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Stai nl ess Steel
-
Grade 316
-
Properti es, Fabri cati on and
Appl i cati ons
Chemi cal Formul a
Fe, <0.03olo C, t6-L8.5o/o Cr, Lo-t4o/o Ni, 2-3o/o Mo, <2o/o Mn, llo/o Si, <0.045'
P, <0.03o/o S
Topics Covered
Backqrpuld
Key
PropeGrCg
Composition
llechanicaI
Prqpe!:ties
Physrcal Properties
Grade Speci f i cat i on Compari son
Possible Alternatjve
Gtades
eorloion
Registance
Heat Resistance
llqat
Treatment
\ryLd
jns
Machi ni ng
Dual Certification
Stainless Steel
-
Grade 31 6
-
Properties, Fabrication and Applications
Latst
Newsi l i :-' -,Ai rbus to Tri al Tungsten Carbi de Coati ngs
Page 1 of5
ll
http ://www. azom. com./details.asp?ArticleID:8 63 7/17t2008
Ei micromeritics'
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Surface Area
Stainless Steel
-
Grade 316
-
Prope(ies, Fabrication and Applications Page 2 of 5
Appl i cat i ons
Background
Grade 316 is the standard molybdenum-bearing grade, second in importance t(
304 amongst the austenitic stainless steels. The molybdenum gives 316 better
overall corrosion resistant
properties
than Grade 304,
particularly
higher
resistance to
pitting
and crevice corrosion in chloride environments, It has
excellent forming and welding characteristics. It is readily brake or roll formed
into a variety of
parts
for applications in the industrial, architectural, and
transportation fields, Grade 316 also has outstanding welding characteristics.
Post-weld annealing is not required when welding thin sections.
Grade 316L, the low carbon version of 316 and is immune from sensitisation
(grain boundary carbide
precipitation).
Thus it is extensively used in heavy gau
welded components (over about 6mm). Grade 316H, with its higher carbon
content has application at elevated temperatures, as does stabilised grade 316'
The austenitic structure also
gives
these
grades
excellent toughness. even dow
to cryogenic temperatures.
Key Properties
These properties
are specified for flat rolled
product (plate, sheet and coil) in
ASfM A24OlA240M. Similar but not necessarily identical properties are specifie(
for other
products
such as pipe and bar in their respective specifications.
composition
Table 1. Composition ranges for 316
grade
of stainless steels.
Grade si Mn P 5 Cr MO Ni ll
316
316L
316H
16. 0
18. 0
16. 0
18. 0
16. 0
Mi n
Max 0.08 2.O
Mi n
Max 0.03 2.O
Mi n 0.04 O.O4
o. 75 0. 045 0. 03
o.75 0.045 0.03
0 -
2.00 10.0
3. OO 14. 0
2.OO 10.0
3.00 14.0
2.00 10.0
3.00 14.0
o.
0.
Mechani cal Propert i es
Table 2. Mechanical properties
of 316
grade
stainless steels.
Grade
Tensi l e Str
( MPa) mi n
Yi el d Str
O^2ol o Proof
( MPa) mi n
El ong
(o/o in
SOmm) mi n
Hardness
Rockwel l B
{HR B } n' ! ax
Br i nel l
( H
316
3161
316H
515
485 170
95
95
277
277
217
Note: 316H also has a requirement for a
grairi
size of ASTM no. 7 or coarser.
Physical Properties
Table 3. Typical physical properties
for 316
grade stainless steels.
Grade
Densi ty
( ksl m3)
El asti c
Modul us
( GPa)
Mean Co-eff of
Thermal xpansi on
l um/ m/ oc)
Thermal
Conduct i vi t y
{ W/ m. K)
Speci fi c
Heat O-
,.00"c
( l / ks^K)
El ec
Resistiv
( nQ. m o-
100"
o-
3150
o-
53ao
c
At
1000
c
5000
,4d
ri
ertrse
http ://www. azom. com,/detai ls.asp?ArticleID:8 63 7tr1/2008
Stainless Steel
-
Grade 316
-
Properties, Fabrication and Applications
I
I :reruH Sooo 193 15.9 16.2 L7.5 16.3 2r.5 500
Page 3 of5
740
crade Speci f i cat i on Compari son
Note: These comparisons are approximate only. The list is intended as a
comparison of functionally similar materials not as a schedule of contractual
equivalents. If exact equivalents are needed original specifications must be
consulted.
Possible Alternative Grades
Grade
316Ti
316N
317L
9041
2205
Why i t mi ght be chosen i nstead of 316?
Better resistance to temDeratures of around 600-90OoC is needed.
Hi gher strength than standard 316.
Hi gher resi stance to chl ori des than 316L, but wi th si mi l ar resi stance to stress
corrosi on cracki ng.
Much higher resistance to chlorldes at elevated temperatures, with good formabil
Much higher resistance to chlorides at elevated temperaturcs, and higher strengtl
Corrosion Resistance
Excellent in a range of atmospheric environments and many corrosive media
-
generally more resistant than 304. Subject to
pitting and crevice corrosion in
warm chloride environments, and to stress corrosion cracking above about 600(
Considered resistant to potable water with up to about 1000mg/L chlorides at
ambient temperatures, reducing to about 500m9/L at 60oC.
315 is usually regarded as the standard
"marine
grade stainless steel", but it is
not resistant to warm sea water, In many marine environments 315 does exhib
surface corrosion. usually visible as brown staining. This is
particularly associatr
with crevices and rough surface finish,
Heat Resi st ance
Good oxidation resistance in intermittent service to 870oC and in continuous
service to 925oC. Continuous use of 316 in the 425-860oC range is not
recommended if subsequent aqueous corrosion resistance is important. Grade
316L is more resistant to carbide
precipitation and can be used in the above
temperature range, Grade 316H has higher strength at elevated temperatures
and is sometimes used for structural and
pressure-containing applications at
temDeratures above about 500oC.
Heat Treatment
Table 4, Grade specifications for 315 grade stainless steels.
Grade
UNS
NO
Ol d Bri t i sh Euronorm
Swedi sh
ss
Japane
BS En NO Name
316531 58H, 58J
316511
316551
1.4401
X5CrNi Mol T-
1.4404
X2CrNi Mol T-
2347 SUS 3i
2348 SUS 31
316L
316H
s31600
s31603
s31609
Table 5. Possible alternative
grades to 316 stainless steel.
http://www.azom.com./details.asp?ArticlelD:863
7/r712008
Stainless Steel
-
Grade 316
-
Properties, Fabrication and Applications Page 4 of 5
Solution Treatment (Annealing)
-
Heat to 1010-1120oC and cool rapidly. These
grades cannot be hardened by thermal treatment.
wel di ng
Excellent weldability by all standard fusion methods, both with and without fille
metals. AS 1554.6
pre-qualifies welding of 316 with Grade 316 and 316L with
Grade 3151 rods or electrodes (or their high silicon equivalents). Heavy welded
sections in Grade 315 require
post-weld
annealing for maximum corrosion
resistance. This is not required for 316L. Grade 316Ti may also be used as an
alternative to 316 for heavy section welding.
Mach i n i ng
A
"Ugima"
improved machinability version of
grade
316 is available in round an
hollow bar
products. This machines significantly better than standard 316 or 31
giving higher machining rates and lower tool wear in many operations.
Dual cert i f i cat i on
It is common for 316 and 316L to be stocked in
"Dual
Certified" form
-
mainly i
plate and pipe, These items have chemical and mechanical
properties
complyin,
with both 316 and 316L specifications. Such dual certified
product does not me,
316H specification and may be unacceptable for high temperature applications.
Appl i cat i ons
Typical applications include:
.
Food preparation
equipment
particularly in chloride environments.
.
Laboratory benches & equipment.
.
Coastal architectural
panelling,
railings & trim.
.
Boat fittings.
.
Chemical containers, including for transport.
o
Heat Exchangers.
.
Woven or welded screens for mining,
quarrying
& water filtration.
.
Threaded fasteners.
.
Spri ngs.
Source: Atlas Steels Australia
For more i nformati on on thi s source Dl ease vi si t Atl as Steel s Austral i a
http ://www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticlelD=863 7n7/2008