore, [after] knowing it to be such
ANauXaaeicTauMa( Na AhRiSa you should not lament.
* wdaNaqMa( [But] now deheNa Sah AaTMaNa" JaNMa that there is birth (janman) of the
soul together with the body (deha) Tad(ivNaaXaeNa c ivNaaXaMa( and [its] destruction
together with the destruction of the body AIk*= TYa AiPa even when accepting this
[atheistic] viewpoint Xaaek= " Na k==aYaR" one should not grieve. wiTa Aah This is stated
570 BG 2.26

AQa cENa& iNaTYaJaaTa& iNaTYa& va MaNYaSae Ma*TaMa( ) TaQaaiPa Tv& Mahabahae NaENa& XaaeicTauMahRiSa== =))
atha caina nitya-jta nitya v manyase mtam, tathpi tva mahbho naina ocitum arhasi

WNaMa( iNaTYaJaaTaMa( That it (the soul) comes again and again into existence
* Tad(Tad(dehe JaaTae When its particular body is born.
iNaTYaMa( Ma*TaMa( va or that it again and again dies
* Tad(Tad(dehe Ma*Tae When its particular body is dead.
AQa c MaNYaSae if you think this,



TaQaa AiPa Mahabahae

still, O hero [Arjuna]!

mah-bhu who has strong arms, a hero

TvMa( WNaMa( XaaeicTauMa( Na AhRiSa

You should not lament for it.

571 BG 2.27

JaaTaSYa ih Da]uvae Ma*TYauDa]uRv& JaNMa Ma*TaSYa c ) TaSMaadPairhaYaeR-= _QaeR Na Tv& XaaeicTauMahRiSa== =))
jtasya hi dhruvo mtyur dhruva janma mtasya ca, tasmd a-parihrye rthe na tva ocitum arhasi

JaaTaSYa ih Ma*TYau" Da]uv" Because, for one who is born (jta), death (mtyu) is certain
Ma*TaSYa c JaNMa Da]uvMa( and for one who is dead (mta), birth (janman) is certain.
TaSMaaTa( APairhaYaeR AQaeR Therefore, when something is unavoidable
Na TvMa( XaaeicTauMa( AhRiSa you should not lament.
572 BG 2.28

AVYa==adqiNa >aUTaaiNa VYa==MaDYaaiNa >aarTa ) AVYa==iNaDaNaaNYaev Ta}a k==a PairdevNaa== =))

a-vyaktdni bhtni vyakta-madhyni bhrata, a-vyakta-nidhanny eva tatra k paridevan

>aarTa O Arjuna!
>aUTaaiNa AVYa==AadqiNa [All] beings (bhta) are unmanifest in the beginning (di)
VYa==MaDYaaiNa manifest [only] in the middle (madhya)
AVYa==iNaDaNaaiNa Wv and unmanifest at death (nidhana).
Ta}a k==a PairdevNaa What is there [the need for] lamentation?
* Pa[iTabuSYa Of a man who has woken up SvPNad*vSTauzu wv Xaaek= " like his grief
(oka) (pratibuddha) for things [or friends] seen in his dream (svapna) Na YauJYaTae it
(grief) is not befitting.

ku= Ta" TaihR Then why iva&Sa" AiPa even wise man laeke= XaaeciNTa lament in this
world? AaTMaAjaNaaTa( Wv It is just because of ignorance (a-jna) about the soul.
wiTa AaXaYaeNa With this intention AaTMaNa" duivRjeYaTaaMa( Aah the

incomprehensibility of the soul is stated:

573 BG 2.29

AaYaRvTPaXYaiTa k==ideNaMaaYaRvdiTa TaQaEv caNYa" )

AaYaRvENaMaNYa" Xa*<aaeiTa [uTvaPYaeNa& ved Na cEv k==iTa( ))
caryavat payati kacid enam caryavad vadati tathaiva cnya
caryavac cainam anya oti rutvpy ena veda na caiva kacit

k==id( WNaMa( AaYaRvTa( PaXYaiTa Someone sees it (the soul) as a wonder

* k==id( Someone WNaMa( AaTMaaNaMa( XaaAacaYaRoPadeXaa>YaaMa( PaXYaNa( seeing this
soul by the instructions (upadea) of scriptures (stra) and teachers (guru) AaYaRvTa(
PaXYaiTa sees it as a wonder. SavRGaTaSYa iNaTYajaNaAaNaNdSv>aavSYa AaTMaNa" A
laEik==k= TvaTa( Because the soul, all-pervading (sarva-gata) and of the nature of eternal
knowledge (jna) and bliss (nanda), is supernatural (a-laukika).

ANYa" c TaQaa Wv AaYaRvTa( vdiTa and so also another describes it as a wonder

ANYa" c WNaMa( AaYaRvTa( Xa*<aaeiTa still another hears of it as a wonder
k==id( c [uTva AiPa and someone even [after] hearing [and describing and seeing the soul]


cXaBdaTa( The word ca indicates =oa AiPa d*a AiPa= even after speaking

about and seeing [the soul].

WNaMa( Na Wv ved

does not know it at all [if he has wrong notions].

AXaaeCYaTvMa( oPaSa&hriTa

[Now] He summarizes that one should not grieve [for the

574 BG 2.30

dehq iNaTYaMavDYaae-= _Ya& dehe SavRSYa >aarTa ) TaSMaaTSavaRi<a >aUTaaiNa Na Tv& XaaeicTauMahRiSa== =))
deh nityam a-vadhyo ya dehe sarvasya bhrata, tasmt sarvi bhtni na tva ocitum arhasi

>aarTa O Arjuna!
SavRSYa dehe AYaMa( dehq This soul (dehin) in everyones body (deha)
iNaTYaMa( AvDYa" is eternally not to be killed.
TaSMaaTa( SavaRi<a >aUTaaiNa Therefore, for any being (bhta)
TvMa( XaaeicTauMa( Na AhRiSa you should not lament.
* Yad( c o==Ma( And what was said =Na c [eYa" ANauPaXYaaiMa hTva SvJaNaMa(
Aahve= wTYaaid that I see no good from killing kinsmen in battle, etc. (1.31) Ta}a
Aah is being answered:
575 BG 2.31

SvDaMaRMaiPa cave+Ya Na ivk==iMPaTauMahRiSa ) DaMYaaRi YauaC^\eYaae-= _NYaT+ai}aYaSYa Na ivTae= = ))

sva-dharmam api cvekya na vikampitum arhasi, dharmyd dhi yuddhc chreyo nyat katriyasya na

SvDaMaRMa( AiPa c Ave+Ya Even [after] considering your duty (dharma)

ivk==iMPaTauMa( Na AhRiSa you should not hesitate [to fight].
DaMYaaRTa( YauaTa( ANYaTa( [eYa" Something better than a righteous fight (yuddha)
+ai}aYaSYa Na ih ivTae does not exist for a katriya.
576 BG 2.32

Yad*C^Yaa caePaPaa& SvGaRarMaPaav*TaMa( ) Saui%Na" +ai}aYaa" PaaQaR l>aNTae YauMaqd*XaMa(= = ))

yadcchay copapanna svarga-dvram apvtam, sukhina katriy prtha labhante yuddham dam

PaaQaR O Arjuna!
Yad*C^Yaa c oPaPaaMa( And attained unsought
wRd*XaMa( YauMa( a fight (yuddha) like this
APaav*TaMa( SvGaRarMa( which is an open door to heaven (svarga)
Saui%Na" +ai}aYaa" l>aNTae [only] fortunate katriyas obtain.
* ivPa+ae In acting contrary daezMa( Aah the fault is shown:
577 BG 2.33

AQa cetviMaMa& DaMYa| SaaMa& Na k==irZYaiSa ) TaTa" SvDaMa| k==IiTa| c ihTva PaaPaMavaPSYaiSa== =))
atha cet tvam ima dharmya sagrma na kariyasi, tata sva-dharma krti ca hitv ppam

AQa wMaMa( DaMYaRMa( SaaMaMa( However, this righteous fight

TvMa( Na k==irZYaiSa ced( if you will not perform
TaTa" then



SvDaMaRMa( k==IiTaRMa( c ihTva [after] giving up your duty (dharma) and fame (krti)
PaaPaMa( AvaPSYaiSa you will incur sin (ppa).
578 BG 2.34

Ak==IiTa| caiPa >aUTaaiNa k==QaiYaZYaiNTa Tae= _VYaYaaMa( ) SaM>aaivTaSYa cak==IiTaRMaRr<aadiTairCYaTae= = ))

-akrti cpi bhtni kathayiyanti te vyaym, sambhvitasya ckrtir marad atiricyate

Tae (=Tav=) AVYaYaaMa( Ak==IiTaRMa( c AiPa And even your eternal infamy (a-krti)
>aUTaaiNa k==QaiYaZYaiNTa people will tell.
SaM>aaivTaSYa c And for one who is respected
Ak==IiTaR" Mar<aaTa( AiTairCYaTae infamy is worse than dying (maraa).
579 BG 2.35

>aYaad[<aaduParTa& Ma&SYaNTae Tva& MaharQaa" ) Yaeza& c Tv& bhuMaTaae >aUTva YaaSYaiSa lagavMa(= = ))
bhayd rad uparata masyante tv mah-rath, ye ca tva bahu-mato bhtv ysyasi lghavam

>aYaaTa( r<aaTa( oParTaMa( TvaMa( That you have desisted from battle (raa) out of fear (bhaya)
MaharQaa" Ma&SYaNTae the generals will think.
YaezaMa( c TvMa( bhuMaTa" >aUTva And [after] having been highly esteemed by them
lagavMa( YaaSYaiSa you will become insignificant.
580 BG 2.36

AvaCYavada& bhUNvidZYaiNTa TavaihTaa" ) iNaNdNTaSTav SaaMaQYa| TaTaae du"%Tar& Nau ik==Ma(= = ))

a-vcya-vd ca bahn vadiyanti tavhit, nindantas tava smarthya tato dukhatara nu kim

Tav AihTaa" c Your enemies also

Tav SaaMaQYaRMa( iNaNdNTa" scorning your ability
bhUNa( AvaCYavadaNa( vidZYaiNTa will speak many (bahu) bad words.
TaTa" du"%TarMa( Nau ik==Ma( What is more painful than that?
* Yad( c o==Ma( And what was said =Na c WTad( iv" k==TarTa( Na" GarqYa" Yaa
JaYaeMa Yaid va Na" JaYaeYau"= that, we do not know which would be better for us
whether we should conquer them or they should conquer us (2.6) wiTa Ta}a Aah is
being answered:
581 BG 2.37

hTaae= =va== Pa[aPSYaiSa== SvGa|= =iJaTva== va== >aae+YaSae= =MahqMa(= =)= =TaSMaaduita== k= aENTaeYa== YauaYa== k*= TaiNaYa"== =))
hato v prpsyasi svarga jitv v bhokyase mahm, tasmd uttiha kaunteya yuddhya kta-nicaya

hTa" va SvGaRMa( Pa[aPSYaiSa Either, killed, you will attain heaven (svarga)
iJaTva va MahqMa( >aae+YaSae or, [after] conquering, you will enjoy the earth.
v ... v either ... or

TaSMaaTa( k==aENTaeYa Therefore, O Arjuna!

YauaYa k*= TaiNaYa" oita Determined to fight, get up!
* Yad( AiPa o==Ma( Also what was said =PaaPaMa( Wv Aa[YaeTa( ASMaaNa(= that, Sin
alone will overcome us (1.36) wiTa Ta}a Aah is being answered:
582 BG 2.38

Sau%du"%e SaMae k*= Tva la>aala>aaE JaYaaJaYaaE ) TaTaae YauaYa YauJYaSv NaEv& PaaPaMavaPSYaiSa== =))
sukha-dukhe same ktv lbhlbhau jayjayau, tato yuddhya yujyasva naiva ppam avpsyasi


Sau%du"%e SaMae k*= Tva [After] regarding alike happiness (sukha) and distress (dukha)
la>aAla>aaE JaYaAJaYaaE gain (lbha) and loss, victory (jaya) and defeat
Victory or defeat bring gain or loss, which bring happiness or distress.

TaTa" YauaYa YauJYaSv then prepare for the fight [just to do your duty]!
WvMa( PaaPaMa( Na AvaPSYaiSa Thus you will not incur sin.
* oPaidjaNaYaaeGaMa( oPaSa&hrNa( Concluding jna-yoga which has been taught Tad(
SaaDaNaMa( k==MaRYaaeGaMa( Pa[STaaEiTa He introduces karma-yoga, which is a means to that
583 BG 2.39

Wza== Tae= _i>aihTaa== Saaye= =buiYaaeRGae= =iTvMaa&= =Xa*<au= =)= =buya== Yau= ae= =YaYaa== PaaQaR= =k= MaRbNDa&= =Pa[haSYaiSa== =))
e te bhihit skhye buddhir yoge tv im u, buddhy yukto yay prtha karma-bandha prahsyasi

PaaQaR O Arjuna!
Saaye In terms of jna-yoga (skhya)
* SaMYak(= :YaaYaTae (=Pa[k= aXYaTae=) vSTauTatvMa( ANaYaa That by which the nature (tattva)
of things (vastu) is completely (samyak) described or revealed wiTa =Sax(= :Yaa= (=SaMYak(=
jaNaMa(=) that is sakhy, complete knowledge TaiSMaNa( Pa[k= aXaMaaNaMa( AaTMaTatvMa(
=Saax(= :YaMa(= and the nature (tattva) of the self that is revealed through it is called

Wza bui" Tae (=Tau>YaMa(=) Ai>aihTaa this attitude (buddhi) [of equanimity] has been explained to you.
YaaeGae Tau wMaaMa( Xa*<au But [now] hear of it in terms of karma-yoga
In [nikma-] karma-yoga the same attitude (namely equanimity) is taught through the
practice of surrendering all activities to the Lord.

YaYaa buya Yau= " endowed with which intelligence (buddhi)

k==MaRbNDaMa( Pa[haSYaiSa you will abandon the bondage of karma.
584 BG 2.40

Naehai>a==MaNaaXaae-= _iSTa Pa[TYavaYaae Na ivTae ) SvLPaMaPYaSYa DaMaRSYa }aaYaTae MahTaae >aYaaTa(= = ))

nehbhikrama-no sti pratyavyo na vidyate, svalpam apy asya dharmasya tryate mahato bhayt

wh Ai>a==MaNaaXa" Na AiSTa On this path there is no fruitlessness (loss of endeavor)

Pa[TYavaYa" Na ivTae and there is no harm (reversal).
If in Vedic rituals the mantras are not correctly pronounced, there is no result or even

SvLPaMa( AiPa ASYa DaMaRSYa Even very little of this dharma (i.e., karma-yoga)
MahTa" >aYaaTa( }aaYaTae protects from the great fear (bhaya) [of sasra].
585 BG 2.41

VYavSaaYaaiTMak==a buireke= h ku= NaNdNa ) bhuXaa%a NaNTaa buYaae-= _VYavSaaiYaNaaMa(= = ))

vyavasytmik buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana, bahu-kh hy an-ant ca buddhayo vyavasyinm

ku= NaNdNa

O Arjuna!
kuru-nandana son/beloved of the Kurus

wh VYavSaaYaAaiTMak==a bui" Wk==a

pointed (eka)

Here (in this karma-yoga) the resolute attitude (buddhi) is one-



* [Namely that]

ParMaer>aKTYaa Wv by devotion to the Lord alone Da]uvMa( TairZYaaiMa

I shall certainly cross over [sasra].

AVYavSaaiYaNaaMa( buYa" [whereas] the attitudes of those who are irresolute

* bih"Mau%a<aaMa( k==aiMaNaaMa( Of those with external (material) desires.
bhuXaa%a" ih ANa(ANTaa" c are many-branched and infinite.
Because of the unlimited number of their desires and the many procedures.

=k= aiMaNa" AiPa Also those with desire k==aNa( k==aMaaNa( ivhaYa
giving up desires difficult to fulfill VYavSaaYaAaiTMak==aMa( Wv buiMa( ik==Ma( Na
ku= vRiNTa== ` why they do not practice the resolute attitude? Ta}a Aah This is


One might ask:

586 BG 2.42-43

YaaiMaMaa& PauiZPaTaa& vac& Pa[vdNTYaivPaiTa" ) vedvadrTaa" PaaQaR NaaNYadSTaqiTa vaidNa"== =))

ym im pupit vca pravadanty a-vipacita, veda-vda-rat prtha nnyad astti vdina

k==aMaaTMaaNa" SvGaRPara JaNMak==MaRf= lPa[daMa( ) i==YaaivXaezbhula& >aaeGaEYaRGaiTa& Pa[iTa== =))

kmtmna svarga-par janma-karma-phala-pradm, kriy-viea-bahul bhogaivarya-gati prati

PaaQaR O Arjuna!
JaNMak==MaRf==lPa[daMa( Promising good birth as the result of rituals (karman)
>aaeGaWeYaRGaiTaMa( Pa[iTa for enjoyment (bhoga) and power
i==YaaivXaezbhulaMa( [describing] various [such] great sacrifices
YaaMa( wMaaMa( PauiZPaTaaMa( vacMa( such flowery language [of the Vedas]
AivPaiTa" vedvadrTaa" Pa[vdiNTa ignorant followers of the Vedas speak.
k==aMaAaTMaaNa" SvGaRPara" They are full of desires, set on attaining heaven (svarga)
Na ANYaTa( AiSTa wiTa vaidNa" and declare that there is nothing else (higher).
587 BG 2.44

>aaeGaEYaRPa[Sa==aNaa& TaYaaPaTaceTaSaaMa( ) VYavSaaYaaiTMak==a bui" SaMaaDaaE Na ivDaqYaTae= = ))

bhogaivarya-prasaktn taypahta-cetasm, vyavasytmik buddhi samdhau na vidhyate

>aaeGaWeYaRPa[Sa==aNaaMa( In (of) those who are attached to enjoyment (bhoga) and power
TaYaa APaTaceTaSaaMa( and whose minds are attracted (stolen) by that (flowery language)
SaMaaDaaE VYavSaaYaAaiTMak==a bui" a resolute attitude in meditation
Na ivDaqYaTae does not take place.
* NaNau c It might be asked =Yaid SvGaRAaidk==Ma( that, if heaven etc. ParMaMa( f==lMa( Na
>aviTa is not the highest goal TaihR ik==Ma( wiTa vedE" Tad(SaaDaNaTaYaa k==MaaRi<a
ivDaqYaNTae= =` then why such rites are prescribed as means to it (heaven) by the Vedas?
Ta}a Aah This is being answered:
588 BG 2.45

}aEGau<YaivzYaa veda iNaEGau<Yaae >avaJauRNa ) iNaRNae iNaTYaSatvSQaae iNaYaaeRGa+aeMa AaTMavaNa(= = ))

traiguya-viay ved nistraiguyo bhavrjuna, nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho niryoga-kema tmavn

veda" }aEGau<YaivzYaa" The Vedas deal with the three guas (i.e., desires).
AJauRNa, iNaEGau<Ya" >av O Arjuna, be free from the three guas!
* iNaZk==aMa" >av Be free from desires!


iNaRN" iNaTYaSatvSQa" [by being] free from dualities, established in goodness

iNaYaaeRGa+aeMa" free from anxiety for gain and safety
AaTMavaNa( and established in the self.
* Naih Certainly not NAaku= lSYa for one perturbed by the dualities YaaeGa+aeMa
VYaaPa*TaSYa c busy with acquisition and preservation Pa[MaaidNa" and [thus] illusioned
}aEGau<YaAiTa==Ma" SaM>aviTa is it possible, to transcend the three guas.
* NaNau One might ask: =vedo==NaaNaaf==lPairTYaaGaeNa By renunciation (parityga) of
the various fruits described in the Vedas iNaZk==aMaTaYaa and freedom from desires wRr
AaraDaNaivzYaa VYavSaaYaaiTMak==a bui" Tau such resolute determination which seeks
to worship the Lord ku= bui" Wv= isnt this a bad decision?
589 BG 2.46

YaavaNaQaR odPaaNae SavRTa" SaMPluTaaedke= ) TaavaNSaveRzu vedezu b]a<aSYa ivJaaNaTa"== =))

yvn artha udapne sarvata samplutodake, tvn sarveu vedeu brhmaasya vijnata

YaavaNa( AQaR" odPaaNae As much as the purpose in a well (namely water)

SavRTa" SaMPluTaodke= is in all respects in a great lake
* Ta}a Ta}a Pair>a]Ma<aeNa By going around here and there [to different wells] iv>aaGaXa"
YaavaNa( SNaaNaPaaNaaid" AQaR" Pa[YaaeJaNaMa( >aviTa as much as all needs like bathing
(snna) and drinking (pna) are served separately TaavaNa( SavR" AiPa AQaR" so much
all the needs SavRTa" SaMuTaodke= (=Mahade=) Wk==}a Wv YaQaa >aviTa are served
completely in one place (ekatra) in an overflowing reservoir, a great lake.

TaavaNa( SaveRzu vedezu that much [are all the different purposes] in all the Vedas
ivJaaNaTa" b]a<aSYa for an enlightened brhmaa [found in his spiritual happiness].
*=b]AaNaNde Because in spiritual bliss +aud]AaNaNdaNaaMa( ANTa">aUTaTvaTa( all small
[material] joys are included. TaSMaaTa( wYaMa( Wv bui" Saubui" Therefore, this
determination is the best decision.

ik==Ma( k==MaR<aa wiTa

Then why should one work?

590 BG 2.47

k==MaR<YaevaiDak==arSTae Maa f==lezu k==dacNa ) Maa k==MaRf= lheTau>aURMaaR Tae Saae-= _STvk==MaRi<a== =))
karmay evdhikras te m phaleu kadcana, m karma-phala-hetur bhr m te sago stv a-karmai

Tae (=Tav=) AiDak==ar" k==MaRi<a Wv Your right is in your duty only

Maa f==lezu k==dacNa and not at any time in the results.
k==MaRf==lheTau" Maa >aU" [This means:] Do not be motivated by the result of work!
Ak==MaRi<a Tae (=Tav=) Sa" Maa ASTau And be not attached to inactivity!
* [Thinking that] =f= lMa( bNDak==Ma( >aivZYaiTa= all work will be binding.
591 BG 2.48

YaaeGaSQa"== ku= = =k= MaaRi<a== Sa&= =TYaa== DaNaYa== )= =iSayiSayae"= =SaMaae= =>aUTva== SaMaTv&= =YaaeGa== oCYaTae= = ))
yoga-stha kuru karmi saga tyaktv dhanajaya, siddhy-a-siddhyo samo bhtv samatva yoga


O hero [Arjuna]!
dhanajaya winner of riches, hero



SaMa( TYaa

[After] giving up attachment

SaMa( k==Ta*RTvAi>aiNaveXaMa( Attachment means the conception of doership.

iSaiAiSayae" SaMa" >aUTva [and after] being equal in success (siddhi) and failure
YaaeGaSQa" k==MaaRi<a ku= established in meditation (yoga) do your duties!
* YaaeGa" ParMaerWk==ParTaa Yoga here means exclusive devotion to the Lord.
SaMaTvMa( YaaeGa" oCYaTae [Such] equanimity is called yoga.

592 BG 2.49

dUre<a vr& k==MaR buiYaaeGaaNaYa ) buaE Xar<aMaiNvC^ k*= Pa<aa" f==lheTav"== =))
drea hy avara karma buddhi-yogd dhanajaya, buddhau araam anviccha kpa phala-hetava

DaNaYa O Arjuna!
buiYaaeGaaTa( Compared to buddhi-yoga
* buya (=VYavSaaYaaiTMak==Yaa=) k*= Ta" k==MaRYaaeGa" =buiYaaeGa"= Karma-yoga done with
resolution (buddhi) is called buddhi-yoga.

k==MaR dUre<a ih AvrMa( [ordinary] karma is far inferior.

buaE Xar<aMa( AiNvC^ [Therefore] seek shelter in buddhi-yoga!
f==lheTav" k*= Pa<aa" Those who are inspired by the fruit [of work] are wretched (kpaa).
593 BG 2.50

buiYau= ae JahaTaqh o>ae Sauk*= TaduZk*= Tae ) TaSMaaaeGaaYa YauJYaSv YaaeGa" k==MaRSau k==aEXalMa(= = ))
buddhi-yukto jahtha ubhe sukta-dukte, tasmd yogya yujyasva yoga karmasu kaualam
In this verse sandhi is not made between iha and ubhe. Such licenses by great authorities
are known as ra-prayoga (usage by is). The scriptures are older than the present
grammatical treatises and not every usage found in the scripture has been codified.

o>ae Sauk*= TaduZk*= Tae Both good and evil work

buiYau= " wh JahaiTa a buddhi-yog gives up in this very life (iha here).
* Sauk*= TaMa( SvGaRAaidPa[aPak==Ma( Good (pious) work leads to heaven (svarga), etc.
duZk*= TaMa( iNarYaAaidPa[aPak==Ma( evil work leads to hell (niraya), etc. Tae o>ae and both
of them wh Wv JaNMaiNa in this very birth ParMaerPa[SaadeNa JahaiTa (=TYaJaiTa=) he
gives up by the grace of the Lord.

TaSMaaTa( YaaeGaaYa YauJYaSv Therefore, strive for buddhi-yoga!

YaaeGa" k==MaRSau k==aEXalMa( Buddhi-yoga is the art to work [without reaction].
* k==MaRSau Yad( k==aEXalMa( Which is the art (kauala) in works bNDak==aNaaMa( AiPa TaezaMa(
even in those [works] which [ordinarily] lead to bondage wRrAaraDaNaeNa Maae+a
ParTvSaMPaadNacaTauYaRMa( the expertness which turns them into means for liberation
(moka) by [doing them as] worship of the Lord Sa" Wv YaaeGa" that is [buddhi-] yoga.
594 BG 2.51

k==MaRJa& buiYau= a ih f==l& TYaa MaNaqiz<a" ) JaNMabNDaiviNaMauR= a" Pad& GaC^NTYaNaaMaYaMa(= = ))

karma-ja buddhi-yukt hi phala tyaktv mania, janma-bandha-vinirmukt pada gacchanty anmayam

k==MaRJaMa( f==lMa( TYaa [After] giving up the result of work

buiYau= a" MaNaqiz<a" wise men, engaged in buddhi-yoga

ke= vlMa( wRrAaraDaNaAQaRMa( k==MaR ku= vaR<aa"


Performing work only as worship of

the Lord.

JaNMabNDaiviNaMauR= a" are liberated from the bondage of (re)birth (janman)

ANa(AaMaYaMa( PadMa( GaC^iNTa ih and certainly attain the transcendental abode.
* ivZ<aae" PadMa( Maae+aAa:YaMa( GaC^iNTa They attain the abode of Viu known as
liberation (moka).
595 BG 2.52

Yada Tae Maaehk==ill& buiVYaRiTaTairZYaiTa ) Tada GaNTaaiSa iNaveRd& [aeTaVYaSYa [uTaSYa c== =))
yad te moha-kalila buddhir vyatitariyati, tad gantsi nirveda rotavyasya rutasya ca

Yada Tae (=Tav=) bui" When your intelligence (buddhi)

Maaehk==illMa( VYaiTaTairZYaiTa will [thus] pass the thicket of illusion (moha)
* Maaeh" (=dehAaidzu AaTMabui"=) Illusion here means identifying oneself with the
body (deha), etc. Tad( Wv k==illMa( That itself is a thicket.
Tada [aeTaVYaSYa [uTaSYa c then towards what is to be heard and what has been heard
iNaveRdMa( GaNTaaiSa you will become indifferent (nirveda).
* TaYaae" ANauPaadeYaTveNa Because they are not worth accepting iJajaSaaMa( Na k==irZYaiSa
you will not [any more] inquire about them.
596 BG 2.53

[uiTaivPa[iTaPaaa Tae Yada SQaaSYaiTa iNala ) SaMaaDaavcla buiSTada YaaeGaMavaPSYaiSa== =))

ruti-vipratipann te yad sthsyati nical, samdhv a-cal buddhis tad yogam avpsyasi

Yada Tae (=Tav=) [uiTaivPa[iTaPaaa bui" When your intelligence, [now] perplexed by the Vedas
* NaaNaalaEik==k= vEidk==AaQaR[v<aE" ivPa[iTaPaaa Perplexed by hearing about various
worldly and heavenly (vaidika scriptural) objects [of enjoyment].

SaMaaDaaE iNala Acla SQaaSYaiTa will remain steady and fixed in meditation (samdhi) [on the Lord]
* SaMaaDaqYaTae ictaMa( AiSMaNa( wiTa SaMaaiDa" That in which the mind gets settled is
called samdhi ParMaer" namely the Lord.
Tada YaaeGaMa( AvaPSYaiSa then you will attain [the fruit of] yoga.
* Tada YaaeGaMa( (=YaaeGaf==lMa(, TatvjaNaMa(=) AvaPSYaiSa Then you will attain yoga,
i.e., the fruit of yoga, knowledge of the truth.
597 BG 2.54

AJauRNa ovac
iSQaTaPa[jSYa== k= a= =>aaza== SaMaaiDaSQaSYa== ke= Xav== )= =iSQaTaDaq"== ik&= = =Pa[>aazeTa== ik==MaaSaqTa== v]JaeTa== ik==Ma(= = ))
sthita-prajasya k bh samdhi-sthasya keava, sthita-dh ki prabheta kim sta vrajeta kim

AJauRNa" ovac ke= Xav Arjuna said: O Lord (Keava)!

iSQaTaPa[jSYa SaMaaiDaSQaSYa Of one who is steady in intelligence and fixed in meditation (samdhi)
k==a >aaza what is the definition (characteristic)?
iSQaTaDaq" ik==Ma( Pa[>aazeTa How should one with firm intelligence (dh) speak?
ik==Ma( AaSaqTa How should he sit (control his senses)?
ik==Ma( v]JaeTa How should he walk (act)?



Ta}a Pa[QaMaPa[XNaotarMa( Aah

Now the answer to the first question is given (2.55-

598 BG 2.55

Pa[JahaiTa Yada k==aMaaNSavaRNPaaQaR MaNaaeGaTaaNa( ) AaTMaNYaevaTMaNaa Tau" iSQaTaPa[jSTadaeCYaTae= = ))
prajahti yad kmn sarvn prtha mano-gatn, tmany evtman tua sthita-prajas tadocyate

[q>aGavaNa( ovac PaaQaR The Lord said: O Arjuna!

AaTMaiNa Wv AaTMaNaa Tau" [Because of being] satisfied in the self by the self
SavaRNa( MaNa"GaTaaNa( k==aMaaNa( all desires (kma) of the mind
Yada Pa[JahaiTa when one gives [those] up
Tada iSQaTaPa[j" oCYaTae then he is said to be of steady intelligence.
599 BG 2.56

du"%eZvNauiGNaMaNaa" Sau%ezu ivGaTaSPa*h" ) vqTaraGa>aYa==aeDa" iSQaTaDaqMauRiNaCYaTae= = ))

dukhev an-udvigna-man sukheu vigata-spha, vta-rga-bhaya-krodha sthita-dhr munir ucyate

vqTaraGa>aYa==aeDa" [Because of being] free from attachment (rga), fear (bhaya) and anger (krodha)
du"%ezu ANa(oiGNaMaNaa" one who is undisturbed in miseries (dukha)
Sau%ezu ivGaTaSPa*h" and free from hankering in pleasures (sukha)
iSQaTaDaq" MauiNa" oCYaTae he is called a sage of steady intelligence.
* k==QaMa( >aazeTa How should he speak?
600 BG 2.57

Ya" SavR}aaNai>aehSTataTPa[aPYa Xau>aaXau>aMa( ) Naai>aNaNdiTa Na ei TaSYa Pa[ja Pa[iTaiTaa== =))

ya sarvatrnabhisnehas tat tat prpya ubhubham, nbhinandati na dvei tasya praj pratihit

Ya" SavR}a ANa(Ai>aeh" One who is unaffected everywhere (to family, etc.)
Tad( Tad( Xau>aAXau>aMa( Pa[aPYa [and therefore after] obtaining whatever good or evil
Na Ai>aNaNdiTa Na ei he neither praises nor hates it
* ik==NTau ke= vlMa( odaSaqNa" Wv >aazTae But talks as one unconcerned.
TaSYa Pa[ja Pa[iTaiTaa then his intelligence (praj) is steady.
601 BG 2.58

Yada Sa&hrTae caYa& kU= MaaeR-= _aNaqv SavRXa" ) wiNd]Yaa<aqiNd]YaaQaeR>YaSTaSYa Pa[ja Pa[iTaiTaa== =))
yad saharate cya krmo gnva sarvaa, indriyndriyrthebhyas tasya praj pratihit

wiNd]Yaai<a wiNd]YaAQaeR>Ya" The senses (indriya) from sense objects

Yada c AYaMa( SavRXa" Sa&hrTae when he completely withdraws [them]
kU= MaR" AaiNa wv as a tortoise (krma) [withdraws] its limbs (aga)
TaSYa Pa[ja Pa[iTaiTaa [then] his intelligence (praj) is steady.
* NaNau One might ask =Na wiNd]Yaa<aaMa( ivzYaezu APa[v*ita" iSQaTaPa[jSYa l+a<aMa(
>aivTauMa( AhRiTa The disinclination (a-pravtti) of the senses (indriya) towards sense
objects (viaya) cannot be a characteristic (lakaa) of a man of steady intelligence

Ja@aNaaMa( AaTaura<aaMa( oPavaSaPara<aaMa( c ivzYaezu APa[v*tae" AivXaezaTa(= because


even of the lazy (jaa), sick (tura) and fasting persons there is disinclinations towards
sense objects.

Ta}a Aah

This is answered:
602 BG 2.59

ivzYaa iviNavTaRNTae iNaraharSYa deihNa" ) rSavJa| rSaae-= _PYaSYa Par& d*a iNavTaRTae= = ))
viay vinivartante nirhrasya dehina, rasa-varja raso py asya para dv nivartate

iNaraharSYa deihNa" For an embodied soul which is restricted

ivzYaa" iviNavTaRNTae the sense objects disappear
rSavJaRMa( except for the taste (desire).
The word nirhra here refers to someone whose sense enjoyment is under restriction
(because of old age, disease, foolishness, poverty, etc.). What remains is his taste, i.e.,
the desire to enjoy. Specifically, nirhra refers to someone who is fasting. He does not
want to hear, touch etc., but the sense of taste remains.

ParMa( d*a [But after] experiencing a higher [taste]

ASYa rSa" AiPa iNavTaRTae his taste (desire) even ceases.
That is the kind of sense-control of a sthita-praja.
* [External sense-control is still important:]

wiNd]YaSa&YaMaMa( ivNaa Tau But without

iSQaTaPa[jTaa Na SaM>aviTa steadiness of intelligence is not possible.

ATa" SaaDak==AvSQaaYaaMa( Therefore, in the stage of spiritual practice Ta}a MahaNa(
Pa[YaTNa" k==TaRVYa" there should be great endeavor for this (sense-control) [because


603 BG 2.60

YaTaTaae iPa k==aENTaeYa PauzSYa ivPaiTa" ) wiNd]Yaai<a Pa[MaaQaqiNa hriNTa Pa[Sa>a& MaNa"== =))
yatato hy api kaunteya puruasya vipacita, indriyi pramthni haranti prasabha mana

k==aENTaeYa O Arjuna!
YaTaTa" ih AiPa ivPaiTa" PauzSYa Even of a wise man who is endeavoring [for liberation]
Pa[MaaQaqiNa wiNd]Yaai<a the turbulent senses
MaNa" Pa[Sa>aMa( hriNTa forcibly carry away the mind (manas).
When Vysadeva dictated a similar verse to Jaimini balavn indriya-grmo vidvsam
api karati the strong senses attract even a learned man, the latter, being
overconscious of his power of self-control changed but one innocent syllable ...
vidvsa npi karati ... will n o t destract a learned man. Some time later, Jaimini
was sitting in his hut. It was evening, and a storm broke out. A beautiful woman,
soaked in the rain, asked for shelter. There was a fire lit in the hearth. And while she sat
there to dry her clothes, Jaimini felt the pull of the senses. She tried to stop him, then
conceded on condition of being carried round the fire three times. Jaimini lifted her,
but she began hitting his head with the words vidvsa npi karati? He was amazed
to hear the very words he had altered in his gurus teaching. So he stopped. And,
indeed, there stood Vysa himself, looking at him with a meaningful smile. Jaimini
repented, hurried back, and changed the verse to its original form.
604 BG 2.61

TaaiNa SavaRi<a Sa&YaMYa Yau= AaSaqTa MaTPar" ) vXae ih YaSYaeiNd]Yaai<a TaSYa Pa[ja Pa[iTaiTaa== =))
tni sarvi sayamya yukta sta mat-para, vae hi yasyendriyi tasya praj pratihit

TaaiNa SavaRi<a Sa&YaMYa

[After] controlling all these (the senses)



Yau= " Mad(Par" AaSaqTa the yog should remain fixed on Me.
YaSYa wiNd]Yaai<a vXae ih He whose senses (indriya) are under control
TaSYa Pa[ja Pa[iTaiTaa his intelligence (praj) is steady.
* WTaeNa By this =k= QaMa( AaSaqTa== ` wiTa Pa[XNaSYa to the question How does he sit?
=vXaqk*= TawiNd]Ya" SaNa( AaSaqTa= (=iNaVYaaRPaar" iTaeTa(=) He should sit with controlled
senses, without activity. wiTa otarMa( o==Ma( >aviTa this answer is given.
* bawiNd]YaSa&YaMaA>aave In not having control over the external senses daezMa(
oa after telling the defect MaNa"Sa&YaMaA>aave daezMa( Aah the defect in not
having control over the mind is shown:
605 BG 2.62

DYaaYaTaae ivzYaaNPau&Sa" SaSTaezUPaJaaYaTae ) SaaTSaaYaTae k==aMa" k==aMaaT==aeDaae= _i>aJaaYaTae= = ))

dhyyato viayn pusa sagas tepajyate, sagt sajyate kma kmt krodho bhijyate

ivzYaaNa( DYaaYaTa" Pau&Sa" For a man contemplating sense objects (viaya)

Sa" Taezu oPaJaaYaTae attachment (saga) for them arises.
SaaTa( k==aMa" SaaYaTae From attachment arises [more] desire (kma)
k==aMaaTa( ==aeDa" Ai>aJaaYaTae and from desire arises anger (krodha).
* k==aMaaTa( c ke= Naicd( Pa[iTahTaaTa( ==aeDa" >aviTa And from desire results anger, when
there is an obstruction (pratihata) by someone.
606 BG 2.63

==aeDaaviTa SaMMaaeh" SaMMaaehaTSMa*iTaiv>a]Ma" ) SMa*iTa>a]&XaauuiNaaXaae buiNaaXaaTPa[<aXYaiTa== =))

krodhd bhavati sammoha sammoht smti-vibhrama, smti-bhrad buddhi-no buddhi-nt

==aeDaaTa( SaMMaaeh" >aviTa From anger comes delusion

* SaMMaaeh" Delusion means k==aYaRAk==aYaRivvek= A>aav"

absence (a-bhva) of the

discrimination as to what is to be done (krya) and what is not to be done.

SaMMaaehaTa( SMa*iTaiv>a]Ma" and from delusion confusion of memory.

* XaaAacaYaRoPaidAQaRSMa*Tae" iv>a]Ma" Confusion of memory with respect to
the purport of the teachings of scripture (stra) and teacher (crya).

SMa*iTa>a]&XaaTa( buiNaaXa" From loss of memory [comes] the loss of [spiritual] intelligence
buiNaaXaaTa( Pa[<aXYaiTa and after the loss of intelligence, one is lost.
The soul is indestructible and present in all forms of life. But when the identification as
spirit soul is lost, and all activities are thus based on the false bodily identification, wise
men consider the soul to be lost. Therefore, wise men sometimes say, that animals and
plants have no soul.
607 BG 2.64

raGaezivMauE= STau ivzYaaiNaiNd]YaErNa( ) AaTMavXYaEivRDaeYaaTMaa Pa[SaadMaiDaGaC^iTa== =))

rga-dvea-vimuktais tu viayn indriyai caran, tma-vayair vidheytm prasdam adhigacchati

ivDaeYaAaTMaa Tau But one who is self-controlled

raGaezivMauE= " AaTMavXYaE" wiNd]YaE" with controlled
aversion (dvea)

senses, free from attachment (rga) and


ivzYaaNa( crNa( [even while] going to sense objects (viaya)

Pa[SaadMa( AiDaGaC^iTa he attains peace (satisfaction).
* wiTa ASYa cTauQaRPa[XNaSYa== = =SvADaqNaE" wiNd]YaE" ivzYaaNa( AiDaGaC^iTa= wiTa
otarMa( o==Ma( >aviTa Thus the answer to his fourth question is given he experiences
the sense objects with the senses under his control.
608 BG 2.65

Pa[Saade SavRdu"%aNaa& haiNarSYaaePaJaaYaTae ) Pa[SaaceTaSaae aXau bui" PaYaRviTaTae= = ))

prasde sarva-dukhn hnir asyopajyate, prasanna-cetaso hy u buddhi paryavatihate

Pa[Saade When there is peace

ASYa SavRdu"%aNaaMa( haiNa" oPaJaaYaTae the destruction of all his miseries (dukha) takes place.
Pa[SaaceTaSa" For one whose mind is pacified
bui" AaXau ih PaYaRviTaTae the intelligence (buddhi) very quickly becomes steady.
609 BG 2.66

NaaiSTa buirYau= SYa Na caYau= SYa >aavNaa ) Na ca>aavYaTa" XaaiNTarXaaNTaSYa ku= Ta" Sau%Ma(= = ))
nsti buddhir a-yuktasya na cyuktasya bhvan, na cbhvayata ntir a-ntasya kuta sukham

AYau= SYa Na bui" AiSTa For one who is not controlled (a-yukta) there is no intelligence
* AvXaqk*= TawiNd]YaSYa For one whose senses are not under control.
AYau= SYa c Na >aavNaa and for one who is not controlled there is no meditation.
A>aavYaTa" c Na XaaiNTa" For one who has no meditation there is no peace (nti)
AXaaNTaSYa ku= Ta" Sau%Ma( and for one without peace, how is there happiness [of liberation]?
* =Na AiSTa bui" AYau= SYa= That there is no intelligence for one who is not sensecontrolled wiTa A}a heTauMa( Aah now the reason is stated:
610 BG 2.67

wiNd]Yaa<aa& ih crTaa& YaNMaNaae-= _NauivDaqYaTae ) TadSYa hriTa Pa[ja& vaYauNaaRviMavaM>aiSa== =))

indriy hi carat yan mano nuvidhyate, tad asya harati praj vyur nvam ivmbhasi

crTaaMa( wiNd]Yaa<aaMa( Among the roaming (uncontrolled) senses

Yad( ih MaNa" ANauivDaqYaTae that one on which the mind is placed
* wiNd]Yae<a Sah GaC^iTa With which (sense) it (the mind) goes.
Tad( ASYa Pa[jaMa( hriTa that [sense] takes away his intelligence (praj)
It makes the person restless for that object.

vaYau" NaavMa( wv AM>aiSa as the wind [takes away] a boat on the water.
* YaQaa Pa[MataSYa k==<aRDaarSYa NaavMa( vaYau" SaMaud]e SavRTa" Pair>a]aMaYaiTa

As the wind

(vyu) tosses in the ocean (samudra) a ship (nva) whose captain (kara-dhra holder
of the rudder, helmsman) is inattentive.
611 BG 2.68

TaSMaaSYa Mahabahae iNaGa*hqTaaiNa SavRXa" ) wiNd]Yaa<aqiNd]YaaQaeR>YaSTaSYa Pa[ja Pa[iTaiTaa== =))

tasmd yasya mah-bho nightni sarvaa, indriyndriyrthebhyas tasya praj pratihit

TaSMaaTa( Mahabahae Therefore, O Arjuna!

YaSYa wiNd]Yaai<a He whose senses



wiNd]YaAQaeR>Ya" SavRXa" iNaGa*hqTaaiNa are completely restrained from sense objects

TaSYa Pa[ja Pa[iTaiTaa his intelligence is steady.
612 BG 2.69

Yaa iNaXaa SavR>aUTaaNaa& TaSYaa& JaaGaiTaR Sa&YaMaq ) YaSYaa& JaaGa]iTa >aUTaaiNa Saa iNaXaa PaXYaTaae MauNae"= = ))
y ni sarva-bhtn tasy jgarti sayam, yasy jgrati bhtni s ni payato mune

Yaa SavR>aUTaaNaaMa( iNaXaa That which is night (ni) for all beings
TaSYaaMa( Sa&YaMaq JaaGaiTaR in that [night, spiritual reality] a self-controlled man wakes.
YaSYaaMa( >aUTaaiNa JaaGa]iTa And in which all beings are awake
Saa PaXYaTa" MauNae" iNaXaa that [world of sense objects] is night for the sage who sees.
613 BG 2.70

AaPaUYaRMaa<aMaclPa[iTa& SaMaud]MaaPa" Pa[ivXaiNTa YaTa( )

TaTk==aMaa Ya& Pa[ivXaiNTa SaveR Sa XaaiNTaMaaPNaaeiTa Na k==aMak==aMaq ))
pryamam a-cala-pratiha samudram pa pravianti yadvat
tadvat km ya pravianti sarve sa ntim pnoti na kma-km

AaPaUYaRMaa<aMa( AclPa[iTaMa( SaMaud]Ma(

Into the ocean (samudra), who is being filled but remains


YaTa( AaPa" Pa[ivXaiNTa as [many] rivers (waters) enter,

YaMa( SaveR k==aMaa" TaTa( Pa[ivXaiNTa he whom all desires (kma) enter in the same way
Sa" XaaiNTaMa( AaPNaaeiTa he achieves peace (nti)
Na k==aMak==aMaq and not he who desires enjoyment.
614 BG 2.71

ivhaYa k==aMaaNYa" SavaRNPauMaa&riTa iNa"SPa*h" ) iNaMaRMaae iNarhar" Sa XaaiNTaMaiDaGaC^iTa== =))

vihya kmn ya sarvn pum carati nispha, nirmamo nirahakra sa ntim adhigacchati

SavaRNa( k==aMaaNa( ivhaYa [After] giving up all desires (kma)

Ya" PauMaaNa( a man who
iNa"SPa*h" iNaMaRMa" iNarhar" criTa lives without hankering, proprietorship and false ego
Sa" XaaiNTaMa( AiDaGaC^iTa he attains peace (nti).
615 BG 2.72

Wza== b]aq== iSQaiTa"== PaaQaR= =NaENaa&= =Pa[aPYa== ivMauiTa== )= =iSQaTvaSYaaMaNTak==ale-=_iPa== b]iNavaR<aMa*C^iTa== =))
e brhm sthiti prtha nain prpya vimuhyati, sthitvsym anta-kle pi brahma-nirvam cchati

PaaQaR O Arjuna!
Wza b]aq iSQaiTa" This is the spiritual position.
WNaaMa( Pa[aPYa Na ivMauiTa [After] attaining it one is not bewildered.
* WNaaMa( ParMaerAaraDaNaeNa ivXauANTa"k==r<a" PauMaaNa( Pa[aPYa After attaining it a
person who has become pure-minded by worship of the Lord (paramevara) Na
ivMauiTa is not deluded PauNa" Sa&SaarMaaehMa( Na Pa[aPNaaeiTa i.e., he does not again come
under the illusion of transmigration (sasra).

ANTak==ale AiPa ASYaaMa( iSQaTva

[And after] being situated in it even [for a moment] at death

ik==Ma( PauNa" v==VYaMa( What to speak of baLYaMa( Aar>Ya iSQaTva

it] beginning from childhood.

b]iNavaR<aMa( C^iTa

one attains liberation in the Supreme.


being situated [in



9. Sanskrit Kdanta 1
Two kinds of words are derived from word roots (dhtus):
(1) by conjugation verbs are derived (see 12. Conjugation and 18. Tables)
(2) by adding suffixes, words (nmas), i.e., nouns, pronouns, adjectives, etc., are derived
Because these specific suffixes are called kt, the derived words are called kdanta.
From the word root (dhtu) all words get an original etymological meaning. E.g., mantra (advice) comes
from the dhtu matr[i]...

Gau>aaz<ae to consult, speak confidentially. But there are also instructive

ways to explain a word as if it were derived from its syllables. Thus mantra is also sometimes explained
as if coming from mana (mind) and tryate (which is delivered), hence that by which the mind is
delivered. Words may also acquire a conventional meaning, different from their etymological meaning.
E.g., the lotus received the name paka-ja (mud-born), because it grows in the mud. But the convention
is that this name is reserved for the lotus, although many other plants and animals are born in the same
Similar names of the lotus, derived from born/grown in mud/water, are abja, ambuja, amburuha,
ambhoja, ambhoruha, udaja, kaja, jalaruha, nraja, pakaja, pakeruha, sarasi-ja (loc.), saroja, saroruha,
and srotoja besides the other names, like padma, kamala, aravinda, pukara, puarka, kumuda,
mahotpala, sahasrapatra, atapatra, rjva; utpala, kuvalaya, kairava, indvara, marakanda, mla and
There are different types of kdanta suffixes, of which we give a few examples.
(1) kta
The first type of suffixes make past participles. One such suffix is [k]ta :
The letters in brackets ([k] and [u]) are dropped and certain grammatical rules are

k==r<ae to do; + [k]ta >>> kta done; as in Sa&Sk*= Ta saskta perfectly done, Sanskrit
ji...JaYae to conquer; + [k]ta >>> jita conquered; as in AiJaTa a-jita not conquered
tu[a]...TauaE to be satisfied >>> tua satisfied; AaTMaiNa Tau" satisfied in the self
bh...SataaYaaMa( to be, exist, become >>> bhta ... Taking bh in the sense of being, bhta means
which has been, (the past tense, bhta-kla), or who has been, a ghost. Taking the sense of
becoming, a bhta is something which became, or was created. There are paca-bhtas (five
material elements) and jva-bhtas (living beings).
Another such suffix is .[k]tavat[u] :

k==r<ae to do; + [k]tavat[u] >>> ktavat[u] one who did

It is declined like bhagavat[u] (see 18. Tables) and translated as verb >>> ktavn (he did), ktavantau
(they two did), etc.; as in
a tiger (vyghra)

MauiNa" MaUizk==Ma( VYaaga]Ma( k*= TavaNa( the muni made the mouse (mika)


Hinduism Gt 3
Karma-yoga The Yoga of Work (karman)
616 BG 3.1

AJauRNa ovac
JYaaYaSaq ceTk==MaR<aSTae MaTaa buiJaRNaadRNa ) TaiTk&= k==MaRi<a gaaere Maa& iNaYaaeJaYaiSa ke= Xav== =))
jyyas cet karmaas te mat buddhir janrdana, tat ki karmai ghore m niyojayasi keava

AJauRNa" ovac JaNaadRNa

Arjuna said: O Lord (Janrdana)!

janrdana who excites men

bui" k==MaR<a" JYaaYaSaq ced( If equanimity (buddhi) is better than work (karman)
Tae (=Tav=) MaTaa considered by You
ke= Xav== Tad( ik==Ma( O Lord (Keava)! Then why
gaaere k==MaRi<a MaaMa( iNaYaaeJaYaiSa You engage me in ghastly work?
First Ka glorifies the analytical distinction between body and soul (2.11 ff.), then
work without fruitive desire (2.40 ff.). At the end He seems to establish the greater
importance of jna (sthita-praja, brhm sthiti), having all the time urged Arjuna to
do his duty of fighting (2.31).
617 BG 3.2

VYaaiMa[e<aev vaKYaeNa bui& MaaehYaSaqv Mae ) Tadek&= vd iNaiTYa YaeNa [eYaae-= _hMaaPNauYaaMa(= = ))
vymireeva vkyena buddhi mohayasva me, tad eka vada nicitya yena reyo ham pnuym

VYaaiMa[e<a wv vaKYaeNa By this apparently equivocal speech (vkya)

Mae (=MaMa=) buiMa( MaaehYaiSa wv You seem to perplex my intelligence [on purpose].
* ParMak==ai<ak==SYa Tav Maaehk==TvMa( Na AiSTa Wv Because of your supreme
compession You are not [purposefully] perplexing. TaQaaiPa >a]aNTYaa MaMa Still, by my
illusion WvMa( >aaiTa it so appears to me. wiTa wvXaBdeNa o==Ma( This is meant by the
word iva.

YaeNa [eYa" AhMa( AaPNauYaaMa( That by which I would attain the best end
Tad( Wk==Ma( iNaiTYa vd [after] deciding it, tell that alone!
618 BG 3.3

laeke= -= _iSMaiNivDaa iNaa Paura Pa[ae= a MaYaaNaga ) jaNaYaaeGaeNa SaayaNaa& k==MaRYaaeGaeNa YaaeiGaNaaMa(= = ))
loke smin dvi-vidh nih pur prokt maynagha, jna-yogena skhyn karma-yogena yoginm

[q>aGavaNa( ovac ANa(Aga The Lord said: O sinless [Arjuna]!

AiSMaNa( laeke= iivDaa iNaa [One] twofold faith [in liberation] in this world (loka)
MaYaa Paura Pa[ae= a has been declared by Me before (in 2.39)
* Wk==SYaa Wv Tau Pa[k= ar>aedMaa}aMa( Only different forms of just one [faith] AiDak==ar
>aedeNa o==Ma( suited to different aspirants have been stated.
jaNaYaaeGaeNa SaayaNaaMa( by jna-yoga [the faith] of the skhyas
k==MaRYaaeGaeNa YaaeiGaNaaMa( and by karma-yoga of the karma-yogs.



619 BG 3.4

Na k==MaR<aaMaNaarM>aaaEZk==MYa| Pauzae-= _XNauTae ) Na c SaYaSaNaadev iSai& SaMaiDaGaC^iTa== =))

na karmam an-rambhn naikarmya puruo nute, na ca sannyasand eva siddhi samadhigacchati

Na k==MaR<aaMa( ANa(AarM>aaTa( Not by [mere] abstention from activities

Pauz" NaEZk==MYaRMa( AXNauTae a person attains freedom from reaction
Na c SaYaSaNaaTa( Wv nor by mere renunciation (sannysa)
* ictaXauiMa( ivNaa k*= TaaTa( SaYaaSaNaaTa( Wv By mere sannysa without purity of

iSaiMa( SaMaiDaGaC^iTa one attains perfection (liberation).

* k==MaR<aaMa( c SaYaaSa" Renunciation of activities means Taezu ANaaSai==Maa}aMa( just
being unattached to them NaTau SvPae<a and not by themselves (actually giving them
up) AXaKYaTvaTa( because that is not possible:
620 BG 3.5

Na ih k==iT+a<aMaiPa JaaTau iTaTYak==MaRk*= Ta( ) k==aYaRTae vXa" k==MaR SavR" Pa[k*= iTaJaEGauR<aE"= = ))
na hi kacit kaam api jtu tihaty a-karma-kt, kryate hy a-vaa karma sarva prakti-jair guai

Na ih k==id( +a<aMa( AiPa Nobody [whether wise or not], not even for a moment (kaa)
JaaTau Ak==MaRk*= Ta( iTaiTa can at any time (jtu) remain inactive,
Pa[k*= iTaJaE" Gau<aE" [because] by the modes of [ones] nature (prakti)
SavR" AvXa" k==MaR k==aYaRTae ih everyone is helplessly forced to act.
* ATa" AjMa( k==MaRTYaaiGaNaMa( iNaNdiTa Therefore He critizises the


renouncer of action:
621 BG 3.6

k==MaeRiNd]Yaai<a Sa&YaMYa Ya AaSTae MaNaSaa SMarNa( ) wiNd]YaaQaaRiNvMaU!aTMaa iMaQYaacar" Sa oCYaTae= = ))

karmendriyi sayamya ya ste manas smaran, indriyrthn vimhtm mithycra sa ucyate

k==MaRwiNd]Yaai<a Sa&YaMYa

[After] restraining the working senses

... i.e., stopping all work

>aGavTa(DYaaNa^leNa Under the pretext of meditating (dhyna) on the Lord.

The five working senses are larynx, hand, foot, genital and anus.

Ya" wiNd]YaAQaaRNa( MaNaSaa SMarNa( AaSTae one who continues remembering sense objects with the mind
ivMaU!AaTMaa being bewildered
Sa" iMaQYaaAacar" oCYaTae he is called a pretender.
622 BG 3.7

YaiSTviNd]Yaai<a MaNaSaa iNaYaMYaar>aTae-= _JauRNa ) k==MaeRiNd]YaE" k==MaRYaaeGaMaSa==" Sa iviXaZYaTae= = ))

yas tv indriyi manas niyamyrabhate rjuna, karmendriyai karma-yogam a-sakta sa viiyate

AJauRNa== O Arjuna!
wiNd]Yaai<a MaNaSaa iNaYaMYa [After] controlling the senses (indriya) by the mind (manas)
Ya" Tau k==MaRwiNd]YaE" one who with the working senses
ASa==" k==MaRYaaeGaMa( Aar>aTae performs unattached karma-yoga
... by directing his work towards the Lord

Sa" iviXaZYaTae

he is different.


ictaXauya jaNavaNa( >aviTa

He attains knowledge through the purification of the

623 BG 3.8

iNaYaTa& ku= k==MaR Tv& k==MaR JYaaYaae k==MaR<a" ) XarqrYaa}aaiPa c Tae Na Pa[iSaDYaedk==MaR<a"== =))
niyata kuru karma tva karma jyyo hy a-karmaa, arra-ytrpi ca te na prasidhyed a-karmaa

TvMa( iNaYaTaMa( k==MaR ku= Perform the prescribed (niyata) duty (karman)
Ak==MaR<a" ih k==MaR JYaaYa" because working is better than inaction (a-karman)!
Tae (=Tav=) XarqrYaa}aa AiPa c Even the maintainance of your body (arra)
Ak==MaR<a" Na Pa[iSaDYaeTa( would not succeed without work.
* Saax(= :Yaa" Tau =SavRMa( AiPa k==MaR bNDak==TvaTa( Na k==aYaRMa(= wiTa Aahu"

But the

Skhyas say: As all action leads to bondage, it should not be performed.

iNaraku= vRNa( Aah


Refuting this it is stated:

624 BG 3.9

YajaQaaRTk==MaR<aae-= _NYa}a laek= ae-= _Ya& k==MaRbNDaNa" ) TadQa| k==MaR k==aENTaeYa Mau= Sa" SaMaacr== =))
yajrtht karmao nyatra loko ya karma-bandhana, tad-artha karma kaunteya mukta-saga

AYaMa( laek= " k==MaRbNDaNa" This world (loka) binds by work

YajAQaaRTa( k==MaR<a" ANYa}a except for work done for the purpose of sacrifice (yaja).
* (or:) NaTau wRrAaraDaNaAQaeRNa k==MaR<aa Not by action done for worship of the Lord
(vara). ... =Yaj"= A}a ivZ<au" Sacrifice here means the Lord (Viu). =Yaj" vE
ivZ<au"= wiTa [uTae" For the scripture says, Sacrifice indeed is Viu. (Taittiryasahit 1.7.44)

k==aENTaeYa== Mau= Sa" [Therefore,] O Arjuna! Free from attachment (desire)

Tad(AQaRMa( k==MaR SaMaacr do your duty for that purpose (artha)!
Verse 3.4 objects to the opinion of the jns that just by karma-sannysa one achieves
moka, and verse 3.9 objects to the opinion that all kinds of work are binding, and that
therefore they should be given up.
625 BG 3.10

SahYaja" Pa[Jaa" Sa*a Pauraevac Pa[JaaPaiTa" ) ANaeNa Pa[SaivZYaMaez vae-= _iSTvk==aMaDauk(= = = ))

saha-yaj praj sv purovca prajpati, anena prasaviyadhvam ea vo stv ia-kma-dhuk

SahYaja" Pa[Jaa" Sa*a [After] creating progeny (praj) along with sacrifice (yaja)
Pa[JaaPaiTa" Paura ovac Brahm (praj-pati) formerly (in the beginning of creation) said:
ANaeNa Pa[SaivZYaMa( By this (yaja) you will multiply
Wz" v" (=YauZMaak==Ma(=) wk==aMaDauk(= ASTau [because] it shall be your bestower of desired objects!
* k==QaMa( How?
626 BG 3.11

devaN>aavYaTaaNaeNa Tae deva >aavYaNTau v" ) ParSPar& >aavYaNTa" [eYa" ParMavaPSYaQa== =))
devn bhvayatnena te dev bhvayantu va, paraspara bhvayanta reya param avpsyatha

ANaeNa devaNa( >aavYaTa By this (yaja) you should satisfy the devas
Tae deva" v" (=YauZMaaNa(=) >aavYaNTau and those devas will satisfy you!



v*iAaidNaa AaoTPaitaare<a

By production of food (anna) through rain (vi),


ParSParMa( >aavYaNTa" [While thus] satisfying each other

ParMa( [eYa" AvaPSYaQa you [all] will attain the supreme benefit (reya).
627 BG 3.12

waN>aaeGaaiNh vae deva daSYaNTae Yaj>aaivTaa" ) TaEdRtaaNaPa[daYaE>Yaae Yaae >aue STaeNa Wv Sa"== =))
in bhogn hi vo dev dsyante yaja-bhvit, tair dattn a-pradyaibhyo yo bhukte stena eva sa

Yaj>aaivTaa" deva" The devas, satisfied by sacrifice (yaja)

waNa( >aaeGaaNa( ih v" (=YauZMa>YaMa(=) daSYaNTae will surely give you the desired (ia) objects (bhoga).
W>Ya" APa[daYa [But after] not offering to them [in return]
Ya" TaE" dtaaNa( >aue one who enjoys things given (datta) by them
Sa" STaeNa" Wv he is just a thief (stena).
628 BG 3.13

YajiXaaiXaNa" SaNTaae MauCYaNTae SavRik==iLbzE" ) >auTae Tae Tvga& PaaPaa Yae PacNTYaaTMak==ar<aaTa(= = ))
yaja-iina santo mucyante sarva-kilbiai, bhujate te tv agha pp ye pacanty tma-krat

YajiXaAaiXaNa" SaNTa"

Saints (sat >>> santa) who eat food offered in sacrifice (yaja)

The yaja-ia mentioned here is similar to prasdam, foodstuff offered to the Lord in
the Vaiava tradition.

SavRik==iLbzE" MauCYaNTae

are freed from all sins (kilbia),

kilbia there are five utensils in a house (paca-sn) specifically mentioned by which
small animals are accidentally killed: mortar, grinding stone, fire place, water pot and

Yae PaaPaa" Tau AaTMak==ar<aaTa( PaciNTa

Tae AgaMa( >auTae they eat sin (agha).

but those sinners (ppa) who cook for their own sake
629 BG 3.14

AaaviNTa >aUTaaiNa PaJaRNYaadaSaM>av" ) YajaviTa PaJaRNYaae Yaj" k==MaRSaMauv"== =))

annd bhavanti bhtni parjanyd anna-sambhava, yajd bhavati parjanyo yaja karma-samudbhava

AaaTa( >aUTaaiNa >aviNTa All beings (bhta) are born from food (anna)
* AaaTa( From food means Xau= Xaaei<aTaPae<a Pair<aTaaTa( from its transformation
(pariata) in the form of semen (ukra) and blood.

PaJaRNYaaTa( AaSaM>av" the production (sambhava) of food is from rain (parjanya)

YajaTa( PaJaRNYa" >aviTa rain comes from sacrifice (yaja)
Yaj" k==MaRSaMauv" and sacrifice comes from duty (karman).
630 BG 3.15

k==MaR b]aev& ivi b]a+arSaMauvMa( ) TaSMaaTSavRGaTa& b] iNaTYa& Yaje Pa[iTaiTaMa(= = ))

karma brahmodbhava viddhi brahmkara-samudbhavam, tasmt sarva-gata brahma nitya yaje

k==MaR b]ovMa( ivi Know that duty comes from the Veda (brahma)
* b] ved" Brahma means the Veda.
b] A+arSaMauvMa( and Veda comes from the imperishable (a-kara) [Absolute].


ASYa MahTa" >aUTaSYa iNa"iSaTaMa( [Like] the breath of this Great Being WTad(
Gved" YaJauveRd" SaaMaved" is this g-Veda, Yajur-Veda and Sma-Veda. (Bhad-

rayaka-Upaniad 2.4.10)

TaSMaaTa( SavRGaTaMa( b] Therefore, the all-pervading (sarva-gata) Absolute (brahma)

iNaTYaMa( Yaje Pa[iTaiTaMa( always rests in sacrifice (it is attained by sacrifice).
* YajeNa oPaaYa>aUTaeNa Pa[aPYaTae As it (brahma) is attained by means of sacrifice wiTa Yaje
Pa[iTaiTaMa( oCYaTae thus it is said to rest in sacrifice. =oMaSQaa Sada l+Maq"=
wiTavTa( Just as Lakm (prosperity) always resides in exertion (prosperity is attained
by exertion).
631 BG 3.16

Wv& Pa[viTaRTa& c&= NaaNauvTaRYaTaqh Ya" ) AgaaYauiriNd]YaaraMaae Maaega& PaaQaR Sa JaqviTa== =))
eva pravartita cakra nnuvartayatha ya, aghyur indriyrmo mogha prtha sa jvati

PaaQaR O Arjuna!
WvMa( Pa[viTaRTaMa( c==Ma(

The cycle (cakra) thus established

An oblation offered in the fire goes directly to the sun, which generates rain, and
subsequently grain and men. (Manu-sahit) The circle is: work >>> sacrifice >>> rain
>>> grain >>> subsistance >>> work. This cycle is established, set into motion, by the

Absolute or Viu via Brahm through the Veda, which assigns ones duty.

Ya" wh Na ANauvTaRYaiTa one who does not carry [it] out in this world (iha),
AgaAaYau" wiNd]YaAaraMa" his life being sinful (agha), just delighting in the senses (indriya)
Sa" MaaegaMa( JaqviTa he lives in vain (mogha).
* YaSMaaTa( WvMa( ParMaere<a Wv >aUTaaNaaMa( PauzaQaRiSaYae k==MaaRidc==Ma( Pa[viTaRTaMa(
Because the cycle of action etc. is thus set in motion by the Lord (paramevara) Himself
so that the living beings may realize the goal of life (worship of the Lord)

TaSMaaTa( Tad(

Aku= vRTa" v*Qaa Wv JaqvNaMa( therefore, the life of one not doing it is in vain.
632 BG 3.17

YaSTvaTMariTarev SYaadaTMaTa* MaaNav" ) AaTMaNYaev c SaNTauSTaSYa k==aYa| Na ivTae= = ))

yas tv tma-ratir eva syd tma-tpta ca mnava, tmany eva ca santuas tasya krya na vidyate

Ya" Tau MaaNav" AaTMariTa" But that person (mnava) who has delight (rati) in the self
AaTMaTa*" Wv c SYaaTa( and is [therefore] satisfied (tpta) with the self alone
* SvAaNaNdANau>aveNa iNav*RTa" Who is happy with the experience of bliss in himself.
AaTMaiNa Wv c SaNTau" and being [thus] contented in the self alone
* >aaeGaAPae+aarihTa" Who is free from the desire for [sense] enjoyment.
TaSYa k==aYaRMa( Na ivTae for him there exists no duty (krya).
* Ta}a heTauMa( Aah The reason for this is being stated:
633 BG 3.18

NaEv TaSYa k*= TaeNaaQaaeR Naak*= TaeNaeh k==Na ) Na caSYa SavR>aUTaezu k==idQaRVYaPaa[Ya"== =))
naiva tasya ktenrtho nkteneha kacana, na csya sarva-bhteu kacid artha-vyapraya

wh k*= TaeNa

By work (kta) in this world



TaSYa Na Wv k==Na AQaR" there is no gain (artha) [of piety] for him whatsoever
* k*= TaeNa (=k= MaR<aa=) By working TaSYa AQaR" (=Pau<YaMa(=) NaEv AiSTa there is no pious
merit for him.

Na Ak*= TaeNa

nor by no work [is there any sin for him].


Nac Ak*= TaeNa Nor by not working k==Na k==" AiPa Pa[TYavaYa" AiSTa is there any

reverse (sin) for him.

ASYa c SavR>aUTaezu

And for him among all beings (bhta)

... even among the devas

Na k==id( AQaRVYaPaa[Ya" no one is a shelter for any purpose (artha).

* WvMa>aUTaSYa jaiNaNa" Wv Only for such a realized man k==MaRANauPaYaaeGa" action is
not prescribed Na ANYaSYa not for any other. TaSMaaTa( TvMa( k==MaR ku= Therefore you
(Arjuna) must do your duty:
634 BG 3.19

TaSMaadSa==" SaTaTa& k==aYa| k==MaR SaMaacr ) ASa==ae acrNk==MaR ParMaaPNaaeiTa PaUz"== =))
tasmd a-sakta satata krya karma samcara, a-sakto hy caran karma param pnoti prua

TaSMaaTa( ASa==" Therefore, unattached (a-sakta)

SaTaTaMa( k==aYaRMa( k==MaR SaMaacr always perform the work (karman) which has to be done (krya)!
ASa==" ih k==MaR AacrNa( [While] performing work unattached
PaUz" ParMa( AaPNaaeiTa a person (prua) attains the Supreme.
635 BG 3.20

k==MaR<aEv ih Sa&iSaiMaaiSQaTaa JaNak==adYa" ) laek= SahMaevaiPa SaMPaXYaNk==TauRMahRiSa== =))

karmaaiva hi sasiddhim sthit janakdaya, loka-sagraham evpi sampayan kartum arhasi

k==MaR<aa Wv ih

Just by [performing their] duty

k==MaR<aa Wv XauSatva" SaNTa" Being purified in mind by work alone.

JaNak==AadYa" Sa&iSaiMa( AaiSQaTaa" [kings] like Janaka have attained perfection (realization).
* YaiPa TvMa( SaMYak(= jaiNaNaMa( Wv AaTMaaNaMa( MaNYaSae Even if you should consider
yourself of perfect realization TaQaaiPa k==MaR Aacr<aMa( >ad]Ma( Wv still the performance

of work is good:

laek= SahMa( Wv AiPa SaMPaXYaNa(

[While just] considering the welfare of the people (loka)

Arjuna must set a good example, otherwise others might also give up their regulated
duty and fall down, being not yet purified from material desires.

k==TauRMa( AhRiSa

you should work.

k==MaRk==r<ae laek= Sah" YaQaa SYaaTa(

ones duty TaQaa Aah that is stated:

How there is welfare of the people in doing

636 BG 3.21

YadacriTa [eSTatadeveTarae JaNa" ) Sa YaTPa[Maa<a& ku= Tae laek= STadNauvTaRTae= = ))

yad yad carati rehas tat tad evetaro jana, sa yat prama kurute lokas tad anuvartate

Yad( Yad( [e" AacriTa Whatever the leader (reha) does

Tad( Tad( Wv wTar" JaNa" that same thing [does] another (common) man (jana).


Yad( Pa[Maa<aMa( Sa" ku= Tae The standard (prama) which he sets
* k==MaRXaaMa( iNav*itaXaaMa( va Either scripture promoting action or scripture
promoting renunciation Yad( Pa[Maa<aMa( MaNYaTae whatever authority he accepts.
Tad( laek= " ANauvTaRTae that the world follows.
637 BG 3.22

Na Mae PaaQaaRiSTa k==TaRVYa& i}azu laeke= zu ik==Na ) NaaNavaMavaVYa& vTaR Wv c k==MaRi<a== =))
na me prthsti kartavya triu lokeu kicana, nnavptam avptavya varta eva ca karmai

PaaQaR= = i}azu laeke= zu O Arjuna! In the three worlds (loka)

Mae (=MaMa=) ik==Na k==TaRVYaMa( Na AiSTa there is not any duty (kartavya) for Me
Na ANa(AvaMa( AvaVYaMa( nor (anything) unobtained to be obtained,
k==MaRi<a vTaeR Wv c [still] I am also engaged in work.
638 BG 3.23

Yaid h& Na vTaeRYa& JaaTau k==MaR<YaTaiNd]Ta" ) MaMa vTMaaRNauvTaRNTae MaNauZYaa" PaaQaR SavRXa"== =))
yadi hy aha na varteya jtu karmay a-tandrita, mama vartmnuvartante manuy prtha sarvaa

PaaQaR= = Yaid JaaTau O Arjuna! If ever

AhMa( ATaiNd]Ta" ih k==MaRi<a Na vTaeRYaMa( I would not carefully engage in work
MaNauZYaa" [then] people (manuya)
MaMa vTMaR SavRXa" ANauvTaRNTae would follow my path (vartman) in all respect.
639 BG 3.24

oTSaqdeYauirMae laek= a Na ku= Yaa| k==MaR cedhMa( ) SarSYa c k==TaaR SYaaMauPahNYaaiMaMaa" Pa[Jaa"== =))
utsdeyur ime lok na kury karma ced aham, sakarasya ca kart sym upahanym im praj

AhMa( k==MaR Na ku= YaaRMa( ced( If I would not perform work

wMae laek= a" oTSaqdeYau" these worlds (loka) would be ruined.
SarSYa c k==TaaR SYaaMa( I would be the cause of confusion (sakara) [of vara]
wMaa" Pa[Jaa" oPahNYaaMa( and I would [thus] harm these people (praj).
640 BG 3.25

Sa==a" k==MaR<Yaiva&Saae YaQaa ku= vRiNTa >aarTa ) ku= YaaRia&STaQaaSa==ik==IzuRlaeRk= SahMa(= = ))

sakt karmay a-vidvso yath kurvanti bhrata, kuryd vidvs tathsakta cikrur loka-sagraham

>aarTa O Arjuna!
k==MaRi<a Sa==a" Aiva&Sa" The ignorant (a-vidvas), who are attached to work
YaQaa ku= vRiNTa just as they work,
ASa==" ivaNa( the unattached wise (vidvat)
laek= SahMa( ick==IzuR" desiring to do the welfare of all
TaQaa ku= YaaRTa( should similarly work.
* NaNau One might ask =k*= PaYaa TatvjaNaMa( Wv oPadeuMa( Yau= Ma( Should not
knowledge of the Absolute be instructed out of pity? Na= No! wiTa Aah This is being
641 BG 3.26

Na bui>aed& JaNaYaedjaNaa& k==MaRSaiNaaMa( ) JaaezYaeTSavRk= MaaRi<a ivaNYau= " SaMaacrNa(= = ))



na buddhi-bheda janayed a-jn karma-saginm, joayet sarva-karmi vidvn yukta samcaran

AjaNaaMa( k==MaRSaiNaaMa( For ignorant men (a-jna) attached to work

ivaNa( bui>aedMa( Na JaNaYaeTa( the wise (vidvat) should not create doubt (disturbance of intelligence).
* k==MaR<a" Sak==aXaaTa( buicalNaMa( Na ku= YaaRTa( He should not turn their mind away
from work.

SavRk==MaaRi<a Yau= " SaMaacrNa( [But by] attentively performing all duties [himself]
JaaezYaeTa( he should engage [them in work].
* NaNau One might ask: ivduza AiPa ced( k==MaR k==TaRVYaMa( If by the wise also work is to be
performed TaihR ivd(Aivduzae" k==" ivXaez" then what is the difference between
the wise and the ignorant?
642 BG 3.27

Pa[k*= Tae" i==YaMaa<aaiNa Gau<aE" k==MaaRi<a SavRXa" ) AharivMaU!aTMaa k==TaaRhiMaiTa MaNYaTae= = ))

prakte kriyamni guai karmi sarvaa, ahakra-vimhtm kartham iti manyate

Pa[k*= Tae" Gau<aE"

By the senses (gua) of material nature (prakti)


Pa[k*= Tae" Gau<aE" By the modes of nature (prakti) means Pa[k*= iTak==aYa" wiNd]YaE" by the

senses produced by nature.

k==MaaRi<a SavRXa" i==YaMaa<aaiNa all activities are completely being done.

AharivMaU!AaTMaa [But] one who is bewildered by false ego (ahakra)
* Ahare<a By false ego means wiNd]Yaaidzu AaTMaADYaaSaeNa by the superimposition
of the self on the senses, etc.

AhMa( k==TaaR wiTa MaNYaTae

he thinks, I am the doer.

643 BG 3.28

Tatvivtau Mahabahae Gau<ak==MaRiv>aaGaYaae" ) Gau<aa Gau<aezu vTaRNTa wiTa MaTva Na SaTae= = ))

tattva-vit tu mah-bho gua-karma-vibhgayo, gu gueu vartanta iti matv na sajjate

Mahabahae O Arjuna!
Gau<ak==MaRiv>aaGaYaae" Tatvivd( Tau

But one who knows the differentiations [of the soul] from the senses

(gua) and activities (karman)

Gau<aa" Gau<aezu vTaRNTae wiTa MaTva

[after] understanding that, [only] the senses are engaged with their


Na SaTae

he does not attach.


k==Ta*RTvAi>aiNaveXaMa( Na k==raeiTa He does not attach to the idea of doership.

644 BG 3.29

Pa[k*= TaeGauR<aSaMMaU!a" SaNTae Gau<ak==MaRSau ) TaaNak*= Tivdae MaNdaNk*= Tiva ivcalYaeTa(= = ))

prakter gua-sammh sajjante gua-karmasu, tn a-ktsna-vido mandn ktsna-vin na viclayet

Pa[k*= Tae" Gau<aSaMMaU!a" Those who are bewildered by the modes (gua) of nature (prakti)
Gau<ak==MaRSau SaNTae attach themselves to sense activities.
TaaNa( Ak*= Tivd" MaNdaNa( Those ignorant fools
k*= Tivd( Na ivcalYaeTa( the wise should not unsettle [by stopping to work].


Tad( WvMa( Tatvivda AiPa Therefore even by the knowers of the Absolute k==MaR
k==TaRVYaMa( work should be performed.

645 BG 3.30

MaiYa SavaRi<a k==MaaRi<a SaYaSYaaDYaaTMaceTaSaa ) iNaraXaqiNaRMaRMaae >aUTva YauDYaSv ivGaTaJvr"== =))

mayi sarvi karmi sannyasydhytma-cetas, nirr nirmamo bhtv yudhyasva vigata-jvara


With transcendental consciousness

=ANTaYaaRiMaADaqNa" AhMa( k==raeiMa= I am acting under the guidance of the Supersoul

wiTa d*ya= with that vision.
SavaRi<a k==MaaRi<a MaiYa SaYaSYa [after] giving up (offering) all activities to Me
iNaraXaq" iNaMaRMa" >aUTva being free from desire and proprietorship
ivGaTaJvr" YauDYaSv fight without grief!

646 BG 3.31

Yae Mae MaTaiMad& iNaTYaMaNauiTaiNTa MaaNava" ) [avNTaae-= _NaSaUYaNTaae MauCYaNTae Tae= _iPa k==MaRi>a"== =))
ye me matam ida nityam anutihanti mnav, raddhvanto nasyanto mucyante te pi karmabhi

Yae [avNTa" ANa(ASaUYaNTa" MaaNava" Those men (mnava) who are faithful and unenvious
* ANaSaUYaNTa" Being unenvious means =du"%aTMake= k==MaRi<a Pa[vTaRYaiTa= He engages me
in painful work wiTa daezd*iMa( Aku= vRNTa" without finding such fault.
wdMa( Mae (=MaMa=) MaTaMa( iNaTYaMa( ANauiTaiNTa and always follow this opinion (mata) of Mine [and do
their duty],

Tae AiPa k==MaRi>a" MauCYaNTae

they are also (like those in knowledge) freed from all karma.
647 BG 3.32

Yae TveTad>YaSaUYaNTaae NaaNauiTaiNTa Mae MaTaMa( ) SavRjaNaivMaU!a&STaaiNvi NaaNaceTaSa"== =))

ye tv etad abhyasyanto nnutihanti me matam, sarva-jna-vimhs tn viddhi nan a-cetasa

Yae Tau A>YaSaUYaNTa" But those who are envious

WTad( Mae (=MaMa=) MaTaMa( Na ANauiTaiNTa and do not follow this teaching of Mine,
... those who do not their duty, thinking that, Why He is engaging me in painful work

TaaNa( AceTaSa" SavRjaNaivMaU!aNa( those fools, bereft of all knowledge (jna)

NaaNa( ivi know to be doomed!
* NaNau One might ask: =TaihR Mahaf==lTvaTa( Then, as it has such great results
wiNd]Yaai<a iNaGa* iNaZk==aMaa" SaNTa" controlling the senses and being without desire
SaveR AiPa SvDaMaRMa( Wv ik==Ma( Na ANauiTaiNTa why do not all follow their duty?
648 BG 3.33

Sad*Xa& ceTae SvSYaa" Pa[k*= TaejaRNavaNaiPa ) Pa[k*= iTa& YaaiNTa >aUTaaiNa iNaGa]h" ik&= k==irZYaiTa== =))
sada ceate svasy prakter jnavn api, prakti ynti bhtni nigraha ki kariyati

jaNavaNa( AiPa

Even a man of knowledge (jnavat)

Gau<adaezjaNavaNa( AiPa Even one aware of good and bad.

SvSYaa" Pa[k*= Tae" Sad*XaMa( ceTae acts according to his own disposition.
* Pa[k*= iTa" Pa[acqNak==MaRSa&Sk==arADaqNaSv>aav"= Disposition

dominated by the impressions of past actions.

>aUTaaiNa Pa[k*= iTaMa( YaaiNTa

[All] beings (bhta) follow [their] nature,

is ones own nature



iNaGa]h" ik==Ma( k==irZYaiTa what can repression do?

* Pa[k*= Tae" bilTvaTa( Nature being very strong.
This verse shows the power of nature. When grossly violated, nature will take its
revenge. This does not mean that we are irresponsible slaves of every small impulse.
Because then instructions for betterment like this Gt would be useless:

NaNau One might ask =WvMa( Pa[k*= iTaADaqNaa Wv ced( PauzSYa Pa[v*ita" If a mans
inclination (pravtti) is thus dependent on nature alone TaihR iviDaiNazeDavEYaQYaRMa(
Pa[aMa( then rules (vidhi) and prohibitions (niedha) are useless?

649 BG 3.34

wiNd]YaSYaeiNd]YaSYaaQaeR raGaezaE VYaviSQaTaaE ) TaYaaeNaR vXaMaaGaC^etaaE SYa PairPaiNQaNaaE= = ))

indriyasyendriyasyrthe rga-dveau vyavasthitau, tayor na vaam gacchet tau hy asya paripanthinau

wiNd]YaSYa wiNd]YaSYa AQaeR Of each sense (indriya) towards its object (artha)
raGaezaE VYaviSQaTaaE attachment (rga) and aversion (dvea) are fixed.
* Tad(ANauPaa =Pa[v*ita"= wiTa >aUTaaNaaMa( Pa[k*= iTa" Accordingly is the inclination, the
nature of all beings.

TaYaae" vXaMa( Na AaGaC^eTa( [But] one should not come under the control of these two,
TaaE ih ASYa PairPaiNQaNaaE because these two are his obstacles.
* XaaMa( Tau TaTa" Pa[ak(= Wv ivzYaezu raGaezPa[iTabNDake= ParMaer>aJaNaadaE
Pa[vTaRYaiTa Scripture engages one beforehand in worship of the Lord etc., which helps to
resist the attraction and aversion for objects GaM>aqraeTa"PaaTaaTa( PaUvRMa( Wv NaavMa(
Aai[Ta" wv like one who resorts to a boat before falling into a deep current Na
ANaQaRMa( Pa[aPNaaeiTa and then he does not come to harm.
There should be instructions b e f o r e entering the ocean of sense gratification,
especially in modern times.

Tad( WvMa( Sva>aaivk==IMa( PaXauAaidSad*XaqMa( Pa[v*itaMa( TYaa Thus giving up

ones normal nature which is like to that of animals etc. SvDaMaeR Pa[viTaRTaVYaMa( one
should engage in ones duty wiTa o==Ma( this has been said. TaihR Therefore SvDaMaRSYa
(=YauAade" du"%PaSYa=) YaQaavTa( k==TauRMa( AXaKYaTvaTa( because ones duty,
harmful like war, is difficult to perform ParDaMaRSYa c (=Aih&SaaAade"=) Sauk= rTvaTa(
and because anothers duty, such as non-violence, is easy to perform DaMaRTv
AivXaezTvaTa( c and because both are equally duties Ta}a Pa[viTaRTauMa( wC^NTaMa( Pa[iTa
Aah to one who thus wants to change [his duty] He says:

650 BG 3.35

[eYaaNSvDaMaaeR ivGau<a" ParDaMaaRTSvNauiTaaTa( ) SvDaMaeR iNaDaNa& [eYa" ParDaMaaeR >aYaavh"== =))

reyn sva-dharmo vigua para-dharmt svanuhitt, sva-dharme nidhana reya para-dharmo

SvNauiTaaTa( ParDaMaaRTa( Than anothers duty (para-dharma), [even] well performed

ivGau<a" SvDaMaR" [eYaaNa( ones own duty (sva-dharma) is better, [even if] defective.
SvDaMaeR iNaDaNaMa( [eYa" [Even] death (nidhana) in ones own duty is better.
* SvGaaRidPa[aPak==TvaTa( Because it leads [warriors like Arjuna] to heaven.


ParDaMaR" >aYaAavh" Anothers duty brings danger.

* iNaizTveNa Nark==Pa[aPak==TvaTa( Because it leads to hell, being forbidden [to him].
Externally we may do our job correctly, but if it is against our potential we might end
up deeply frustrated.
651 BG 3.36

AJauRNa ovac
AQa ke= Na Pa[Yau= ae-= _Ya& PaaPa& criTa PaUz" ) AiNaC^aiPa vaZ<aeRYa blaidv iNaYaaeiJaTa"== =))
atha kena prayukto ya ppa carati prua, an-icchann api vreya bald iva niyojita

AJauRNa" ovac vaZ<aeRYa Arjuna said: O Ka!

ANa(wC^Na( AiPa Even unwillingly
* ANaQaRPaMa( PaaPaMa( k==TauRMa( AiNaC^Na( AiPa Even if not willing to do sin, which is

blaTa( wv iNaYaaeiJaTa" as if engaged by force (bala),

AQa ke= Na Pa[Yau= " then by what impelled
AYaMa( PaUz" PaaPaMa( criTa does a person commit sin (ppa)?
652 BG 3.37

k==aMa Wz ==aeDa Wz rJaaeGau<aSaMauv" ) MahaXaNaae MahaPaaPMaa ivyeNaiMah vEir<aMa(= = ))
kma ea krodha ea rajo-gua-samudbhava, mahano mah-ppm viddhy enam iha vairiam

[q>aGavaNa( ovac The Lord said:

Wz" k==aMa" Wz" ==aeDa" This [cause] is desire (kma), this is anger (krodha)
rJa"Gau<aSaMauv" born of the mode of passion (rajas)
Anger is frustrated desire. When desire is conquered, anger is conquered. Therefore
they are mentioned here as one. And when their source, passion (rajas), is conquered
by an increase of goodness (sattva), desire is conquered.

MahaAXaNa" MahaPaaPMaa voracious and most sinful.

wh WNaMa( vEir<aMa( ivi Know this to be the enemy (vairin) [to liberation] in this world!
* AYaMa( c v+YaMaa<a==Mae<a hNTaVYa Wv It has indeed to be killed by the method to
be described YaTa" =Na ASaaE daNaeNa SaNDaaTauMa( XaKYa"= because it can not be appeased
by gifts wiTa Aah =MahaAXaNa"= so it is being described as of great appetite. Nac
SaaMNaa SaNDaaTauMa( XaKYa" Nor can it be appeased by conciliation YaTa" MahaPaaPMaa
because it is most sinful.
Among the four political means to deal with enemies conciliation, gift, dissension and
punishment two are dismissed.
653 BG 3.38

DaUMaeNaaiv]YaTae viYaRQaadXaaeR MaleNa c ) YaQaaeLbeNaav*Taae Ga>aRSTaQaa TaeNaedMaav*TaMa(= = ))

dhmenvriyate vahnir yathdaro malena ca, yatholbenvto garbhas tath tenedam vtam

YaQaa DaUMaeNa vi" Aaiv]YaTae As fire is covered by smoke (dhma)

MaleNa AadXaR" c and a mirror by dust (mala)
YaQaa oLbeNa Ga>aR" Aav*Ta" and as an embryo (garbha) is covered by the womb



TaQaa TaeNa wdMa( Aav*TaMa( so by that (desire) this (knowledge) is covered.

* Pa[k= ar}aYae<a AiPa In all three ways TaeNa k==aMaeNa Aav*TaMa( wdMa( this (knowledge) is
covered by that desire.

wdMa(XaBdiNaidRMa( dXaRYaNa( Showing what is indicated by the word this

(knowledge) [in the last verse] vEirTvMa( Sfu= $=YaiTa the enmity [of desire] is explained:

654 BG 3.39

Aav*Ta& jaNaMaeTaeNa jaiNaNaae iNaTYavEir<aa ) k==aMaPae<a k==aENTaeYa duZPaUre<aaNaleNa c== =))

vta jnam etena jnino nitya-vairi, kma-rpea kaunteya duprenalena ca

k==aENTaeYa O Arjuna!
k==aMaPae<a duZPaUre<a ANaleNa c In the form of desire, which is [like] an unsatiable fire
* Xaaek= SaNTaaPaheTauTvaTa( Because it leads to sorrow and misery ANalTauLYa" it is like

WTaeNa jaiNaNa" iNaTYavEir<aa by this eternal enemy (vairin) of the wise (jnin)
* AjSYa %lu For the ignorant, of course >aaeGaSaMaYae k==aMa" Sau%heTau" Wv desire is
the cause of pleasure at the time of enjoyment (bhoga) Pair<aaMae Tau vEirTaaMa( Pa[PaTae
but in consequence there is enmity.

jaNaMa( Aav*TaMa(

knowledge (jna) is covered.


wdaNaqMa( Now TaSYa AiDaaNaMa( k==QaYaNa( by declaring its seat JaYaoPaaYaMa( Aah the

means to conquer it is stated:

655 BG 3.40

wiNd]Yaai<a MaNaae buirSYaaiDaaNaMauCYaTae ) WTaEivRMaaehYaTYaez jaNaMaav*TYa deihNaMa(= = ))

indriyi mano buddhir asydhihnam ucyate, etair vimohayaty ea jnam vtya dehinam

wiNd]Yaai<a MaNa" bui" The senses (indriya), mind (manas) and intelligence (buddhi)
ASYa AiDaaNaMa( oCYaTae are said to be its (lusts) seat.
* ivzYadXaRNa[v<aaidi>a" Because through seeing, hearing, etc. of sense objects
SaLPaeNa through thinking of them ADYavSaaYaeNa c and through determination
k==aMaSYa Aaiv>aaRvaTa( desire arises.
WTaE" jaNaMa( Aav*TYa [After] covering knowledge (jna) through these
Wz" deihNaMa( ivMaaehYaiTa it bewilders the embodied soul (dehin).
656 BG 3.41

TaSMaatviMaiNd]Yaa<YaadaE iNaYaMYa >arTazR>a ) PaaPMaaNa& Pa[Jaih eNa& jaNaivjaNaNaaXaNaMa(= = ))

tasmt tvam indriyy dau niyamya bharatarabha, ppmna prajahi hy ena jna-vijna-nanam

TaSMaaTa( >arTaz>a

Therefore, O Arjuna!

bharata-abha best of the Bharatas

AadaE ih wiNd]Yaai<a iNaYaMYa [After] restraining the senses in the very beginning
* AadaE In the beginning means ivMaaehaTa( PaUvRMa( before delusion.
WNaMa( jaNaivjaNaNaaXaNaMa( PaaPMaaNaMa( this evil, destroyer of knowledge (jna)

and realization


jaNaMa( XaaAacaYaRoPadeXaJaMa( Jna results from the teachings of scripture

(stra) and preceptor (crya) ivjaNaMa( iNaidDYaaSaNaJaMa( vijna results from
meditation. [In 6.8 rdhara Svm defines it as follows:] jaNaMa( AaEPadeiXak==Ma( Jna
comes from instruction ivjaNaMa( AParae+aANau>av" vijna is intuitive realization.

TvMa( Pa[Jaih

you must kill (give up).

657 BG 3.42

wiNd]Yaai<a Para<YaahuiriNd]Yae>Ya" Par& MaNa" ) MaNaSaSTau Para buiYaaeR bue" ParTaSTau Sa"== =))
indriyi pary hur indriyebhya para mana, manasas tu par buddhir yo buddhe paratas tu sa

wiNd]Yaai<a Parai<a Aahu" The senses (indriya) are said to be superior [to objects]
* SaU+MaTvaTa( Pa[k= aXak==TvaTa( c Because they are subtle and reveal [the objects].
MaNa" wiNd]Yae>Ya" ParMa( the mind (manas) is superior to the senses
* Tad(Pa[vTaRk= TvaTa( Because it directs them.
bui" Tau MaNaSa" Para and the intelligence (buddhi) is superior to the mind.
* iNaYaPaUvRk= TvaTa( SaLPaSYa Because thinking is preceded by a decision (nicaya)
[of the intelligence].

Ya" Tau bue" ParTa", Sa" And that which is superior to intelligence, is he (the soul).
* Tad(Saai+aTveNa AviSQaTa" Which resides as the witness of all this SavRANTar" and
the innermost Sa" AaTMaa that is the soul.
658 BG 3.43

Wv& bue" Par& bud(a Sa&STa>YaaTMaaNaMaaTMaNaa ) Jaih Xa}au& Mahabahae k==aMaPa& duraSadMa(= = ))
eva buddhe para buddhv sastabhytmnam tman, jahi atru mah-bho kma-rpa dursadam

Mahabahae O Arjuna!
WvMa( bue" ParMa( bud(a [After] thus knowing it (the soul) to be superior to intelligence (buddhi)
AaTMaNaa AaTMaaNaMa( Sa&STa>Ya and [after] steadying the mind by the intelligence
duraSadMa( k==aMaPaMa( Xa}auMa( the enemy (atru) in the form of desire (kma), so difficult to conquer
Jaih you must slay!
Rmnujcrya comments that sa (in 3.42) refers to kma. Knowing that kma is
higher even than buddhi, one should conquer it from the very beginning.



Sanskrit Kdanta 2
(1) kta
(2) krya
The suffixes .ya, .tavya, and .anya are used to point out duty:

k==r<ae to do >>> kr.ya, kar.tavya, kar.aya (all three words have the same meaning)

that which is to be done, or that which can be done, duty

TaSYa k==aYa| Na ivTae his duty does not exist, for him there is no duty; MaMa k==TaRVYaMa( Na AiSTa my
duty does not exist, there is no duty for Me

EDaqk==r<ae to divide into two >>> ^e divisible

dah[a]...>aSMaqk==r<ae to burn to ashes >>> da to be burned
klid[]...Aad]s>aave to be wet >>> e= to be moistened
u[a]...Xaaez<ae to dry >>> XaaeZYa to be dried; AYaMa( AC^e" Ada" Ae= " AXaaeZYa" this
[soul] can not be broken, burned, moistened, nor dried up


icNTYaaMa( to think, remember >>> icNTYa to be thought of; AicNTYa

thought of, inconceivable


PaUJaaYaaMa( to worship, honor >>> PaUJYa to be worshiped

k==aYaRk==ar<a cause (kraa) and effect (krya to be done)
jaNajeYa knowledge (jna) and that which is to be known (jeya)
DYaaNaDYaeYa meditation (dhyna) and that which is to be meditated upon (dhyeya)
Pa]Maa<aPa]MaeYa proof (prama) and that which is to be prooved (prameya)

which can not be


Hinduism Gt 4
Jna-karma-sannysa-yoga The Yoga of Knowledge (jna) and Renunciation (sannysa) of Work
659 BG 4.1

wMa& ivvSvTae YaaeGa& Pa[ae= vaNahMaVYaYaMa( ) ivvSvaNMaNave Pa[ah MaNauir+vak==ve-= _b]vqTa(= = ))
ima vivasvate yoga proktavn aham a-vyayam, vivasvn manave prha manur ikvkave bravt

[q>aGavaNa( ovac The Lord said:

wMaMa( AVYaYaMa( YaaeGaMa( This imperishable (karma-) yoga
AhMa( ivvSvTae Pa[ae= vaNa( I instructed to Vivasvn
ivvSvaNa( MaNave Pa[ah Vivasvn instructed [his son] Vaivasvata Manu
MaNau" w+vak==ve Ab]vqTa( and Vaivasvata Manu spoke to [his son] Ikvku.
Vivasvn was the eighth son of Aditi. The son of Vivasvn, rddhadeva, became the
seventh (the present) Vaivasvata Manu. His son was Ikvku, founder of the solar
dynasty of the kings of Ayodhy, whose son was Nimi.
660 BG 4.2

Wv& ParMParaPa[aiMaMa& raJazRYaae ivdu" ) Sa k==aleNaeh MahTaa YaaeGaae Na" ParNTaPa== =))
eva parampar-prptam ima rjarayo vidu, sa kleneha mahat yogo naa parantapa

WvMa( ParMParaPa[aMa( Thus received by disciplic succession

wMaMa( raJazYa" ivdu" saintly kings (like Nimi) know it.
ParNTaPa== MahTaa k==aleNa O Arjuna! By great time
Sa" YaaeGa" wh Na" that yoga system has become distinct in this world.
661 BG 4.3

Sa WvaYa& MaYaa Tae-= _ YaaeGa" Pa[ae= " PauraTaNa" ) >a==ae-= _iSa Mae Sa%a ceiTa rhSYa& eTadutaMaMa(= = ))
sa evya may te dya yoga prokta purtana, bhakto si me sakh ceti rahasya hy etad uttamam

Sa" Wv AYaMa( PauraTaNa" YaaeGa" That same ancient yoga

A Tae (=Tau>YaMa(=) MaYaa Pa[ae= " is today instructed by Me to you [alone]
Mae (=MaMa=) >a==" Sa%a c AiSa wiTa who are My devotee (bhakta) and friend,
WTad( ih otaMaMa( rhSYaMa( [because] it is a supreme secret (rahasya).
662 BG 4.4

AJauRNa ovac
APar& >avTaae JaNMa Par& JaNMa ivvSvTa" ) k==QaMaeTaiJaaNaqYaa& TvMaadaE Pa[ae= vaiNaiTa== =))
apara bhavato janma para janma vivasvata, katham etad vijny tvam dau proktavn iti

AJauRNa" ovac Arjuna said:

>avTa" JaNMa AParMa( Your birth (janman) is later
ivvSvTa" JaNMa ParMa( and Vivasvns birth is earlier.
TvMa( AadaE Pa[ae= vaNa( wiTa That in the beginning (di) You instructed [him]
WTad( k==QaMa( ivJaaNaqYaaMa( how can I understand this?
663 BG 4.5




bhUiNa Mae VYaTaqTaaiNa JaNMaaiNa Tav caJauRNa ) TaaNYah& ved SavaRi<a Na Tv& veTQa ParNTaPa== =))
bahni me vyattni janmni tava crjuna, tny aha veda sarvi na tva vettha parantapa

[q>aGavaNa( ovac AJauRNa The Lord said: O Arjuna!

Mae (=MaMa=) Tav c Of Me and you
bhUiNa JaNMaaiNa VYaTaqTaaiNa many births (janman) have passed.
ParNTaPa O Arjuna!
AhMa( TaaiNa SavaRi<a ved I know them all
TvMa( Na veTQa [but] you do not know.
664 BG 4.6

AJaae-= _iPa SaaVYaYaaTMaa >aUTaaNaaMaqrae-= _iPa SaNa( ) Pa[k*= iTa& SvaMaiDaaYa SaM>avaMYaaTMaMaaYaYaa== =))
a-jo pi sann a-vyaytm bhtnm varo pi san, prakti svm adhihya sambhavmy tma-myay

AJa" AiPa SaNa( AVYaYaAaTMaa Though being unborn and imperishable

>aUTaaNaaMa( wRr" AiPa SaNa( and though being the Lord of all beings
SvaMa( Pa[k*= iTaMa( AiDaaYa [after] presiding over My material energy (prakti)
AaTMaMaaYaYaa SaM>avaiMa I manifest (descend) [Myself] by My energy.
665 BG 4.7

Yada Yada ih DaMaRSYa GlaiNa>aRviTa >aarTa ) A>YauTQaaNaMaDaMaRSYa TadaTMaaNa& Sa*JaaMYahMa(= = ))

yad yad hi dharmasya glnir bhavati bhrata, abhyutthnam a-dharmasya tadtmna sjmy aham

>aarTa O Arjuna!
Yada Yada ih DaMaRSYa GlaiNa" >aviTa Whenever there is a decline of righteousness (dharma)
ADaMaRSYa A>YauTQaaNaMa( and a rise of unrighteousness
Tada AhMa( AaTMaaNaMa( Sa*JaaiMa at that time I manifest Myself.
666 BG 4.8

Pair}aa<aaYa SaaDaUNaa& ivNaaXaaYa c duZk*= TaaMa( ) DaMaRSa&SQaaPaNaaQaaRYa SaM>avaiMa YauGae YauGae= = ))

paritrya sdhn vinya ca duktm, dharma-sasthpanrthya sambhavmi yuge yuge

SaaDaUNaaMa( Pair}aa<aaYa For the protection of the pious (sdhu)

duZk*= TaaMa( ivNaaXaaYa for the destruction of the evil-doers
DaMaRSa&SQaaPaNaAQaaRYa c and [thus] for the establishment of righteousness (dharma)
YauGae YauGae SaM>avaiMa I manifest (descend) in every millenium (yuga).
667 BG 4.9

JaNMa k==MaR c Mae idVYaMaev& Yaae veita TatvTa" ) TYaa deh& PauNaJaRNMa NaEiTa MaaMaeiTa Saae-= _JauRNa== =))
janma karma ca me divyam eva yo vetti tattvata, tyaktv deha punar janma naiti mm eti so rjuna

AJauRNa O Arjuna!
Mae (=MaMa=) JaNMa k==MaR c idVYaMa( My birth and activity is divine.
* Mae JaNMa My birth SvwC^ak*= TaMa( is by My free will k==MaR c DaMaRPaalNaPaMa( and
My work consists of the protection of righteousness (dharma).

Ya" WvMa( TatvTa" veita One who thus knows it truly

* TatvTa" Truly means ParANauGa]hAQaRMa( Wv that it is just for the good of others.
dehMa( TYaa [after] leaving the body
* dehAi>aMaaNaMa( TYaa After giving up attachment for the body.


Sa" PauNa" JaNMa Na WiTa he does not take birth again

MaaMa( WiTa [but] he comes to Me.
* k==QaMa( JaNMak==MaRjaNaeNa Tvd(Pa[ai" SYaaTa(

How can one attain You [just] by

knowledge of Your birth and activities?

668 BG 4.10

vqTaraGa>aYa==aeDaa MaNMaYaa MaaMauPaai[Taa" ) bhvae jaNaTaPaSaa PaUTaa MaavMaaGaTaa"== =))

vta-rga-bhaya-krodh manmay mm uprit, bahavo jna-tapas pt mad-bhvam gat

vqTaraGa>aYa==aeDaa" Freed from attachment (rga), fear (bhaya) and anger (krodha)
* ParMak==ai<ak==TvMa( jaTva By understanding the supreme compassion

[that I

descend for their benefit].

MaNMaYaa" MaaMa( oPaai[Taa" absorbed in Me and taking shelter of Me

jaNaTaPaSaa PaUTaa" purified by knowledge (jna) and renunciation (tapas)
bhv" Mad(>aavMa( AaGaTaa" many [already] attained My [transcendental] nature.
* NaTau ADauNaa Wv Pa[v*ta" AYaMa( Mad(>ai==MaaGaR" It is not that this path (mrga) of
bhakti is made newly. wiTa AQaR" This is the idea.
There are some philosophers who are in favor of the idea of becoming one with God, or
merging into Him. They stress the fact that the individual soul is qualitatively similar to
the Supersoul, namely conscious, but forget that the tm or jva is very small (au) and
prone to be bewildered by the external energy (my), whereas the Paramtm or vara
is the greatest soul (vibhu) and never under illusion. According to Bhagavad-gt the

wRrSYa c AivaA>aaveNa iNaTYaXauTvaTa(

Because the Lord, being free from ignorance, is ever pure JaqvSYa c wRrPa[Saad
lBDajaNaeNa AjaNaiNav*tae" XauSYa SaTa" and the jva, by casting off ignorance
through knowledge attained by the grace of the Lord, is being purified icTa(A&XaeNa
Tad(WEKYaMa( o==Ma( wiTa d]VYaMa( it is shown that their identity mentioned here is only
tm can not become Paramtm.

as being also a particle of pure consciousness (cit). (Subodhin 4.10) Oneness of tm

and Paramtm therefore refers either to: (1) similarity: An example is in the verse 4.35:

>aUTaaiNa AaTMaiNa AQaae MaiYa d]+YaiSa You will see all beings in the tm ... How?
By appearance (updhitvena), seeing the similarity of nature (smyam), which is
consciousness. ... and therefore in Me. The tm is part and parcel of the paramtm.
Arjuna should see all beings as children of God not as his own relatives. Or (2)
intimacy: The following three are examples for intimacy:

ANaNYaYaa >aKTYaa Tau AhMa(

Wv&ivDa" TatveNa jaTauMa( d]uMa( c Pa[veuMa( c XaKYa" Only by unalloyed devotion

can I be truly known, seen and entered into. (11.54) TaiSMaNa( AaTMaa YaSYa, Sa"
TadaTMaa Whose heart/soul is in that, who is absorbed in that, he is tad-tm (5.17);
not that he is that. Just like, TaiSMaNa( bui" YaSYa, Sa" Tad(bui" Whose
intelligence is in that, he is tad-buddhi. TaiSMaNa( iNaa YaSYa, Sa" Taia" Whose
faith is in that, he is tan-niha. When Arjuna remembered his friend r Ka, after



the latter left this planet, he also speaks about aikya (oneness) Generally both of us
used to live together and sleep, sit and loiter together. And at the time of advertising
oneself for acts of chivalry, sometimes, if there were any irregularity, because of
oneness (aikya), I used to reproach Him by saying, My friend, You are very truthful.
(SB. 1.15.19) He obviously speaks about his friendship with another, and not that he
became one with him at any time.

NaNau One might ask: TaihR ik==Ma( TviYa AiPa vEzMYaMa( AiSTa Then there is partiality
(vaiamya) in You too? YaSMaaTa( WvMa( Tvd(Wk==Xar<aaNaaMa( Wv AaTMa>aavMa(
ddaiSa Because thus You give Your nature only to those who take exclusive shelter in
You Na ANYaezaMa( Sak==aMaaNaaMa( and not to others who have desires. [In 4.11-14 the

Lords partiality is refuted:]

669 BG 4.11

Yae YaQaa Maa& Pa[PaNTae Taa&STaQaEv >aJaaMYahMa( ) MaMa vTMaaRNauvTaRNTae MaNauZYaa" PaaQaR SavRXa"== =))
ye yath m prapadyante ts tathaiva bhajmy aham, mama vartmnuvartante manuy prtha

YaQaa Yae MaaMa( Pa[PaNTae As all surrender to Me

* Sak==aMaTaYaa iNaZk==aMaTaYaa va Either with desires or without desires.
TaQaa Wv AhMa( TaaNa( >aJaaiMa so I reward them.
* NaTau =Yae Sak==aMaa" MaaMa( ivhaYa, wNd]adqNa( Wv >aJaNTae, TaaNa( AhMa( oPae+ae= wiTa
MaNTaVYaMa( Do not think that I ignore those who, ignoring Me, worship only Indra a.o.
PaaQaR= = MaNauZYaa" O Arjuna! [Because] all men
MaMa vTMaR SavRXa" ANauvTaRNTae follow My path in all respects.
* wNd]aidPae<a AiPa MaMa Wv SaeVYaTvaTa( Because even in the form of Indra a.o. I
alone am worshiped.
Either one worships the Supreme directly, without motivation (nikma), or else
through devas for material gain (sa-kma) everyone worships the Lord alone (follows
His path of worship), because all these forms also come from Him.

TaihR Maae+aAQaRMa( Wv ik==Ma( wiTa SaveR TvaMa( Na >aJaiNTa Then why dont worship

You all for attaining liberation alone?

670 BG 4.12

k==aNTa" k==MaR<aa& iSai& YaJaNTa wh devTaa" ) i+aPa[& ih MaaNauze laeke= iSai>aRviTa k==MaRJaa== =))
kkanta karma siddhi yajanta iha devat, kipra hi mnue loke siddhir bhavati karmaj

k==MaR<aaMa( iSaiMa( k==aNTa" Those desiring the fruit of activities

MaaNauze laeke= in the world of men
wh devTaa" YaJaNTae [generally] worship the devas in this world
k==MaRJaa iSai" i+aPa[Ma( ih >aviTa because the fruit of [such] rituals (karman) comes quickly.
* NaTau jaNaf==lMa( kE= vLYaMa( ... And not liberation (kaivalya), the fruit of knowledge
duZPa[aPYaTvaTa( jaNaSYa as knowledge is hard to attain.
671 BG 4.13

caTauvR<Ya| MaYaa Sa*& Gau<ak==MaRiv>aaGaXa" ) TaSYa k==TaaRrMaiPa Maa& ivyk==TaaRrMaVYaYaMa(= = ))


ctur-varya may sa gua-karma-vibhgaa, tasya kartram api m viddhy a-kartram a-vyayam

Gau<ak==MaRiv>aaGaXa" According to the divisions of gua and karma

caTauvR<YaRMa( MaYaa Sa*Ma( the system of four varas was created by Me.
The three guas are sattva-gua, rajo-gua and tamo-gua. The predominance of a
certain gua or mixture determines the quality of ones work. The idea is that a persons
profession (vara) is determined by his qualities, and not by mere birth. Jti (family
background) can help of course, to perfect a certain quality.

TaSYa k==TaaRrMa( AiPa Although [I am] its creator

MaaMa( AVYaYaMa( Ak==TaaRrMa( ivi know Me as the unchangeable non-doer!
672 BG 4.14

Na== Maa&= =k= MaaRi<a== ilMPaiNTa== Na== Mae= =k= MaRf= le= =SPa*ha== )= =wiTa== Maa&= =Yaae-=_i>aJaaNaaiTa== k= MaRi>aNaR= =Sa== bDYaTae= = ))
na m karmi limpanti na me karma-phale sph, iti m yo bhijnti karmabhir na sa badhyate

k==MaaRi<a MaaMa( Na ilMPaiNTa Activities do not stain Me

k==MaRf==le Mae (=MaMa=) Na SPa*ha nor do I have a desire for the fruit of activity.
wiTa Ya" MaaMa( Ai>aJaaNaaiTa [Even] one who understands Me thus
Sa" k==MaRi>a" Na bDYaTae he is [also] not bound by activities.
* PaUvRo==Ma( Wv k==MaRYaaeGaMa( Pa[PaiYaTauMa( Now, in order to propound the earlier
mentioned karma-yoga ANauSMaarYaiTa He reminds [by saying]:
673 BG 4.15

Wv& jaTva k*= Ta& k==MaR PaUvriPa MauMau+aui>a" ) ku= k==Mav TaSMaatv& PaUv" PaUvRTar& k*= TaMa(= = ))
eva jtv kta karma prvair api mumukubhi, kuru karmaiva tasmt tva prvai prvatara ktam

WvMa( jaTva

[After] knowing this

AharaidraihTYaeNa k*= TaMa( k==MaR That work done without egotism bNDak==Ma( Na
>aviTa wiTa does no bind.
PaUv" MauMau+aui>a" AiPa even by previous seekers for liberation [like Janaka]
k==MaR k*= TaMa( work was performed.
* SatvXauiAQaRMa( To purify their existence.
TaSMaaTa( Therefore
PaUv" PaUvRTarMa( k*= TaMa( as done by the ancestors (prva) before (prva.tara)
TvMa( k==MaR Wv ku= you should perform work!
* Tad( c And that (work) Tatvivi" Sah ivcaYaR k==TaRVYaMa( should be done after
discussing (vicrya) with the knowers of Truth Na laek= ParMParaMaa}ae<a and not

merely according to the popular view:

674 BG 4.16

ik&= = =k= MaR= =ik==Mak==MaeRiTa== k= vYaae-=_PYa}a== MaaeihTaa"== )= =Tatae= =k= MaR= =Pa[v+YaaiMa== YaJjaTva== Maae+YaSae-=_Xau>aaTa(= = ))
ki karma kim a-karmeti kavayo py atra mohit, tat te karma pravakymi yaj jtv mokyase ubht

ik==Ma( k==MaR= =` ik==Ma( Ak==MaR= =` wiTa What is karma? and What is a-karma?
A}a k==vYa" AiPa MaaeihTaa" in this even the wise are bewildered.
Yad( jaTva [After] knowing which



AXau>aaTa( Maae+YaSae you will be freed from the misfortune (a-ubha) [of sasra]
Tad( k==MaR Tae (=Tau>YaMa(=) Pa[v+YaaiMa that karma I will explain to you.
* NaNau laek= Pa[iSaMa( Wv But is it not well known k==MaR dehaidVYaaPaarAaTMak==Ma( that
karma means the activity with body, etc. Ak==MaR c Tad(AVYaaPaarAaTMak==Ma( and
that a-karma means non-ativity with those? ATa" k==QaMa( oCYaTae Then why is it said
[by You] =k= vYa" AiPa A}a MaaehMa( Pa[aa"= that even the wise are deluded in this
matter? wiTa Ta}a Aah This is then stated:
675 BG 4.17

k==MaR<aae iPa baeVYa& baeVYa& c ivk==MaR<a" ) Ak==MaR<a baeVYa& GahNaa k==MaR<aae GaiTa"== =))
karmao hy api boddhavya boddhavya ca vikarmaa, a-karmaa ca boddhavya gahan karmao

k==MaR<a" ih AiPa baeVYaMa( [The way] of prescribed activity (karman) should be understood
ivk==MaR<a" c baeVYaMa( [the way] of forbidden activity (vikarma) should be understood
Ak==MaR<a" c baeVYaMa( [and the way] of [true] inactivity (a-karman) should be understood.
k==MaR<a" GaiTa" GahNaa The way of karma is deep (hard to understand).
The way of karma (action) is described as threefold:
(1) vikarma (forbidden work, sin): It produces bad reactions and has to be given up all
(2) a-karma (inactivity): Trying to stop all work is not recommended (2.47) and not
even possible (3.5). Real a-karma is to work in devotion (bhakti), which produces no
karma (nikarma).
(3) karma (ones duty, sva-dharma, 2.48): Ones duty is further divided into nitya-karma
(regular duty), naimittika-karma (occasional duty) and kmya-karma (work for
enjoyment). To attain freedom from the bondage of karma (liberation), one has to give
up kmya-karma. Nitya- und naimittika-karma, although themselves not causes of
liberation, are at least helpful, because they keep away the evil effects which would
result from their non-performance.
About the further procedure to attain liberation there are two opinions:
(1) karma-yoga the path of duty (in the Gt also refered to as yoga or buddhi-yoga): It
stresses to renounce all fruits of work (karma-phala-tyga, karma-tyga, tyga) by doing
ones duty. Thus one gradually becomes purified of material desires (nikma), and
achieves knowledge (buddhi). Buddhi-yoga means buddhi-rpa yoga the means
(yoga, upya) in the form of understanding.
(2) jna-yoga the path of knowledge (in the Gt also refered to as skhya): It
stresses to renounce all work meant for sense gratification (karma-nysa, karmasannysa, sannysa, sannysa-yoga) by cultivating detachment through spiritual
knowledge (jna, skhya).
Both paths are actually non-different, because the goal is the same detachment from
this world and attachment to the Lord. Or else, they can be seen as different stages on
the same path (see 5.4). Since karma-sannysa (path 2) is only possible when the mind
is already purified from desires for sense gratification, to work for purification (path 1)
is a save path for all (3.6,7,17,19). What r Ka recommends is to perform ones duty
as a service to the Lord, in full God consciousness. This is the sum and substance of the
instructions in the Bhagavad-gt: jna-asin ena saaya chittv uttiha after
cutting your doubt with the sword of knowledge, stand up (4.42) sarveu kleu mm
anusmara yudhya ca always remember Me, and fight (the specific duty of Arjuna)
(8.7) mat-karma-kt mad-bhakta mm eti one who works for Me in devotion, comes
to Me (11.55) Therefore, at least according to the Bhagavad-gt, the paths refered to as


karma-yoga, yoga, naikarma, karma-tyga and buddhi-yoga refer ultimately to bhaktiyoga; and to be a yog or yoga-yukta means to be a bhakta.
676 BG 4.18

k==MaR<Yak==MaR Ya" PaXYaedk==MaRi<a c k==MaR Ya" ) Sa buiMaaNMaNauZYaezu Sa Yau= " k*= Tk==MaRk*= Ta(= = ))
karmay a-karma ya payed a-karmai ca karma ya, sa buddhimn manuyeu sa yukta ktsnakarmakt

Ya" k==MaRi<a Ak==MaR PaXYaeTa(

One who can see [true] a-karma in activity

ParMaerAaraDaNal+a<ae k==MaRi<a ivzYae in activity done as worship of the

Ak==MaR [true] inactivity (a-karma). ... TaSYa jaNaheTauTveNa bNDak==TvA>aavaTa(

* [Seeing]

Because it is free from bondage since it leads to knowledge (jna).

Ya" Ak==MaRi<a k==MaR c

and who [can see] karma in inactivity

Ak==MaRi<a c (=ivihTaAk==r<ae=) in inaction, in the non-performance of

what is prescribed (vihita) k==MaR karma. TaSYa Pa[TYavaYaAaPaadk==TveNa bNDaheTauTvaTa(

* [Seeing]

Because it causes bondage since it results in sin (pratyavya the reverse).

Sa" MaNauZYaezu buiMaaNa( he is intelligent among men.

Sa" k*= Tk==MaRk*= Ta( Yau= " He is a yog [though] doing all work.
* Tad( Wv SPaYaiTa That is being clarified [in five verses]:
677 BG 4.19

YaSYa SaveR SaMaarM>aa" k==aMaSaLPaviJaRTaa" ) jaNaaiGNadGDak==MaaR<a& TaMaahu" Pai<@Ta& buDaa"== =))

yasya sarve samrambh kma-sakalpa-varjit, jngni-dagdha-karma tam hu paita budh

YaSYa SaveR SaMaarM>aa" He whose all endeavors

k==aMaSaLPaviJaRTaa" are free from the desire (sakalpa) for sense gratification (kma),
TaMa( jaNaAiGNadGDak==MaaR<aMa( him whose karma is burned by the fire (agni) of knowledge (jna)
buDaa" Pai<@TaMa( Aahu" the wise call a learned man (paita).
678 BG 4.20

TYaa k==MaRf= laSa& iNaTYaTa*ae iNara[Ya" ) k==MaR<Yai>aPa[v*taae-=_iPa NaEv ik==iTk==raeiTa Sa"== =))
tyaktv karma-phalsaga nitya-tpto nirraya, karmay abhipravtto pi naiva kicit karoti sa

k==MaRf==lAaSaMa( TYaa [After] giving up attachment for the fruit (phala) of activity
iNaTYaTa*" iNara[Ya" ever satisfied and independent
k==MaRi<a Ai>aPa[v*ta" AiPa though fully engaged in work
Sa" Na Wv ik==id( k==raeiTa he never does anything.
679 BG 4.21

iNaraXaqYaRTaictaaTMaa TYa==SavRPairGa]h" ) Xaarqr& ke= vl& k==MaR ku= vRaaPNaaeiTa ik==iLbzMa(= = ))

nirr yata-citttm tyakta-sarva-parigraha, rra kevala karma kurvan npnoti kilbiam

iNaraXaq" YaTaictaAaTMaa Free from hankering and self-controlled

TYa==SavRPairGa]h" free from all proprietorship
ke= vlMa( XaarqrMa( k==MaR ku= vRNa( [while] doing only work for the bodily necessities (rra)
ik==iLbzMa( Na AaPNaaeiTa he does not incur sin (bondage).
680 BG 4.22

Yad*C^ala>aSaNTauae NaTaqTaae ivMaTSar" ) SaMa" iSaaviSaaE c k*= TvaiPa Na iNabDYaTae= = ))

yadcch-lbha-santuo dvandvtto vimatsara, sama siddhv a-siddhau ca ktvpi na nibadhyate



Yad*C^ala>aSaNTau" Being satisfied with gain (lbha) which comes unsought

NATaqTa" ivMaTSar" free from duality (tolerant), non-envious
iSaaE AiSaaE c SaMa" and steady in success (siddhi) and failure
k*= Tva AiPa Na iNabDYaTae even [after] acting he is not bound.
681 BG 4.23

GaTaSaSYa Mau= SYa jaNaaviSQaTaceTaSa" ) YajaYaacrTa" k==MaR SaMaGa]& Pa[ivlqYaTae= = ))

gata-sagasya muktasya jnvasthita-cetasa, yajycarata karma samagra pravilyate

GaTaSaSYa Mau= SYa Who is free from attachment (saga), liberated (mukta)
jaNaAviSQaTaceTaSa" whose mind is situated in knowledge (jna)
YajaYa AacrTa" and who is working for the purpose of sacrifice (yaja)
* YajaYa ParMaerAQaRMa( As sacrifice means for the Lord.
k==MaR SaMaGa]Ma( Pa[ivlqYaTae his karma completely dissolves.
* Tad( WvMa( ParMaerAaraDaNal+a<aMa( k==MaR Thus work as worship of the Lord jaNa
heTauTveNa since it leads to knowledge bNDak==TvA>aavaTa( and since it does not bind
Ak==MaR Wv is certainly [true] inactivity (a-karma). ... wdaNaqMa( Now k==MaRi<a Tad(
Aezu c b] Wv ANauSYaUTaMa( PaXYaTa" by seeing brahma as pervading rituals
(karman) and their means (aga limb) k==MaRPa[ivlYaMa( Aah the dissolution of karma
is stated:
682 BG 4.24

b]aPaR<a& b] hivb]RaGNaaE b]<aa huTaMa( ) b]Ev TaeNa GaNTaVYa& b]k==MaRSaMaaiDaNaa== =))

brahmrpaa brahma havir brahmgnau brahma hutam, brahmaiva tena gantavya brahma-karmasamdhin

APaR<aMa( b]

The act of offering is brahma (the Absolute)

(or:) offering to the Supreme (brahma-arpaam) means ... (?)

hiv" b] the oblation (ghee) is brahma

b]<aa b]AGNaaE huTaMa( offered by the performer (wo is brahma) into the fire of brahma.
TaeNa b]k==MaRSaMaaiDaNaa By one [thus] absorbed in activities of brahma
b] Wv GaNTaVYaMa( brahma alone is attained.
* [Now] AiDak==air>aedeNa according to differences amongst the aspirants jaNaoPaaYa
>aUTaaNa( bhUNa( YajaNa( Aah many sacrifices which are means (upya) to the attainment
of this knowledge (that brahma is everything) are stated:
683 BG 4.25

dEvMaevaPare Yaj& YaaeiGaNa" PaYauRPaaSaTae ) b]aGNaavPare Yaj& YajeNaEvaePaJauiTa== =))

daivam evpare yaja yogina paryupsate, brahmgnv apare yaja yajenaivopajuhvati

APare YaaeiGaNa" Other yogs (karma-yogs)

dEvMa( YajMa( Wv PaYauRPaaSaTae perform sacrifice to the devas (daiva-yaja).
APare YajeNa Wv Others (jna-yogs) by yaja
b]AGNaaE YajMa( oPaJauiTa offer sacrifice (jna-yaja) into the fire of brahma.


684 BG 4.26

[ae}aadqNaqiNd]Yaa<YaNYae Sa&YaMaaiGNazu JauiTa ) XaBdadqiNvzYaaNaNYa wiNd]YaaiGNazu JauiTa== =))

rotrdnndriyy anye sayamgniu juhvati, abddn viayn anya indriygniu juhvati

ANYae Others (naihika-brahmacrs)

[ae}aAadqiNa wiNd]Yaai<a the senses like hearing
Sa&YaMaAiGNazu JauiTa they offer into the fires of sense-control.
Fire symbolizes sacrifice. To sacrifice some kind of personal sense gratification means
to offer it into the fire of that specific person sacrifice. The brahmacrs (celibate
students), e.g., sacrifice all sense gratification, beginning with hearing, by dedicating
the hearing process, to hearing the Vedas etc.

ANYae Others (ghasthas)

XaBdAadqNa( ivzYaaNa( the sense objects like sound
wiNd]YaAiGNazu JauiTa they offer in the fires of the [controlled] senses.
* ivzYa>aaeGaSaMaYae AiPa Even at the time of enjoying the sense objects ANaaSa==a"
SaNTa" being detached.
The ghasthas (housholders) practice detachment by regulating their sense gratification
according to the injunctions of the Vedas.
685 BG 4.27

SavaR<aqiNd]Yak==MaaRi<a Pa[a<ak==MaaRi<a caPare ) AaTMaSa&YaMaYaaeGaaGNaaE JauiTa jaNadqiPaTae= = ))

sarvndriya-karmi pra-karmi cpare, tma-sayama-yoggnau juhvati jna-dpite

APare Others (dhyna-yogs)

SavaRi<a wiNd]Yak==MaaRi<a all sensory activities (like hearing)
Pa[a<ak==MaaRi<a c and the vital functions (like pra and apa)
jaNadqiPaTae AaTMaSa&YaMaYaaeGaAGNaaE in the fire of the yoga of self-control, kindled by knowledge


they offer.
By concentrating the mind on brahma, they stop all sensory activities.
686 BG 4.28

d]VYaYajaSTaPaaeYaja YaaeGaYajaSTaQaaPare ) SvaDYaaYajaNaYaja YaTaYa" Sa&iXaTav]Taa"== =))

dravya-yajs tapo-yaj yoga-yajs tathpare, svdhyya-jna-yaj ca yataya saita-vrat

TaQaa APare And others

d]VYaYaja" offer sacrifice through charity
TaPa"Yaja" sacrifice through austerity (tapas)
YaaeGaYaja" or sacrifice through yoga.
Sa&iXaTav]Taa" YaTaYa" Renunciates (yati) who follow strict vows
SvaDYaaYajaNaYaja" c sacrifice through knowledge by study.
687 BG 4.29

APaaNae JauiTa Pa[a<a& Pa[a<ae-= _PaaNa& TaQaaPare ) Pa[a<aaPaaNaGaTaq d(a Pa[a<aaYaaMaParaYa<aa"== =)

apne juhvati pra pre pna tathpare, prpna-gat ruddhv pryma-parya

APare iNaYaTaahara" Pa[a<aaNPa[a<aezu JauiTa== =))

apare niyathr prn preu juhvati



Pa[a<aAaYaaMaParaYa<aa" APare Others, dedicated to breath control (pryma, pra-_yma)

Pa[a<aMa( APaaNae JauiTa offer the exhalation (pra) into the inhalation (apna) [during praka].
TaQaa Pa[a<aAPaaNaGaTaq d(a and [after] stopping the movements of exhalation and inhalation [by

APaaNaMa( Pa[a<ae [the offer] the inhalation into the exhalation [during recaka].
iNaYaTaAahara" APare Others, regulating their eating
Pa[a<aaNa( Pa[a<aezu JauiTa offer the pras into the pras.
Praka (filling) refers to inhalation, kumbhaka (pot) refers to stopping the breath, and
recaka (emptying) refers to exhalation.

Tad( WvMa( o==aNaaMa( adXaaNaaMa( YajivdaMa( f==lMa( Aah Now the result for these

twelve knowers of sacrifice mentioned above (4.25-29) is stated:

688 BG 4.30

SaveR-= _PYaeTae Yajivdae Yaj+aiPaTak==LMaza" ) YajiXaaMa*Ta>auJaae YaaiNTa b] SaNaaTaNaMa(= = ))

sarve py ete yaja-vido yaja-kapita-kalma, yaja-imta-bhujo ynti brahma santanam

SaveR AiPa WTae Yajivd" And all these knowers of sacrifice (yaja)
Yaj+aiPaTak==LMaza" are freed from sin by this sacrifice.
YajiXaAMa*Ta>auJa" Those who taste the nectar left after sacrifice
SaNaaTaNaMa( b] YaaiNTa attain the eternal spiritual abode.
689 BG 4.31

NaaYa& laek= ae-= _STYaYajSYa ku= Taae= _NYa" ku= SataMa== =))
nya loko sty a-yajasya kuto nya kurusattama

ku= SataMa

O Arjuna!
kuru-sattama best of the Kurus

AYajSYa For one who does not perform sacrifice

Na AYaMa( laek= " AiSTa is not even this world
* AYaMa( ALPaSau%" AiPa MaNauZYalaek= "

Even this mortal world with its little


ku= Ta" ANYa"

how then the other (heaven)?

Even in this material world (or this life) one has to perform some sort of sacrifice to
become happy. And to attain heaven, where there is a much higher standard of
happiness, one certainly has to perform sacrifice in this world (or life).

jaNaYajMa( STaaeTauMa( In order to praise the knowledge-sacrifice o==aNa( YajaNa(

oPaSa&hriTa the sacrifices mentioned above are being summarized:

690 BG 4.32

Wv& bhuivDaa Yaja ivTaTaa b]<aae Mau%e ) k==MaRJaaiNvi TaaNSavaRNaev& jaTva ivMaae+YaSae= = ))
eva bahu-vidh yaj vitat brahmao mukhe, karmajn viddhi tn sarvn eva jtv vimokyase

WvMa( bhuivDaa" Yaja" Thus the many types of sacrifices

b]<a" Mau%e ivTaTaa" are spread by the Veda (brahma).
* vedeNa Saa+aaTa( ivihTaa" They are directly prescribed by the Vedas.
TaaNa( SavaRNa( k==MaRJaaNa( ivi Know all these to be born from work!


TaQaaiPa Still, TaaNa( SavaRNa( vak(= MaNa"k==aYak==MaRJaiNaTaaNa( AaTMaSvPaSa&SPaXaR

rihTaaNa( ivi you must know all these to be born from the activities of speech, mind

and body and [therefore] without connection with the self.

WvMa( jaTva

[After] knowing them as such



jaNaiNa" SaNa( Being devoted to [spiritual] knowledge.

you will be liberated.

691 BG 4.33

[eYaaNd]VYaMaYaajaJjaNaYaj" ParNTaPa ) Sav| k==MaaRi%l& PaaQaR jaNae PairSaMaaPYaTae= = ))

reyn dravyamayd yajj jna-yaja parantapa, sarva karmkhila prtha jne parisampyate

ParNTaPa O Arjuna!
d]VYaMaYaaTa( YajaTa( Compared to the sacrifice with materials (like charity)
jaNaYaj" [eYaaNa( the knowledge sacrifice is better,
PaaQaR O Arjuna!
SavRMa( Ai%lMa( k==MaR [because] the whole complete karma
jaNae PairSaMaaPYaTae is completed in [spiritual] knowledge.
* WvM>aUTaAaTMajaNae SaaDaNaMa( Aah The means to such knowledge of the self is
692 BG 4.34

Taii Pa[i<aPaaTaeNa PairPa[XNaeNa SaevYaa ) oPade+YaiNTa Tae jaNa& jaiNaNaSTatvdiXaRNa"== =))

tad viddhi praiptena paripranena sevay, upadekyanti te jna jninas tattva-darina

Pa[i<aPaaTaeNa PairPa[XNaeNa SaevYaa By submission, inquiry and [personal] service (sev)

Tad( jaNaMa( ivi you must understand that [spiritual] knowledge!
TatvdiXaRNa" jaiNaNa" The wise who know the truth
Tae (=Tau>YaMa(=) oPade+YaiNTa will instruct you.
* jaNaf==lMa( Aah The fruit of knowledge is stated:
693 BG 4.35

YaJjaTva Na PauNaMaaeRhMaev& YaaSYaiSa Paa<@v ) YaeNa >aUTaaNYaXaezai<a d]+YaSYaaTMaNYaQaae MaiYa== =))

yaj jtv na punar moham eva ysyasi pava, yena bhtny a-ei drakyasy tmany atho mayi


O Arjuna!
pava son of Pu

Yad( jaTva [After] knowing that

YaeNa AXaezai<a >aUTaaiNa by which all (a-ea) beings
AaTMaiNa AQaae MaiYa d]+YaiSa you will see in the self, and therefore in Me,
PauNa" WvMa( MaaehMa( Na YaaSYaiSa you will not again attain such illusion.
* bNDauvDaAaidiNaiMataMa( MaaehMa( The illusion of killing kinsmen, etc.
694 BG 4.36

AiPa cediSa PaaPae>Ya" SaveR>Ya" PaaPak*= taMa" ) Sav| jaNaPlveNaEv v*iJaNa& SaNTairZYaiSa== =))
api ced asi ppebhya sarvebhya ppa-kttama, sarva jna-plavenaiva vjina santariyasi

SaveR>Ya" PaaPae>Ya"

Among all sinners



PaaPak*= taMa" AiPa AiSa ced( even if you are the greatest sinner,
jaNaPlveNa Wv with the boat of [spiritual] knowledge alone
SavRMa( v*iJaNaMa( SaNTairZYaiSa you will cross all sin.
* SavRMa( PaaPaSaMaud]Ma( The ocean of all sin.
695 BG 4.37

YaQaEDaa&iSa SaiMaae-= _iGNa>aRSMaSaaTku= Tae-= _JauRNa ) jaNaaiGNa" SavRk= MaaRi<a >aSMaSaaTku= Tae TaQaa== =))
yathaidhsi samiddho gnir bhasmast kurute rjuna, jngni sarva-karmi bhasmast kurute tath

AJauRNa O Arjuna!
YaQaa SaiMa" AiGNa" As a blazing fire (agni)
WDaa&iSa >aSMaSaaTa( ku= Tae burns firewood to ashes,
TaQaa jaNaAiGNa" so does the fire of [spiritual] knowledge (jna)
SavRk==MaaRi<a >aSMaSaaTa( ku= Tae burn to ashes all karma.
* Pa[arBDak==MaRVYaiTair==aiNa SavaRi<a k==MaaRi<a All karma, except the prrabdha-karma.
696 BG 4.38

Na ih jaNaeNa Sad*Xa& Paiv}aiMah ivTae ) TaTSvYa& YaaeGaSa&iSa" k==aleNaaTMaiNa ivNdiTa== =))

na hi jnena sada pavitram iha vidyate, tat svaya yoga-sasiddha klentmani vindati

jaNaeNa Sad*XaMa( Paiv}aMa( Something as purifying as [spiritual] knowledge (jna)

wh Na ih ivTae does not exist in this world.
k==aleNa YaaeGaSa&iSa" One who is in due course of time (kla) perfected by karma-yoga
Tad( SvYaMa( AaTMaiNa ivNdiTa he obtains that (knowledge) within himself.
697 BG 4.39

[avam>aTae jaNa& TaTPar" Sa&YaTaeiNd]Ya" ) jaNa& lBa Para& XaaiNTaMaicre<aaiDaGaC^iTa== =))

raddhv labhate jna tat-para sayatendriya, jna labdhv par ntim aciredhigacchati

Tad(Par" Sa&YaTawiNd]Ya" Being dedicated to that (knowledge) and sense-controlled
[avaNa( jaNaMa( l>aTae a faithful man obtains [spiritual] knowledge.
* [avaNa( Faithful means GauoPaide AQaeR AaiSTaKYabuiMaaNa( who believes in the
The is a rare nasalization of a consonant, in this case of the first

meaning of the teachings of the guru.

jaNaMa( lBa [And after] obtaining [spiritual] knowledge

Aicre<a ParaMa( XaaiNTaMa( AiDaGaC^iTa he quickly attains supreme peace (nti).
698 BG 4.40

Aja[DaaNa Sa&XaYaaTMaa ivNaXYaiTa ) NaaYa& laek= ae-= _iSTa Na Parae Na Sau%& Sa&XaYaaTMaNa"== =))
aja craddadhna ca saaytm vinayati, nya loko sti na paro na sukha saaytmana

Aj" c A[DaaNa" c Being ignorant and faithless

Sa&XaYaAaTMaa ivNaXYaiTa one who is doubtful is lost.
Sa&XaYaAaTMaNa" Na AYaMa( laek= " AiSTa For a doubtful man is neither this world
* DaNaAJaRNaivvahAaidAiSae" Because earning wealth, marriage (vivha), etc.,
are not possible for him.

Na Par"

nor the next

Na Sau%Ma(


DaMaRSYa AiNaZPatae" Because he can not acquire virtue (good karma).

nor happiness.

Sa&XaYaeNa Wv >aaeGaSYa AiPa ASaM>avaTa( Because even enjoyment is not possible

with that very doubt.

699 BG 4.41

YaaeGaSaYaSTak==MaaR<a& jaNaSaiH^aSa&XaYaMa( ) AaTMavNTa& Na k==MaaRi<a iNabDNaiNTa DaNaYa== =))

yoga-sannyasta-karma jna-sachinna-saayam, tmavanta na karmi nibadhnanti dhanajaya

DaNaYa O Arjuna!
YaaeGaSaYaSTak==MaaR<aMa( On who has renounced work by yoga
jaNaSaiH^aSa&XaYaMa( whose doubt (saaya) is destroyed by knowledge (jna)
AaTMavNTaMa( and who is situated in the self,
k==MaaRi<a Na iNabDNaiNTa activities do not bind [him].
700 BG 4.42

TaSMaadjaNaSaM>aUTa& TSQa& jaNaaiSaNaaTMaNa" ) i^tvENa& Sa&XaYa& YaaeGaMaaiTaaeita >aarTa== =))

tasmd a-jna-sambhta ht-stha jnsintmana, chittvaina saaya yogam tihottiha bhrata

TaSMaaTa( >aarTa Therefore, O Arjuna!

AjaNaSaM>aUTaMa( Born from ignorance
d(SQaMa( WNaMa( Sa&XaYaMa( this doubt, situated in the heart (hd)
AaTMaNa" jaNaAiSaNaa i^tva [after] cutting it with the sword (asi) of knowledge (jna) of the soul

dehAaTMaivvek= jaNa%eNa

With the sword of knowledge of discrimination

between body and soul.

YaaeGaMa( AaiTa resort to karma-yoga!

oita [Therefore] stand up (to fight)!
* ParMaaTMajaNaoPaaYa>aUTaMa( k==MaRYaaeGaMa( AaiTa Resort to karma-yoga, which is a
means to the knowledge of the supreme self.



Sanskrit Kdanta 3
(1) kta
(2) krya
(3) payan
The suffix .[]at[] is used to describe an action, simultaneous to the main activity of the sentence:

Pa[e+a<ae to see (paya) + .[]at[] >>>[]; payat[] is a present active participle, and can

be rendered into English as [while] ...-ing. It is declined like bhagavat[u], with the exception of
the first case singular payan payantau payanta ...

PaXYaNa( 1.1 one who is seeing, [while] seeing

PaXYaNTaaE 1.2 two who are seeing, [while] two are seeing
ru...[v<ae to hear, obey; + []at[] >>> vat[] >>> Xa*<vNa( 1.1 [while] hearing
sp[a]...Sa&SPaXaeR to touch >>> SPa*XaNa( [while] touching
ghr...GaNDaaePaadaNae to smell >>> iJaga]Na( [while] smelling
a[a]...>aaeJaNae to eat, enjoy >>> AXNaNa( [while] eating
gam[]...GaTaaE to go >>> GaC^Na( [while] going
[i]svap...XaYae to lie down, sleep >>> SvPaNa( [while] sleeping
vas[a]...Pa[a<aNae to breath >>> SaNa( [while] breathing; as in PaXYaNa( Xa*<vNa( SPa*XaNa( iJaga]Na(
AXNaNa( GaC^Na( SvPaNa( SaNa( [while] seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, moving
about, sleeping, and breathing [he always knows that only the material senses are engaged with
their objects] (5.8-9)

>auiv SataaYaaMa( to be, exist >>> SaNa( [while] existing

i[u]...wC^aYaaMa( to wish, desire >>> wC^Na( [while] desiring
[u]k[]...k==r<ae to do >>> ku= vRNa( [while] doing
car[a]...GaTaaE to go, move >>> crNa( [while] going
cit[i]...icNTYaaMa( to think, remember >>> icNTaYaNa( [while] thinking
tyaj[a]...haNaaE to abandon >>> TYaJaNa( [while] abandoning
dhyai...icNTaaYaaMa( to think, meditate >>> DYaaYaNa( [while] contemplating
jv[a]...Pa[a<aDaar<ae to live >>> JaqvNa( [while] living; as in JaqvNa( Mau= " liberated while living;
JaqvNa(Mau= " who is liberated even in this life

k==aaYaaMa( to desire >>> kkat[] >>> k==aNa( 1.1 [while] desiring; k==aNTaaE 1.2
[while] they [two] are desiring; k==aNTa" 1.3 [while] they are desiring (4.12)
nid[i]...ku= TSaaYaaMa( to criticize >>> nindat[] >>> iNaNdNTa" 1.3 [while] they are criticizing
yaj[a]...devPaUJaaSaiTak==r<aYaJaNadaNaezu to worship; associate; sacrifice >>> yajat[] >>> YaJaNTa"

1.3 [while] they are worshiping


baeDaNae to know, be awake >>> bodhat[] one who understands, [while] understanding

bodhayat[] is the causative form [while] making someone understand; the declension goes



baeDaYaNTaaE baeDaYaNTa"...; ParSParMa( baeDaYaNTa" rMaiNTa [while] enlightening one another, they
are blissful
A similar suffix is .[]na:


to do; + .[]na >>> kurv.a >>> kurva 1.3 [while] doing; kurva is

declined like deva

ku= vaR<a" ku= vaR<aaE ku= vaR<aa"...; as in SavRk==MaaRi<a ku= vaR<a", XaaTaMa( PadMa(

AvaPNaaeiTa [while] performing all activities, he achieves the eternal abode

bhuj[a]...PaalNaA>YavharYaae" to protect; enjoy >>> >auaaNaMa( 2.1 [while] enjoying
Sometimes m is inserted:

vTaRNae to happen, act >>> vartamna, vTaRMaaNa" 1.1 [while] happening, existing
yat[]...Pa[YaTNae to endeavor >>> YaTaMaaNa" 1.1 [while] striving


k==r<ae to do >>> kriyama [while] being done; ik]= YaMaa<aaiNa 1.3 [while] they are
being done; k==MaaRi<a ik]= YaMaa<aaiNa [while] activities are being done
sev[]...SaevNae to serve >>> sevyamna [while] being served; SaeVYaMaaNaMa( 2.1 to him who is being

.p to fill >>> pryama [while] being filled;


2.1 to that which is being filled



Hinduism Gt 5
Karma-sannysa-yoga The Yoga of Renunciation (sannysa) of Work (karma)
701 BG 5.1

AJauRNa ovac
SaYaaSa& k==MaR<aa& k*= Z<a PauNaYaaeRGa& c Xa&SaiSa ) YaC^\eYa WTaYaaerek&= TaNMae b]Uih SauiNaiTaMa(= = ))
sannysa karma ka punar yoga ca asasi, yac chreya etayor eka tan me brhi sunicitam

AJauRNa" ovac k*= Z<a Arjuna said: O Lord (Ka)!

k==MaR<aaMa( SaYaaSaMa( Xa&SaiSa [First] you praise renunciation of all work (karma-sannysa)
see 3.17, 4.33

PauNa" YaaeGaMa( c

and then again karma-yoga.

see 4.22

Yad( WTaYaae" [eYa" That which is better of these two

Tad( Wk==Ma( that alone
Mae (=MaMa(=) SauiNaiTaMa( b]Uih tell me definitely!
* Nac k==MaRSaYaaSa" k==MaRYaaeGa" c Wk==da Wv SaM>avTa" Because it is not possible to
practice karma-sannysa and karma-yoga at the same time ivSvPaTvaTa( as this
is contradictory.
702 BG 5.2

SaYaaSa" k==MaRYaaeGa iNa"[eYaSak==ravu>aaE ) TaYaaeSTau k==MaRSaYaaSaaTk==MaRYaaeGaae iviXaZYaTae= = ))
sannysa karma-yoga ca nireyasa-karv ubhau, tayos tu karma-sannyst karma-yogo viiyate

[q>aGavaNa( ovac The Lord said:

SaYaaSa" k==MaRYaaeGa" c Karma-sannysa and karma-yoga
o>aaE iNa"[eYaSak==raE both lead to liberation.
TaYaae" Tau But of the two
k==MaRSaYaaSaaTa( k==MaRYaaeGa" iviXaZYaTae karma-yoga is better than karma-sannysa.
* ku= Ta" How is this? SaYaaiSaTveNa k==MaRYaaeGaMa( STauvNa( By praising karma-yoga as being
[real] renunciation (sannysitva) TaSYa [eTvMa( dXaRYaiTa He shows its superiority.
703 BG 5.3

jeYa" Sa iNaTYaSaYaaSaq Yaae Na ei Na k==aiTa ) iNaRNae ih Mahabahae Sau%& bNDaaTPa[MauCYaTae= = ))

jeya sa nitya-sannys yo na dvei na kkati, nirdvandvo hi mah-bho sukha bandht pramucyate

Ya" Na ei Na k==aiTa He who neither hates nor desires

Sa" iNaTYaSaYaaSaq jeYa" he is to be known as always renounced.
* raGaezaidraihTYaeNa ParMaerAQaRMa( k==MaaRi<a Ya" ANauiTaiTa He who performs
activities for the Lord free from attachment and aversion, etc. Sa" iNaTYaMa( (=k= MaR
ANauaNak==ale AiPa=) SaYaaiSa he is always, even at the time of work, a sannys.
Mahabahae= = [Because] O Arjuna!
iNaRN" ih Being free from duality


raGaezaidNXaUNYa" ih Freedom from the dualities

attachment and aversion Xauicta" means purity of mind.
bNDaaTa( Sau%Ma( Pa[MauCYaTae he is easily freed from bondage.

of [opposites like]

704 BG 5.4

SaayYaaeGaaE Pa*QaGbala" Pa[vdiNTa Na Pai<@Taa" ) Wk==MaPYaaiSQaTa" SaMYaGau>aYaaeivRNdTae f==lMa(= = ))

skhya-yogau pthag bl pravadanti na pait, ekam apy sthita samyag ubhayor vindate phalam

SaayYaaeGaaE Pa*Qak(= Jna-yoga (skhya) and karma-yoga are different

bala" Pa[vdiNTa [thus only] the ignorant declare,
Na Pai<@Taa" not the learned.
Wk==Ma( AiPa SaMYak(= AaiSQaTa" [Because] having resorted to just one [path] completely
o>aYaae" f==lMa( ivNdTae one gets the result of both [i.e., liberation].
705 BG 5.5

YaTSaayE"= =Pa[aPYaTae= =SQaaNa&= =TaaeGaEriPa== GaMYaTae= =)= =Wk&= = =Saay&= =c= =YaaeGa&= =c= =Ya"== PaXYaiTa== Sa== PaXYaiTa== =))
yat skhyai prpyate sthna tad yogair api gamyate, eka skhya ca yoga ca ya payati sa payati

Yad( SQaaNaMa( SaayE" Pa[aPYaTae The position (i.e., liberation) which is attained by jna-yogs (skhyas)
Tad( YaaeGaE" AiPa GaMYaTae that is also reached by karma-yogs.
SaayMa( c YaaeGaMa( c Wk==Ma( That jna-yoga (skhya) and karma-yoga are one
Ya" PaXYaiTa he who sees,
Sa" PaXYaiTa he sees [truly].
706 BG 5.6

SaYaaSaSTau Mahabahae du"%MaauMaYaaeGaTa" ) YaaeGaYau= ae MauiNab]R Na icre<aaiDaGaC^iTa== =))

sannysas tu mah-bho dukham ptum a-yogata, yoga-yukto munir brahma na ciredhigacchati

Mahabahae O Arjuna!
AYaaeGaTa" Tau Without [first practicing] karma-yoga
SaYaaSa" du"%Ma( AauMa( karma-sannysa is difficult to obtain.
* AXaKYa" It is impossible. wiTa AQaR" This is the idea. ictaXauiA>aaveNa jaNa
iNaaYaa" ASaM>avaTa( Because the practice of jna is impossible without purity of

YaaeGaYau= " MauiNa" [But] the sage who is engaged in karma-yoga

b] Na icre<a AiDaGaC^iTa quickly attains the Supreme (brahma).
* ATa" ictaXaue" Pa[ak(= Therefore, before purity of mind [is achieved] k==MaRYaaeGa"
Wv SaYaaSaaTa( iviXaZYaTae karma-yoga is better than [karma-] sannysa.
707 BG 5.7

YaaeGaYau= ae ivXauaTMaa iviJaTaaTMaa iJaTaeiNd]Ya" ) SavR>aUTaaTMa>aUTaaTMaa ku= vRaiPa Na ilPYaTae= = ))

yoga-yukto viuddhtm vijittm jitendriya, sarva-bhttma-bhttm kurvann api na lipyate

YaaeGaYau= " Being engaged in karma-yoga

ivXauAaTMaa [thus] completely pure in mind
iviJaTaAaTMaa iJaTawiNd]Ya" [and thus] mind- and sense-controlled
SavR>aUTaAaTMa>aUTaAaTMaa and feeling for all beings



SaveRzaMa( >aUTaaNaaMa( AaTMa>aUTa" AaTMaa YaSYa Sa" Whose self has become [like] the

self (tma-bhta) of all beings.

Who can feel exactly how others are feeling.

ku= vRNa( AiPa Na ilPYaTae

even [while] working he is not stained.

708 BG 5.8-9

NaEv= =ik==iTk==raeMaqiTa== Yau= ae= =MaNYaeTa== TatvivTa(= )=PaXYaNa(= Xa*<vNSPa*XaNa(= iJaga]aXNaNGaC^NSvPaNa(= SaNa(= ))
naiva kicit karomti yukto manyeta tattva-vit, payan van span jighrann anan gacchan svapan vasan

Pa[lPaiNvSa*JaNGa*auiNMaziaiMazaiPa ) wiNd]Yaa<aqiNd]YaaQaeRzu vTaRNTa wiTa DaarYaNa(= = ))

pralapan visjan ghann unmian nimiann api, indriyndriyrtheu vartanta iti dhrayan

Tatvivd( Yau= " The karma-yog, knowing the truth

PaXYaNa( Xa*<vNa( SPa*XaNa( iJaga]Na( [while] seeing, hearing, touching, smelling
AXNaNa( GaC^Na( SvPaNa( SaNa( [while] eating, walking, sleeping, breathing
Pa[lPaNa( ivSa*JaNa( Ga*Na( [while] talking, evacuating, taking
oiNMazNa( iNaiMazNa( AiPa and even [while] opening and closing the eyes
wiNd]Yaai<a wiNd]YaAQaeRzu vTaRNTae that the senses are engaged in sense objects
wiTa DaarYaNa( [while] thus considering
Na Wv ik==id( k==raeiMa I [myself] am not doing anything
wiTa MaNYaeTa thus he should think.
* Ai>aMaaNaA>aavaTa( Because of being free from the idea of agency.
709 BG 5.10

b]<YaaDaaYa k==MaaRi<a Sa& TYaa k==raeiTa Ya" ) ilPYaTae Na Sa PaaPaeNa PaPa}aiMavaM>aSaa== =))
brahmay dhya karmi saga tyaktv karoti ya, lipyate na sa ppena padma-patram ivmbhas

k==MaaRi<a b]i<a AaDaaYa [After] dedicating [all] activities to the Supreme (brahma)
SaMa( TYaa and [after] giving up attachment (saga)
Ya" k==raeiTa one who acts,
Sa" PaaPaeNa Na ilPYaTae he is not stained by sin (ppa)
PaPa}aMa( wv AM>aSaa as a lotus leaf [is not touched] by water (ambhas).
710 BG 5.11

k==aYaeNa MaNaSaa buya ke= vlEiriNd]YaEriPa ) YaaeiGaNa" k==MaR ku= vRiNTa Sa& TYaaTMaXauYae= = ))
kyena manas buddhy kevalair indriyair api, yogina karma kurvanti saga tyaktvtma-uddhaye

SaMa( TYaa [After] giving up attachment (saga),

k==aYaeNa MaNaSaa buya with body (kya), mind (manas), intelligence (buddhi)
ke= vlE" wiNd]YaE" AiPa and also with purified senses (indriya)
AaTMaXauYae for the purification (uddhi) of the mind
YaaeiGaNa" k==MaR ku= vRiNTa the karma-yogs perform work.
711 BG 5.12

Yau= "= =k= MaRf= l&= =TYaa== XaaiNTaMaaPNaaeiTa== NaEik==IMa(= =)= =AYau= "= =k= aMak==are<a== f= le= =Sa==ae= =iNabDYaTae= = ))
yukta karma-phala tyaktv ntim pnoti naihikm, a-yukta kma-krea phale sakto nibadhyate

k==MaRf==lMa( TYaa [After] giving up the fruit (phala) of work

Yau= " NaEik==IMa( XaaiNTaMa( AaPNaaeiTa the karma-yog (yukta) attains perfect peace (nti).


Yau= " Yukta means ParMaerWk==iNa" who is dedicated to the Lord alone.

AYau= " [But] one who is not in karma-yoga

k==aMak==are<a f==le Sa==" being attached to the fruit [of work] because of desire (kma)
iNabDYaTae he is bound.
* WvMa( TaavTa( Thus so far =ictaXauiXaUNYaSYa SaYaaSaaTa( k==MaRYaaeGa" iviXaZYaTae=
that for one without purity of mind karma-yoga is better than [karma-] sannysa wiTa
WTad( Pa[PaiTaMa( this has been expounded. wdaNaqMa( =XauictaSYa SaYaaSa" [e"=
wiTa Aah Now it is stated that for one pure-minded karma-sannysa is better:
712 BG 5.13

SavRk= MaaRi<a MaNaSaa SaYaSYaaSTae Sau%& vXaq ) Navare Paure dehq NaEv ku= vRa k==arYaNa(= = ))
sarva-karmi manas sannyasyste sukha va, nava-dvre pure deh naiva kurvan na krayan

SavRk==MaaRi<a MaNaSaa SaYaSYa [After] renouncing all work with his discrimination
Na Wv ku= vRNa( Na k==arYaNa( [while] neither acting nor causing to act
vXaq dehq the [self-] controlled embodied being (dehin)
Navare Paure Sau%Ma( AaSTae resides happily in the city (pura) of nine gates (dvra).
* Nae}ae NaaiSake= k==<aa Mau%Ma( c The eyes, nostrils, ears and mouth wiTa Sa iXar"
GaTaaiNa these seven [gates] are in the head ADa"GaTae e PaaYauoPaSQaPae and the
organs of excretion and generation are two that go down.
713 BG 5.14

Na k==Ta*RTv& Na k==MaaRi<a laek= SYa Sa*JaiTa Pa[>au" ) Na k==MaRf= lSa&YaaeGa& Sv>aavSTau Pa[vTaRTae= = ))
na karttva na karmi lokasya sjati prabhu, na karma-phala-sayoga svabhvas tu pravartate

Pa[>au" laek= SYa k==Ta*RTvMa( Na Sa*JaiTa The Lord does not create the doership of people
Na k==MaaRi<a nor activities
Na k==MaRf==lSa&YaaeGaMa( nor the connection with the fruit of work.
Sv>aav" Tau Pa[vTaRTae Rather, ones own nature acts.
* Sv>aav" Aiva Svabhva means ignorance. ANaaidAivak==aMavXaaTa( Pa[v*ita
Sv>aavMa( Jaqvlaek= Ma( The world of beings whose nature is to be active, because of
desire (kma) which arises from beginningless ignorance (a-vidy) wRr" k==MaRSau
iNaYaue the Lord engages [it] in activity. NaTau SvYaMa( Wv k==Ta*RTvaidk==Ma( oTPaadYaiTa
But He does not Himself create agency/doership, etc. wiTa AQaR" This is the idea.
714 BG 5.15

Naadtae k==SYaicTPaaPa& Na cEv Sauk*= Ta& iv>au" ) AjaNaeNaav*Ta& jaNa& TaeNa MauiNTa JaNTav"== =))
ndatte kasyacit ppa na caiva sukta vibhu, a-jnenvta jna tena muhyanti jantava

iv>au" k==SYaicd( PaaPaMa( Na Aadtae The Lord does not accept anyones sin
Na c Wv Sauk*= TaMa( and not even piety.
* Yaid ih SvaQaRk==aMaNaYaa k==arYaeTa( If He would direct [beings] to actions out of selfish
desire TaihR TaQaa SYaaTa( than it would be so [that He would acquire sin and virtue].
NaTau WTad( AiSTa But it is not so. Aak==aMaSYa Wv For He, with His desires already
fulfilled AicNTYaiNaJaMaaYaYaa through His inconceivable power of My Tad(Tad(



PaUvRk==MaRANauSaare<a Pa[vTaRk= TvaTa(

He directs beings according to their respective

previous actions.

AjaNaeNa jaNaMa( Aav*TaMa( Knowledge is covered by ignorance

TaeNa JaNTav" MauiNTa and thereby beings are bewildered.
715 BG 5.16

jaNaeNa Tau TadjaNa& Yaeza& NaaiXaTaMaaTMaNa" ) TaezaMaaidTYavJjaNa& Pa[k= aXaYaiTa TaTParMa(= = ))

jnena tu tad a-jna ye nitam tmana, tem dityavaj jna prakayati tat param

YaezaMa( Tau Tad( AjaNaMa( But those whose such ignorance (a-jna)
AaTMaNa" jaNaeNa NaaiXaTaMa( is destroyed by knowledge of the soul,
TaezaMa( AaidTYavTa( jaNaMa( for them sun-like knowledge (jna)
Tad( ParMa( Pa[k= aXaYaiTa reveals that Supreme.
* Tad( ParMa( (=PairPaU<aRMa( wRrSvPaMa(=) Pa[k= aXaYaiTa It reveals that Supreme, the
nature of the perfect Lord. YaQaa AaidTYa" Even as the sun TaMa" iNarSYa destroying
darkness SaMaSTaMa( vSTauJaaTaMa( Pa[k= aXaYaiTa reveals all things.
716 BG 5.17

TauYaSTadaTMaaNaSTaiaaSTaTParaYa<aa" ) GaC^NTYaPauNarav*ita& jaNaiNaDaURTak==LMaza"== =))

tad-buddhayas tad-tmnas tan-nihs tat-parya, gacchanty apunar-vtti jna-nirdhta-kalma

Tad(buYa" Tad(AaTMaaNa" Their intelligence and mind fixed in that (the nature of the Lord)
Tad(iNaa" Tad(ParaYa<aa" their faith and refuge fixed in that
jaNaiNaDaURTak==LMaza" their impurities removed by knowledge
APauNa"Aav*itaMa( GaC^iNTa they attain liberation (not-again-return).
717 BG 5.18

ivaivNaYaSaMPaae b]a<ae Gaiv hiSTaiNa ) XauiNa cEv Paake= c Pai<@Taa" SaMadiXaRNa"== =))
vidy-vinaya-sampanne brhmae gavi hastini, uni caiva va-pke ca pait sama-darina

ivaivNaYaSaMPaae b]a<ae In a brhmaa who is endowed with learning and good behavior
Gaiv hiSTaiNa in a cow (go) and an elephant (hastin)
XauiNa c Wv Paake= c in a dog (van) and also an outcaste (va-pka who cooks dogs)
SaMadiXaRNa" who see the same (i.e., brahma or the soul)
Pai<@Taa" they are learned (paita).
* ivzMaezu AiPa SaMaMa( b] Wv d]uMa( XaqlMa( YaezaMa( Those whose habit (la) is to
see the same brahma in things which are dissimilar Tae Pai<@Taa" (=jaiNaNa"=) they are
718 BG 5.19

whEv= =TaEiJaRTa"== SaGaaeR= =Yaeza&= =SaaMYae= =iSQaTa&= =MaNa"== )= =iNadaeRz&= =ih== SaMa&= =b]= =TaSMaad(= =b]i<a== Tae= =iSQaTaa"== =))
ihaiva tair jita sargo ye smye sthita mana, nirdoa hi sama brahma tasmd brahmai te sthit

YaezaMa( MaNa" SaaMYae iSQaTaMa( Those whose mind is situated in [such] equality [of vision]
wh Wv even in this life
TaE" SaGaR" iJaTa" the material existence is conquered by them.
b] iNadaeRzMa( SaMaMa( ih [Because] the Supreme is flawless and equal


TaSMaaTa( Tae b]i<a iSQaTaa" therefore they are situated in the Supreme.
* YaSMaaTa( b] SaMaMa( iNadaeRzMa( c Because the brahma is flawless and equal TaSMaaTa( Tae
SaMadiXaRNa" b]i<a Wv iSQaTaa" therefore those who have equal vision are situated in
brahma b]>aavMa( Pa[aa" wiTa AQaR" i.e., they have attained the nature of brahma.
719 BG 5.20

Na Pa[ZYaeiTPa[Ya& Pa[aPYa NaaeiJaeTPa[aPYa caiPa[YaMa( ) iSQarbuirSaMMaU!ae b]ivd( b]]i<a iSQaTa"== =))

na prahyet priya prpya nodvijet prpya cpriyam, sthira-buddhir a-sammho brahma-vid brahmai

iSQarbui" ASaMMaU!" With steady intelligence and unbewildered

b]i<a iSQaTa" b]ivd( the knower of the Supreme, situated in the Supreme
iPa[YaMa( Pa[aPYa [after] achieving what is pleasant
Na Pa[ZYaeTa( he will not rejoice,
AiPa[YaMa( c Pa[aPYa and [after] achieving what is unpleasant
Na oiJaeTa( he will not be agitated.
720 BG 5.21

baSPaXaeRZvSa==aTMaa ivNdTYaaTMaiNa YaTSau%Ma( ) Sa b]YaaeGaYau= aTMaa Sau%Ma+aYaMaXNauTae= = ))

bhya-sparev a-sakttm vindaty tmani yat sukham, sa brahma-yoga-yukttm sukham a-kayam anute

baSPaXaeRzu ASa==AaTMaa One who is unattached towards external (bhya) sense objects
AaTMaiNa Yad( Sau:aMa( ivNdiTa obtains that happiness which is in the self.
b]YaaeGaYau= AaTMaa Being absorbed in the Supreme
Sa" A+aYaMa( Sau%Ma( AXNauTae he obtains unending happiness.
721 BG 5.22

Yae ih Sa&SPaXaRJaa >aaeGaa du"%YaaeNaYa Wv Tae ) AaNTavNTa" k==aENTaeYa Na Taezu rMaTae buDa"== =))
ye hi saspara-j bhog dukha-yonaya eva te, dy-antavanta kaunteya na teu ramate budha

k==aENTaeYa O Arjuna!
Yae ih Sa&SPaXaRJaa" >aaeGaa" Those pleasures which are born from sense objects
Tae du"%YaaeNaYa" Wv they are just sources of misery
* vTaRMaaNak==ale AiPa Even at present (the time of enjoyment) SPaDaaRASaUYaaid
VYaaTvaTa( because they attended by competition, envy, etc.
AaidANTavNTa" and temporary (having beginning and end).
buDa" Taezu Na rMaTae A wise man (budha) does not delight in them.
* Maae+a" Wv Par" PauzaQaR" As liberation is the highest goal of man TaSYa c k==aMa
==aeDaveGa" AiTaPa[iTaPa+a" and as the urge of lust and anger is a great enemy of this
(liberation) ATa" therefore Tad(SahNaSaMaQaR" Wv only one who is able to tolerate this
[urge] Maae+a>aak(= attains liberation:
722 BG 5.23

Xa==aeTaqhEv Ya" Saae!u& Pa[aK=XarqrivMaae+a<aaTa( ) k==aMa==aeDaaev& veGa& Sa Yau= " Sa Sau%q Nar"== =))
aknothaiva ya sohu prk arra-vimokat, kma-krodhodbhava vega sa yukta sa sukh nara

wh Wv In this very life

XarqrivMaae+a<aaTa( Pa[ak(= before giving up the body (arra)



k==aMa==aeDaovMa( veGaMa( the urge born from lust (kma) and anger (krodha)
Ya" Saae!uMa( Xa==aeiTa one who is able to tolerate [it],
Sa" Yau= " he is a yog
Sa" Sau%q Nar" and he is a happy man.
* Na ke= vlMa( k==aMa==aeDaveGaSa&hr<aMaa}ae<a Not merely by tolerating the urge of lust
and anger Maae+aMa( Pa[aPNaaeiTa one attains liberation:
723 BG 5.24

Yaae-= _NTa"Sau%ae-= _NTararaMaSTaQaaNTaJYaaeRiTarev Ya" ) Sa YaaeGaq b]iNavaR<a& b]>aUTaae-= _iDaGaC^iTa== =))

yo nta-sukho ntar-rmas tathntar-jyotir eva ya, sa yog brahma-nirva brahma-bhto dhigacchati

Ya" ANTa"Sau%" ANTa"AaraMa" One whose happiness (sukha) and delight (rma) are within
TaQaa Wv Ya" ANTa"JYaaeiTa" and whose vision (jyoti light) is within [and not outside],
Sa" b]>aUTa" YaaeGaq that self-realized yog
b]iNavaR<aMa( AiDaGaC^iTa attains liberation (nirva) in the Supreme.
724 BG 5.25

l>aNTae b]iNavaR<aMa*zYa" +aq<ak==LMaza" ) i^aEDaa YaTaaTMaaNa" SavR>aUTaihTae rTaa"== =))

labhante brahma-nirvam aya ka-kalma, chinna-dvaidh yattmna sarva-bhta-hite rat

i^aEDaa" YaTaAaTMaaNa" Being free from doubt, self-controlled

SavR>aUTaihTae rTaa" and [full of compassion] engaged in the welfare of all beings
+aq<ak==LMaza" zYa" [such] sages who are free from sin (kalmaa)
b]iNavaR<aMa( l>aNTae attain liberation (nirva) in the Supreme.
725 BG 5.26

k==aMa==aeDaivMau= aNaa& YaTaqNaa& YaTaceTaSaaMa( ) Ai>aTaae b]iNavaR<a& vTaRTae ividTaaTMaNaaMa(= = ))

kma-krodha-vimuktn yatn yata-cetasm, abhito brahma-nirva vartate vidittmanm

k==aMa==aeDaivMau= aNaaMa( Being free from lust and anger

YaTaceTaSaaMa( ividTaAaTMaNaaMa( self-controlled and realized
YaTaqNaaMa( for those who endeavor
b]iNavaR<aMa( Ai>aTa" vTaRTae liberation (nirva) in the Supreme is near.
* Ai>aTa" Near means o>aYaTa" Ma*TaaNaaMa( JaqvTaaMa( c on both sides, whether living
or death.
726 BG 5.27-28

SPaXaaRNk*= Tva bihbaRa&+auEvaNTare >a]uvae" ) Pa[a<aaPaaNaaE SaMaaE k*= Tva NaaSaa>YaNTarcair<aaE= = ))

sparn ktv bahir bhy caku caivntare bhruvo, prpnau samau ktv nsbhyantara-criau

YaTaeiNd]YaMaNaaebuiMauRiNaMaaeR+aParaYa<a" ) ivGaTaeC^a>aYa==aeDaae Ya" Sada Mau= Wv Sa"== =))

yatendriya-mano-buddhir munir moka-paryaa, vigatecch-bhaya-krodho ya sad mukta eva sa

baaNa( SPaXaaRNa( bih" k*= Tva [After] shutting out external sense perceptions
c+au" c Wv >a]uvae" ANTare and [after fixing ones] vision between the eyebrows
* ATYaNTaMa( Nae}aYaae" iNaMaqlNae When the eyes are too much closed iNad]Yaa MaNa" lqYaTae
the mind is merged in sleep. oNMaqlNae c And when [the eyes are] wide open bih"
Pa[SariTa it (the mind) goes out. Tad( o>aYadaezPairharAQaRMa( Therefore, to avoid


ADaRiNaMaqlNaeNa >a]UMaDYae d*iMa( iNaDaaYa with half-closed eyes the gaze is

fixed between the eyebrows. wiTa AQaR" This is the idea.

both defects

In 6.13 the instruction is to stare at nsik-agra the forepart of the nose. This can
refer either to the tip of the nose, or its highest part, which is between the eyebrows. In
any case, the important thing is, not to close the eyes completely.

NaaSaaA>YaNTarcair<aaE Pa[a<aAPaaNaaE and pra and apna, which move inside the nose [only]
SaMaaE k*= Tva [after] balancing [both]
Ya" YaTawiNd]YaMaNa"bui" one whose senses, mind and intelligence are controlled
ivGaTawC^a>aYa==aeDa" free from desire, fear and anger
Maae+aParaYa<a" MauiNa" a sage whose goal is liberation,
Sa" Sada Mau= " Wv he is certainly always liberated (mukta).
* Sa" Sada (=JaqvNa( AiPa=) Mau= " Wv He is always, even while living, liberated.
* Na TaavTa(Maa}ae<a Not just by that (sense-control) [one achieves liberation] ik==NTau
jaNaare<a but also by knowledge:
727 BG 5.29

>aae= ar& YajTaPaSaa& SavRlaek= MaherMa( ) Saud& SavR>aUTaaNaa& jaTva Maa& XaaiNTaMa*C^iTa== =))
bhoktra yaja-tapas sarva-loka-mahevaram, suhda sarva-bhtn jtv m ntim cchati

YajTaPaSaaMa( >aae= arMa( As the enjoyer (bhokt) of all sacrifices and austerities
SavRlaek= MahawRrMa( as the Supreme Lord of all worlds
SavR>aUTaaNaaMa( SaudMa( and as the friend (suhd) of all beings
MaaMa( jaTva [after] knowing Me [thus]
XaaiNTaMa( C^iTa one attains peace (liberation).
* Mad(Pa]SaadeNa XaaiNTaMa( (=Maae+aMa(=) C^iTa One attains peace, liberation, through my



Sanskrit Kdanta 4
(1) kta
(2) krya
(3) payan
(4) tyaktv
The suffix .[k]tv indicates a preceeding action (this form is avyaya, indeclinable):

haNaaE to abandon >>> [after] abandoning, having abandoned

bhuj[a]...PaalNaA>YavharYaae" to govern; enjoy + .[k]tv >>> >aua [after] enjoying
bh...SataaYaaMa( to be, become; + .[k]tv >>> >aUTva [after] being, becoming
d[ir]...Pa[e+a<ae to see + .[k]tv >>> d*a [after] seeing
ru...[v<ae to hear, obey; + .[k]tv >>> [uTva [after] hearing
gam[]...GaTaaE to go; + .[k]tv >>> GaTva [after] going
j 9P...AvbaeDaNae to know; + .[k]tv >>> jaTva [after] knowing
[u]k[]...k==r<ae to do; + .[k]tv >>> k*= Tva [after] doing
[u]labh[a]...Pa[aaE to obtain; + .[k]tv >>> lBa [after] obtaining
tyaj[a]...haNaaE to abandon; + .[k]tv >>> TYaa [after] abandoning
Instead of .[k]tv, .ya[p] is used when a prefix (like pari.) is applied to the dhtu:
pari.tyaj[a] to abandon >>> parityaj.ya [after] abandoning

Pa[daYa [after] offering[] to ascertain; + .ya[p] >>> iNaiTYa [after] ascertaining
ni.yam[a] to restrain; + .ya[p] >>> iNaYaMYa [after] restraining[a] to restrain; + .ya[p] >>> iviNaYaMYa [after] restraining
vi.[o]h[k] to abandon; + .ya[p] >>> ivhaYa [after] abandoning
vi.j to understand; + .ya[p] >>> ivjaYa [after] understanding
upa.i[] to go near, attain; + .ya[p] >>> oPaeTYa [after] attaining
upa.sam.gam[] to go near; + .ya[p] >>> oPaSaMYa [after] approaching
pra.nam[a] to bow; + .ya[p] >>> Pa[<aMYa [after] bowing
pra.p[] to obtain; + .ya[p] >>> Pa[aPYa [after] obtaining to remember; + .ya[p] >>> Sa&SMa*TYa [after] remembering
sam.yam[a] to restrain; + .ya[p] >>> Sa&YaMYa [after] restraining[u] to throw down, give up; + .ya[p] >>> SaYaSYa [after] giving up
sam.k[a] to see; + .ya[p] >>> SaMaq+Ya [after] seeing
vi.p[] to pervade; + .ya[p] >>> VYaaPYa [after] pervading
.ri[] to take shelter; + .ya[p] >>> Aai[TYa [after] taking shelter
.p to protect, nourish; fill; + .ya[p] >>> AaPaUYaR [after] filling
ati.i[] to pass; + .ya[p] >>> ATaqTYa [after] surpassing
ava.p[] to obtain; + .ya[p] >>> AvaPYa [after] obtaining


to offer; + ya[p] >>>


Words made with .ya[p] should not be confused with (2) .ya (2). Kdantas made with .[k]tv or .ya[p]
are avyayas, indeclinables.
(4) pari.tyaj[a] to abandon; + .ya[p] >>> parityajya avyaya [after] abandoning;



[after] abandoning all dharmas

(2) pari.tyaj[a] to abandon; + .ya >>> parityajya to be abandoned; not avyaya, but always declined

PairTYaJYa" 1.1, PairTYaJYaaE 1.2, PairTYaJYaa" 1.3; SavRk==aMaa" PairTYaJYaa" all desires

are to be abandoned



Hinduism Gt 6
tma-sayama-yoga The Yoga of Self-control (tma-sayama)
728 BG 6.1

ANaai[Ta" k==MaRf= l& k==aYa| k==MaR k==raeiTa Ya" ) Sa SaYaaSaq c YaaeGaq c Na iNariGNaNaR cai==Ya"== =))
an-rita karma-phala krya karma karoti ya, sa sannys ca yog ca na niragnir na ckriya

[q>aGavaNa( ovac The Lord said:

k==MaRf==lMa( ANa(Aai[Ta" Not resorting to the fruit of activity
Ya" k==aYaRMa( k==MaR k==raeiTa one who does the prescribed duty
Sa" SaYaaSaq c YaaeGaq c he is a sannys and a yog,
Na iNariGNa" and not he who does no rites
* iNariGNa" Niragni means AiGNaSaaDYawAa:Yak==MaRTYaaGaq one who gives up rites
called ia which are performed with the sacrificial fire.

Na c Ai==Ya"

nor he who does no pious work.


Ai==Ya" ANaiGNaSaaDYaPaUTaRAa:Yak==MaRTYaaGaq

A-kriya means one who gives up

philantrophic acts called prta which are performed without the sacred fire.

ku= Ta" Why [is he a sannys and a yog]?

729 BG 6.2

Ya& SaYaaSaiMaiTa Pa[ahuYaaeRGa& Ta& ivi Paa<@v ) Na SaYaSTaSaLPaae YaaeGaq >aviTa k==Na== =))
ya sannysam iti prhur yoga ta viddhi pava, na hy a-sannyasta-sakalpo yog bhavati kacana

Paa<@v O Arjuna!
YaMa( SaYaaSaMa( wiTa Pa[ahu" That which is [highly] spoken of as sannysa
TaMa( YaaeGaMa( ivi know that to be [the same as] karma-yoga!
* f==lSaLPaTYaaGaSaaMYaaTa( Owing to the common factor, viz., the renunciation of
the desire for the fruit [of action] SaYaaSaq c he (the karma-yog) is also a sannys.
ASaYaSTaSaLPa" Without having renounced desire
Na ih k==Na YaaeGaq >aviTa nobody becomes a yog.
* f==lSaLPaTYaaGaaTa( Wv And because of this renunciation of desire for the fruit
ictaiv+aePaA>aavaTa( and the [resultant] ceasing of mental distractions YaaeGaq c
>aviTa he is also a yog [according to Patajali].
* TaihR YaavTa( JaqvMa( Then all through life k==MaRYaaeGa" Wv Pa[a" one will have to
practice karma-yoga?
730 BG 6.3

Aa+aaeMauRNaeYaaeRGa& k==MaR k==ar<aMauCYaTae ) YaaeGaa!SYa TaSYaEv XaMa" k==ar<aMauCYaTae= = ))

rurukor muner yoga karma kraam ucyate, yogrhasya tasyaiva ama kraam ucyate

YaaeGaMa( Aa+aae" MauNae" For a sage who wants to attain purity (yoga)
k==MaR k==ar<aMa( oCYaTae work is said to be the means.
* ictaXauik==rTvaTa( Because it purifies the mind.
TaSYa Wv YaaeGaAa!SYa But for him who has attained purity (yoga)


XaMa" k==ar<aMa( oCYaTae cessation [of work] is said to be the means.

* ictaiv+aePak==MaRoParMa" Cessation of all work that distracts the mind [from
meditation] jaNaPairPaake= k==ar<aMa( oCYaTae is said to be the means (kraa) for the
maturity of knowledge.

k==Id*Xa" ASaaE YaaeGaAa!" What is this person like who has attained to yoga?
731 BG 6.4

Yada ih NaeiNd]YaaQaeRzu Na k==MaRSvNauzTae ) SavRSaLPaSaYaaSaq YaaeGaa!STadaeCYaTae= = ))

yad hi nendriyrtheu na karmasv anuajjate, sarva-sakalpa-sannys yogrhas tadocyate

Yada ih SavRSaLPaSaYaaSaq When one who has renounced all desires

Na wiNd]YaAQaeRzu ANauzTae neither has attachment for sense objects
Na k==MaRSau nor for activities,
* Tad(SaaDaNaezu c k==MaRSau For activities which are a means to them (sense objects).
Tada YaaeGaAa!" oCYaTae then he is said to have attained yoga.
* ATa" Therefore ivzYaAaSai==TYaaGae Maae+aMa( that giving up attachment to sense
objects means liberation (moka) Tad(AaSa==aE c bNDaMa( and attachment to them
means bondage PaYaaRlaeCYa realizing that, raGaaidSv>aavMa( TYaJaeTa( proneness to
attachment etc. should be given up:
732 BG 6.5

oredaTMaNaaTMaaNa& NaaTMaaNaMavSaadYaeTa( ) AaTMaEv aTMaNaae bNDauraTMaEv irPauraTMaNa"== =))

uddhared tmantmna ntmnam avasdayet, tmaiva hy tmano bandhur tmaiva ripur tmana

AaTMaNaa AaTMaaNaMa( oreTa( One should elevate oneself [from sasra] through the mind
AaTMaaNaMa( Na AvSaadYaeTa( and not degrade oneself,
AaTMaa Wv ih AaTMaNa" bNDau" [because] the mind alone [when free from attachment] is ones friend
AaTMaa Wv AaTMaNa" irPau" and the mind alone is ones enemy.
733 BG 6.6

bNDauraTMaaTMaNaSTaSYa YaeNaaTMaEvaTMaNaa iJaTa" ) ANaaTMaNaSTau Xa}auTve vTaeRTaaTMaEv Xa}auvTa(= = ))

bandhur tmtmanas tasya yentmaivtman jita, an-tmanas tu atrutve vartettmaiva atruvat

YaeNa AaTMaNaa AaTMaa Wv iJaTa" By whose self the mind is conquered

TaSYa AaTMaNa" AaTMaa bNDau" for his self the mind is a friend.
ANa(AaTMaNa" Tau But for one who has not [conquered] the mind
AaTMaa Wv Xa}auvTa( Xa}auTve vTaeRTa the mind, like an enemy, will act in enmity.
* iJaTaAaTMaNa" SviSMaNa( bNDauTvMa( Sfu= $=YaiTa The friendliness of the controlled mind
to himself is elucidated:
734 BG 6.7

iJaTaaTMaNa" Pa[XaaNTaSYa ParMaaTMaa SaMaaihTa" ) XaqTaaeZ<aSau%du"%ezu TaQaa MaaNaaPaMaaNaYaae"= = ))

jittmana prantasya paramtm samhita, toa-sukha-dukheu tath mnpamnayo

iJaTaAaTMaNa" Pa[XaaNTaSYa For one who has conquered the mind and is [thus] pacified
XaqTaoZ<aSau%du"%ezu in cold and heat, happiness and distress
TaQaa MaaNaAPaMaaNaYaae" and in honor and dishonor



ParMa( AaTMaa SaMaaihTa"

the transendental (or pure) soul is established.

Another reading: paramtm... the Supersoul is established.
735 BG 6.8

jaNaivjaNaTa*aTMaa kU= $=SQaae iviJaTaeiNd]Ya" ) Yau= wTYauCYaTae YaaeGaq SaMalae\aXMak==aNa"== =))

jna-vijna-tpttm kastho vijitendriya, yukta ity ucyate yog sama-lorma-kcana

jaNaivjaNaTa*AaTMaa Being satisfied by knowledge (jna) and realization (vijna)

kU= $=SQa" iviJaTawiNd]Ya" situated in transcendence and sense-controlled
SaMalae\AXMak==aNa" regarding alike a lump of earth, stone and gold
YaaeGaq Yau= " wiTa oCYaTae the yog is said to have attained yoga.
736 BG 6.9

SauiNMa}aaYauRdaSaqNaMaDYaSQaeZYabNDauzu ) SaaDauZviPa c PaaPaezu SaMabuiivRiXaZYaTae= = ))

suhn-mitrry-udsna- madhyastha-dveya-bandhuu, sdhuv api ca ppeu sama-buddhir viiyate

Saud(iMa}aAirodaSaqNa Towards well-wishers, friends, enemies, neutrals, ...

* Saud( Sv>aaveNa Wv ihTaAaXa&Saq A well-wisher (suhd) is by nature welldisposed. iMa}aMa( =SNaehvXaeNa oPak==ark==" A friend (mitra) does good through affection.
Air" gaaTak==" An enemy (ari) does harm. odaSaqNa" ivvdMaaNaYaae" o>aYaae" AiPa
oPae+ak==" A neutral (udsna) is indifferent to both the contending parties.
MaDYaSQaeZYabNDauzu ... mediators (madhya-stha), detestables and relatives
* MaDYaSQa" ivvdMaaNaYaae" o>aYaae" AiPa ihTaAaXa&Saq A mediator is a well-wisher of
both the contending parties. eZYa" ezivzYa" A detestable person is an object of

SaaDauzu PaaPaezu AiPa c and also towards the pious (sdhu) and sinners
SaMabui" iviXaZYaTae he who is equal-minded is [even] superior [to the one mentioned in 6.8].
737 BG 6.10

YaaeGaq YauqTa SaTaTaMaaTMaaNa& rhiSa iSQaTa" ) Wk==ak==I YaTaictaaTMaa iNaraXaqrPairGa]h"== =))

yog yujta satatam tmna rahasi sthita, ekk yata-citttm nirr a-parigraha

rhiSa iSQaTa" Wk==ak==I Living in seclusion and alone

YaTaictaAaTMaa his mind and body controlled
iNaraXaq" APairGa]h" without desire and proprietorship
YaaeGaq AaTMaaNaMa( SaTaTaMa( YauqTa the yog should always engage himself.
* YaaeGaq YaaeGaAa!" The yog is one who has attained to yoga.
* AaSaNaiNaYaMaMa( dXaRYaNa( Showing the rule regarding the sana Aah it is stated:
738 BG 6.11-12

XaucaE deXae Pa[iTaaPYa iSQarMaaSaNaMaaTMaNa" ) NaaTYauiC^\Ta& NaaiTaNaqc& cElaiJaNaku= XaaetarMa(= = ))

ucau dee pratihpya sthiram sanam tmana, nty-ucchrita nti-nca cailjina-kuottaram

Ta}aEk= aGa]& MaNa" k*= Tva YaTaictaeiNd]Yai==Ya" ) oPaivXYaaSaNae YauYaaaeGaMaaTMaivXauYae= = ))

tatraikgra mana ktv yata-cittendriya-kriya, upaviysane yujyd yogam tma-viuddhaye

XaucaE deXae In a sanctified place (dea)

Na ATYauiC^\TaMa( Na AiTaNaqcMa( neither too high nor too low
cElAiJaNaku= XaotarMa( with cloth (caila) and deerskin (ajina) on kua grass


AaTMaNa" iSQarMa( AaSaNaMa( Pa[iTaaPYa [after thus] establishing ones firm seat (sana)
Ta}a AaSaNae oPaivXYa [after] sitting down on that seat
MaNa" Wk==AGa]Ma( k*= Tva [and after] concentrating the mind (manas)
YaTaictawiNd]Yai==Ya" controlling the activities of mind (citta) and senses (indriya)
AaTMaivXauYae YaaeGaMa( YauYaaTa( one should practice yoga to purify the mind.
739 BG 6.13-14

SaMa& k==aYaiXaraeGa]qv& DaarYaacl& iSQar" ) SaMPa[e+Ya NaaiSak==aGa]& Sv& idXaaNavlaek= YaNa(= = ))

sama kya-iro-grva dhrayann a-cala sthira, samprekya nsikgra sva dia cnavalokayan

Pa[XaaNTaaTMaa ivGaTa>aqb]Rcairv]Tae iSQaTa" ) MaNa" Sa&YaMYa Maitaae Yau= AaSaqTa MaTPar"== =))
pranttm vigata-bhr brahmacri-vrate sthita, mana sayamya mac-citto yukta sta mat-para

k==aYaiXar"Ga]qvMa( The body (kya), head (iras) and neck (grva)

SaMaMa( AclMa( DaarYaNa( [while] holding [them] straight and unmoving
iSQar" [and thus being] steady,
SvMa( NaaiSak==aAGa]Ma( SaMPa[e+Ya [after] staring at the tip of ones nose (see note 5.27)
idXa" c ANa(Avlaek= YaNa( and [while] not looking around
Pa[XaaNTaAaTMaa ivGaTa>aq" being peaceful in mind and free from fear (bh)
b]cairv]Tae iSQaTa" situated in the vow (vrata) of a celibate (brahmacrin)
MaNa" Sa&YaMYa [after thus] controlling the mind (manas)
Yau= " Mad(icta" Mad(Par" AaSaqTa the yog should remain thinking of Me and devoted to Me.
740 BG 6.15

Yauaev& SadaTMaaNa& YaaeGaq iNaYaTaMaaNaSa" ) XaaiNTa& iNavaR<aParMaa& MaTSa&SQaaMaiDaGaC^iTa== =))

yujann eva sadtmna yog niyata-mnasa, nti nirva-param mat-sasthm adhigacchati

WvMa( Sada AaTMaaNaMa( YauNa( Thus always concentrating himself

iNaYaTaMaaNaSa" YaaeGaq the yog, his mind controlled
Mad(Sa&SQaaMa( iNavaR<aParMaaMa( XaaiNTaMa( the peace (nti) of liberation (nirva), which is My residence
AiDaGaC^iTa he attains.
741 BG 6.16

NaaTYaXNaTaSTau YaaeGaae-= _iSTa Na cEk= aNTaMaNaXNaTa" ) Na caiTaSvPNaXaqlSYa JaaGa]Taae NaEv caJauRNa== =))
ntyanatas tu yogo sti na caikntam an-anata, na ctisvapna-lasya jgrato naiva crjuna

AJauRNa O Arjuna!
ATYaXNaTa" Tau YaaeGa" Na AiSTa There is no yoga (mind-control) for one who eats too much
Na c Wk==aNTaMa( ANa(AXNaTa" nor for one who is only fasting
Na c AiTaSvPNaXaqlSYa nor for one whose habit is to sleep too much
Na Wv c JaaGa]Ta" and never for one who stays awake [too much].
742 BG 6.17

Yau= aharivharSYa Yau= ceSYa k==MaRSau ) Yau= SvPNaavbaeDaSYa YaaeGaae >aviTa du"%ha== =))
yukthra-vihrasya yukta-ceasya karmasu, yukta-svapnvabodhasya yogo bhavati dukha-h

Yau= AaharivharSYa For one whose food (hra) and lifestyle are regulated
k==MaRSau Yau= ceSYa whose engagement in work is regulated
Yau= SvPNaAvbaeDaSYa whose sleeping and waking are regulated



du"%ha YaaeGa" >aviTa

there is yoga, which destroys misery.

743 BG 6.18

Yada iviNaYaTa& ictaMaaTMaNYaevaviTaTae ) iNaSPa*h" SavRk= aMae>Yaae Yau= wTYauCYaTae Tada== =))
yad viniyata cittam tmany evvatihate, nispha sarva-kmebhyo yukta ity ucyate tad

Yada iviNaYaTaMa( ictaMa( When the well-controlled mind (citta)

AaTMaiNa Wv AviTaTae stays in the self alone
SavRk==aMae>Ya" iNaSPa*h" and when one is free from hankering for all enjoyments
Tada Yau= " wiTa oCYaTae then one is said to be in yoga.
744 BG 6.19

YaQaa dqPaae iNavaTaSQaae NaeTae SaaePaMaa SMa*Taa ) YaaeiGaNaae YaTaictaSYa YauTaae YaaeGaMaaTMaNa"== =))
yath dpo nivta-stho negate sopam smt, yogino yata-cittasya yujato yogam tmana

YaQaa iNavaTaSQa" dqPa" As a lamp (dpa) in a windless place

Na wTae does not flicker
AaTMaNa" YaaeGaMa( YauTa" practicing meditation on the self
YaTaictaSYa YaaeiGaNa" for a yog of controlled mind
Saa oPaMaa SMa*Taa that comparison (upam) is given.
745 BG 6.20-23

Ya}aaeParMaTae icta& iNa& YaaeGaSaevYaa ) Ya}a cEvaTMaNaaTMaaNa& PaXYaaaTMaiNa TauZYaiTa== =))

yatroparamate citta niruddha yoga-sevay, yatra caivtmantmna payann tmani tuyati

Sau%MaaTYaiNTak&= YatauiGa]aMaTaqiNd]YaMa( ) veita Ya}a Na cEvaYa& iSQaTaliTa TatvTa"== =))

sukham tyantika yat tad buddhi-grhyam atndriyam, vetti yatra na caivya sthita calati tattvata

Ya& lBa caPar& la>a& MaNYaTae NaaiDak&= TaTa" ) YaiSMaiNSQaTaae Na du"%eNa Gau<aaiPa ivcaLYaTae= = ))
ya labdhv cpara lbha manyate ndhika tata, yasmin sthito na dukhena gurupi viclyate

Ta& ivau"%Sa&YaaeGaivYaaeGa& YaaeGaSa&ijTaMa(= = ))

ta vidyd dukha-sayoga- viyoga yoga-sajitam

Ya}a In which [state] (i.e., the state of concentration)

YaaeGaSaevYaa iNaMa( ictaMa( the mind, controlled by yoga practice
oParMaTae calmes down [that is yoga],
* wiTa YaaeGaSYa SvPal+a<aMa( o==Ma( Thus the primary characteristic of yoga is
stated. TaQaa c PaaTalMa( SaU}aMa( =YaaeGa" ictav*itaiNaraeDa"= wiTa As Patajalis stra
defines: Yoga is the controll of the minds activities.

Ya}a c Wv and in which [state]

AaTMaNaa AaTMaaNaMa( PaXYaNa( [while] seeing the self by the [pure] mind
AaTMaiNa TauZYaiTa one is satisfied in the self,
* f==leNa TaMa( Wv l+aYaiTa [Thus] that same thing (i.e., concentration) is defined by its

Ya}a and in which [state]

Yad( Tad( AaTYaiNTak==Ma( ATaqiNd]YaMa( that infinite and transcendental
buiGa]aMa( Sau%Ma( happiness, experienced by intelligence
veita one knows,


iSQaTa" c and being situated [in which state]

AYaMa( TatvTa" Na Wv cliTa he [therefore] never diverts from the truth (the self),
* TatvTa" From the truth means AaTMaSvPaaTa( from the reality of the self.
YaMa( c lBa and [after] gaining which [state]
TaTa" AiDak==Ma( greater than that
AParMa( la>aMa( Na MaNYaTae another gain he does not know,
YaiSMaNa( iSQaTa" and situated in which [state]
Gau<aa du"%eNa AiPa even by great misery
Na ivcaLYaTae he is not perturbed,
TaMa( du"%Sa&YaaeGaivYaaeGaMa( that [state of] freedom from misery
YaaeGaSa&ijTaMa( ivaTa( one should know as yoga.
*=ParMaaTMaNaa +ae}ajSYa YaaeJaNaMa( =YaaeGa"= The union of the embodied soul with the
Supersoul (Paramtm) is called yoga. k==MaRi<a Tau YaaeGaXaBd" But the application of the
word yoga in the sense of action (as in karma-yoga) Tad(oPaaYaTvaTa( AaEPacairk==" Wv
is only figurative, it (karma) being a means to yoga.
746 BG 6.24

Sa iNaYaeNa Yaae= VYaae YaaeGaae-= _iNaivR<<aceTaSaa ) SaLPaPa[>avaNk==aMaa&STYaa SavaRNaXaezTa"== =)

sa nicayena yoktavyo yogo nirvia-cetas, sakalpa-prabhavn kms tyaktv sarvn a-eata

MaNaSaEveiNd]YaGa]aMa& iviNaYaMYa SaMaNTaTa"== =))

manasaivendriya-grma viniyamya samantata

iNaYaeNa AiNaivR<<aceTaSaa With determination and an undepressed mind

* iNaYaeNa XaaAacaYaRoRPadeXaJaiNaTaeNa With determination / conviction, resulting
from the teachings of the scriptures and the preceptor.

SavaRNa( SaLPaPa[>avaNa( k==aMaaNa( all desires born of fancy

* YaaeGaPa[iTakU= laNa( SavaRNa( k==aMaaNa( All

desires which are obstructions for the

attainment of yoga.

AXaezTa" TYaa [after] completely giving up

* AXaezTa" Completely means SavaSaNaaNa( together with the latent impressions in the

MaNaSaa Wv and with the mind

wiNd]YaGa]aMaMa( SaMaNTaTa" iviNaYaMYa [after] completely controlling all the senses
* SavRTa" Pa[SarNTaMa( wiNd]YaSaMaUhMa( The group of senses wandering in all directions.
Sa" YaaeGa" Yaae= VYa" that yoga is to be practiced.
747 BG 6.25

XaNaE" XaNaEParMaeuya Da*iTaGa*hqTaYaa ) AaTMaSa&SQa& MaNa" k*= Tva Na ik==idiPa icNTaYaeTa(= = ))

anai anair uparamed buddhy dhti-ghtay, tma-sastha mana ktv na kicid api cintayet

Da*iTaGa*hqTaYaa buya With the intelligence controlled by concentration (dhti)

MaNa" AaTMaSa&SQaMa( k*= Tva [after] fixing the mind (manas) in the self
XaNaE" XaNaE" oParMaeTa( one should gradually calm down



* [Gradually means:]

A>YaaSa==Mae<a NaTau SahSaa by gradual practice, not all of a


Na ik==id( AiPa icNTaYaeTa(

[i.e.] one should not think of anything.

748 BG 6.26

YaTaae YaTaae iNaliTa MaNalMaiSQarMa( ) TaTaSTaTaae iNaYaMYaETadaTMaNYaev vXa& NaYaeTa(= = ))

yato yato nicalati mana cacalam a-sthiram, tatas tato niyamyaitad tmany eva vaa nayet

YaTa" YaTa" After whatever

clMa( AiSQarMa( MaNa" iNaliTa the flickering and unsteady mind (manas) wanders,
TaTa" TaTa" WTad( iNaYaMYa [after] restraining it from that [by such pratyhra]
AaTMaiNa Wv vXaMa( NaYaeTa( one should bring it under the control of the self alone.
749 BG 6.27

Pa[XaaNTaMaNaSa& eNa& YaaeiGaNa& Sau%MautaMaMa( ) oPaEiTa XaaNTarJaSa& b]>aUTaMak==LMazMa(= = ))

pranta-manasa hy ena yogina sukham uttamam, upaiti nta-rajasa brahma-bhtam a-kalmaam

XaaNTarJaSaMa( Pa[XaaNTaMaNaSaMa( [Thus] of calmed passions (rajas) and pacified mind

Ak==LMazMa( b]>aUTaMa( sinless and self-realized
WNaMa( YaaeiGaNaMa( ih to this yog alone
otaMaMa( Sau%Ma( oPaEiTa comes supreme happiness [of samdhi].
In this verse, uttamam sukham is the kart, and yoginam is the karma.
750 BG 6.28

Yauaev& SadaTMaaNa& YaaeGaq ivGaTak==LMaz" ) Sau%eNa b]Sa&SPaXaRMaTYaNTa& Sau%MaXNauTae= = ))

yujann eva sadtmna yog vigata-kalmaa, sukhena brahma-sasparam atyanta sukham anute

WvMa( AaTMaaNaMa( Sada YauNa( [While] thus always engaging himself

b]Sa&SPaXaRMa( ATYaNTaMa( Sau%Ma( the unlimited happiness of the experience of the Supreme
ivGaTak==LMaz" YaaeGaq Sau%eNa AXNauTae the sinless yog easily obtains.
* JaqvNa(Mau= " >aviTa He attains liberation even while living.
* b]Saa+aaTk==arMa( Wv dXaRYaiTa Now He describes realization of brahma:
751 BG 6.29

SavR>aUTaSQaMaaTMaaNa& SavR>aUTaaiNa caTMaiNa ) wR+aTae YaaeGaYau= aTMaa SavR}a SaMadXaRNa"== =))

sarva-bhtastham tmna sarva-bhtni ctmani, kate yoga-yukttm sarvatra sama-darana

SavR}a SaMadXaRNa"

One who has equal vision everywhere

SavR}a SaMaMa( b] Wv PaXYaiTa He who sees the same brahma everywhere.

YaaeGaYau= AaTMaa who is self-realized by yoga,

AaTMaaNaMa( SavR>aUTaSQaMa( wR+aTae he sees the Supersoul situated in all beings
SavR>aUTaaiNa c AaTMaiNa and all beings in the Supersoul.
We follow Baladeva who explains tmnam as paramtmnam. And the next verse
indeed confirms it: ya m sarvatra payati...
752 BG 6.30

Yaae Maa& PaXYaiTa SavR}a Sav| c MaiYa PaXYaiTa ) TaSYaah& Na Pa[<aXYaaiMa Sa c Mae Na Pa[<aXYaiTa== =))
yo m payati sarvatra sarva ca mayi payati, tasyha na praaymi sa ca me na praayati

Ya" MaaMa( SavR}a PaXYaiTa

One who sees Me (the Lord) everywhere


MaaMa( ParMaerMa( SavR}a (=>aUTaMaa}ae=) Ya" PaXYaiTa He who sees Me, the Supreme Lord,

everywhere, in every being.

SavRMa( c MaiYa PaXYaiTa and sees everything in Me,

TaSYa AhMa( Na Pa[<aXYaaiMa for him I do not disappear
Sa" c Mae (=MaMa=) Na Pa[<aXYaiTa and he also does not disappear for Me.
* Pa[TYa+a" >aUTva Manifesting Myself before him k*= Paad*ya TaMa( ivlaeKYa and
looking at him graciously ANauGa*aiMa I favour him. wiTa AQaR" This is the idea.
* WvMa(>aUTa" iviDaik==r" SYaaTa( Such a person will not be subject to any [scriptural]
753 BG 6.31

SavR>aUTaiSQaTa& Yaae Maa& >aJaTYaek= TvMaaiSQaTa" ) SavRQaa vTaRMaaNaae-= _iPa Sa YaaeGaq MaiYa vTaRTae= = ))
sarva-bhta-sthita yo m bhajaty ekatvam sthita, sarvath vartamno pi sa yog mayi vartate

Wk==TvMa( AaiSQaTa" Resorting to [the vision of] unity

Ya" SavR>aUTaiSQaTaMa( MaaMa( >aJaiTa one who worships Me as being situated in all beings,
SavRQaa vTaRMaaNa" AiPa although living in all circumstances
* k==MaRTYaaGaeNa AiPa Even by giving up all work.
Sa" YaaeGaq MaiYa vTaRTae that yog lives in Me.
* MauCYaTae He is liberated NaTau >a]XYaiTa and does not degrade. wiTa AQaR" This is the
754 BG 6.32

AaTMaaEPaMYaeNa SavR}a SaMa& PaXYaiTa Yaae-= _JauRNa ) Sau%& va Yaid va du"%& Sa YaaeGaq ParMaae MaTa"== =))
tmaupamyena sarvatra sama payati yo rjuna, sukha v yadi v dukha sa yog paramo mata

AJauRNa O Arjuna!
AaTMaAaEPaMYaeNa By comparison with himself
Yaid Sau%Ma( va du"%Ma( va whether happiness or distress
Ya" SavR}a SaMaMa( PaXYaiTa one who sees equally everywhere,
* =YaQaa MaMa Sau%Ma( iPa[YaMa( As pleasure is pleasing to me du"%Ma( c AiPa[YaMa( and
pain is displeasing TaQaa ANYaezaMa( AiPa= so are they to others also. wiTa SavR}a
SaMaMa( PaXYaNa( thus seeing equally everywhere Sau%Ma( Wv SaveRzaMa( Ya" vaH^iTa he
wishes only pleasure to all creatures NaTau k==SYa AiPa du"%Ma( and not pain to any one.
Sa" YaaeGaq ParMa" MaTa" that yog is [by Me] considered best [among the above yogs].
* MaMa Ai>aMaTa" In my opinion.
755 BG 6.33

AJauRNa ovac
Yaae-= _Ya&= =YaaeGaSTvYaa== Pa[ae= "= =SaaMYaeNa== MaDauSaUdNa== )= =WTaSYaah&= =Na== PaXYaaiMa== clTvaiTSQaiTa&= =iSQaraMa(= = ))
yo ya yogas tvay prokta smyena madhusdana, etasyha na paymi cacalatvt sthiti sthirm

AJauRNa" ovac MaDauSaUdNa Arjuna said: O Lord (Madhusdana)!

Ya" AYaMa( YaaeGa" This yoga which
SaaMYaeNa TvYaa Pa[ae= " was described by You as equanimity,



clTvaTa( because of unsteadiness [of the mind]

WTaSYa iSQaraMa( iSQaiTaMa( the stable position of this [yoga]
AhMa( Na PaXYaaiMa I do not see.
756 BG 6.34

cl& ih MaNa" k*= Z<a Pa[MaaiQa blv*!Ma( ) TaSYaah& iNaGa]h& MaNYae vaYaaeirv SauduZk==rMa(= = ))
cacala hi mana ka pramthi balavad dham, tasyha nigraha manye vyor iva sudukaram

k*= Z<a O Lord (Ka)!

MaNa" ih Because the mind
clMa( Pa[MaaiQa blvTa( d*!Ma( is restless, turbulent, strong and obstinate,
* dehwiNd]Ya+aae>ak==Ma( [Turbulent means] agitating body and senses. blvTa( ivcare<a
AiPa JaeTauMa( AXaKYaMa( Strong means hard to control even by discrimination.
TaSYa iNaGa]hMa( AhMa( SauduZk==rMa( MaNYae its control I think to be very difficult
vaYaae" wv like [the control] of the wind.
757 BG 6.35

ASa&XaYa& Mahabahae MaNaae duiNaRGa]h& clMa( ) A>YaaSaeNa Tau k==aENTaeYa vEraGYae<a c Ga*Tae= = ))
a-saaya mah-bho mano durnigraha calam, abhysena tu kaunteya vairgyea ca ghyate

]q>=aGavaNa( ovac The Lord said:

Mahabahae k==aENTaeYa O hero Arjuna!
ASa&XaYaMa( Undoubtedly
clMa( MaNa" duiNaRGa]hMa( the restless mind is difficult to control,
A>YaaSaeNa Tau vEraGYae<a c but by practice (abhysa) and detachment (vairgya)
Ga*Tae it is controlled.
758 BG 6.36

ASa&YaTaaTMaNaa YaaeGaae duZPa[aPa wiTa Mae MaiTa" ) vXYaaTMaNaa Tau YaTaTaa XaKYaae-= _vauMauPaaYaTa"== =))
a-sayattman yogo duprpa iti me mati, vaytman tu yatat akyo vptum upyata

ASa&YaTaAaTMaNaa By one whose mind is not controlled

YaaeGa" duZPa[aPa" yoga is difficult to attain
wiTa Mae (=MaMa=) MaiTa" this is My opinion.
vXYaAaTMaNaa Tau But by one whose mind is controlled
oPaaYaTa" YaTaTaa and who is endeavoring by [suitable] means
AvauMa( XaKYa" it (yoga) is possible to attain.
759 BG 6.37

AJauRNa ovac
AYaiTa" [YaaePaeTaae YaaeGaailTaMaaNaSa" ) APa[aPYa YaaeGaSa&iSai& k==a& GaiTa& k*= Z<a GaC^iTa== =))
a-yati raddhayopeto yogc calita-mnasa, a-prpya yoga-sasiddhi k gati ka gacchati

AJauRNa" ovac k*= Z<a Arjuna said: O Lord (Ka)!

[Yaa oPaeTa" [Although] endowed with faith
* NaTau iMaQYaaAacarTaYaa And not hypocritically.


YaaeGaaTa( cilTaMaaNaSa" AYaiTa" the a-yati whose mind deviates from yoga
* AYaiTa" Na SaMYak(= YaTaTae An ayati does not endeavor completely iXaiQalA>YaaSa"
wiTa AQaR" i.e., he is slack in practice. TaQaa YaaeGaaTa( cilTaMa( MaaNaSaMa( Thus his mind
deviates from yoga ivzYaPa[v<aMa( ictaMa( i.e., his mind is inclined towards sense

YaaeGaSa&iSaiMa( APa[aPYa [after] not attaining the success of yoga [i.e., jna]
k==aMa( GaiTaMa( GaC^iTa what destination does he attain?
760 BG 6.38

k==iaae>aYaiv>a]iX^aa>a]iMav NaXYaiTa ) APa[iTaae Mahabahae ivMaU!ae b]<a" PaiQa== =))

kaccin nobhaya-vibhraa chinnbhram iva nayati, a-pratiho mah-bho vimho brahmaa pathi

Mahabahae O Lord!
APa[iTa" o>aYaiv>a]" Without support and fallen from both
* k==MaR<aaMa( wRre AiPaRTaTvaTa( Because of dedicating all work to the Lord [and not to
the devas] ... Na TaavTa( k==MaRf==lMa( SvGaaRidk==Ma( Pa[aPNaaeiTa he does not achieve its
result, heaven etc. YaaeGaAiNaZPatae" c And because of not having attained yoga Na
Maae+aMa( Pa[aPNaaeiTa he does not attain liberation.
b]<a" PaiQa ivMaU!" [and thus] bewildered on the spiritual path
k==id( Na NaXYaiTa does he not perish
i^aA>a]Ma( wv like a riven cloud?
* YaQaa i^aMa( A>a]Ma( As a detached cloud PaUvRSMaaTa( A>a]aTa( iviMa( being
disconnected from the previous cloud A>a]ANTarMa( c APa[aMa( SaNa( and not
attaining another cloud MaDYae Wv ivlqYaTae is dissolved in the interval.
761 BG 6.39

WTaNMae Sa&XaYa& k*= Z<a ^etauMahRSYaXaezTa" ) TvdNYa" Sa&XaYaSYaaSYa ^etaa Na uPaPaTae= = ))

etan me saaya ka chettum arhasy aeata, tvad anya saayasysya chett na hy upapadyate

k*= Z<a O Lord (Ka)!

WTad( Mae (=MaMa=) Sa&XaYaMa(

This my doubt (saaya)

The use of etad (neut.) with saayam (masc.), instead of enam (masc.), is raprayoga.

AXaezTa" ^etauMa( AhRiSa You should completely dispel.

Tvd(ANYa" ASYa Sa&XaYaSYa ^etaa Another dispeller of this doubt than You
Na ih oPaPaTae does not exist.
762 BG 6.40

PaaQaR NaEveh NaaMau}a ivNaaXaSTaSYa ivTae ) Na ih k==LYaa<ak*= Tk==iuGaRiTa& TaaTa GaC^iTa== =))
prtha naiveha nmutra vinas tasya vidyate, na hi kalya-kt kacid durgati tta gacchati

[q>aGavaNa( ovac PaaQaR TaaTa The Lord said: My dear Arjuna!

Na Wv wh Na AMau}a Neither in this life nor in the next
TaSYa ivNaaXa" ivTae is there destruction for him.



o>aYa>a]&XaaTa( PaaiTaTYaMa( the status

of being fallen from both (heaven and liberation) AMau}a Parlaeke= NaaXa" destruction
hereafter, in the other world, means Nark==Pa[ai" going to hell.
k==id( k==LYaa<ak*= Ta( [Because] someone who does good
* AYaMa( c Xau>ak==arq And he is [certainly] a doer of good [Yaa YaaeGae Pa[v*taTvaTa(

wh laeke= NaaXa"

Destruction in this world means

since he has taken to yoga with faith.

duGaRiTaMa( Na ih GaC^iTa

never attains misfortune.

763 BG 6.41

Pa[aPYa Pau<Yak*= Taa& laek= aNauizTva XaaTaq" SaMaa" ) XaucqNaa& [qMaTaa& Gaehe YaaeGa>a]ae-= _i>aJaaYaTae= = ))
prpya puya-kt lokn uitv vat sam, ucn rmat gehe yoga-bhrao bhijyate

Pau<Yak*= TaaMa( laek= aNa( Pa[aPYa [After] attaining the planets of those who did piety (puya)
* AMaeDaaidYaaiJaNaaMa( laek= aNa( The planets of those who are worshiping


Avamedha etc.

XaaTaq" SaMaa" oizTva [and after] dwelling [there] many years

* vaSaSau%Ma( ANau>aUYa [And] experiencing the pleasure of living there.
YaaeGa>a]" one who has fallen from yoga
XaucqNaaMa( [qMaTaaMa( Gaehe in the family of the pious and wealthy
Ai>aJaaYaTae is born.
* ALPak==alA>YaSTaYaaeGa>a]&Xae GaiTa" The goal [attained] when falling from yoga
after having practiced a short time wYaMa( o==a this has been stated. icrA>YaSTa
YaaeGa>a]&Xae Tau But when falling from yoga after having practiced a long time Pa+a
ANTarMa( this is another case:
764 BG 6.42

AQava YaaeiGaNaaMaev ku= le >aviTa DaqMaTaaMa( ) WTai dulR>aTar& laeke= JaNMa Yadqd*XaMa(= = ))
athav yoginm eva kule bhavati dhmatm, etad dhi durlabhatara loke janma yad dam

AQava Or else [if he was more advanced in yoga]

DaqMaTaaMa( YaaeiGaNaaMa( Wv ku= le certainly in the family of wise yogs
>aviTa he is born.
wRd*XaMa( Yad( JaNMa Such a birth
WTad( ih laeke= dulR>aTarMa( this is more rare in this world.
* Maae+aheTauTvaTa( As it leads to liberation.
765 BG 6.43

Ta}a Ta& buiSa&YaaeGa& l>aTae PaaEvRdeihk==Ma( ) YaTaTae c TaTaae >aUYa" Sa&iSaaE ku= NaNdNa== =))
tatra ta buddhi-sayoga labhate paurva-dehikam, yatate ca tato bhya sasiddhau kuru-nandana

ku= NaNdNa O Arjuna!

TaMa( PaaEvRdeihk==Ma( buiSa&YaaeGaMa( Contact with that previous lifes knowledge
* b]ivzYaYaa buya With knowledge about the soul (brahma).
Ta}a l>aTae he gets there.
* Ta}a i"Pa]k= are AiPa JaNMaiNa There means in both kinds of births (6.41-42).


TaTa" c >aUYa" And then again

Sa&iSaaE YaTaTae he endeavors for perfection (liberation).
* Ta}a heTau" The reason is given:
766 BG 6.44

PaUvaR>YaaSaeNa TaeNaEv iYaTae vXaae-= _iPa Sa" ) iJajaSauriPa YaaeGaSYa XaBdb]aiTavTaRTae= = ))

prvbhysena tenaiva hriyate hy a-vao pi sa, jijsur api yogasya abda-brahmtivartate

TaeNa Wv PaUvRA>YaaSaeNa [Because] by that previous practice [of yoga]

AvXa" AiPa Sa" iYaTae ih even unwillingly he is carried.
* ku= Taid( ANTaraYaaTa( AiNaC^Na( AiPa Even if unwilling because of some obstacle.
ivzYae>Ya" ParavTYaR Being turned away from sense-objects b]iNa" i==YaTae he is
made to be firmly established in the soul (brahma).

YaaeGaSYa iJajaSau" AiPa Even though he is a mere inquirer into yoga

* YaaeGa>a]" AiPa Although he has fallen from yoga.
XaBdb] AiTavTaRTae he surpasses the Vedas.
* vedo==k==MaRf==laiNa AiTa==aMaiTa He surpasses the results of rituals (karman)
prescribed by the Vedas. Tae>Ya" AiDak==Ma( f==lMa( Pa[aPYa i.e., achieving a result greater
than those MauCYaTae he is liberated.
767 BG 6.45

Pa[YaTNaaTaMaaNaSTau YaaeGaq Sa&Xauik==iLbz" ) ANaek= JaNMaSa&iSaSTaTaae YaaiTa Para& GaiTaMa(= = ))

prayatnd yatamnas tu yog sauddha-kilbia, aneka-janma-sasiddhas tato yti par gatim

Pa[YaTNaaTa( YaTaMaaNa" YaaeGaq Tau The yog who is endeavoring with effort
Sa&Xauik==iLbz" being completely purified of sin (kilbia)
ANaek= JaNMaSa&iSa" and perfected after many births
TaTa" ParaMa( GaiTaMa( YaaiTa then he attains the supreme destination.
768 BG 6.46

TaPaiSv>Yaae_iDak==ae YaaeGaq jaiNa>Yaae_iPa MaTaae= _iDak=="= =) k==iMaR>YaaiDak==ae YaaeGaq TaSMaaaeGaq >avaJauRNa== ))

tapasvibhyo dhiko yog jnibhyo pi mato dhika, karmibhya cdhiko yog tasmd yog bhavrjuna

AJauRNa O Arjuna!
YaaeGaq TaPaiSv>Ya" AiDak==" MaTa" [Such] a [aga-] yog is regarded as greater than ascetics
* k*= C^\caNd]aYa<aAaidTaPaaeiNae>Ya" Than those devoted to penance like [the fasts
called] kcchra and cndryaa.

jaiNa>Ya" AiPa AiDak==" and greater even than jns.

* XaajaNavy" Than those who know scriptures.
YaaeGaq k==iMaR>Ya" c AiDak==" The yog is greater also (of course) than the karms
wPaUTaaRidk==MaRk==air>Ya" Than those who perform rites like ia and prta.
TaSMaaTa( YaaeGaq >av therefore be a [aga-] yog!

The indicated order is karm tapasv jn yog.



YaaeiGaNaaMa( AiPa And even among yogs YaMaiNaYaMaaidPara<aaMa( MaDYae i.e., among
those devoted to yama, niyama, etc. (aga-yoga) Mad(>a==" [e" My devotee is
superior. wiTa Aah This is being stated:

769 BG 6.47

YaaeiGaNaaMaiPa SaveRza& MaTaeNaaNTaraTMaNaa ) [avaN>aJaTae Yaae Maa& Sa Mae Yau= TaMaae MaTa"== =))
yoginm api sarve mad-gatenntar-tman, raddhvn bhajate yo m sa me yuktatamo mata

SaveRzaMa( YaaeiGaNaaMa( AiPa And of all yogs

Mad(GaTaeNa ANTa"AaTMaNaa with his heart attached to Me
Ya" MaaMa( [avaNa( >aJaTae one who worships Me (the Lord) with faith,
Sa" Yau= TaMa" Mae (=MaMa=) MaTa" he is considered the best yog by Me.
* ATa" Ma==" >av Therefore be My devotee. wiTa >aav" That is the purport.

Sanskrit Kdanta 5


(5) veditum
The suffix .tum[u] makes the infinitive:
vid[a] 2P...

jaNae to know; + .tum[u] >>> veidTauMa( to know

chid[ir]...EDaqk==r<ae to divide into two; + .tum[u] >>> ^etauMa( to cut
bhuj[a]...PaalNaA>YavharYaae" to govern; enjoy; + .tum[u] >>> >aaeu= Ma( to enjoy
p[]...VYaaPTaaE to reach, obtain; + .tum[u] >>> AauMa( to obtain
arc[a]...PaUJaaYaaMa( to worship, honor; + .tum[u] >>> AicRTauMa( to worship
anu.uc[a] to lament; + .tum[u] >>> ANauXaaeicTauMa( to lament
ava.p[] to obtain; + .tum[u] >>> AvauMa( to obtain
ava.sth to stay; + .tum[u] >>> AvSQaaTauMa( to stay
d[ir]...Pa[e+a<ae to see; + .tum[u] >>> d]uMa( to see
j 9P...AvbaeDaNae to know; + .tum[u] >>> jaTauMa( to know
[u]k[]...k==r<ae to do; + .tum[u] >>> k==TauRMa( to do[a] to enter; + .tum[u] >>> Pa[veuMa( to enter
sam..[u]dh[] to hold, concentrate; + .tum[u] >>> SaMaaDaaTauMa( to concentrate
tyaj[a]...haNaaE to abandon; + .tum[u] >>> TYau= Ma( to abandon
vac[a]...Pair>aaz<ae to speak; + .tum[u] >>> vu= Ma( to speak
uc[a]...Xaaeke= to grieve, lament; + .tum[u] >>> XaaeicTauMa( to lament




Hinduism Gt 7
Jna-vijna-yoga The Yoga of Knowledge (jna) and Realization (vijna)

k==Id*Xa" TvMa( YaSYa >ai==" k==TaRVYaa Of what nature are You whose worship is to be

Tat tvam asi You (tvam) are that (tad). By yoga, as described in chapter six, one gets
knowledge of you only, and not of that, which is therefore only partial.
770 BG 7.1

MaYYaaSa==MaNaa" PaaQaR YaaeGa& YauNMada[Ya" ) ASa&XaYa& SaMaGa]& Maa& YaQaa jaSYaiSa TaC^*<au= = ))
mayy sakta-man prtha yoga yujan mad-raya, a-saaya samagra m yath jsyasi tac

[q>aGavaNa( ovac PaaQaR The Lord said: O Arjuna!

MaiYa AaSa==MaNaa" Being absorbed in Me
Mad(Aa[Ya" YaaeGaMa( YauNa( [while] performing yoga under My [exclusive] shelter
YaQaa SaMaGa]Ma( ASa&XaYaMa( how completely and without doubt
MaaMa( jaSYaiSa you will know Me,
Tad( Xa*<au= = hear that!
771 BG 7.2

jaNa& Tae-= _h& SaivjaNaiMad& v+YaaMYaXaezTa" ) YaJjaTva Naeh >aUYaae-= _NYaJjaTaVYaMaviXaZYaTae= = ))

jna te ha sa-vijnam ida vakymy a-eata, yaj jtv neha bhyo nyaj jtavyam avaiyate

SaivjaNaMa( wdMa( jaNaMa( This knowledge (jna) with its realization (vijna) [i.e., meditation]
AhMa( Tae (=Tau>YaMa(=) AXaezTa" v+YaaiMa I will speak to you in full,
Yad( jaTva [after] knowing which
wh >aUYa" Na ANYaTa( jaTaVYaMa( AviXaZYaTae there remains nothing else to be known here.
* Mad(>ai==Ma( ivNaa Tau But without devotion to Me Mad(jaNaMa( dulR>aMa( knowledge
about Me is impossible:
772 BG 7.3

MaNauZYaa<aa& Sahezu k==iTaiTa iSaYae ) YaTaTaaMaiPa iSaaNaa& k==iNMaa& veita TatvTa"== =))
manuy sahasreu kacid yatati siddhaye, yatatm api siddhn kacin m vetti tattvata

Sahezu MaNauZYaa<aaMa( Among thousands of men (manuya)

k==id( iSaYae YaTaiTa someone endeavors for perfection (liberation).
* ASax(= :YaaTaaNaaMa( JaqvaNaaMa( MaDYae MaNauZYaVYaiTair==aNaaMa( Among the innumerable
creatures, ecepting men [eYaiSa Pa[v*ita" Wv Na AiSTa there is no inclination at all for
the ultimate best (liberation).

YaTaTaaMa( iSaaNaaMa( AiPa

And among [those] endeavoring, and even among the perfected (who are

* [Liberation means:]

Pa[k*= Pau<YavXaaTa( Through great merit (acquired in a previous

AaTMaaNaMa( veita one knows the soul.

k==id( MaaMa( TatvTa" veita [only] someone knows Me in truth.


k==id( Wv Only a rare one MaaMa( ParMaaTMaaNaMa( Mad(Pa[SaadeNa TatvTa" veita knows
Me truly, the Supersoul, by My mercy. Tad( WvMa( AiTadulR>aMa( AiPa Mad(jaNaMa(
Therefore, though this knowledge about Myself is thus very rare Tau>YaMa( AhMa(
v+YaaiMa [yet] I shall tell it to you. wiTa AQaR" This is the idea.
* WvMa( ]aeTaarMa( Ai>aMau:aqk*= TYaa After thus making the listener attentive wdaNaqMa(
Pa]k*= iTaara Sa*yaidk==Ta*RTveNa wRrTatvMa( ... iNaPaiYaZYaNa( now, describing the
nature of the Lord as doer of creation through His energy (prakti) ParAPar>aedeNa
Pa[k*= iTaYaMa( Aah the twofold prakti, differentiated as higher and lower, is

773 BG 7.4

>aUiMaraPaae-= _Nalae vaYau" %& MaNaae buirev c ) Ahar wTaqYa& Mae i>aaa Pa[k*= iTarDaa== =))
bhmir po nalo vyu kha mano buddhir eva ca, ahakra itya me bhinn praktir aadh

>aUiMa" AaPa" ANal" vaYau" Earth, water, fire, air

%Ma( MaNa" bui" Ahar" Wv c ether, mind, intelligence and also false ego
wiTa wYaMa( this is
Mae (=MaMa=) ADaa i>aaa Pa[k*= iTa" My separated eightfold prakti.
774 BG 7.5

APareYaiMaTaSTvNYaa& Pa[k*= iTa& ivi Mae ParaMa( ) Jaqv>aUTaa& Mahabahae YaYaed& DaaYaRTae JaGaTa(= = ))
apareyam itas tv any prakti viddhi me parm, jva-bht mah-bho yayeda dhryate jagat

Mahabahae O Arjuna!
wYaMa( APara This is [My] inferior [prakti].
wTa" Tau ANYaaMa( But besides this, another one
YaYaa wdMa( JaGaTa( DaaYaRTae by which this world (jagat) is sustained [by work]
Mae (=MaMa=) ParaMa( Jaqv>aUTaaMa( Pa[k*= iTaMa( My superior prakti comprising the [conscious] jvas
ivi you should know!
* ANaYaae" Pa[k*= iTaTvMa( dXaRYaNa( By showing the energetic nature of these two SvSYa
Tad(ara Sa*yaidk==ar<aTvMa( Aah His being the cause of creation, etc., through
these [energies] is stated:
775 BG 7.6

WTaaeNaqiNa >aUTaaiNa SavaR<aqTYauPaDaarYa ) Ah& k*= TSYa JaGaTa" Pa[>av" Pa[lYaSTaQaa== =))
etad-yonni bhtni sarvty upadhraya, aha ktsnasya jagata prabhava pralayas tath

SavaRi<a >aUTaaiNa WTad(YaaeNaqiNa All beings have these [two praktis] as their source (yoni)
* Ta}a Of these Ja@a Pa[k*= iTa" the inert (jaa) prakti dehPae<a Pair<aMaTae evolves in
the form of the bodies. ceTaNaa Tau But the sentient [prakti] Mad(A&Xa>aUTaa being part
of Me >aae*= TveNa dehezu Pa[ivXYa entering into all bodies as experiencer Svk==MaR<aa
TaaiNa DaarYaiTa it sustains them through its works.
wiTa oPaDaarYa thus you must understand!
k*= TSYa JaGaTa" [Thus] of the whole world (jagat)
AhMa( Pa[>av" TaQaa Pa[lYa" I am the creation and dissolution.



Tae c MadqYae Pa[k*= Taq Mata" SaM>aUTae These two praktis of Mine being born from Me
ParMak==ar<aMa( AhMa( [therefore] I am the ultimate cause [of creation, etc.]. wiTa AQaR"

This is the idea.

776 BG 7.7

Mata" ParTar& NaaNYaiTk==idiSTa DaNaYa ) MaiYa SavRiMad& Pa[aeTa& SaU}ae Mai<aGa<aa wv== =))
matta paratara nnyat kicid asti dhanajaya, mayi sarvam ida prota stre mai-ga iva

DaNaYa [Therefore] O Arjuna!

Mata" ParTarMa( Superior to Me
* JaGaTa" Sa*iSa&harYaae" SvTaN}aMa( k==ar<aMa(

An independent cause of the worlds

creation and annihilation.

ANYaTa( ik==id( Na AiSTa there is nothing else.

* iSQaiTaheTau" AiPa AhMa( Wv And I am also the cause of its sustenance. wiTa Aah
This is stated:

SavRMa( wdMa( MaiYa Pa[aeTaMa( All this [world] is strung on Me

* Aai[TaMa( wiTa AQaR" It rests [on Me].
SaU}ae Mai<aGa<aa" wv like pearls on a thread.
* JaGaTa" iSQaiTaheTauTvMa( Pa[PaYaiTa How He is the cause of sustenance is described [in
five verses]:
777 BG 7.8

rSaae-= _hMaPSau k==aENTaeYa Pa[>aaiSMa XaiXaSaUYaRYaae" ) Pa[<av" SavRvedezu XaBd" %e PaaEz& Na*zu= = ))
raso ham apsu kaunteya prabhsmi ai-sryayo, praava sarva-vedeu abda khe paurua nu

k==aENTaeYa O Arjuna!
APSau AhMa( rSa" In [the element] water I am the taste (rasa)
* Tad(Aa[YaTveNa APSau iSQaTa" AhMa( I exist in water as its substratum.
XaiXaSaUYaRYaae" Pa[>aa AiSMa in moon (ain) and sun (srya) I am the light
SavRvedezu Pa[<av" in all Vedas [their root] the om (praava)
%e XaBd" in [the element] ether the sound (abda)
Na*zu PaaEzMa( and in men (n) enterprise (ability).
778 BG 7.9

Pau<Yaae GaNDa" Pa*iQaVYaa& c TaeJaaiSMa iv>aavSaaE ) JaqvNa& SavR>aUTaezu TaPaaiSMa TaPaiSvzu= = ))

puyo gandha pthivy ca teja csmi vibhvasau, jvana sarva-bhteu tapa csmi tapasviu

Pa*iQaVYaaMa( Pau<Ya" GaNDa" c And in [the element] earth [I am] pure (or sweet) fragrance (gandha)
iv>aavSaaE TaeJa" c AiSMa and in fire I am brightness (tejas)
SavR>aUTaezu JaqvNaMa( in all beings vitality (jvana life)
TaPaiSvzu TaPa" c AiSMa and in the ascetics I am penance (tapas).
* NSahNaPaMa( TaPa" Austerity means here the capacity to tolerate extremes (like
heat and cold).
779 BG 7.10

bqJa& Maa& SavR>aUTaaNaa& ivi PaaQaR SaNaaTaNaMa( ) buibuRiMaTaaMaiSMa TaeJaSTaeJaiSvNaaMahMa(= = ))


bja m sarva-bhtn viddhi prtha santanam, buddhir buddhimatm asmi tejas tejasvinm aham

PaaQaR O Arjuna!
SavR>aUTaaNaaMa( SaNaaTaNaMa( bqJaMa( As the eternal seed (bja) of all beings
* bqJaMa( Seed means here SaJaaTaqYak==aYaRoTPaadNaSaaMaQYaRMa( the ability (smarthya)
to produce effects (krya) of the same species. SaNaaTaNaMa( Eternal means here iNaTYaMa(
otaraetarSavRk==aYaeRzu ANauSYaUTaMa( [this ability] continues eternally in all successive

MaaMa( ivi know Me!

buiMaTaaMa( bui" AiSMa Of the intelligent I am intelligence
TaeJaiSvNaaMa( AhMa( TaeJa" of the powerful I am prowess.
780 BG 7.11

bl& blvTaa& cah& k==aMaraGaivviJaRTaMa( ) DaMaaRivae >aUTaezu k==aMaae-=_iSMa >arTazR>a== =))

bala balavat cha kma-rga-vivarjitam, dharmviruddho bhteu kmo smi bharatarabha

>arTaz>a O Arjuna!
blvTaaMa( c And of the strong
AhMa( k==aMaraGaivviJaRTaMa( blMa(

I am strength (bala) which is free from desire (kma) and

attachment (rga).

k==aMa" Desire (kma) means APa[ae vSTauiNa Ai>alaz" the wish for something
unobtained; raJaSa" this is in rajo-gua. raGa" PauNa" And attachment (rga) means
Ai>alizTae AQaeR Pa[ae AiPa even when the desired object has been obtained PauNa"
AiDake= AQaeR ictarNaaTMak==" a coloring of the mind for again more of an object
Ta*Z<aaPaYaaRYa" compared to thirst (t); TaaMaSa" this is in tamo-gua (tmasika).
Saaitvk==Ma( SvDaMaRANauaNaSaaMaQYaRMa( AhMa( I am the strength in sattva-gua
(sttvika), the ability to perform ones duty. wiTa AQaR" This is the idea.

>aUTaezu In all beings

DaMaRAiv" k==aMa" AiSMa

I am sex life which is not opposed to virtue.

781 BG 7.12

Yae cEv Saaitvk==a >aava raJaSaaSTaaMaSaa Yae ) Mata WveiTa TaaiNvi Na Tvh& Taezu Tae MaiYa== =))
ye caiva sttvik bhv rjass tmas ca ye, matta eveti tn viddhi na tv aha teu te mayi

Yae c Wv Saaitvk==a" >aava" Whichever states (bhva) are in goodness

* Saaitvk==a" >aava" States in sattva-gua XaMadMaadYa" like mind-control and sensecontrol.

Yae raJaSaa" TaaMaSaa" c [but] also which are in passion and ignorance
*=raJaSaa" c hzRdPaaRdYa" States of rajo-gua, like pleasure (hara) and pride (darpa)
TaaMaSaa" c Yae Xaaek= MaaehadYa" and those of tamo-gua, like lamentation (oka) and
delusion (moha).

Mata" Wv

[they are] from Me alone


wiTa TaaNa( ivi

MadqYaPa[k*= iTaGau<ak==aYaRTvaTa( As they are products of the guas of My prakti.

thus know them!



AhMa( Tau Na Taezu

But I am not in them (i.e., subject to them)


JaqvvTa( Tad(ADaqNa" AhMa( Na >avaiMa I am not subject to them like an individual

soul (jva).

Tae MaiYa

[rather] they are in Me.


Tae Tau Mad(ADaqNaa" But they are under My control.

782 BG 7.13

i}ai>aGauR<aMaYaE>aaRvErei>a" SavRiMad& JaGaTa( ) MaaeihTa& Naai>aJaaNaaiTa MaaMae>Ya" ParMaVYaYaMa(= = ))

tribhir guamayair bhvair ebhi sarvam ida jagat, mohita nbhijnti mm ebhya param a-vyayam

Wi>a" i}ai>a" Gau<aMaYaE" >aavE" By these three states made of the guas
MaaeihTaMa( being deluded
wdMa( SavRMa( JaGaTa( this whole world (jagat)
W>Ya" ParMa( AVYaYaMa( MaaMa( Me, who am beyond these [states] and [thus] unchangeable
* WTaezaMa( iNaYaNTaarMa( Being their ruler.
Na Ai>aJaaNaaiTa does not know.
* ke= TaihR TvaMa( JaaNaiNTa Then who are those who know You?
783 BG 7.14

dEvq eza Gau<aMaYaq MaMa MaaYaa durTYaYaa ) MaaMaev Yae Pa[PaNTae MaaYaaMaeTaa& TariNTa Tae= = ))
daiv hy e guamay mama my duratyay, mm eva ye prapadyante mym et taranti te

Wza Gau<aMaYaq MaMa dEvq MaaYaa This My divine energy (My), made of the guas
* dEvq AlaEik==k= I Divine means supernatural, ATYauTaa extremely wonderful.
durTYaYaa ih is certainly difficult to overcome.
* Pa[iSaMa( WTad( This is a well-known fact.
Yae MaaMa( Wv Pa[PaNTae [But] those who surrender to Me alone
Tae WTaaMa( MaaYaaMa( TariNTa they cross this My.
* TaTa" MaaMa( JaaNaiNTa And then they know Me.
* ik==Ma( wiTa TaihR SaveR TvaMa( Wv Na >aJaiNTa Then why do not all worship You?
784 BG 7.15

Na Maa& duZk*= iTaNaae MaU!a" Pa[PaNTae NaraDaMaa" ) MaaYaYaaPaTajaNaa AaSaur& >aavMaai[Taa"== =))
na m duktino mh prapadyante nardham, myaypahta-jn sura bhvam rit

MaU!a" NarADaMaa"

(1) Fools, (2) lowest of men

MaU!a" ivvek= XaUNYaa" Fools means they are without discrimination.

MaaYaYaa APaTajaNaa" (3) those whose knowledge is stolen by My
AaSaurMa( >aavMa( Aai[Taa" (4) and those who partake of an atheistic mentality (see 16.4)
duZk*= iTaNa" MaaMa( Na Pa[PaNTae [these four] evil-doers do not surrender to Me.

rdhara Svm explains these as four qualities of o n e person, the sinner (duktin).
He is (1) a fool (mha), therefore (2) low (nardhama), therefore (3) his scriptural
knowledge is stolen, and therefore (4) he has an demoniac attitude.
785 BG 7.16

cTauivRDaa >aJaNTae Maa& JaNaa" Sauk*= iTaNaae-= _JauRNa ) AaTaaeR iJajaSaurQaaRQas jaNaq c >arTazR>a== =))
catur-vidh bhajante m jan suktino rjuna, rto jijsur arthrth jn ca bharatarabha


>arTaz>a AJauRNa O hero Arjuna!

AaTaR" iJajaSau" AQaRAQas The (1) distressed, (2) inquisitive, (3) desirer of wealth
*= AaTaR" raeGaaidAi>a>aUTa" The distressed one is overcome by disease etc. Sa" Yaid
PaUvRk*= TaPau<Ya" If he has done good deeds (puya) in the past [lives] TaihR MaaMa( >aJaiTa
then he worships Me. ANYaQaa +aud]devTaa>aJaNaeNa Sa&SariTa Otherwise he worships
minor deities and undergoes transmigration. WvMa( otar}a AiPa d]VYaMa( This should
be seen in the other [three] cases also. iJajaSau" AaTMajaNawC^u" The inquisitive
desires knowledge of the self (tma-jna).

jaNaq c and (4) one in knowledge [of the soul]

cTau"ivDaa" Sauk*= iTaNa" JaNaa" [these] four kinds of pious men
MaaMa( >aJaNTae worship Me.
786 BG 7.17

Taeza& jaNaq iNaTYaYau= Wk==>ai==ivRiXaZYaTae ) iPa[Yaae ih jaiNaNaae-= _TYaQaRMah& Sa c MaMa iPa[Ya"== =))
te jn nitya-yukta eka-bhaktir viiyate, priyo hi jnino tyartham aha sa ca mama priya

iNaTYaYau= " Wk==>ai==" jaNaq

The one in knowledge [of the soul], always engaged in exclusive


TaezaMa( iviXaZYaTae is best of those.

AhMa( ih jaiNaNa" ATYaQaRMa( iPa[Ya" [Therefore] am very dear to this jn
Sa" c MaMa iPa[Ya" and he is also dear to Me.
* TaihR ik==Ma( wTare }aYa" Tvd(>a==a" Sa&SariNTa Then do the other three types of Your
devotees undergo transmigration? Naih Naih No, never:
787 BG 7.18

odara"== SavR= =WvETae= =jaNaq== TvaTMaEv= =Mae= =MaTaMa(= =)= =AaiSQaTa"== Sa== ih== Yau= aTMaa== MaaMaevaNautaMaa&= =GaiTaMa(= = ))
udr sarva evaite jn tv tmaiva me matam, sthita sa hi yukttm mm evnuttam gatim

WTae SaveR Wv odara" All of them are noble (udra).

* Maae+a>aaJa" Wv They certainly attain liberation (moka). wiTa AQaR" This is the idea.
jaNaq Tau But the one in knowledge [of the soul]
AaTMaa Wv Mae (=MaMa=) MaTaMa( I consider as My very Self.
Sa" ih Yau= AaTMaa [Because] he, his mind fixed [on Me]
ANa(otaMaaMa( GaiTaMa( MaaMa( Wv to Me alone, the supreme goal
AaiSQaTa" he has resorted.
788 BG 7.19

bhUNaa& JaNMaNaaMaNTae jaNavaNMaa& Pa[PaTae ) vaSaudev" SavRiMaiTa Sa MahaTMaa SaudulR>a"== =))

bahn janmanm ante jnavn m prapadyate, vsudeva sarvam iti sa mahtm sudurlabha

bhUNaaMa( JaNMaNaaMa( ANTae In the final of many births (janman)

* Pau<YaoPacYaeNa With the accumulation of virtue. ANTae At
JaNMaiNa in the final birth.
SavRMa( vaSaudev" wiTa jaNavaNa( he knows that everything is Vsudeva
* SavRAaTMad*ya By seeing [Me as] the Supersoul.

the end means




MaaMa( Pa[PaTae and surrenders to Me.

Sa" MahaAaTMaa SaudulR>a" Such a great soul is very rare.
* Tad( WvMa( k==aiMaNa" AiPa SaNTa" Therefore even though being possessed of desires
k==aMaPa[aYae ParMaerMa( Wv Yae >aJaiNTa those who worship the Lord for the
fulfilment of [those] desires Tae k==aMaaNa( Pa[aPYa they, after obtaining [those] desires
XaNaE" MauCYaNTae become gradually liberated. wiTa o==Ma( This has been stated. Yae Tau
ATYaNTaMa( raJaSaa" TaaMaSaa" c But those who are extremely passionate (rjasa) or dull
(tmasa) k==aMaAi>a>aUTaa" [thus] overpowered by their desires (kma) +aud]devTaa"
SaevNTae they worship minor deities (devat) Tae Sa&SariNTa and they attain rebirth. wiTa
Aah This is being stated:
789 BG 7.20

k==aMaESTaESTaERTajaNaa" Pa[PaNTae-= _NYadevTaa" ) Ta& Ta& iNaYaMaMaaSQaaYa Pa[k*= TYaa iNaYaTaa" SvYaa== =))
kmais tais tair hta-jn prapadyante nya-devat, ta ta niyamam sthya prakty niyat svay

TaE" TaE" k==aMaE" TajaNaa" Those whose intelligence is stolen by particular desires
SvYaa Pa[k*= TYaa iNaYaTaa" being controlled by their own nature
* PaUvRA>YaaSavaSaNaYaa iNaYaTaa" Controlled by an impression from a previous [lifes]

TaMa( TaMa( iNaYaMaMa( AaSQaaYa [after] resorting to a particular observance

ANYadevTaa" Pa[PaNTae they worship other (lesser) gods.
790 BG 7.21

Yaae Yaae Yaa& Yaa& TaNau& >a==" [YaaicRTauiMaC^iTa ) TaSYa TaSYaacla& [a& TaaMaev ivdDaaMYahMa(= = ))
yo yo y y tanu bhakta raddhayrcitum icchati, tasya tasycal raddh tm eva vidadhmy

Ya" Ya" >a==" The particular worshiper

YaaMa( YaaMa( TaNauMa( whatever [deity] form
* MadqYaaMa( Wv MaUiTaRMa( Which is but an image of Myself.
[Yaa AicRTauMa( wC^iTa he wants to worship with faith (raddh),
TaSYa TaSYa of that particular [worshiper]
TaaMa( Wv [aMa( that very faith
AhMa( AclaMa( ivdDaaiMa I (as Supersoul) make steady.
791 BG 7.22

Sa TaYaa [Yaa Yau= STaSYaaraDaNaMaqhTae ) l>aTae c TaTa" k==aMaaNMaYaEv ivihTaaiNh TaaNa(= = ))

sa tay raddhay yuktas tasyrdhanam hate, labhate ca tata kmn mayaiva vihitn hi tn

TaYaa [Yaa Yau= " Endowed with that [particular] faith

Sa" TaSYaa" AaraDaNaMa( wRhTae he performs the worship of that [ particular deity form].
rdhara Svm reads TaSYaaraDaNaMa( and explains it as TaSYaa" AaraDaNaMa(=. But this is
only possible by ra-prayoga sandhi: tasy rdhanam >>> tasy radhanam >>>
(further sandhi by ra-prayoga) tasyrdhanam. Therefore some editions read



and explain it as


TaSYaa" raDaNaMa(=. Then the sandhi from tasy rdhanam to

tasy rdhanam is correct, and rdhanam has quite the same meaning as rdhanam.

TaTa" c From that [deity]

MaYaa Wv ih ivihTaaNa( [but actually] bestowed by Me alone
*=Tad(Tad(devTaaANTaYaaRiMa<aa By [Me as] the Supersoul of that particular deity. ...
WTad( devTaaNaaMa( AiPa Mad(ADaqNaTvaTa( Because those deities are also under My
control MaMa MaUiTaRTvaTa( c and because they are but forms of Mine.
TaaNa( k==aMaaNa( l>aTae he obtains his desires.
*=TaQaaiPa Tau But still Saa+aaTa( Mad(>a==aNaaMa( c TaezaMa( c between My direct devotees
(bhakta) and them f==lvEzMYaMa( >aviTa there is a difference of result:
792 BG 7.23

ANTavtau f==l& Taeza& TavTYaLPaMaeDaSaaMa( ) devaNdevYaJaae YaaiNTa Ma==a YaaiNTa MaaMaiPa== =))
antavat tu phala te tad bhavaty alpa-medhasm, devn deva-yajo ynti mad-bhakt ynti mm api

TaezaMa( ALPaMaeDaSaaMa( Tau But of those less intelligent

Tad( f==lMa( ANTavTa( >aviTa that result is temporary.
* MaYaa dtaMa( AiPa Although it is given by Me.
devYaJa" devaNa( YaaiNTa [Because] worshipers of the devas attain the devas
Whatever they the temporary devas can offer is also temorary.

Mad(>a==a" AiPa MaaMa( YaaiNTa and My devotees also attain Me.

* ANaaidANTaMa( ParMaAaNaNdMa( Who am supreme bliss without beginning and end.
* NaNau c But then SaMaaNae Pa[YaaSae when there is the same endeavor MahiTa c f==l
ivXaeze SaiTa while the difference in the result is great, SaveR AiPa ik==Ma( wiTa devTaa
ANTarMa( ihTva TvaMa( Wv Na >aJaiNTa why do not all worship You alone, giving up
other deities?
793 BG 7.24

AVYa&= VYai==MaaPaa& MaNYaNTae MaaMabuYa" ) Par& >aavMaJaaNaNTaae MaMaaVYaYaMaNautaMaMa(= = ))

a-vyakta vyaktim panna manyante mm a-buddhaya, para bhvam a-jnanto mamvyayam anuttamam

AbuYa" The unintelligent

MaMa AVYaYaMa( ANa(otaMaMa( ParMa( >aavMa( My eternal, unsurpassed, spiritual nature
AJaaNaNTa" not knowing,
AVYa==Ma( MaaMa( Me who am unmanifest
VYai==Ma( AaPaaMa( MaNYaNTae they consider as having assumed a [material] manifestation.
*=JaGaTa(r+aaQaRMa( lqlYaa As a pastime (ll) for the protection of the world (jagat)
AaivZk*= TaNaaNaaivXauOiJaRTaSatvMaUiTaRMa( having manifested (vikta) diverse
forms (mrti) of pure and excellent (rjita) sattva MaaMa( ParMaerMa( c Me, the Supreme
Lord Svk==MaRiNaiMaRTa>aaEiTak==dehMa( c devTaaANTarSaMaMa( PaXYaNTa" viewing to be
equal to other gods (devat) with material bodies fashioned according to their own

MaNdMaTaYa" MaaMa( Na ATaqv Aaid]YaNTae the dull-witted do not rever Me much



Pa[TYauTa but rather i+aPa[f==lMa( devTaaANTarMa( Wv >aJaiNTa they worship other gods
who bestow quick results.
There are some who consider the Lord as Avatra to be assuming a material body, and
therefore like one of the demigods. But when the Lord descends as an incarnation, He
comes in His same spiritual body (see 4.6). He is not forced by karma to take a material
body like lesser gods or men.
794 BG 7.25

Naah& Pa[k= aXa" SavRSYa YaaeGaMaaYaaSaMaav*Ta" ) MaU!ae-= _Ya& Naai>aJaaNaaiTa laek= ae MaaMaJaMaVYaYaMa(= = ))
nha praka sarvasya yoga-my-samvta, mho ya nbhijnti loko mm a-jam a-vyayam

YaaeGaMaaYaaSaMaav*Ta" [Being] covered by [My] mysterious power (yoga-my)

AhMa( SavRSYa Na Pa[k= aXa" I am not visible to all.
AYaMa( MaU!" laek= " [Therefore] this bewildered world
AJaMa( AVYaYaMa( MaaMa( Me, the unborn and eternal
Na Ai>aJaaNaaiTa it does not know.
* Pa[iSaMa( ih laeke= It is indeed known in this world MaaYaaYaa" SvAa[Ya
ADaqNaTvMa( that My is subservient to the person in whom she rests ANYaMaaehk==TvMa(
c while she deludes others.
795 BG 7.26

vedah& SaMaTaqTaaiNa vTaRMaaNaaiNa caJauRNa ) >aivZYaai<a c >aUTaaiNa Maa& Tau ved Na k==Na== =))
vedha samattni vartamnni crjuna, bhaviyi ca bhtni m tu veda na kacana

AJauRNa O Arjuna!
SaMaTaqTaaiNa >aUTaaiNa [All] past beings
vTaRMaaNaaiNa c >aivZYaai<a c and present and future [beings]
AhMa( ved I know,
MaaMa( Tau Na k==Na ved but Me no one knows.
796 BG 7.27

wC^aezSaMauTQaeNa NMaaeheNa >aarTa ) SavR>aUTaaiNa SaMMaaeh& SaGaeR YaaiNTa ParNTaPa== =))

icch-dvea-samutthena dvandva-mohena bhrata, sarva-bhtni sammoha sarge ynti parantapa

>aarTa ParNTaPa O Arjuna, hero!

wC^aezSaMauTQaeNa NMaaeheNa By the illusion of dualities, arisen from desire and hatred
*=Tad(ANauku= le wC^a Desire for what is pleasing to it (the body) Tad(Pa[iTakU= le c ez"
and hatred for what is displeasing to it.

SaGaeR at birth
SavR>aUTaaiNa SaMMaaehMa( YaaiNTa all beings attain delusion.
*=TaeNa And by that [duality] SavR>aUTaaiNa SaMMaaehMa( =AhMa( Wv Sau%q du"%q c= wiTa
Gaa!TarMa( Ai>aiNaveXaMa( Pa[aPNauviNTa all beings attain illusion (sammoha), i.e., the very
deep (gha.tara) impression of I am happy, I am miserable. ATa" TaaiNa Mad(jaNa
A>aavaTa( Na MaaMa( >aJaiNTa Therefore, having no knowledge of Me, they do not
worship Me. wiTa >aav" This is the idea.


797 BG 7.28

Yaeza& TvNTaGaTa& PaaPa& JaNaaNaa& Pau<Yak==MaR<aaMa( ) Tae NMaaehiNaMauR= a >aJaNTae Maa& d*!v]Taa"== =))
ye tv anta-gata ppa jann puya-karmam, te dvandva-moha-nirmukt bhajante m dhavrat

Pau<Yak==MaR<aaMa( JaNaaNaaMa( Tau But those men of pious acts

YaezaMa( PaaPaMa( ANTaGaTaMa( whose sin has come to an end,
NMaaehiNaMauR= a" freed from the delusion of dualities (dvandva)
d*!v]Taa" and firm in their vows
Tae MaaMa( >aJaNTae they worship Me.
* WvMa( c MaaMa( >aJaNTa" Thus worshiping Me Tae SavRMa( ivjeYaMa( ivjaYa they come
to know all that is to be known:
798 BG 7.29

JaraMar<aMaae+aaYa MaaMaai[TYa YaTaiNTa Yae ) Tae b] Taidu" k*= TMaDYaaTMa& k==MaR cai%lMa(= = ))
jar-maraa-mokya mm ritya yatanti ye, te brahma tad vidu ktsnam adhytma karma ckhilam

MaaMa( Aai[TYa [After] taking shelter of Me

Yae JaraMar<aMaae+aaYa YaTaiNTa those who endeavor for freedom from old age and death,
Tae Tad( k*= TMa( b] ivdu" they know that complete brahma (the nature of the Lord)
* Tae Tad( ParMa( b] ivdu" They know that supreme brahma.
ADYaaTMaMa( Ai%lMa( k==MaR c and the adhytma (soul) and all karma (rituals).
*=TaMa( dehaidVYaiTair==Ma( XauMa( AaTMaaNaMa( c JaaNaiNTa And they know the pure
soul, distinct from the body etc. Tad(SaaDaNa>aUTaMa( Ai%lMa( (=SarhSYaMa(=) k==MaR c
JaaNaiNTa And they know all about rituals (karman), together with the secrets (esoteric
teachings), which is the means to this [realization].

Nac WvMa(>aUTaaNaaMa( YaaeGa>a]&XaXaa AiPa For such people there is not even the fear

of falling from yoga:

799 BG 7.30

SaaiDa>aUTaaiDadEv& Maa& SaaiDaYaj& c Yae ivdu" ) Pa[Yaa<ak==ale-= _iPa c Maa& Tae ivduYauR= ceTaSa"== =))
sdhibhtdhidaiva m sdhiyaja ca ye vidu, praya-kle pi ca m te vidur yukta-cetasa

SaAiDa>aUTaAiDadEvMa( Together with the adhibhta (body) and adhidaiva (Vira)

SaAiDaYajMa( c and with the adhiyaja (Paramtm)
*=AiDa>aUTaaidXaBdaNaaMa( AQaRMa( The meaning of the terms adhibhta (what concerns
beings), etc. >aGavaNa( Wv ANaNTarADYaaYae VYaa:YaaSYaiTa the Lord will explain in the
next chapter.

Yae MaaMa( ivdu" those who know Me,

Yau= ceTaSa" their minds fixed [on Me]
Pa[Yaa<ak==ale AiPa c even at the time of death
Tae MaaMa( ivdu" they know Me.
* NaTau Tada AiPa Not even at that time VYaaku= lq>aUYa they are not disturbed MaaMa(
ivSMariNTa and forget Me.



Sanskrit Kdanta 6


(6) yoga-stha
Some kdantas are used only in compound with a preceeding word:

SQaaNae to stand >>> -stha; yoga (as preceeding word) + -stha >>> yoga-stha; YaaeGae iTaiTa Ya" Sa"
YaaeGaSQa" one who is situated in yoga, he is yoga-stha; (as in:) YaaeGaSQa" [=SaNa(=] k==MaaRi<a ku=
[being] situated in yoga, do your work

>aUTaezu iTaiTa Ya" Sa" >aUTaSQa" who stays in all beings

Satve iTaiTa Ya" Sa" SatvSQa" who stays in sattva-gua
vid[a] 2P...jaNae to know >>> -vid (knowing); vedMa( veita Ya" Sa" vedivd( who knows Veda;
TatvMa( veita Ya" Sa" Tatvivd( who knows the truth
[u]k[]...k==r<ae to do >>> -kt (doing); k==MaR k==raeiTa Ya" Sa" k==MaRk*= Ta( who does work
j...AvbaeDaNae to know >>> -ja (knowing); +ae}aMa( JaaNaaiTa Ya" Sa" +ae}aj" who knows the field

PaaNae to drink >>> -pa (drinking); SaaeMaMa( iPabiTa Ya" Sa" SaaeMaPa" who drinks soma; PaadeNa
iPabiTa Ya" Sa" PaadPa" who drinks with the foot (said of plants)
[u]d[]...daNae to give >>> -da (giving); Sau%Ma( du"%Ma( c ddaiTa Ya" Sa" Sau:adu":ad" which
gives happiness and distress


GaTaaE to go >>> -ga (going); SavR}a GaC^iTa Ya" Sa" SavR}aGa" who goes everywhere
jan[]...Pa[adu>aaRve to be born >>> -ja (being born); Na JaaYaTae Ya" Sa" AJa" who is not born, the
unborn Supreme Lord

iJa who is born twice, twice-born, a member of the higher classes of society, who took a second
birth by culture and education; also said of birds, because first they are born as egg and then
from the egg

AGa]Ja first-born, the older brother; ANauJa after-born, the younger brother; as in rmnuja (rmaanuja) the younger brother of Rma, name of Ka as born after Balarma of the same father;

A<@Ja egg-born, like birds, reptiles and fish; JaraYauJa embryo-born, like animals and humans;
SvedJa perspiration-born, said of microbes; bqJaJa seed-born, plants
ABJa water-born, lotus; (there are many other words for water and the lotus is therefore also called:)
AMbaeJa, odJa, k==a, NaqrJa, SariSaJa, SaraeJa, aeTaaeJa


Hinduism Gt 8
Akara-brahma-yoga The Yoga to the Eternal Absolute (brahma)
800 BG 8.1

AJauRNa ovac
ik&= Tad( b] ik==MaDYaaTMa& ik&= k==MaR PauzaetaMa ) AiDa>aUTa& c ik&= Pa[ae= MaiDadEv& ik==MauCYaTae= = ))
ki tad brahma kim adhytma ki karma puruottama, adhibhta ca ki proktam adhidaiva kim

AJauRNa" ovac PauzotaMa Arjuna said: O Lord!

Tad( b] ik==Ma( What is that brahma?
ADYaaTMaMa( ik==Ma( what is adhytma?
k==MaR ik==Ma( what is karma?
AiDa>aUTaMa( c ik==Ma( Pa[ae= Ma( what is called adhibhta?
AiDadEvMa( ik==Ma( oCYaTae and what is called adhidaiva?
801 BG 8.2

AiDaYaj" k==Qa& k==ae-= _}a dehe-= _iSMaNMaDauSaUdNa ) Pa[Yaa<ak==ale c k==Qa& jeYaae-= _iSa iNaYaTaaTMai>a"== =))
adhiyaja katha ko tra dehe smin madhusdana, praya-kle ca katha jeyo si niyattmabhi

MaDauSaUdNa O Lord (Madhusdana)!

AiDaYaj" k==" Who is adhiyaja?
*=AiDaYaj" AiDaaTaa Adhiyaja means presiding deity Pa[YaaeJak=="= f==ldaTaa director
of action, and bestower of its fruit.

k==QaMa( A}a AiSMaNa( dehe how [does He exist] here in this body?
k==QaMa( Pa[Yaa<ak==ale c and how at the time of death
iNaYaTaAaTMai>a" jeYa" AiSa You are known by the self-controlled?
802 BG 8.3

A+ar& b] ParMa& Sv>aavae-= _DYaaTMaMauCYaTae ) >aUTa>aavaevk==rae ivSaGaR" k==MaRSa&ijTa"== =))
a-kara brahma parama sva-bhvo dhytmam ucyate, bhta-bhvodbhava-karo visarga karmasajita

[q>aGavaNa( ovac The Lord said:

ParMaMa( A+arMa( b] The supreme indestructible is brahma
* NaNau Jaqv" AiPa A+ar" But is the jva not also a-kara? Ta}a Aah To answer this
He says: ParMaMa( Yad( A+arMa( The a-kara which is supreme JaGaTa" MaUlk==ar<aMa(
i.e., the primal cause of the world Tad( b] that is brahma.
Sv>aav" ADYaaTMaMa( oCYaTae and its [individual] nature is called adhytma.
* SvSYa Wv b]<a" Wv A&XaTa" JaqvPae<a >avNaMa( =Sv>aav"= Of that brahma its
own (svasya) coming into existence (bhavana) in part as the jva (individual soul) is

Sa" Wv That same [brahma] AaTMaaNaMa( dehMa( AiDak*= TYa presiding

over its body >aae*= TveNa vTaRMaaNa" and existing as the experiencer =ADYaaTMa=XaBdeNa
oCYaTae is designated by the word adhytma. wiTa AQaR" This is the idea.
called sva-bhva.



>aUTa>aavovk==r" ivSaGaR"

The creative force (visarga) which causes the origin and development of

all beings


is called karma.

AGNaaE Pa[aSTaa AahuiTa" The oblation offered into the fire

(agni) SaMYak(= AaidTYaMa( oPaiTaTae reaches in full the sun. AaidTYaaTa( JaaYaTae v*i"
From the sun comes rain v*e" AaMa( from rain food TaTa" Pa[Jaa" and from that (food)
beings. (Manu-sahit 3.76) ... devTaaoeXaeNa d]VYaTYaaGaPa" Yaj" Sacrifice
(yaja) consisting of offering things to some deity SavRk==MaR<aaMa( oPal+a<aMa( WTad(
includes by implication all rituals (karman). Sa" k==MaRXaBdvaCYa" That is the meaning
* (verse without sandhi:)

of the word karma.

803 BG 8.4

AiDa>aUTa& +arae >aav" PauzaiDadEvTaMa( ) AiDaYajae-= _hMaeva}a dehe deh>a*Taa& vr== =))
adhibhta karo bhva purua cdhidaivatam, adhiyajo ham evtra dehe deha-bht vara

deh>a*TaaMa( vr O best of the embodied [Arjuna]!

+ar" >aav" AiDa>aUTaMa( The destructible nature [forming bodies etc.] is adhibhta
Pauz" c AiDadEvTaMa( and the [vira-] purua is adhidaiva.
* SaUYaRMa<@lMa( ADYavTas Who resides over the [center of the] solar orb SvA&Xa
>aUTaSavRdevTaaNaaMa( AiDaPaiTa" who is the Lord of all devas who are but parts of Him.
AhMa( Wv I am Myself [as Supersoul]
A}a dehe AiDaYaj" the adhiyaja in this body.
* YajAiDaa}aq devTaa [I am] the presiding deity of sacrifices Yajaidk==MaRPa[vTaRk= "
the promoter of rituals like yajas Tad(f==ldaTaa c and giver of their fruits. k==QaMa(
wiTa How? (8.2) ASYa otarMa( ANaeNa Wv o==Ma( Its answer to this question is given
by this very statement. ANTaYaaRiMa<a" ASaTvAaidi>a" Gau<aE" JaqvvEl+a<YaeNa
dehANTa"viTaRTvSYa Pa[iSaTvaTa( Because it is well known (prasiddha) that the
Supersoul (antarymin) is different from the individual soul (jva) owing to qualities
(gua) like non-attachment (a-sagatva), and that He resides within the body (deha).

=Pa[Yaa<ak==ale c k==QaMa( jeYa" AiSa= And how are You known at the time of death?

804 BG 8.5

ANTak==ale c MaaMaev SMarNMaua k==levrMa( ) Ya" Pa[YaaiTa Sa Maav& YaaiTa NaaSTYa}a Sa&XaYa"== =))
anta-kle ca mm eva smaran muktv kalevaram, ya prayti sa mad-bhva yti nsty atra saaya

ANTak==ale c And at the time of death

MaaMa( Wv SMarNa( [while] remembering Me alone
k==levrMa( Maua [after] giving up the body
Ya" Pa[YaaiTa one who departs,
Sa" Mad(>aavMa( YaaiTa he attains My nature.
A}a Sa&XaYa" Na AiSTa Of this there is no doubt.


805 BG 8.6

Ya& Ya& vaiPa SMarN>aav& TYaJaTYaNTae k==levrMa( ) Ta& TaMaevEiTa k==aENTaeYa Sada Taav>aaivTa"== =))
ya ya vpi smaran bhva tyajaty ante kalevaram, ta tam evaiti kaunteya sad tad-bhva-bhvita

k==aENTaeYa== ANTae O Arjuna! At death

YaMa( YaMa( >aavMa( va AiPa SMarNa( [while] remembering which particular existence
k==levrMa( TYaJaiTa one gives up the body,
TaMa( TaMa( Wv WiTa to that [existence] alone he goes
* ANTak==ale >aavivXaezSMar<ae heTau" The cause of remembering a particular object at
the time of death is:

Sada Tad(>aav>aaivTa"

being [all the time] filled with that thought.

806 BG 8.7

TaSMaaTSaveRzu k==alezu MaaMaNauSMar YauDYa c ) MaYYaiPaRTaMaNaaebuiMaaRMaevEZYaSYaSa&XaYa"== =))

tasmt sarveu kleu mm anusmara yudhya ca, mayy arpita-mano-buddhir mm evaiyasy a-saaya



YaSMaaTa( PaUvRvaSaNaa Wv Because it is a previous impression ANTak==ale SMa*iTaheTau"

that causes remembrance at the the time of death Naih Tada ivvXaSYa SMar<aoMa"
SaM>aviTa and [because] it is not possible for one helpless (vivaa) [at death] to make

any effort at remembrance at that time.

SaveRzu k==alezu MaaMa( ANauSMar at all times remember Me!

YauDYa c and fight!
* SaNTaTaSMar<aMa( c And constant remembrance ictaXauiMa( ivNaa Na >aviTa is not
possible without purity of mind. ATa" Yauy c (=YauySv=) Therefore fight. icta
XauiAQaRMa( For attaining purity of mind YauAaidk==Ma( SvDaMaRMa( c ANauiTa
perform your specific duty like fighting.

MaiYa AiPaRTaMaNa"bui" Having dedicated mind and intelligence to Me

MaaMa( Wv WZYaiSa to Me alone you will come,
ASa&XaYa" no doubt.
807 BG 8.8

A>YaaSaYaaeGaYaue= Na ceTaSaa NaaNYaGaaiMaNaa ) ParMa& Pauz& idVYa& YaaiTa PaaQaaRNauicNTaYaNa(= = ))

abhysa-yoga-yuktena cetas nnya-gmin, parama purua divya yti prthnucintayan

PaaQaR O Arjuna!
A>YaaSaYaaeGaYaue= Na By being concentrated (yukta) through the means (yoga) of practice (abhysa)
Na ANYaGaaiMaNaa ceTaSaa with [such] an undeviating mind
idVYaMa( ParMaMa( PauzMa( ANauicNTaYaNa( [while] meditating on the effulgent Supreme Lord
YaaiTa one attains [Him].
808 BG 8.9-10

Paura<aMaNauXaaiSaTaarMa<aaer<aqYaa&SaMaNauSMare" )
SavRSYa DaaTaarMaicNTYaPaMaaidTYav<a| TaMaSa" ParSTaaTa( ))
kavi puram anusitram aor aysam anusmared ya



sarvasya dhtram a-cintya-rpam ditya-vara tamasa parastt

Pa[Yaa<ak==ale MaNaSaacleNa >aKTYaa Yau= ae YaaeGableNa cEv )

>a]uvaeMaRDYae Pa[a<aMaaveXYa SaMYak(= Sa Ta& Par& PauzMauPaEiTa idVYaMa( ))
praya-kle manascalena bhakty yukto yoga-balena caiva
bhruvor madhye pram veya samyak sa ta para puruam upaiti divyam

k==ivMa( Paura<aMa( ANauXaaiSaTaarMa( On the omniscient, primeval controller

A<aae" A<aqYaa&SaMa( who is smaller than the smallest
* Aak==aXak==alidG>Ya" AiPa AiTaSaU+MaTarMa( Who is even much smaller than ether,
time and directions.

SavRSYa DaaTaarMa( the maintainer of all

AicNTYaPaMa( of inconceivable form
* MalqMaSaYaae" MaNaaebuyae" AGaaecrMa(

Who is inconceivable for those of impure

(malmasa) mind and intelligence.


effulgent like the sun


SvParPa[k= aXaaTMak==" v<aR" SvPaMa( YaSYa Whose effulgence (vara) or nature

(sva-rpa) manifests Himself and other things.

TaMaSa" ParSTaaTa( and beyond darkness (matter)

Ya" ANauSMareTa( one who can meditate [on that person],
>aKTYaa Yau= " endowed with bhakti
YaaeGableNa c Wv and by the power of yoga
>a]uvae" MaDYae Pa[a<aMa( SaMYak(= AaveXYa [i.e., after] properly fixing the life-breath (pra) in between the

YaaeGableNa By the power of yoga SaMYak(= SauzuMNaaMaaGaeR<a >a]uvae" MaDYae Pa[a<aMa(

AaveXYa having raised the lifebreath properly, through the channel of the Suumn, and

fixed it in between the eyebrows.

Pa[Yaa<ak==ale AcleNa MaNaSaa [and thus] with a steady mind [even] at the time of death
Sa" TaMa( idVYaMa( ParMa( PauzMa( oPaEiTa he attains that effulgent Supreme Lord (Paramtm).
809 BG 8.11

Yad+ar& vedivdae vdiNTa ivXaiNTa YaTaYaae vqTaraGaa" )

YaidC^NTaae b]cYa| criNTa Tatae Pad& Sahe<a Pa[v+Yae ))
yad a-kara veda-vido vadanti vianti yad yatayo vta-rg
yad icchanto brahmacarya caranti tat te pada sagrahea pravakye

Yad( vedivd" A+arMa( vdiNTa

That which the knowers of the Vedas describe as imperishable (a-


Yad( vqTaraGaa" YaTaYa" ivXaiNTa which sages free from attachment enter
Yad( wC^NTa" b]cYaRMa( criNTa and desiring which they practice brahmacarya,
The a-kara (brahma) has two forms the vcaka (the denotation) is the om, and the
vcya (the object itself) is the Supreme. Baladeva says that the a-kara of the first line is


the vcaka (om), the a-kara of the second line is the vcya (the Supreme) and the akara of the third line refers to both.

Tad( PadMa( Tae (=Tau>YaMa(=) Sahe<a Pa[v+Yae that destination I will explain to you in summary.
* Pa[iTajaTaMa( oPaaYaMa( SaAMa( Aah The proposed means together

with its

accessories are stated:

810 BG 8.12-13

SavRarai<a Sa&YaMYa MaNaae id iNaDYa c ) MaUDNYaaRDaaYaaTMaNa" Pa[a<aMaaiSQaTaae YaaeGaDaar<aaMa(= = ))

sarva-dvri sayamya mano hdi nirudhya ca, mrdhny dhytmana pram sthito yoga-dhram

AaeiMaTYaek= a+ar& b] VYaahrNMaaMaNauSMarNa( ) Ya" Pa[YaaiTa TYaJaNdeh& Sa YaaiTa ParMaa& GaiTaMa(= = ))

om ity ekkara brahma vyharan mm anusmaran, ya prayti tyajan deha sa yti param gatim

SavRarai<a Sa&YaMYa [After] controlling (withdrawing) all the gates (senses)

* c+auraidi>a" baivzYaGa]h<aMa( Aku= vRNa( Not perceiving external objects through
the eyes, etc.

MaNa" id iNaDYa c and [after] fixing the mind (manas) in the heart (hd)
* baivzYaSMar<aMa( Aku= vRNa( Not remembering external objects.
AaTMaNa" Pa[a<aMa( MaUiDNaR AaDaaYa [after] placing ones pra on the head
* MaUiDNaR On the head means >a]uvae" MaDYae between the eye-brows.
YaaeGaDaar<aaMa( AaiSQaTa" established in concentration (dhra) by yoga,
dehMa( TYaJaNa( [and then while] giving up the body (deha)
AaeMa( wiTa Wk==A+arMa( b] VYaahrNa( pronouncing the monosyllable Om, which is brahma Itself
* [Om is brahma] b]vack==TvaTa( va because it is the denotation of brahma Pa[iTaMaa
AaidvTa( b]Pa[Taqk==TvaTa( va or because it is its symbol, like an image (pratim) etc.
MaaMa( ANauSMarNa( and contemplating Me [by this Om]
* Tad(vaCYaMa( c MaaMa( ANauSMarNa( Wv And thinking of Me who am expressed by that

Ya" Pa[YaaiTa one who [thus] departs,

Sa" ParMaaMa( GaiTaMa( YaaiTa attains [Me,] the supreme destination.
* ANTak==ale Daar<aYaa Mad(Pa[ai" Attaining Me at the time of death through
concentration iNaTYaA>YaaSavTa" Wv >aviTa is possible only for one who practices