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San Jose State University

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

Special Topic
Class Project
S"#mitted $y
S"jan %a&arjan
S"#mitted to
Dr' (en (ang
Date S"#mitted) 5
Decem#er 2*12
T&e s+eleton o, &ydrology is t&e &ydrologic cycle' t is t&e sel, revolving and
regenerating pat& in -&ic& s&o-s &o- a drop o, -ater get trans,ormed into di,,erent
p&ases li+e solid .&ail/ sno- etc0/ li1"id .precipitation0 and gas .evaporation/ transpiration
etc0 -&en it passes ,rom atmosp&ere .de-/ ,og etc0 to s"r,ace .stream/ river etc0 to
s"#s"r,ace .gro"nd -ater/ in,iltration etc0 and again ,rom s"#s"r,ace to s"r,ace to
atmosp&ere -&ile going t&ro"g& di,,erent p&ases to complete t&e cycle' t is ill"strated in
2ig"re 1 #elo-'
2ig"re 1) T&e &ydrologic cycle .So"rce) ,-ee'org0
Evaporation and Transpiration are t&e part o, t&e &ydrologic cycle and it represents t&e
gaseo"s p&ase o, -ater in t&e atmosp&ere' n &ydrology/ -e are concerned a#o"t
evaporation losses ,rom open -ater #odies' Similarly/ -ater trans,erred ,rom t&e plant
s"r,ace li+e leaves and stems also ma+e some part o, gaseo"s p&ase o, -ater and -e call
it transpiration ,rom plants' n transpiration process/ t&e -ater passes t&ro"g& t&e plant
and is evaporated at t&e s"r,ace o, t&e plant' n nat"ral condition/ it is very di,,ic"lt to
separate evaporation losses and transpiration ,rom plant as t&ey get mi3ed "p in t&e
atmosp&ere/ so a com#ined term 4Evapotranspiration5 is "sed to depict #ot& p&enomenon
o, evaporation and transpiration in t&e nat"re' Evapotranspiration is t&e total -ater loss
,rom a ,ield in -&ic& signi,icant amo"nts o, -ater are lost t&ro"g& transpiration ,rom
plant s"r,aces and evaporation ,rom t&e "nderlying moist soil' t is s&o-n is ,ig"re 2
2ig"re 2) Evapotranspiration .So"rce) "sgs'gov0
(&ile all t&e p&ases at di,,erent locations are important ,or &ydrologic analysis and
design/ t&e importance o, evaporation and transpiration cannot #e neglected' t represents
a signi,icant portion in tropical/ temperate and arid &ot climate' A#o"t 6*7 o, t&e
precipitation in a temperate climate ret"rns #ac+ to t&e atmosp&ere directly #y t&e -ay o,
evaporation or transpiration losses .%cC"en/ 18890' Evapotranspiration is not t&e major
design parameter #"t is considered as a part o, total loss ,"nction even t&o"g& it occ"py
only minor portion o, t&e total loss in storm event' Evaporation losses are considered in
designing large -ater storage reservoirs' n areas -&ere ann"al rain,all is lo-/
evaporation losses can #e a signi,icant part o, t&e -ater #"dget o, t&e la+es' T&is may
a,,ect t&e -ater 1"ality/ recreational "se o, t&e la+e/ "se o, -ater ,or irrigation and po-er
, s",,icient moist"re is al-ays availa#le to completely meet t&e need o, vegetation ,"lly
covering t&e area/ t&e res"lting evapotranspiration is called potential evapotranspiration
.PET0' PET no longer critically depent on soil and plant ,actors #"t depends essentially
on climatic ,actors' T&e real evapotranspiration occ"rring in a speci,ic sit"ation is called
act"al evapotranspiration .AET0' , t&e -ater s"pply to t&e plant is ade1"ate/ soil
moist"re -ill #e at t&e ,ield capacity and AET -ill #e e1"al to PET' , t&e -ater s"pply is
less t&at PET/ t&e soil dries o"t and t&e ratio -ill #e less t&an "nity' t is generally agreed
t&at PET is a good appro3imation to la+e evaporation'
Estimation o, Evapotranspiration may also #e "sed ,or irrigation sc&ed"ling' (ater losses
t&ro"g& transpiration m"st #e replaced i, t&e crop is to prod"ce ma3im"m yield' (ater
availa#ility ,or plant d"ring &ig& evapotranspiration can signi,icantly a,,ect crop gro-t&'
Estimation o, -ater losses #e,ore&and can #e "sed to sc&ed"le irrigation pattern and
rates' .%cC"en/ 18890
2actors a,,ecting Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration depends "pon vario"s parameters li+e temperat"re/ &"midity or vapor
press"re/ solar radiation rates and -ind speed' T&ey are disc"ssed #elo-)
t is o#vio"s t&at &ig&er t&e atmosp&eric temperat"re/ &ig&er t&e evapotranspiration rate
and vice:versa' t is meas"red in degrees 2a&ren&eit/ Celci"s or ;elvin' Temperat"re is
di,,erent ,rom &eat in a sense t&at it is a meas"re o, t&ermal energy trans,erred ,rom one
medi"m to anot&er' (ater in t&e la+e and -ater in a #"c+et may #e at t&e same
temperat"re #"t t&e la+e &as greater capacity to store and trans,er &eat t&an t&e -ater in
t&e #"c+et' !eat storage can also a,,ect t&e rate and time distri#"tion o, t&e
Humidity and Vapor pressure
T&e amo"nt o, -ater vapor present in t&e atmosp&ere i'e' &"midity j"st a#ove o, a -ater
#ody s"r,ace is also an important parameter to determine Evapotranpiration rate o, t&e
-ater #ody' T&e molec"les o, -ater in t&e atmosp&ere j"st a#ove t&e -ater #ody e3ert
press"re on t&e ,ree s"r,ace o, t&e -ater' As t&e vapor press"re o, t&e overlying air mass
increases/ t&e rate o, evapotranspiration ,rom t&e -ater #ody -ill decrease' T&e vapor
press"re .e0 is t&e di,,erence o, atmosp&eric press"re -it& and -it&o"t t&e vapor .i'e'
partial press"re o, t&e -ater vapor in t&e atmosp&ere0'
, t&e -ater contin"es to evaporate ,rom t&e ,ree -ater s"r,ace/ t&e overlying air -ill
#ecome sat"rated' T&e press"re e3erted -&en t&e overlying air is sat"rated -it& vapor is
called sat"rated vapor press"re .es0' T&e sat"rated vapor press"re is t&e ,"nction o,
temperat"re and it is +no-n ,or given temperat"re ,rom ta#le' T&e ratio o, act"al vapor
press"re to sat"rated vapor press"re is called relative &"midity .<&0'
Solar Radiation
<adiation is t&e transmission o, t&ermal energy #y electromagnetic -aves' <adiant
energy is not &eat itsel, #"t can #e re,lected/ a#sor#ed or transmitted' Even t&o"g&/ it
a,,ects t&e evapotranspiration/ radiation energy is &ard to meas"re directly/ so/ it is
"s"ally correlated -it& temperat"re'
Wind Speed
T&ere is an important role o, air in motion to replace already &"mid and -arm lo-er
layer to #e replaced #y cold air ,or ,"rt&er evaporation' T&is process is called convection
in atmosp&ere' (ind speed can #e "sed as a parameter to meas"re t&is air movement' T&e
-ind speed can #e meas"red -it& an anemometer and t&e direction -it& -ind vane' 2or
&ig&ly t"r#"lent air/ in -&ic& local g"st o, -ind ca"se &ig& meas"red val"e o, -ind
speed/ t&e act"al air mass movement may not #e properly indicated #y t&e -ind speed'
$"t/ in most cases -it& is a good indicated o, air movement' (ind speed varies -it& t&e
&eig&t a#ove t&e -ater s"r,ace proportionally'
2ield Capacity=(ilting point
2ield capacity is t&e ma3im"m 1"antity o, -ater t&at t&e soil can retain against t&e ,orce
o, gravity' Any &ig&er moist"re inp"t to t&e soil at t&e ,ield capacity -ill simply drain
a-ay' Permanent -ilting point is t&e moist"re content o, a soil at -&ic& t&e moist"re is
no longer availa#le in s",,icient 1"antity to s"stain plant li,e' At t&is point/ even t&o"g&
t&e soil contains some moist"re/ it -ill #e so &eld #y t&e soil grains t&at t&e roots o, t&e
plants are not a#le to e3tract it in s",,icient 1"antities to s"stain t&e plants and
conse1"ently t&e plant -ilts' T&e di,,erence #et-een ,ield capacity and permanent
-ilting point is called availa#le -ater ,or t&e plant gro-t& and is t&e important parameter
,or t&e transpiration ,rom t&e plant'
(ater $"dget
2or a catc&ment in a given period o, time/ t&e &ydrologic -ater #"dget can #e -ritten as
* S act
P R G E S =
(&ere P > Precipitation
<s > S"r,ace <"no,,
?o> S"#s"r,ace o"t,lo-
Eact > AET
S > c&ange in moist"re storage
T&is -ater #"dget e1"ation can #e "sed to calc"late AET #y +no-ing or estimating ot&er
Energy $"dget
T&e energy #alance ,or a mass o, -ater evaporating ,rom t&e s"r,ace o, t&e -ater #ody in
a period o, one day is given #y
n a e g s i
H H H H H H = + + + +
> net &eat energy received #y t&e -ater s"r,ace
> sensi#le &eat trans,er ,rom -ater s"r,ace to air
> &eat energy "sed "p in evaporation
> &eat ,l"3 into t&e gro"nd
> &eat stored in -ater #ody
> net &eat cond"cted o"t o, t&e system #y -ater ,lo-
E1"ations o, Evapotranspiration
T&e lac+ o, relia#le ,ield data and t&e di,,ic"lties o, o#taining relia#le evapotranspiration
data &ave given rise to n"m#er o, met&ods to predict PET #y "sing climatological data'
@arge n"m#er o, ,orm"lae are availa#le t&at incl"des p"rely empirical ones to one #ac+ed
-it& t&eoretical concepts' Some "se,"l e1"ations to estimate Evapotranspiration losses
are given #elo-)
Penmans Equation
PenmanAs e1"ation is #ased on a so"nd t&eoretical reasoning and is o#tained #y
com#ining energy #alance and mass trans,er approac&' PenmanAs e1"ation can #e
represented #y
PET > daily potential evapotranspiration in mm per day
A > slope o, t&e sat"ration vapor press"re vers"s temperat"re c"rve at mean air
temperat"re in mm o, !g per degree centigrade'
! > net radiation in mm o, evapora#le -ater per day
E > parameter incl"ding -ind velocity and sat"ration de,icit
> Psyc&rometric constant > *'D8 mm o, !g per degree centigrade
T&e net radiation is t&e same as "sed in t&e energy #"dget ,rom e1"ation 2 and is
estimated #y ,ollo-ing e1"ation)
.1 0 .*'5E *'*82 0 *'1 *'8
a a
n n
H H r a b T e

= + +

> incident solar radiation o"tside t&e atmosp&ere on a &oriFontal s"r,ace/
e3pressed in mm o, evapora#le -ater pr day .it is a ,"nction o, t&e latit"de and
period o, t&e year as indicated in Ta#le C'D0'
a > a constant depending "pon t&e latit"de .l0 and is given #y a > *'28cos .l0
# > a constant -it& an average val"e o, *'52
n > act"al d"ration o, #rint s"ns&ine in &o"rs
G > ma3im"m possi#le &o"rs o, #rig&t s"ns&ine .it is a ,"nction o, latit"de0
ts val"es are s&o-n in appendi3 ta#le
< > re,lection coe,,icient .al#edo0 "s"al val"e is s&o-n in appendi3 ta#le'
> Step&an $oltFman constant > 2B 1*
T > mean air temperat"re in ;elvin
ea > act"al mean vapor press"re in t&e air in mm o, !g
T&e parameter Ea is estimated as
( ) *'C5 1
a w a
E e e

= +

" > mean -ind speed at 2 meters a#ove gro"nd in +m=day
e- > sat"ration vapor press"re at mean air temperat"re in mm o, !g
ea > act"al vapor press"re
Since all t&e parameters are +no-n "sing ta#les in appendi3/ -e can ,ind t&e PET losses
o, t&e -aters&ed'
Emperical formula
One o, t&e most pop"lar among vario"s +inds o, empirical ,orm"la to estimate PET o,
t&e crop season in $laney:Criddle 2orm"la -&ic& is #ased on t&e data ,rom arid -estern
United States'
2'5D B PET K F = .E0
B = 1**
F P T =

; > empirical coe,,icient depending "pon type o, t&e crop
2 > s"m o, mont&ly cons"mptive "se ,actor ,or t&e period
P > mont&ly percent o, ann"al day time &o"rs depends on latit"de o, t&e place
T, > mean mont&ly temperat"re in 2a&ren&iet
T&"s t&e evapotranspiration p&enomenon is estimated and incorporated in &ydrologic
1' %cC"en/ !ydrologic Analysis and Design
2' S"#ramanyam/ Engineering !ydrology
C' %ays/ @arry/ (ater <eso"rces Engineering
D' Class !and o"ts
Al#edo .r val"es0
Temperat"re vers"s Sat"ration Hapor press"re
!o"rs o, S"ns&ine in latit"des