Sie sind auf Seite 1von 192

The Practice

The PracticeThe PracticeThe PracticeThe PracticeThe PracticeWhich Leads To


The PracticeThe PracticeThe PracticeThe PracticeThe PracticeNibbOEna
NibbOEnaNibbOEnaNibbOEnaNibbOEnaNibbOEna
(Part 1)
(Part 1)(Part 1)(Part 1)(Part 1)(Part 1)
Pa Auk Sayadaw
Pa Auk SayadawPa Auk SayadawPa Auk SayadawPa Auk SayadawPa Auk Sayadaw
(Comi!ed and Trans!ated by "#$hamminda)
The Practice
The PracticeThe PracticeThe PracticeThe PracticeThe PracticeWhich Leads To
The PracticeThe PracticeThe PracticeThe PracticeThe PracticeNibbOEna
NibbOEnaNibbOEnaNibbOEnaNibbOEnaNibbOEna
(Part 1)
(Part 1)(Part 1)(Part 1)(Part 1)(Part 1)
Pa Auk Sayadaw
Pa Auk SayadawPa Auk SayadawPa Auk SayadawPa Auk SayadawPa Auk Sayadaw
(Comi!ed and Trans!ated by "#$hamminda)
% " $hamminda 1&&'
This book be!on(s to the Pub!ic $omain and may be rero)
% " $hamminda 1&&' duced without any *urther ermission *rom the author#
duced without any *urther ermission duced without any *urther ermission duced without any *urther
ermission duced without any *urther ermission duced without any *urther ermission
+* you are interested in ractisin( meditation at Pa Auk Tawya ,onastery then !ease contact-
Pa Auk Sayadaw
or
" Thet Tin
c.o ,a/or 0an Sain (1td#)
23 ,yananda !ane
452 Lower ,ain 1oad6
7ankin Post O**ice
,aw!amyine6
7an(on
,yanmar,yanmar Phone 8&5 (1) 599:12
Contents
ContentsContentsContentsContentsContents
ContentsContentsContentsContentsContents1
The $e;e!oment o* Concentration
##########################################
1
$e;e!oin( +nsi(ht####################################################################
'
$iscernin( $eendent Ori(ination
#########################################
:3
Si<teen 0now!ed(es
###############################################################
:9
The ,ethod O* $e;e!oin( ,ind*u!ness #########
=9
Thirty)two Parts O* The >ody
################################################
42
Ske!eton ,editation#
###############################################################
45
White 0asi?a
##########################################################################
4&
Ten 0asi?as
############################################################################
9=
The @our ArAa/hOEnas
############################################################
99
Lo;in(kindness ,editation (,etta >hOE;ana)
########################
'2
Comassion ,editation (0aru?OE >hOE;ana)
############################
&4
Symathetic Boy ,editation
(,uditOE
>hOE;anOE)
####################
&'
ECuanimity ,editation
("ekkhOE >hOE;anOE)
#########################
&&
1eco!!ection O* The Dua!ities O* The >uddha#
####################
133
,editation On The 1eu!si;eness O* Corses (asubha)
######
13:
1eco!!ection O* $eath
##########################################################
132
The @our E!ements ,editation
#############################################
135
,ethod O* Ana!ysin( 1Aa 0a!OEas
####################################
115
Theoretica! E<!anations @or 1Aa 0ammaEEhOEna-
##############
1=2
w 1
Namo tassa bha(a;ato arahato sammOEsambuddhassa
Namo tassa bha(a;ato sammOEsambuddhassaNamo tassa bha(a;ato sammOEsambuddhassaNamo
tassa bha(a;ato sammOEsambuddhassaNamo tassa bha(a;ato sammOEsambuddhassaNamo tassa
bha(a;ato
+ntroduction
+ntroduction+ntroduction+ntroduction+ntroduction+ntroduction
The method o* ractisin( Tawya ,onastery is based
on the e<!anation o* meditation in the Fisuddhima((a commentary# se;era! sta(es o* ractise which
These sta(es inc!ude a detai!ed ana!ysis accordin( to a!! the cate(ories enumerated and the *urther use
o* this understandin( to $eendent Ori(ination as it occurs in the Past6
There*ore eo!e who are un*ami!iar with the Fisuddhima((a and the Abhidhamma wi!! ha;e di**icu!ty
in understandin( a c!ear icture o* the ractice o* meditation at Pa Tawya#
@or *orei(ners who cannot seak >urmese this rob!em is made e;en more di**icu!t#
This introduction has been written to he! a!!e;iate these di**icu!ties
by resentin( a sim!i*ied e<am!e o* a success*u! meditatorGs
ath o* ro(ress as he de;e!os his meditation at Pa Auk Tawya# This we hoe wi!! enab!e you to
understand a !itt!e better the more detai!ed sections o* the book which are the actua! instructions *or
those who are ractisin( meditation#
+t a!so must be stressed *rom the be(innin( that this book is intended
*or use by eo!e who are actua!!y under(oin( a course o* meditation at the centre under the (uidance
o* Pa Auk Sayadaw#
The $e;e!oment o* Concentration
The $e;e!oment o* ConcentrationThe $e;e!oment o* ConcentrationThe $e;e!oment o*
ConcentrationThe $e;e!oment o* ConcentrationThe $e;e!oment o* Concentration
The meditator at Pa Auk Tawya usua!!y be(ins by de;e!oin( one o* either two meditations- @our
E!ements ,editation or ,ind*u!ness
o* >reathin(#
Either o* these meditations can be used to de;e!o concentration which is then used to in;esti(ate the
nature
w :
o* mind and matter roduce
and maintain them
+* a meditator be(ins with by bein( aware o* the +n the be(innin( the meditator sense o* touch o* what
the breath he continua!!y de;e!os his mind*u!ness concentration de;e!os and he be(ins as i* it is a
sma!! !i(ht restin( a(ainst his *ace#
He continues to de;e!o
his concentration *urther unti! this !i(ht becomes bri(ht and c!ear !ike a bri(ht star#
Then as he continues to be mind*u! o* this bri(ht !i(ht6 which is ca!!ed a InimittaI concentration6 he
e;entua!!y is ab!e to attain *i<ed concentration such an e<tent that his mind does not wander6 but
remains aware o* the nimitta#
When the mind o* the meditator is ab!e to remain concentrated on this nimitta *or one6 two6 or three
hours then certain Cua!ities o* mind become rominent#
At *irst there are *i;e rominent Cua!ities- initia! a!ication o* the mind6 sustained a!ication o* the
mind6 /oy6 hainess6
and oneointedness o* mind#
When these *i;e *actors are de;e!oed to a su**icient e<tent then this sta(e o* de;e!oment o*
concentration is ca!!ed the I*irst /hOEnaI
Ha;in( attained the *irst /hOEna the meditator cou!d i* he so wished (o on to de;e!o the ;arious
sta(es o* understandin( o* mind and matter and the causa! re!ationshis that roduce them which make
u the ractise o* insi(ht meditation#
>ut it is better to at *irst de;e!o
hi(her !e;e!s o* concentration so that when !ater the meditator directs his mind to the de;e!oment o*
insi(ht the momentum o* his concentration assists in his insi(ht ractise and makes it easier to discern
mind and matter6 causes and e**ects6 and roduces insi(ht know!ed(e which is sharer and c!earer due
to the stren(th o* the !i(ht o* wisdom that occurs based uon the /hOEna concentration#
w
2
w
2
So the usua! ath o* ractise o* a meditator at Pa Auk Tawya continue to de;e!o his concentration
based on ,ind*u!ness >reathin(#
He then trains himse!* to de;e!o ro(ressi;e!y the second6
third6 and *ourth /hOEnas# (The method o* de;e!oment is described
!ater on in this book)
Ha;in( de;e!oed the *ourth /hOEna usin( ,ind*u!ness o* >reathin(
the meditator wi!! notice that the mind is esecia!!y bri(ht and emits !i(ht and he is then ab!e to use this
!i(ht to discern the 2: arts o* the body and to de;e!o the meditation based on the 2: arts o* the body#
He does this by *irst enterin( and arisin( *rom the *ourth /hOEna based on ,ind*u!ness o* >reathin(
and then directin( his awareness
to discernin( the hairs o* his head#
With the assistance o* the !i(ht emitted by the mind that has /ust emer(ed *rom concentration based on
the *ourth /hOEna he is ab!e to see c!ear!y the hairs o* the head /ust as i* he were !ookin( at them in a
mirror#
Then systematica!!y
he discerns each o* the other 21 arts o* the body one by one and sees them c!ear!y in the same way#
+* durin( this rocess the !i(ht becomes dim and he is unab!e to see the arts c!ear!y them he
w =
returns to the *ourth ha;in( emer(ed *rom towards seein( the 2:
The 2: arts o* the body are-
Head hair6 body hair6 nai!s6 teeth6
*!esh6 sinew6 bones6 marrow6 kidney6
heart6 !i;er6 membrane6 s!een6 !un(s6
intestine6 mesentery6 (or(e6 *aeces6 brain6
bi!e6 h!e(m6 us6 b!ood6 sweat6 *at6
tears6 (rease6 sa!i;a6 mucus6 syno;ia6 urine#
He then returns to the *ourth /hOEna based on ,ind*u!ness >reathin( and the emer(in( *rom it uses the
!i(ht roduced assist him to discern the 2: arts o* the body in a erson sittin( c!ose to him#
Thus he de;e!os the abi!ity to discern the 2: arts both interna!!y in his own body and e<terna!!y in
the body another indi;idua!#
>y ractisin( this discernment o* the 2: arts interna!!y and e<terna!!y a(ain and a(ain in turn the
ower o* his concentration on the 2: arts increases and becomes stron(#
He can then be(in to discern 2: arts o* the body in other humans around him and e;en in anima!s#
When a meditator has become ski!!ed in the discernin( o* the 2: arts in this way both interna!!y and
e<terna!!y he is then ab!e to *o!!ow any o* three ways *or the *urther de;e!oment o* his concentration-
1#
He can use the reu!si;eness o* a art to de;e!o meditation on the reu!si;eness o* the body#
:#
He can use the co!our o* a art o* the body to de;e!o as a kasi?a meditation#
2#
He can ana!yse and discern the *our e!ements (earth6 water6 *ire6 and air) in each art and de;e!o @our
E!ements meditation#
w
5
w
5
The meditator be(ins to de;e!o *irst!y a(ain de;e!oin( the *ourth o* >reathin(#
Then when the !i(ht associated with that is stron( and bri!!iant he turns his awareness o* the 2: arts o*
the body interna!!y#
Then he discerns the 2: arts
e<terna!!y in a erson sittin( nearby#
Then he se!ects and discerns
on!y the bones o* the ske!eton that are interna!#
When those bones ha;e become c!ear to him then he takes the reu!si;eness bones as an ob/ect and
de;e!os that ercetion#
He ercei;es them as Ireu!si;e6 reu!si;e6 reu!si;e bones6 reu!si;e bones or bonesI#
He them de;e!os that ercetion in such a way that his mind stays with the ercetion o*
reu!si;eness *or one or two or three hours#
>ecause o* the assistance o* the *ourth /hOEna based on mind*u!ness o* breathin( it shou!d not take
!on( *or him to attain the *irst /hOEna based on the ercetion o* the reu!si;eness o* the bones#
When he is
ab!e to do this he can a!so de;e!o in a simi!ar way the ercetion o* the reu!si;eness o* bones
e<terna!!y in other eo!e
and anima!s#
A*ter he has become ski!!*u! in this he can mo;e on
to de;e!o the white kasi?a#
To de;e!o the white kasi?a he de;e!os his concentration as be*ore and unti! he is ab!e to discern the
reu!si;eness o* the bones e<terna!!y#
Then he !ooks at a ;ery white art o* those e<terna! bones such as the back o* the sku!! o*
the erson sittin( in *ront o* him and by (i;in( attention to it as on!y Iwhite6 whiteI6 he e;entua!!y
remo;es the ercetion o* reu!si;eness and bones and is /ust aware o* the white co!our#
This may aear to him as a sma!!
white circ!e#
w
4
w
4
si;e!y
becomes whiter *irst6 second6 third6 and
A meditator who can attain can then easi!y use that concentration as a basis *or the de;e!oment o*
Lo;in()kindness meditation (mettOE)6 o* the >uddha (>uddhanussati)6 meditation corses (asubha)6
and 1eco!!ection o* death# The meditator wi!! *ind that he wi!! be ab!e to !earn meditations ;ery easi!y6
and Cuick!y because o* assistance o* the *ourth /hOEna concentration usin(
The ath o* ractise o* the meditator that we ha;e described *ar constitutes the de;e!oment o*
concentration that is (enera!!y *o!!owed by meditators at Pa Auk Tawya who be(in by de;e!oin(
mind*u!ness o* breathin(#
A!ternate Way o* $e;e!oin( Concentration
A!ternate Way o* $e;e!oin( ConcentrationA!ternate Way o* $e;e!oin( ConcentrationA!ternate Way
o* $e;e!oin( ConcentrationA!ternate Way o* $e;e!oin( ConcentrationA!ternate Way o* $e;e!oin(
Concentration >ased On @our E!ements ,editation
>ased On @our E!ements ,editation>ased On @our E!ements ,editation>ased On @our E!ements
,editation>ased On @our E!ements ,editation>ased On @our E!ements ,editation
+n the be(innin( o* this o;er;iew we a!so mentioned that the meditator can be(in by de;e!oin( the
@our E!ements ,editation# +* a meditator be(ins to de;e!o his concentration by usin( the @our
E!ements ,editation then his ath o* ractise wi!! be as *o!!ows-
@irst!y he !earns to discern in the body each o* the 1: characteristics
o* the *our e!ements one at a time#
The 1: characteristics are-
Hardness6 rou(hness6 hea;iness6
(Earth
e!ement)#
So*tness6 smoothness6 !i(htness6
(Earth e!ement)#
Cohesion6 *!owin(
(Water
e!ement)#
Heat6 co!d6
(@ire
e!ement)#
Suortin(6 and ushin(#
(Air
e!ement)#
w
9
w
9
ment6
and the !ast two6 suortin( +n this way he de;e!os his discernment in whate;er osture he is in he
obser;es @our e!ements o* Earth6 Water6 @ire6 and
As he continues to meditate and de;e!o deeer based on the *our e!ements he *inds that his body at
*irst this !i(ht maybe (rey !ike smoke or b!uish white6 continues to discern the *our e!ements in that
!i(ht he body aears to be white#
Then as he continues to discern the *our e!ements in the white *orm o* the body his who!e body
becomes c!ear !ike a b!ock o* ice#
At this oint he has de;e!oed what is ca!!ed access concentration (uacOEra samOEdhi)#
At this oint the meditator cou!d (o on to de;e!o insi(ht meditation
i* he so wishes6 but he mi(ht a!so want to de;e!o his concentration
*urther#
He can do this by discernin( the 2: arts o* the body in the c!ear *orm o* his body#
Then by usin( one o* those arts such as the bones he can use the ercetion o* bones to de;e!o the
*irst /hOEna based on reu!si;eness6 or he can use the white co!our o* the bones as a kasi?a ob/ect and
de;e!o the white kasi?a to the *ourth /hOEna#
A meditator who can attain the *ourth /hOEna usin( the white kasi?a can then easi!y use that
concentration and the !i(ht associated with it as a basis *or the de;e!oment o* the I@our ProtectionsI
(caturakkha)
So whether a meditator be(ins by de;e!oin( ,ind*u!ness o* >reathin( or ,editation on the @our
E!ements he can de;e!o other
w '
meditation sub/ects he has attained in
$e;e!oin( +nsi(ht
$e;e!oin( +nsi(ht$e;e!oin( +nsi(ht$e;e!oin( +nsi(ht$e;e!oin( +nsi(ht$e;e!oin( +nsi(ht
A*ter the meditator has thus his mind is then !iant6 o* insi(ht ractise#
+* he de;e!oed his concentration by usin( then he a(ain de;e!os that concentration He attains the
*ourth /hOEna based on mind*u!ness discerns the 2: arts o* the body a *ew times interna!!y then usin(
the white co!our o* the bones he ro(ressi;e!y the *ourth /hOEna based on the white kasi?a#
Then he directs his mind towards the discernment o* the *our e!ements in the
As described abo;e he de;e!os concentration based on the *our e!ements unti! he *inds his who!e body
aears to be white#
Then as he continues to discern the *our e!ements in the white *orm o* the body his who!e body
becomes c!ear !ike a b!ock o* ice#
The meditator then continues to discern the *our e!ements in the c!ear *orm o* his body and as he does
this he wi!! *ind that it breaks u into tiny artic!es#
+* it does not break u into artic!es whi!e he is meditatin( in this way then he directs his attention to
discernin( the e!ement o* sace in the body#
He *inds that there are saces a!! o;er the body such as the ores in the skin and as he discerns these
saces the c!ear *orm breaks u into artic!es because he is ab!e to discern the sace between artic!es#
When he is ab!e to easi!y discern these artic!es6 which are ca!!ed rAa ka!OEas6
he wi!! notice at *irst that they are arisin( and assin(
away ;ery Cuick!y#
He shou!d not ay much attention to them arisin(
and assin( away6 but /ust continue to obser;e the *our e!ements in each rAa ka!OEa#
w
&
w
&
siti;e
e!ement is *ound disersed other sensiti;e e!ements are *ound is the eye6 ear6 nose6 and ton(ue#
So the meditator is then trained to discern indi;idua! artic!es and a!so becomes ro*icient di**erent
kinds o* artic!es#
As he trains ro(ressi;e!y and systematica!!y
he wi!! e;entua!!y be ab!e to reco(nise and :' di**erent tyes o* matter that occur in the body and body
as we!!#
He is a!so trained to discern which o* these rAas are roduced by kamma6 consciousness6 temerature6
and nutriment (kamma6 citta6 utu6 and OEhOEra)
The :' kinds o* matter are brie*!y- = Primary E!ements
1#
earth6 :# water6 2# *ire6 =# air6 := 0inds o* deri;ed matter
1#
eye sensiti;ity6 :# ear sensiti;ity6 2# nose sensiti;ity6 =# ton(ue sensiti;ity6 5# body sensiti;ity6 4# !i(ht6 9#
sound6 '# odour6 &# taste6 (note that touch is made o* the rimary e!ements o* earth6 *ire6 and air) 13#
matter that causes one to be ma!e6 11# matter that causes one to be *ema!e6 1:# heart base matter6 12# !i*e
*orce6 1=# nutriment6
15# sace6 14# bodi!y intimation6 19# ;erba! intimation6 1'# !i(htness6 1&# so*tness6 :3# wie!diness6 :1#
(rowth o* matter6 ::# continuity o* matter6 :2# a(ein( o* matter6 :=# disso!ution o* matter#
When a meditator is ab!e to ana!yse matter and discern a!! these :' kinds o* matter then he discerns
them as a (rou and knows them as ImatterI#
w
13
w
13
ness
that occur in himse!*6 *actors that are resent o* the rocesses o* consciousness the si< doors o* the
senses#
$iscernin( ,enta!ity
$iscernin( ,enta!ity$iscernin( ,enta!ity$iscernin( ,enta!ity$iscernin( ,enta!ity$iscernin(
,enta!ity
+n >uddhist Abhidhamma the mind is which knows an ob/ect and concomitant which arise to(ether
with consciousness#
There are 5: such menta!
*actors *or e<am!e-
contact6 *ee!in(6 ercetion6 intention6 one ointedness6 and attention# (hassa6 ;edanOE6 saJJOE6
cetanOE6 eka((atOE6 manasikOEra )
There are a tota! o* '& tyes o* consciousness which can be c!assi*ied accordin( to whether they are
who!esome6 unwho!esome or indeterminate6 and a!so c!assi*ied accordin( to their !ane o* e<istence6
rAa6 arAa6 or kOEmOE;acara#
There are si< tyes o* seCuences o* consciousness ca!!ed ;Kthi in which consciousness occurs#
@i;e o* them are seCuences that occur when each o* the *i;e ob/ects o* the *i;e senses are known by the
mind#
These seCuences o* consciousness enab!e the mind to know ob/ects at each o* the *i;e sense doors such
as ;isib!e ob/ects seen by the eye or sounds heard by the ear#
The si<th seCuence is one that occurs when the mind has a menta! henomenon as its ob/ect#
So that there are *i;e sense door rocesses or ;Kthis and one mind door rocess or ;Kthi which make a
tota! o* si< ;Kthis#
The ana!ysis o* menta!ity is made u o* three arts-
1#
The ana!ysis o* a!! o* the di**erent tyes o* consciousness that occur in onese!*#
w
11
w
11
$iscernment o* in each consciousness#
2#
The discernment o* the that occur at the si< doors +* a meditator wants to discern com!eted the
de;e!oment o* mind*u!ness o* breathin(6 some other meditation or with *our e!ements meditation#
*inished the discernment o* matter (rAa a*ter that shou!d he attemt to discern menta!ity
+* the meditator has attained /hOEna concentration o* breathin( or another ob/ect then the best !ace
discern menta!ity is by discernin( the consciousness concomitants that are associated with the /hOEna
state that attained#
There are two reasons *or this#
The *irst reason is that he has a!ready obser;ed the *i;e /hOEna *actors when de;e!oin( /hOEna and
so he has some e<erience in discernin( the menta! *actors associated with /hOEna#
The second reason is that the /hOEna imu!sion consciousnesses (/hOEna /a;ana cittas) that are resent
durin( the e<erience o* /hOEna occur many times in succession and are there*ore
rominent and easy to discern# This is in contrast to the norma! kOEmOE;acara ;Kthi in which each
/a;ana on!y occurs se;en times be*ore a new ;Kthi occurs#
So i* a meditator has attained /hOEna and wishes to discern menta!ity
he be(ins by enterin( the *irst /hOEna and then a*ter !ea;in( the *irst /hOEna discerns the *i;e /hOEna
*actors accordin( to their indi;idua! characteristics and ractises unti! he can discern the *i;e *actors a!!
to(ether at once in each *irst /hOEna /a;ana citta#
The *i;e
*actors are-
w
w
1#
Fitakka L initia! !acin( o* the mind :#
FicOEra L sustained a!ication keein( o* the mind on the 2#
PKti
L /oy and !ikin( *or the aEibhOE(a =#
Sukha L !easant *ee!in( or hainess the aEibhOE(a
nimitta#
5#
Eka((atOE L one ointedness o* mind Then a*ter the meditator can discern these he then attemts to
discern each o* the other in the *irst /hOEna /a;ana citta#
He be(ins by discernin( either consciousness
(;iJJa?a)6 contact (hassa) 6 or *ee!in( Whiche;er o* these three is rominent he discerns it continues
to discern it in e;ery *irst /hOEna /a;ana citta#
A*ter that he discerns each o* the remainin( tyes o* menta!ity addin( tye at a time6 so that he is ab!e
to see 1 tyes o* menta!ity in each *irst /hOEna /a;ana citta6 then : tyes6 then 2 tyes6 etc#6 unti!
e;entua!!y he can see a!! 2= tyes o* menta!ity resent in each *irst /hOEna /a;ana citta#
When the meditator can discern a!! the 2= tyes o* menta!ity resent in the *irst /hOEna /a;ana cittas he
then tries to discern a!! the tyes o* menta!ity resent in each and e;ery consciousness that occur in a
mind door thou(ht rocess (mano d;OEra ;Kthi)#
A mind door thou(ht rocess o* the *irst /hOEna consists o* a seCuence o* si< tyes o* *unctiona!
consciousness#
@irst!y there occurs mind door ad;ertin( consciousness (manod;OErOE;a//ana) in which he can
discern 1: tyes o* menta!ity#
Then a*ter that there occurs one re!iminary consciousness (arikamma) in which he can discern 2=
tyes o* menta!ity#
w
12
Then a*ter that in which he can discern
Then a*ter that there occurs (anu!oma) in which he can
Then a*ter that there occurs one ((otrabhu) in which he can discern
Then a*ter that there occurs an uninterruted imu!sion consciousnesses (/hOEna /a;ana) 2= tyes o*
menta!ity#
To discern this the meditator must *irst enter into and then a*ter arisin( *rom that /hOEna he can then
obser;e re;ious!y occurrin( /hOEna mind door rocess#
He then be(ins to obser;e each o* the di**erent *unctiona! consciousnesses in /hOEna mind door
rocess and discern a!! the tyes o* menta!ity occur in each *unctiona! consciousness whether it be 1:
or 2=#
A*ter the meditator can discern a!! the tyes o* menta!ity that arise in each consciousness o* a *irst
/hOEna mind door rocess he then discerns the common characteristic o* a!! menta!ity which is their
characteristic o* bendin( towards and stickin( to an ob/ect#
Then he sim!y discerns a!! the 2= tyes o* menta!ity resent in the *irst /hOEna as menta!ity (nOEma)#
A*ter that the meditator er*orms the same tye o* discernment and ana!ysis o* menta!ity o* the second6
third6 and *ourth /hOEna o* mind*u!ness o* breathin( and a!so o* any other /hOEnas that he is ab!e to
attain usin( other meditation sub/ects#
@or e<am!e6 reu!si;eness
o* the body6 white kasi?a6 !o;in(kindness etc#
Then a*ter that the meditator discerns the di**erent tyes o* menta!ity
that occur when a
who!esome mind door thou(ht rocess o* the sensua! !ane occurs (kOEmOE;acara kusa!a mano
d;OEra ;Kthi)#
w
1=
w
1=
To discern the menta!ity associated thou(ht rocess o* the sensua! !ane ;Kthi) the meditator *irst!y
discerns the bha;aM(a citta and then takes the eye transarent asOEda) as an ob/ect#
Then when the ob/ect o* the eye transarent e!ement the mind door it roduces a mind door ;Kthi#
@or a sensua! !ane consciousness the most imortant *actor determines whether this consciousness is
who!esome or unwho!esome
is the resence or absence o* wise attention (yoniso manasikara) or unwise attention
(ayonisomanasikara)#
+* the meditator ays attention to an ob/ect and knows it as materia!ity6 menta!ity6 (rAa6 nOEma) cause
or e**ect6 anicca6 dukkha6 anatta or asubha then this attention is wise attention and it is associated
with a who!esome consciousness#
+* the meditator ays attention to an ob/ect by way o* a concet such as- erson6 man6 woman6 bein(6
(o!d6 si!;er6 or as ermanent6 hainess6 or se!* then this is unwise attention and it wi!! be associated
with an unwho!esome consciousness#
So the meditator reeats this rocess a(ain and a(ain and tries to discern the tyes o* menta!ity6
associated with the consciousness o* that mind door rocess6 one at a time in a simi!ar way to the way
mentioned ear!ier *or the /hOEna mind door rocess#
So that he discerns the menta!ity be(innin( either with consciousness6 *ee!in(6 or contact and then
de;e!o his understandin( unti! he can discern ro(ressi;e!y one6 two6 and three tyes o* menta!ity in
each con
w
15
sciousness and a!! o* the di**erent o* a who!esome !ane be they 2= tyes or
A who!esome mind door thou(ht consists o* the *o!!owin( seCuence
@irst!y there occurs mind door ad;ertin( (manod;OEra;a//ana) in which the meditator o* menta!ity#
Then there occurs 9 imu!sion consciousnesses in which the meditator can discern either 2=6 226 or
menta!ity#
Then there occurs : re(istration consciousnesses (tadaramana citta) in which the meditator can discern
either 2=6 226 or 2: tyes o* menta!ity#
The meditator be(ins by discernin( the mind door rocess because
the tyes o* *unctiona! consciousness are !ess in a mind door rocess than in a sense door rocess#
Then the meditator continues by discernin( the mind door rocess
in the same way usin( each o* the 1' rea! rAas and 13 arti*icia! rAas as an ob/ect#
Then a*ter that the meditator starts to discern the eye door ;Kthi# He discerns a!! the menta!ity that make
u each consciousness in an eye door ;Kthi#
+n the same way as the e<am!es mentioned ear!ier he *irst!y discerns either consciousness6 contact6 or
*ee!in(# Then he continues to search *or and discern the di**erent tyes o* menta!ity one at a time unti!
he can see a!! the di**erent tyes o* menta!ity resent in one consciousness#
w
14
w
14
ement
and then the mind Then he discerns both the same time and then he o* sma!! artic!es when they At this
oint he is ab!e to discern the eye door door rocess that *o!!ows it accordin( mind#
An eye door rocess consists o* a seCuence *unctiona! consciousness#
@irst!y there occurs a *i;e sense door ad;ertin( consciousness (aJcad;OEra;a//ana) in which the
meditator can discern o* menta!ity#
Then a*ter that there occurs one eye consciousness (cakkhu;iJ JOE?a) in which the meditator can
discern ' tyes o* menta!ity#
Then a*ter that there occurs one recei;in( consciousness (samaEicchana) in which the meditator can
discern 11 tyes o* menta!ity#
Then a*ter that there occurs one in;esti(atin( consciousness (santKra?a) in which the meditator can
discern 11 or 1: tyes o* menta!ity#
Then a*ter that there occurs one determinin( consciousness (;uEEho) in which the meditator can
discern 1: tyes o* menta!ity#
Then there occurs 9 imu!sion consciousnesses (/a;ana citta) in which the meditator can discern either
2=6 226 or 2: tyes o* menta!ity#
Then there occurs : re(istration consciousnesses (tadaramana citta) in which the meditator can discern
either 2=6 226 or 2: tyes o* menta!ity#
w
19
w
19
Then i* a who!esome !ane arises with the same there
occurs
mind
door
ad;ertin(
consciousness (manod;OEra;a//ana) in which o* menta!ity#
Then there occurs 9 imu!sion consciousnesses in which the meditator can discern either menta!ity#
Then there occurs : re(istration consciousnesses citta) in which the meditator can discern either 2=6 o*
menta!ity#
A*ter discernin( this the meditator starts to discern a!! the di**erent tyes o* menta!ity that occur in
e;ery consciousness these eye door and mind door rocesses be(innin( with either consciousness6
contact6 or *ee!in( and then discernin( one by one each o* the other tyes o* menta!ity unti! he can
discern a!! menta!ity that is resent in each consciousness in both rocesses#
Then a*ter the meditator can discern these rocesses and the menta!ity resent there in the case o* the
eye base he continues to discern the same in a simi!ar way in each o* the other *our sense basesN the ear6
the nose6 the ton(ue6 and the body#
So by this sta(e he wi!! ha;e de;e!oed the abi!ity to discern the menta!ity associated with who!esome
consciousnesses#
Then ne<t a*ter that the meditator needs to !earn how to discern the menta!ity in unwho!esome
consciousnesses# To be ab!e to do this he sim!y takes the same ob/ects as he did in the e<am!es (i;en
ear!ier and ays unwise attention to each o* them#
When the meditator attains this sta(e in meditation he has
w
1'
de;e!oed concentration6 and discerned a!! menta!ity
$iscernin( ,enta!ity E<terna!!y
$iscernin( ,enta!ity E<terna!!y$iscernin( ,enta!ity E<terna!!y$iscernin( ,enta!ity
E<terna!!y$iscernin( ,enta!ity E<terna!!y$iscernin( ,enta!ity E<terna!!y
Then a*ter the meditator has can roceed to discern menta!ity To do this he be(ins by discernin( the
*our e!ements interna!!y e!ements in the c!othes he is wearin(#
Whi!e doin( this he wi!! be ab!e to discern that his c!othes break down ab!e to discern ' tyes o* matter
in each o* They are ca!!ed nutriment as the ei(hth artic!es arisen +n this case the temerature that they
arise *rom in each e<terna! artic!e#
The meditator then discerns matter in this way interna!!y e<terna!!y a!ternate!y *or three or *our times#
Then usin( his !i(ht o* concentration he (oes on to obser;e matter that is a !itt!e *urther distant such as
the *!oor on which he is sittin(#
He is a!so ab!e to discern the ' tyes o* matter in each o* these artic!es and a(ain he discerns matter
interna!!y and e<terna!!y a!ternate!y three or *our times#
A*ter this he discerns the matter in the bui!din( he is sittin( in6 the area around the bui!din( inc!udin(
the trees6 etc#6
and in this way he (radua!!y e<ands the *ie!d o* his discernment e<terna!!y unti! he can discern a!!
inanimate matter that is e<terna! to himse!* and a!so a!! matter that is interna!#
Sometimes whi!e discernin( matter that is e<terna! the meditator *inds that he a!so sees transarent
matter resent in inanimate ob/ects# This is because there are sma!! insects and anima!s !i;in( in those
!aces and he is seein( the transarent matter o* those bein(s#
A*ter the meditator discerns the e<terna! matter that is inanimate he (oes on to discern e<terna! matter
that is animate and associated
w
1&
with consciousness#
That is the matter other !i;in( bein(s#
The meditator then discerns e<terna! and understands bein(6 but is /ust matter#
He then discerns a!! matter that a!! at once and discerns a!! o* the interna!!y and e<terna!!y#
This means the 5= tyes o* matter that e<ist and e<terna!!y6 and the 4 tyes o* artic!es interna!!y and
e<terna!!y#
The meditator then discerns a!! the *orms
o* matter roduced by kamma6 mind6
temerature6 or nutriment in
the same way in the remainin( 5 sense bases#
He a!so discerns a!! the remainin( arti*icia! tyes o* matter both interna!!y and
A*ter this he roceeds to the discernment o* menta!ity interna!!y and e<terna!!y#
$iscernment O* ,enta!ity +nterna!!y And E<terna!!y
$iscernment O* ,enta!ity +nterna!!y And E<terna!!y$iscernment O* ,enta!ity +nterna!!y And
E<terna!!y$iscernment O* ,enta!ity +nterna!!y And E<terna!!y$iscernment O* ,enta!ity +nterna!!y
And E<terna!!y$iscernment O* ,enta!ity +nterna!!y And E<terna!!y
@irst!y he discerns menta!ity interna!!y startin( *orm the mind door rocess and then the eye door
rocess6 and discerns a!! the menta!ity associated with it6 whether it be who!esome or unwho!esome as
e<!ained ear!ier#
Then he roceeds to do the
same e<terna!!y#
He does this by discernin( an e<terna! eye transarent e!ement and an e<terna! mind transarent
e!ement and then discernin( the eye door rocess and mind door rocess that occur when the co!our o*
a (rou o* artic!es aear in both doors#
He does this many times a(ain and a(ain both interna!!y and e<terna!!y6 and a!so does the same *or the
rest o* the 4 sense doors that are interna! and e<terna!#
+* the meditator is ab!e to attain /hOEna he can a!so discern /hOEna
w
:3
mind door rocesses e<erience o* /hOEna
+n this way the meditator e<terna!!y unti! he can see Then he discerns menta!ity interna!!y menta!ity in
the !imit!ess uni;erse#
Then he discerns both menta!ity
and matter as *ar as the e<tent o* the
Then a*ter that the meditator de*ines menta!ity wisdom and sees no bein(s6 men6 or women6 and matter
as *ar as the e<tent o* the entire uni;erse#
$iscernin( $eendent Ori(ination
$iscernin( $eendent Ori(ination$iscernin( $eendent Ori(ination$iscernin( $eendent
Ori(ination$iscernin( $eendent Ori(ination$iscernin( $eendent Ori(ination
A*ter the meditator is ab!e to discern menta!ity and matter way described abo;e then a*ter that he wi!!
be ab!e to discern causes o* menta!ity and matter#
This means discernin( $eendent Ori(ination which describes the way in which causes and e**ects
oerate o;er the three times o* the ast6 resent6 and *uture#
There are se;era! ways in which a meditator can de;e!o the abi!ity to discern $eendent Ori(ination#
The method most o*ten used to teach meditators how to discern $eendent Ori(ination in;o!;es *irst!y
discernin( the *i;e a((re(ates in the resent6 then in the ast6 and then in the *uture#
Then a*ter the meditator is ab!e to discern the *i;e a((re(ates in the resent6 ast6 and *uture he discerns
the cause and e**ect re!ationshis that are resent o;er these three eriods o* time#
Once he is ab!e to discern the *i;e a((re(ates in the resent6 ast6 and *uture and see which o* the
a((re(ates is a cause and which is an e**ect then he can !earn to discern $eendent Ori(ination in the
;arious ways that are tau(ht in the suttas and commentaries#
w
:1
$
$$$$$iscernin( The Past
iscernin( The Pastiscernin( The Pastiscernin( The Pastiscernin( The Pastiscernin( The Past
To discern the ast o* either cand!es6 *!owers6 >uddha ima(e and makin( man6 woman6 de;a or
whate;er
Then he (oes and sit in meditation and then discerns in turn menta!ity and e<terna!#
This is imortant *or i* the meditator cannot e<terna! menta!ity and matter he wi!! ha;e menta!ity and
matter in the ast#
This is because o* the simi!arity o* e<terna! menta!ity and matter and ast menta!ity
Then the meditator tries to discern the menta!ity and occurred at the time o* makin( the o**erin( at the
a(oda ima(e as i* they were an e<terna! ob/ect#
He shou!d *ind that whi!e doin( this an ima(e o* himse!* at that time o* o**erin( aears# Then he
discerns the *our e!ements in that ima(e#
When the ima(e becomes artic!es he discerns a!! the matter o* the 4 doors6 esecia!!y the 5= rAas o*
the heart basis#
Then he discerns the bha;aM(a consciousness and then the mind door rocess that occur in the (as
between the bha;aM(a consciousnesses#
Then he discerns *orwards and backwards amon(st those mind door rocesses and *inds the de*i!ement
round (ki!esa ;atta)6 and kamma round (kamma;atta) mind door rocesses#
The kamma round mind door rocess has 2= kinds o* menta!ity whi!e the de*i!ement round on!y has :3
kinds o* menta!ity#
Then ha;in( discerned the menta!ity o* the de*i!ement round and the kamma round the meditator then
discerns the matter that they deend on#
There are three rounds or ;atta *ound in the rocess o* $eendent Ori(ination#
They are the round o* kamma (kamma;atta)6 the round o* de*i!ements (ki!esa;atta)6 and the round o*
resu!ts (;iOEka;atta)#
O* the twe!;e !inks o* $eendent
w
::
Ori(ination the kammabha;a6 the and c!in(in(6 and the and matter6 the si< sense
@or e<am!e6 in the case o* makin( *!owers6 or incense in *ront o* a to be reborn as a monk#
Then in this case i(norance is the wron( that ImonkI is a rea!ity6 cra;in( is the desire6 as a monk6 and
c!in(in( is the attachment to a These three- i(norance6 cra;in(6 and attachment are a!! the consciousness
that makes u the round o* de*i!ements ;atta)#
+* the meditator made an o**erin( o* cand!es6 *!owers6 or incense in *ront o* a >uddha ima(e and instead
o* makin( a wish to be reborn as a monk6 had made a wish to be reborn as a woman# Then in that case
the i(norance is the wron( know!ed(e thinkin( that IwomanI is a rea!ity6 cra;in( is the desire6 and
!on(in( *or a !i*e as a woman and c!in(in( is the attachment to a !i*e as a woman#
+n both o* these e<am!es kamma *ormations (saMkhOErOE) are the who!esome intentions o* o**erin(
o* either cand!es6 *!owers6 or incense in *ront o* a >uddha ima(e and kamma is the kammic *orce
associated with the kamma *ormations#
These two are both *ound in the consciousnesses that make u the kamma round (kamma ;atta) o*
$eendent Ori(ination#
When the meditator is ab!e to discern the menta!ity and matter o* the de*i!ement round and the kamma
round in the recent ast then he (oes back in time a !itt!e *urther6 to sometime re;ious to that o**erin(
and discerns the menta!ity and matter resent at that time in the same way#
Then a*ter ha;in( discerned the menta!ity
w
:2
and matter at that the same#
+n this way he is ab!e that occurred one day in the ast6 one year in the the ast and so on#
$iscernin( the menta!ity and way he is e;entua!!y ab!e to discern he can see the menta!ity and matter
occurred at the concetion o* his resent
Then by searchin( *or the cause o* this the (o back *urther and he sees either the menta!ity at the time
near death o* the re;ious !i*e6 or the death imu!sion (maranasanna /a;ana)#
There are three ossib!e ob/ects o* the death imu!sion#
They
are-
1#
0amma ob/ect6 the thou(hts that roduced the actions o* (i;in(6 etc#
:#
0amma nimitta6 or kamma si(n such as a a(oda6 monk6 *!owers6 or an ob/ect o**ered#
2#
Oati nimitta or rebirth si(n6 is the !ace where one wi!! be
reborn#
@or humans it is the motherGs womb and is usua!!y red in co!our !ike a red caret#
+* the meditator can discern the menta!ity and matter near death then he wi!! a!so not ha;e di**icu!ty to
discern the ob/ect o* the death imu!sion whether it be a kamma ob/ect6 kamma si(n6 or rebirth si(n#
This ob/ect aears because o* the kammic *orce which roduces
the rebirth consciousness#
Then i* he can discern this he wi!! be ab!e to discern the kamma *ormations6 and kamma that roduced
the re!e;ant resu!tant a((re(ates in this resent !i*e#
When he has discerned kamma *ormations and kamma he then tries to discern the i(norance6 cra;in(6
and c!in(in( that recede them#
Then a*ter that
w
:=
he discerns the round and de*i!ement
E<am!e O* $iscernin( $eendent Ori(ination
E<am!e O* $iscernin( Ori(inationE<am!e O* $iscernin( Ori(inationE<am!e O* $iscernin(
Ori(inationE<am!e O* $iscernin( Ori(inationE<am!e O* $iscernin(
@or e<am!e6 when one meditator the time near death and discerned she saw the kamma ob/ect o* a
woman monk#
Then she *urther e<amined the menta!ity be(innin( with the *our e!ements6 resent o* *ruit to the
>uddhist monk# She then *ound a ;ery oor and uneducated ;i!!a(er who ha;in( own state o* su**erin(
had made an o**erin( to the *or a !i*e as an educated woman in a !ar(e town#
+n this case i(norance is the wron( know!ed(e that Ian educated woman in a !ar(e townI is a rea!ity6
the !ikin( and cra;in( *or !i*e as an educated woman is cra;in(6 the attachment to that !i*e an educated
woman is c!in(in(#
The who!esome intentions to o**er *ruit to a >uddhist monk are the kamma *ormations and the kamma
is the kammic *orce o* those kamma *ormations#
+n this resent !i*e that woman is an educated woman in a !ar(e town in ,yanmar#
She was ab!e to direct!y discern with ri(ht ;iew how the kammic *orce o* o**erin( o* *ruit in her ast
!i*e has roduced resu!tant *i;e a((re(ates in this resent !i*e#
When a meditator is ab!e to discern causes and e**ects in this way then this know!ed(e is ca!!ed
accaya ari((aha JOE?a or 0now!ed(e that discerns the causes o* mind and matter#
Here is another e<am!e#
+n this case a man whi!e searchin( and discernin( at the time near death *ound that around the time o*
the near death imu!sion there were *our kamma ob/ects cometin( with each other#
There was one kamma in;o!;in( teachin( >uddhist te<ts6 another in;o!;in( teachin( dhamma6 yet
another
w
:5
in;o!;in( meditation6 When he searched amon(st caused the resu!tant *i;e that the kamma o*
meditatin( and that that kamma was the When he *urther in;esti(ated to was bein( ractised he saw
that he meditation and a!yin( the three characteristics and anatta to menta!ity and matter#
When he made *urther in;esti(ations he saw that be*ore and a*ter he had made the wish to be reborn as
a man6 to and be a monk who disseminates the >uddhist teachin(s#
+n this case i(norance is the wron( know!ed(e that Ia monk6 or a monk who disseminates the >uddhist
teachin(sI rea!ity#
Cra;in( is the !ikin( and cra;in( *or that6 and c!in(in( is the attachment to that#
0amma *ormations is the act o* ractisin( ;iassanOE meditation6 and kamma is the kammic *orce o*
that action#
When the meditator discerns the immediate ast !i*e in this way and is ab!e to see the *i;e causes in the
ast !i*e o* i(norance6 cra;in(6 c!in(in(6 kamma *ormations6 and kamma and is a!so ab!e to see the *i;e
resu!ts in the resent o* rebirth consciousness6 menta!ity and matter6 si< sense bases (OEyatana)6
contact6 and *ee!in(6 then he needs to discern in the same way back *urther ro(ressi;e!y to a second6
third6 and *ourth ast !i*e#
He does this *or as many
!i;es as he can discern in the ast#
Then a*ter that he discerns in
the same way into the *uture#
To do this he starts by discernin( the resent matter and menta!ity and then discern into the *uture unti!
the time o* death in this !i*e# At that time he is ab!e to see either the kamma ob/ect or the si(n o* the
!ace o* birth that wi!! occur because o* the ower o* a articu!ar kamma he has er*ormed in this !i*e#
He wi!! then be ab!e to discern a*ter that the rebirth menta!ity and matter that wi!! be roduced in the
*uture !i*e#
w
:4
w
:4
The meditator continues to unti! the time when i(norance wi!! haen with the attainment continues u
ti!! the cessation o* the remainder which occurs when one enters There*ore he has to discern as many
!i;es occur unti! his own attainment o* Arahatshi He is then ab!e to discern that with the ceasin( o*
i(norance Thus in this way he is ab!e to discern the ceasin( o*
A*ter the meditator can discern the *i;e a((re(ates in this the ast6 resent6 and *uture and a!so discern
the causa! re!ationshis resent there accordin( to this method6 which is ca!!ed the *i*th method6 then he
is tau(ht how to discern a!! these by the *irst method#
The *irst method o* deendent ori(ination occurs o;er three !i;es and in *orward order be(innin( *rom
the causes in the ast !i*e which are i(norance and kamma *ormations# These cause the resu!ts in the
resent !i*e o* rebirth consciousness6 mind and matter6 the si< sense bases6 contact6 and *ee!in(#
There are then causes in this !i*e o* cra;in(6
c!in(in(6 and becomin( which roduce the resu!ts o* birth6 a(ein(6
death and a!! *orms o* su**erin( in the *uture !i*e#
The meditator has to search *or i(norance6 cra;in( and c!in(in( in the de*i!ement round#
Then he discerns how that de*i!ement round causes the kamma round and how the kamma round in turn
roduces the *i;e a((re(ates o* the matter and menta!ity resent at concetion#
He then has to check that he has discerned the ri(ht thin( by seein( the connection# To do this he has to
be ab!e to see the kammic *orce and see i* it actua!!y roduces the rebirth matter and menta!ity at the
time o* concetion#
This then is a brie* e<!anation
w
:9
o* how to discern method and the *irst
Si<teen 0now!ed(es
Si<teen 0now!ed(esSi<teen 0now!ed(esSi<teen 0now!ed(esSi<teen 0now!ed(esSi<teen 0now!ed(es
A*ter discernin( $eendent to de;e!o insi(ht u to the attainment
There are si<teen insi(ht know!ed(es attained ro(ressi;e!y in order to attain
The *irst know!ed(e is nOEma rAa ariccheda know!ed(e that discerns mind and matter#
This has been e<!ained abo;e when we e<!ained how to discern mind and
The second know!ed(e is accaya ari((aha JOE?a or know!ed(e that discerns the causes o* mind and
matter#
This too has been e<!ained abo;e when we e<!ained how to discern mind and in the ast6 resent6
and *uture and how to discern $eendent Ori(ination#
A*ter the meditator has de;e!oed the *irst two know!ed(es he needs to a(ain discern a!! menta!ity6 a!!
matter6 and a!! the *actors o* deendent ori(ination accordin( to their indi;idua! characteristics6
*unctions6 mani*estations6 and ro<imate causes in order to make these two know!ed(es com!ete#
+t is di**icu!t to e<!ain this in a brie* way so i* you wish to know the detai!s it is best to !earn them at
the time o* actua!!y ractisin(#
The third insi(ht know!ed(e is sammasana JOE?a or the know!ed(e that comrehends *ormations in
(rous#
The de;e!oment o* this know!ed(e in;o!;es the di;idin( o* conditioned henomena into two (rous
as menta!ity and matter6 or *i;e (rous as the *i;e a((re(ates6 or twe!;e (rous as the twe!;e bases6 or
ei(hteen
(rous as the ei(hteen e!ements6 or as twe!;e (rous accordin( to the twe!;e !inks o* $eendent
Ori(ination#
A*ter that the medita
w
:'
tor a!ies the turn to each o* these
@or e<am!e6 there is the sutta where the >uddha teaches a!! matter6 *ee!in(6 ercetion6 whether in the
ast6 *uture6 or resentN whether interna! or e<terna!N whether *ar or near as not me6 not mine and not)
(anicca6 dukkha6 anatta)#
To de;e!o this know!ed(e the meditator be(ins reestab!ishin( concentration ro(ressi;e!y u +* he has
on!y de;e!oed the *our e!ements meditation insi(ht indi;idua! then he re)estab!ish that concentration
!i(ht o* concentration is bri(ht and stron(#
Then he starts by discernin( the rea! matter o* each o* the si< sense doors#
Then he takes that matter to(ether as a (rou and ays attention to the arisin( and assin( away o* that
matter and then ;iews that with wisdom as imermanent (anicca)#
He a!ies this characteristic once interna!!y and then once e<terna!!y reeated!y#
Whi!e doin( this e<terna!!y he (radua!!y e<tends this ercetion *rom near to *ar u ti!! the e<tent o* the
unbounded uni;erse#
Then he a(ain takes that matter to(ether as a (rou and ays attention to the ain and su**erin( that one
has to constant!y e<erience because o* the arisin( and assin( away o* that matter and then ;iews that
with wisdom as su**erin( (dukkha)#
He a!ies this characteristic once interna!!y and then once e<terna!!y reeated!y#
Whi!e doin( this e<terna!!y he (radua!!y e<tends this ercetion *rom near to *ar u ti!! the e<tent o* the
unbounded uni;erse#
Then he a(ain takes that matter to(ether as a (rou and ays attention to that matter as emty o* a
ermanent se!* and then ;iews
w
:&
that with wisdom He a!ies this once interna!!y and Whi!e doin( this e<terna!!y he (radua!!y *ar u ti!!
the e<tent o* the
When the meditator can do this characteristics in a simi!ar way to @irst!y he discerns a!! the menta!ity
that occurs at the si< consciousness and menta! *actors resent sense door rocess or ;Kthi and a!so the
bha;athat occurs between ;Kthis#
Then he takes that menta!ity to(ether as a (rou and attention to the arisin( and assin( away o* that
menta!ity ;iews that with wisdom as imermanent (anicca)#
He a!ies this characteristic once interna!!y and then once e<terna!!y reeated!y# Whi!e doin( this
e<terna!!y he (radua!!y e<tend this ercetion *rom near to *ar u ti!! the e<tent o* the unbounded
uni;erse#
Then he a(ain takes that menta!ity to(ether as a (rou and ays attention to the ain and su**erin( that
one has to constant!y e<erience because o* the arisin( and assin( away o* that menta!ity and then
;iew that with wisdom as su**erin( (dukkha)#
He a!ies this characteristic once interna!!y and then once e<terna!!y reeated!y#
Whi!e doin( this e<terna!!y he (radua!!y e<tends this ercetion *rom near to *ar u ti!! the e<tent o* the
unbounded uni;erse#
Then he a(ain takes that menta!ity to(ether as a (rou and ays attention to that menta!ity as emty o*
a ermanent se!* and then ;iews that with wisdom as not)se!* (anatta)#
He a!ies this characteristic
once interna!!y and then once e<terna!!y reeated!y#
Whi!e doin( this e<terna!!y he (radua!!y e<tends this ercetion *rom near to *ar u ti!! the e<tent o* the
unbounded uni;erse#
w
23
w
23
Then a*ter that he a!ies the three characteristics and a!! the menta!ity in the ast6 resent6 to discern#
He a!ies the three characteristics one at a time reeated!y both interna!!y and e<terna!!y to a!! o* the
ast6 resent and *uture#
Whi!e the meditator is doin( this he may *ind that he ab!e de;e!o (reater insi(ht and attain
ro(ressi;e!y u to Arahatshi6 but i* he has di**icu!ty in doin( this there are se;era! e<ercises can be
ractised to stren(then his insi(ht#
The *irst e<ercise is to a!y *orty di**erent ercetions o* anicca6 dukkha6 and anatta to menta!ity6 and
matter6 that is interna! or e<terna!6 in the ast6 resent6 and *uture#
+n the OE!i !an(ua(e these *orty ercetions a!! end with the su**i< ItoI so that they are ca!!ed the
*orty ItosI#
There are ten ItosI in the anicca (rou-
1#
+mermanent
:# $isinte(ratin(
2#
@ick!e
=#
Perishab!e
5#
"nendurin(
4# Sub/ect to chan(e
9#
Ha;in(
no
core
'# $ue to be annihi!ated
&#
@ormed
13# Sub/ect to death#
There are twenty)*i;e ItosI in the dukkha (rou-
1#
Pain*u!
:# A disease
2#
A boi!
=# A dart
5#
A ca!amity
4# An a**!iction
w
21
9#
A !a(ue
'#
A
disaster
&#
A terror
13#
A
menace
11#
No
rotection
1:#
No she!ter
12#
No re*u(e
1=#
A
dan(er
15#
The root o* ca!amity
14#
,urderous
19#
Sub/ect to cankers
1'#
,OEraGs
bait
1&#
Sub/ect to birth
:3#
Sub/ect
to
a(ein(
:1#
Sub/ect to i!!ness
::#
Sub/ect
to
sorrow
:2#
Sub/ect to !amentation
:=#
Sub/ect
to
desair
:5#
Sub/ect to de*i!ement There are *i;e ItosI in the anatta (rou-
1#
A!ien
:#
Emty
2#
Fain
=#
Foid
5# Not se!*
@or some eo!e whi!e a!yin( the *orty ItosI to menta!ity6 and matter interna!!y and e<terna!!y6 in the
ast6 resent6 and their insi(ht ro(resses to the attainment o* arahatshi#
+* the meditator *inds that his insi(ht is sti!! not stron( enou(h he tries to a!y the three characteristics
to menta!ity and matter by usin( the methods ca!!ed the se;en ways *or matter and the se;en ways *or
menta!ity#
The Se;en Ways *or ,atter
The Se;en Ways *or ,atterThe Se;en Ways *or ,atterThe Se;en Ways *or ,atterThe Se;en Ways *or
,atterThe Se;en Ways *or ,atter
1#
The *irst way *or matter is by a!yin( the three characteristics to matter durin( the eriod o* one
!i*etime *rom rebirth to death both interna!!y and e<terna!!y#
:#
The second way *or matter is by a!yin( the three characteristics to matter durin( each a(e o* one
!i*etime both interna!!y and e<terna!!y#
To do this the meditator takes the eriod o* one !i*etime as 133 years and then di;ides it into three a(es
consistin(
o* 22 years and then a!ies the three characteristics to each a(e by seein( that the matter resent in the
*irst a(e does not ass on to the second a(e and the matter resent in the second a(e does not
w
2:
ass on to the third He sees that the which it arises#
A*ter he has done this by then di;ide the !i*etime into and a!ies the three characteristics He di;ides
the
!i*etime into-
13 eriods o* 13 years6 then :3 eriods o* = years6 22 eriods o* 2 years6 53 eriods eriods o* 1 year#
Then 233 eriods o* = months6 433 eriods o* : :=33 eriods o* ha!* months#
Then he di;ides each day into : arts6 and then 4 arts and that the matter resent in any eriod ceases
in that same eriod does not ass on to the ne<t eriod and so is imermanent6 ain*u! and not)se!*#
Then a*ter that the meditator a!ies the three characteristics to the eriod o* each mo;ement o* the
body#
That is durin( the eriod that he is (oin( *orward or (oin( back6 !ookin( toward or !ookin( away6
bendin( a !imb or stretchin( a !imb#
Then he di;ides each *ootste that he takes into si< arts o* !i*tin( u6 mo;in( *orward6 mo;in(
sideways6 !owerin( down6 !acin( down6 and *i<in( down and a!ies the three characteristics to each
o* these arts o* a *ootste#
2#
The third way *or matter is by a!yin( the three characteristics to matter arisin( *rom nutriment#
This is done by discernin( matter at the time when the meditator is hun(ry and at the time when he has
eaten su**icient *ood and a!yin( the three characteristics
to the matter resent at each o* these times#
w
22
=#
The *ourth way characteristics to matter This is done by discernin( matter at the he is co!d and a!yin(
the at each o* these times#
5#
The *i*th way *or matter is by a!yin( to matter arisin( *rom kamma#
This is done by discernin( matter associated with the si< sense doors- the door6 ton(ue door6 body door6
and mind door# the matter in any door does not ass on to another and ceases in its resecti;e door6 the
meditator three characteristics to the matter resent in each o* 4#
The si<th way *or matter is by a!yin( the three characteristics to matter arisin( *rom consciousness#
This is done by discernin( matter at the time when the meditator is hay !eased and at the time when
he is unhay and sad6 and a!yin( the three characteristics to the matter resent at each o* these
times#
9#
The se;enth way *or matter is by a!yin( the three characteristics to natura! matter#
Natura! matter is the matter that is not associated with the *acu!ties6 but is the matter o* non sentient
ob/ects such as iron6 coer6 (o!d6 si!;er6 ear!s6 (ems6 she!!s6 marb!e6 cora!6 rubies6 soi!6 rocks6 and
!ants#
This tye o* matter is
on!y *ound e<terna!!y#
These are the se;en ways *or matter#
Se;en Ways *or ,enta!ity
Se;en Ways *or ,enta!itySe;en Ways *or ,enta!itySe;en Ways *or ,enta!itySe;en Ways *or
,enta!itySe;en Ways *or ,enta!ity
1#
The *irst way *or menta!ity is by a!yin( the three characteristics to menta!ity in (rous#
To do this the meditator a!ies the three characteristics to the mind that ercei;ed the three
characteristics o* matter durin( the ractise o* the se;en ways *or matter#
@or e<am!e a*ter seein( with insi(ht a!! the matter seen in
w
2=
the 9 ways *or insi(ht mind as itse!* ain*u!6 and then contem!ates
A*ter seein( with insi(ht a!! matter as ain*u!6 he then contem!ates bein( imermanent6 then
contem!ates contem!ates it as not)se!*#
A*ter seein( with insi(ht a!! the matter seen matter as not)se!*6 he then contem!ates that bein(
imermanent6 then contem!ates it as ain*u!6 contem!ates it as not)se!*#
:#
The second way *or menta!ity is by a!yin( the three characteristics to menta!ity by airs#
+n this case each time the meditator sees matter in each way o* the 9 ways *or matter as imermanent6
ain*u!6 or not)se!* 6 he immediate!y contem!ates that insi(ht mind as bein( itse!* imermanent6
ain*u!6 and not)se!*#
2#
The third way *or menta!ity is by a!yin( the three characteristics to menta!ity by moments# To do this
each time the meditator sees matter in each way o* the 9 ways *or matter as imermanent6 ain*u!6 or
not)se!*6 he immediate!y contem!ates that insi(ht mind itse!* as imermanent6 ain*u!6 and not)se!*6
then he in turn contem!ates that second insi(ht mind with a third insi(ht mind as imermanent6
ain*u!6 not se!*#
He then contem!ates that third insi(ht mind with a *ourth insi(ht mind as imermanent6 ain*u!6 and
not)se!*6 and he then contem!ates that *ourth insi(ht mind with a *i*th insi(ht mind as imermanent6
ain*u!6 and not)se!*#
=#
The *ourth way *or menta!ity is by a!yin( the three characteristics to menta!ity by series#
This is simi!ar to the !ast
w
25
method e<cet tenth insi(ht mind e!e;enth insi(ht mind#
5#
The *i*th way *or menta!ity characteristics to menta!ity *or To do this the meditator whi!e contem!atin(
*or matter and the insi(ht minds resent emhasis to the ercetion o* not)se!* the ;iew that there is a
se!*#
4#
The si<th way *or menta!ity is by a!yin( the characteristics to menta!ity *or the remo;a! o* conceit#
the meditator whi!e contem!atin( in the abo;e way6 *or matter and the insi(ht minds resent at that
time6 ays emhasis to the ercetion o* imermanence to o;ercome 9#
The se;enth way *or menta!ity is by a!yin( the three characteristics to menta!ity *or the endin( o*
attachment# To do this the meditator whi!e contem!atin( in the abo;e way6 the 9 ways *or matter and
the insi(ht minds resent at that time6 ays more emhasis to the ercetion o* su**erin( to o;ercome
attachment#
>y de;e!oin( these 9 ways *or matter and 9 ways *or menta!ity both matter and menta!ity wi!! become
c!ear to you#
This is how the meditator de;e!os the know!ed(e o* *ormations in (rous#
He then tries to de;e!o the know!ed(e o* arisin( and assin( away o* *ormations#
Samudayadhammanuassi
SamudayadhammanuassiSamudayadhammanuassiSamudayadhammanuassiSamudayadhammanua
ssiSamudayadhammanuassi
The know!ed(e o* arisin( and assin( away o* *ormations consists o* two *orms o* know!ed(e#
The *irst is seein( the momentary
arisin( and assin( away o* *ormations (kha?ato) and the sec
w
24
ond is to see the Each o* these a(ain
1#
,omentary arisin(6 momentary arisin( and assin( away#
:#
Causa! arisin(6 causa! ceasin(6 To be(in there is the brie* method o* assin( away o* *ormations#
To de;e!o this the meditator *irst discerns the momentary arisin( o* menta!ity a((re(ates6 the twe!;e
bases6 the ei(hteen e!ements6 truths6 or deendent ori(ination6 interna!!y and e<terna!!y ast6 resent6
and *uture#
He then discerns the momentary arisin( and assin( away o* these and a!y the three characteristics
them#
This brie* method is based on seein( the momentary arisin( and ceasin( o* *ormations#
To de;e!o the detai!ed method the meditator has to see both the momentary arisin( and assin( away
o* menta!ity and matter6 and the causa! arisin( and assin( away o* the *i;e a((re(ates6 the twe!;e
bases6 the ei(hteen e!ements6 the *our nob!e truths6 or deendent ori(ination#
@irst!y the meditator discerns a(ain and a(ain the momentary arisin( o* dhammas and the cause o* the
arisin( o* those same dhammas#
@or e<am!e in the case o* matter he discerns the causa! arisin( o* matter by seein( that accordin( to
the method o* $eendent Ori(ination-
1#
The arisin( o* i(norance causes the arisin( o* matter ori(inated by kamma#
:#
The arisin( o* cra;in( causes the arisin( o* matter ori(inated by kamma#
w
w
2#
The arisin( o* c!in(in( kamma#
=#
The arisin( o* kamma ori(inated by kamma#
5#
The arisin( o* kamma causes kamma#
Then he discerns the momentary kamma which is seein( /ust the momentary
He a!so discerns both these kinds o* arisin( are ori(inated by mind6 temerature6 and nutriment#
4#
@or e<am!e he discerns that mind causes the arisin( ori(inated by mind and then he discerns /ust the
momentary arisin( o* matter ori(inated by mind#
9#
He discerns that temerature causes the arisin( o* matter ori(inated by temerature and then he
discerns /ust the momentary arisin( o* matter ori(inated by temerature#
'#
He discerns that nutriment causes the arisin( o* matter ori(inated by nutriment and then he discerns /ust
the momentary arisin( o* matter ori(inated by nutriment#
+n this way he is ab!e to discern both the momentary arisin( o* matter and the causa! arisin( o* matter#
A*ter that he has to see the
momentary arisin( and causa! arisin( *or menta!ity#
+t wou!d take some time to !ist the detai!s o* the method *or menta!ity so we wi!! ski that and /ust
e<!ain the detai!s *or matter in each instance#
Fayadhammanuassi
FayadhammanuassiFayadhammanuassiFayadhammanuassiFayadhammanuassiFayadhammanuas
si
A*ter the meditator is ab!e to discern both the momentary arisin( o* dhammas and the causa! arisin( o*
dhammas he then contem!ates a(ain and a(ain the assin( away o* dhammas and the cause o* the
assin( away o* dhammas (;ayadhammanuassi)#
@or e<am!e in the case o* matter he discerns the causa! cessation
w
2'
o* matter by seein(
1#
The cessation o* i(norance ori(inated by kamma#
:#
The cessation o* cra;in( causes ori(inated by kamma#
2#
The cessation o* c!in(in( causes the cessation ori(inated by kamma#
=#
The cessation o* kamma *ormations causes the matter ori(inated by kamma#
5#
The cessation o* kamma causes the cessation o* matter ori(inated by kamma#
Then he discerns the momentary cessation o* matter ori(inated by kamma which is seein( /ust the
momentary assin( away o* that matter#
He a!so discerns both these kinds o* arisin( o* the other matter that are ori(inated by mind6
temerature6 and nutriment#
4#
He discerns that the cessation o* mind causes the cessation o* matter ori(inated by mind and then he
discerns /ust the momentary cessation o* matter ori(inated by mind#
9#
He discerns that the cessation o* temerature causes the cessation o* matter ori(inated by temerature
and then he discerns /ust the momentary cessation o* matter ori(inated by temerature#
'#
He discerns that the cessation o* nutriment causes the cessation o* matter ori(inated by nutriment and
then he discerns /ust the momentary cessation o* matter ori(inated by nutriment#
w
2&
w
2&
+n this way he is ab!e to discern o* matter and the causa! cessation A*ter that he has to see the
momentary cessation and causa!
Samudaya;ayadhammanuassi
Samudaya;ayadhammanuassiSamudaya;ayadhammanuassiSamudaya;ayadhammanuassiSamuday
a;ayadhammanuassiSamudaya;ayadhammanuassi
A*ter the meditator is ab!e to discern both the cessation o* dhammas and the causa! cessation then
contem!ates a(ain and a(ain both the arisin( away o* dhammas to(ether#
This in;o!;es discernin( both the momentary arisin( and momentary assin( away o* dhammas the
causa! arisin( and causa! assin( away o* dhammas (samudaya;ayadhammanuassi)#
+n the case o* matter this in;o!;es seein(-
1#
The arisin( o* i(norance causes the arisin( o* matter ori(inated by kamma# The cessation o* i(norance
causes the cessation o* matter ori(inated by kamma# +(norance is imermanent6 matter ori(inated by
kamma is imermanent
:#
The arisin( o* cra;in( causes the arisin( o* matter ori(inated by kamma# The cessation o* cra;in(
causes the cessation o* matter ori(inated by kamma# Cra;in( is imermanent6 matter ori(inated by
kamma is imermanent#
2#
The arisin( o* c!in(in( causes the arisin( o* matter ori(inated by kamma#
w
w
The cessation o* ori(inated by kamma#
C!in(in( is imermanent6 imermanent#
=#
The arisin( o* kamma *ormations ori(inated by kamma# The cessation o* kamma *ormations matter
ori(inated by kamma# 0amma *ormations are imermanent6 matter kamma is imermanent#
5#
The arisin( o* kamma causes the arisin( o* matter kamma# The cessation o* kamma causes the
cessation o* matter by kamma# 0amma is imermanent6 matter ori(inated by kamma is imermanent#
4#
,ind causes the arisin( o* matter ori(inated by mind# The cessation o* mind causes the cessation o*
matter ori(inated by mind# ,ind is imermanent6 matter ori(inated by mind is imermanent#
9#
Temerature causes the arisin( o* matter ori(inated by temerature# The cessation o* temerature
causes the cessation o* matter ori(inated by temerature# Temerature is imermanent6 matter
ori(inated by temerature is imermanent#
'#
Nutriment causes the arisin( o* matter ori(inated by nutriment# The cessation o* nutriment causes the
cessation o* matter
w
=1
ori(inated by nutriment#
Nutriment is imermanent6 imermanent#
This is how the meditator sees momentary assin( away o* matter causa! assin( away o* matter#
A*ter that he has to see the momentary arisin( and momentary assin( the causa! arisin( and causa!
assin( away
The meditator has to be ab!e to see arisin( and a!! the *i;e khandhas in this way#
Seein( this means to see the momentary *i;e khandhas arisin( and assin( away moment o*
consciousness#
+t inc!udes the *i;e khandhas resent at the time o* the arisin( and assin( away o* the rebirth
consciousness6 the bha;aM(a consciousness6 and the death consciousness cuti which are ca!!ed I;Kthi
muttaI consciousness#
+t a!so inc!udes a!! the momentary *i;e khandhas resent in each mind moment o* any o* the si< sense
door mind rocesses (;Kthi)#
+t a!so inc!udes seein( the causes in the ast !i*e such as i(norance that roduced the arisin( o* *i;e
khandhas in this !i*e and seein( the cessation o* i(norance etc#6 in the *uture with the attainment o*
Arahatshi and a*ter that com!ete nibbOEna which wi!! cause the cessation o* the *i;e khandhas#
This is the way in which the meditator can discern the momentary arisin( and assin( away o* the *i;e
khandhas and the causa! arisin( and assin( away o* the *i;e khandhas and a!y the three
characteristics o* anicca6 dukkha6 and anatta to the *i;e khandhas# He does this *or the *i;e khandhas
that are interna!6 *or the *i;e khandhas that are e<terna!6 and *or the *i;e khandhas that are in the ast6
resent6 or *uture#
A*ter he is ab!e to do this *or the *i;e khandhas he can a!so
w
=:
de;e!o the same +n this case when discerns each *actor o*
So that the meditator sees
+(norance causes kamma *ormations6 consciousness6 consciousness causes matter cause the si< sense
bases6 the contact causes *ee!in(6 *ee!in( causes cra;in(6 c!in(in(6 c!in(in( causes becomin(6 becomin(
causes a(ein(6 death6 sorrow6 !amentation6 hysica! ain6 and an(uish#
When the meditator discerns the causa! cessation o* dhammas6 he /ust discerns each *actor o*
$eendent Ori(ination in order#
So that the meditator sees that-
With the com!ete cessation o* i(norance without remainder kamma *ormations cease6 with the
cessation o* kamma *ormations consciousness ceases6 with the cessation o* consciousness mind and
body cease6 with the cessation o* mind and body the si< sense bases cease6 with the cessation o* the si<
sense bases contact ceases6 with the cessation o* contact *ee!in( ceases6 with the cessation o* *ee!in(
cra;in( ceases6 with the cessation o* cra;in( c!in(in( ceases6 with the cessation o* c!in(in( becomin(
ceases6 with the cessation o* becomin( birth ceases6 with the cessation o* birth
a(ein(6 death6 sorrow6 !amentation6 hysica! ain6 menta! ain6 and an(uish cease# +t is in this way that
a!! *orms o* su**erin( ceases#
When the meditator discerns both the momentary arisin( and momentary assin( away o* dhammas
and the causa! arisin( and causa! assin( away o* dhammas he combines these two methods# So *or
e<am!e in the case o* i(norance he sees that-
w
=2
1#
+(norance causes :#
With the com!ete kamma *ormations cease# +(norance is imermanent6
kamma *ormations are imermanent
and so on *or the other *actors
He discerns $eendent Ori(ination and e<terna!!y6 and a!so in the ast6
This is on!y a ;ery brie* out!ine o* the de;e!oment know!ed(e o* arisin( and assin( away o*
Ten +mer*ections o* +nsi(ht
Ten +mer*ections o* +nsi(htTen +mer*ections o* +nsi(htTen +mer*ections o* +nsi(htTen +mer*ections
o* +nsi(htTen +mer*ections o* +nsi(ht
As the meditator a!ies these methods and his insi(ht stron(er it is at this sta(e that the ten
imer*ections o* insi(ht arise#
The ten imer*ections are-
!i(ht6 insi(ht6 /oy6 tranCui!!ity6 hainess6 con*idence6 e**ort6 mind*u!ness6 eCuanimity6 and attachment#
O* these ten those *rom insi(ht to eCuanimity are who!esome menta! states and are not themse!;es
imer*ections6 but they can become the ob/ects o* unwho!esome states i* a meditator becomes attached
to them#
When a meditator e<eriences any o* the ten imer*ections o* insi(ht he needs to contem!ate each o*
these as imermanent6 su**erin(6 and not)se!*6 so that he does not become attached to them#
>y doin( this he is ab!e to o;ercome the attachment and desire that may arise with those states and
continue to make ro(ress#
0now!ed(e O* $isso!ution O* @ormations
0now!ed(e O* $isso!ution O* @ormations0now!ed(e O* $isso!ution O* @ormations0now!ed(e O*
$isso!ution O* @ormations0now!ed(e O* $isso!ution O* @ormations0now!ed(e O* $isso!ution O*
@ormations
A*ter the meditator has de;e!oed the know!ed(e o* arisin( and assin( away o* *ormations his insi(ht
concernin( *ormations is stead*ast and ure#
Then he has to de;e!o the know!ed(e o*
disso!ution o* *ormations (bhaM(a JOE?a)#
To do this he stos ayin( attention to the arisin( o* *ormations and on!y ays attention to the
w
==
w
==
At this sta(e he does standin( hase o* *ormations6 the causes o* the ori(ination o* his insi(ht
know!ed(e he on!y o* *ormations#
$iscernin( the assin( away and ceasin( them as imermanent (anicca)# $iscernin( the assin( away
and ceasin( o* somethin( *ear*u! he sees them as su**erin( (dukkha)# $iscernin( that *ormations are
without essence he not)se!* (anatta)#
The meditator discerns the *i;e khandhas6 in the ast6 resent6 and *uture both interna!!y and e<terna!!y
and seein( on!y the away and ceasin( o* them he a!ies the three characteristics one at a time#
At the time when a meditator takes matter as an ob/ect and sees it assin( away and knows that it is
imermanentN this know!ed(e o* imermanence o* an ob/ect is ca!!ed insi(ht know!ed(e#
At this sta(e the meditator a!so discerns once the assin( away and ceasin( o* that insi(ht know!ed(e#
This means that whi!e he is ractisin( insi(ht meditation at this sta(e and he is discernin( matter and
menta!ity he then-
Takes matter as an ob/ect and sees the momentary assin( away and ceasin( o* that matter and sees that
with insi(ht know!ed(e as imermanent and then he sees the assin( away and ceasin( o* that insi(ht
know!ed(e and sees that with a second insi(ht mind as imermanent#
Then he takes menta!ity as an ob/ect and sees the momentary assin( away and ceasin( o* that
menta!ity and sees that with
w
=5
insi(ht know!ed(e away and ceasin( second insi(ht mind
Then he reeats this but ceasin( as su**erin(#
Then he reeats this a(ain seein( se!*#
He reeats this rocess a!ternatin( e<terna!6 matter and menta!ity6 causa! dhammas6 ast6 resent6 and
*uture#
As the meditator continues to discern the ceasin( o* dhammas in this way then his insi(ht the
remainin( insi(ht know!ed(es#
That is know!ed(e o* *ear*u!ness o* *ormations (bhaya JOE?a)6 know!ed(e o* dan(er (OEdina;a J
OE?a)6 know!ed(e o* detachment *rom *ormations JOE?a)6 know!ed(e o* desire *or de!i;erance *rom
*ormations (muccitukamyatOE JOE?a)6 know!ed(e o* re*!ectin(6 (atisaMkhOE OE?a)6 and know!ed(e
o* eCuanimity towards *ormations (saMkhOEruekkhOE JOE?a)#
A*ter this as he continues to discern the assin( away and ceasin( o* dhammas with a wish *or re!ease
*rom them he *inds that e;entua!!y the *ormations cease and his mind takes the un*ormed nibbOEna as
an ob/ect#
Then the meditator wi!! ha;e attained rea! know!ed(e o* the @our Nob!e Truths and wi!! ha;e rea!ised
nibbOEna *or himse!*#
With this rea!isation his mind becomes uri*ied and *ree *rom wron( ;iews#
+* he continues in this way he wi!! be ab!e to attain Arahatshi and *ina! nibbOEna#
There are many more detai!s that cou!d be e<!ained about this de;e!oment o* insi(ht6 but we ha;e
had to !ea;e them out so that we cou!d make this e<!anation as brie* as ossib!e#
The best way to !earn this ractise is by undertakin( a course in meditation with a cometent teacher
and then you can !earn in a systematic way ste by ste#
w
=9
The ,ethod O* $e;e!oin( ,ind*u!ness O* >reathin(
The ,ethod O* >reathin(The ,ethod O* >reathin(The ,ethod O* >reathin(The ,ethod O*
>reathin(The ,ethod O*
The de;e!oment o* tau(ht by the >uddha There he said-
>hikkhus here in this Teachin( *orest6 or to the *oot o* a tree6 !e((ed and kees his body erect and
meditation ob/ectN on!y mind*u!!y he he breathes out#
1#
>reathin( in a !on( breath he knows6 P+ am breathQ6 or breathin( out a !on( breath he knows6 out a
!on( breathQ#
:#
>reathin( in a short breath he knows6 P+ am breathin( short breathQ6 or breathin( out a short breath he
knows6 P+ out a short breathQ#
2#
PE<eriencin( the who!e breath body + wi!! breathe inQ6 thus he trains himse!* and6 PE<eriencin( the
who!e breath body + wi!! breathe outQ6 thus he trains himse!*#
=#
PCa!min( the breath body + wi!! breathe inQ6 thus he trains himse!* and6 PCa!min( the breath body +
wi!! breathe outQ6 thus he trains himse!*#
To be(in meditatin( sit in a com*ortab!e osition and try to be aware o*
the breath as it enters and !ea;es the body throu(h the
nostri!s#
7ou shou!d be ab!e to *ee! it either /ust be!ow the nose or somewhere around the nostri!s#
$o not *o!!ow the breath inside the body or outside o* the body6 but /ust be aware o* the breath at the
!ace where it brushes a(ainst and touches either the to o* the uer
!i or around the nostri!s#
+* you *o!!ow the breath in and out then
R1e*erences *or OESi te<ts and commentaries are *or the >urmese edition and re*erences *or
Fisuddhima((a are *or the En(!ish trans!ation by >hikkhu Nyanamo!i#T
w
='
you wi!! not be aware o* the breath you wi!! be ab!e to de;e!o
$o not ay attention to the !akkha?as or the co!our o* the The sabhOE;a !akkha?as are the natura!
characteristics o* the rou(hness6 *!owin(6 heat6 ushin(6 The sammaJJa !akkha?as are the
imermanence6 ain*u!6 (anicca6 dukkha6 anattta) o* the breath#
This means do not note Pin6 out6 imermanentQ6 or Pin6 out6 dukkhaQ6 or
Sim!y be aware o* the in and out breath as a concet#
The concet
o* the breath is the ob/ect o* OEnOEOEnasati#
+t is this ob/ect to which you must direct your attention in order to de;e!o As you ay attention to the
concet o* the breath in this way and i* you ha;e ractised this meditation in a re;ious !i*e and
de;e!oed some OEramis
then you wi!! easi!y be ab!e to concentrate
on the in and out breath#
+* your mind does not easi!y concentrate on the in and out breath then the Fisuddhima((a e<!ains to
be(in by countin( the breaths# This wi!! aid you to de;e!o concentration#
7ou shou!d count a*ter
the end o* each breath6 !ike this-
P+n6 out6 one#
+n6 out6 two#
+n6 out6
three#
+n6 out6 *our#
+n6 out6 *i;e#
+n6 out6 si<#
+n6 out6 se;en#
+n6 out6
ei(ht#Q
7ou shou!d count u to at !east *i;e and not count u to more than
ten#
>ut we encoura(e you to count to ei(ht6 because it reminds you o* the ei(ht*o!d nob!e ath6 which you
are tryin( to de;e!o#
So you shou!d count6 as you !ike6 u to any number between *i;e and ten and you shou!d determine in
your mind that you wi!! durin( that time not !et your mind dri*t or (o away to anywhere e!se#
7ou want
to sim!y be ca!m!y aware o* the breath#
When you count !ike this you shou!d *ind that you wi!! be ab!e to concentrate your mind and
w
=&
make it ca!m!y
A*ter you can concentrate hour you shou!d roceed
1#
>reathin( in a !on( breath he breathQ6 or breathin( out a !on( out a !on( breathQ#
:#
>reathin( in a short breath he knows6 short breathQ6 breathin( out a short breath out a short breathQ#
At this sta(e you ha;e to de;e!o awareness o* whether and out breaths are !on( or short#
Lon( or short here do not re*er to
!en(th in *eet and inches6 but !en(th o* time#
+t is the duration o* time# 7ou shou!d decide *or yourse!* what !en(th o* time you wi!! !on( and what
!en(th o* time you wi!! ca!! short#
>e aware o* the
duration o* time o* each in and out breath#
7ou wi!! be aware that sometimes the breath is !on( in time and sometimes short#
Bust knowin(
this is a!! you ha;e to do at this sta(e#
7ou shou!d not note6 P+n6 out6 !on(# +n6 out6 shortQ6 but /ust note P+n6 outQ6 and be aware o* whether
the breaths are !on( or short#
7ou shou!d know this by /ust bein( aware o* the !en(th o* time that the breath brushes and touches the
uer !i or ti o* the nostri!s as it enters and !ea;es the body#
@or some meditators at this sta(e the nimitta (si(n o* concentration)
may aear6 but i* you can do this ca!m!y *or about one hour and no nimitta aears then you shou!d
mo;e on to the ne<t sta(e-
2#
PE<eriencin( the who!e breath body + wi!! breathe inQ6 thus he trains himse!* and6 PE<eriencin( the
who!e breath body + wi!! breathe outQ6 thus he trains himse!*#
Here the >uddha is instructin( you to be aware o* the who!e breath continuous!y *rom the be(innin( to
the end#
7ou are trainin(
w
53
your mind to be be(innin( to the end#
As you are doin( o* concentration) may not immediate!y shi*t your o* the breath#
+* you are aware continuous!y o* to the end
ca!m!y *or about one hour and no nimitta you shou!d mo;e on to the ne<t sta(e-
=#
PCa!min( the breath body + wi!! breathe inQ6 himse!* and6 PCa!min( the breath body + wi!! breathe
trains himse!*#
To do this you shou!d decide that you shou!d cause the be ca!m and continue to be aware continuous!y
o* the breath the be(innin( to the end#
7ou shou!d not do anythin( more than that to make the breath become ca!m because i* you do you wi!!
that
your concentration wi!! be broken and *a!! away#
There are *our *actors (i;en in the Fisuddhima((a that are su**icient to make the breath become ca!m
(Fsm# F+++6 195)#
They are re*!ectin(6 brin(in(
to mind6 attendin(6 and decidin( (OEbho(a6 samannOEhOEra6 manasikOEra6 ;KmaUsa)#
So that a!! you need to do at this sta(e is to decide to ca!m the breath and to continue to be continuous!y
aware o* the breath# >y ractisin( in this way you wi!! *ind that the breath becomes ca!mer and the
nimitta may aear#
Bust be*ore the nimitta aears a !ot o* meditators encounter di**icu!tiesN
most!y they *ind that the breath becomes ;ery subt!e and is not c!ear to their mind# +* this haens you
shou!d kee your awareness
at the !ace where you !ast noticed the breath and wait *or it there#
7ou shou!d re*!ect that you are not a erson who is not breathin(6 but you are breathin( and your
mind*u!ness is not stron( enou(h to
w
51
be aware o* the drowned erson6 a erson e<eriencin( menta! states6 and a brahma6 on!y you are not
one o* them# So you not mind*u! enou(h to be aware o*
$o not make e**ort to chan(e the breath +* you do that you wi!! not de;e!o in aware o* the breath as it
is6 and i* it is not c!ear !ace where you !ast noticed it# 7ou wi!! *ind that mind*u!ness and
understandin( in this way that the to you a(ain#
The aearance o* the nimitta roduced by de;e!oin( mind*u!ness
o* breathin( is not the same *or e;ery erson6 but ;aries to the indi;idua!#
To some eo!e it aears as a !easant sensation
!ike-
1#
Cotton woo!
(!earnin(
si(n)
:#
$rawn out cotton
(!earnin(
si(n)
2#
,o;in( air6 or a drau(ht
(!earnin(
si(n)
=#
A bri(ht !i(ht !ike the mornin( star6 Fenus (u((aha nimitta and aEibhOE(a nimitta)
5#
A bri(ht ruby or (em
(aEibhOE(a nimitta)
4#
A bri(ht ear!
(aEibhOE(a nimitta)
To some eo!e it aears as a coarse sensation !ike-
9#
The stem o*
a cotton !ant
(u((aha nimitta and aEibhOE(a nimitta)
'#
A sharened iece o*
wood (u((aha nimitta and aEibhOE(a nimitta)
&#
A !on( roe6 or strin(
(u((aha nimitta and aEibhOE(a nimitta)
13#
A wreath o* *!owers
(u((aha nimitta and aEibhOE(a nimitta)
11#
A u** o* smoke
(u((aha nimitta and aEibhOE(a nimitta)
w
5:
1:#
A stretched out 12#
A *i!m o* c!oud
(u((aha nimitta and 1=#
A !otus *!ower
(u((aha nimitta and aEibhOE(a 15#
A chariot whee!
(u((aha nimitta and aEibhOE(a 14#
A moonGs disk
(u((aha nimitta and aEibhOE(a 19#
A sunGs disk
(u((aha nimitta and aEibhOE(a +n most cases a ure white nimitta !ike nimitta because the u((aha
nimitta is usua!!y When the nimitta becomes bri(ht !ike the mornin( and c!ear
this is the aEibhOE(a nimitta#
When the nimitta is !ike a ruby or (em and is not bri(ht it is the u((aha nimitta6 bri(ht and sark!in( it
is the aEibhOE(a nimitta# The and co!ours shou!d be understood in the same way#
The nimitta aears to di**erent eo!e in di**erent ways because it is roduced by ercetion#
The di**erence in ercetion o* di**erent
meditators be*ore the nimitta arises roduces di**erent tyes o* nimittas#
E;en thou(h mind*u!ness o* breathin( is on!y one meditation
sub/ect it can roduce ;arious tyes o* nimittas deendin( on the indi;idua!#
When you ha;e reached this sta(e it is imortant not to !ay with your nimitta#
$o not !et it (o away *rom you and do not intentiona!!y chan(e its shae or aearance#
+* you do this your concentration wi!! not de;e!o any *urther6 and your ro(ress wi!! sto#
7our
nimitta wi!! robab!y disaear#
So at this oint when your nimitta *irst aears6 do not chan(e your concentration *rom your breath to
the nimitta#
+* you do you wi!! *ind it disaears#
+* you *ind that the nimitta is stab!e and your mind on its own becomes *i<ed on it6 then /ust !ea;e your
mind there# +* you *orce your mind to come away *rom it you wi!! robab!y !ose your concentration#
w
52
w
52
tion
to it and sim!y continue !ace where the breath touches come and stay at that !ace#
+* your nimitta comes and aears touches and the nimitta remains stab!e and the breath aears as i* it
is the nimitta the breath and /ust be aware o* the nimitta# your attention *rom the breath to the nimitta
*urther ro(ress# As you kee your mind on the that it becomes whiter and whiter and when it is white
woo! then this is the !earnin( si(n (u((aha nimitta)#
7ou shou!d determine to kee your mind ca!m!y concentrated on that white !earnin( si(n *or one hour6
two hours6 three hours6 +* you are ab!e to kee your mind *i<ed on the u((aha nimitta *or or two hours
you shou!d *ind that it becomes c!ear6 bri(ht6 and bri!!iant#
This is then ca!!ed the counterart si(n (aEibhOE(a nimitta)# At this oint you shou!d determine and
ractise to kee your mind *i<ed on the aEibhOE(a nimitta *or one hour6 two hours6 or three hours#
Practise unti! you are success*u! at this#
At this sta(e you wi!! reach either uacOEra or aanOE concentration#
"acOEra concentration is the concentration c!ose to and recedin(
/hOEna# AanOE concentration is the concentration o* /hOEna#
>oth these tyes o* concentration ha;e the aEibhOE(a nimitta as their ob/ect# The di**erence between
them is that in uacOEra concentration
the /hOEna *actors are not com!ete!y de;e!oed to *u!! stren(th# @or this reason durin( uacOEra
concentration bha;aM(a mind states sti!! occur and one can *a!! into bha;aM(a (!i*e)continuum
consciousness)#
The meditator e<eriences this and wi!! say that e;erythin( stoed6 or he may e;en think this is
nibbOEna# +n rea!ity there are sti!!
w
5=
bha;aM(a mind not stoed6 but the this because o* the
To a;oid droin( into bha;aneed the he! o* the *i;e contro!!in( concentration6 and understandin(
samOEdhi6 and aJJa) to ush the mind nimitta# +t takes e**ort to make the mind a(ain and a(ain6
mind*u!ness not to *or(et and understandin( to know the aEibhOE(a nimitta#
>a!ancin( The @i;e Contro!!in( @acu!ties
>a!ancin( The @i;e Contro!!in( @acu!ties>a!ancin( The @i;e Contro!!in( @acu!ties>a!ancin( The @i;e
Contro!!in( @acu!ties>a!ancin( The @i;e Contro!!in( @acu!ties>a!ancin( The @i;e Contro!!in(
@acu!ties
These *i;e contro!!in( *acu!ties are *i;e owers that contro! mind and kee it *rom strayin( o** the ath6
o* tranCui!!ity that !eads to NibbOEna#
Amon(st these *i;e6 *aith is the be!ie* in what shou!d be be!ie;ed in such as the Tri!e Oems6 or be!ie*
in kamma and its resu!ts#
+t is imortant to be!ie;e in the en!i(htenment o* the >uddha because i* a erson does not ha;e such a
be!ie* then he wi!! *a!! back *rom the work o* meditation#
+t is a!so imortant to be!ie;e in the teachin( o* the >uddha consistin( o* ten arts bein( the = aths6
the = *ruits6 NibbOEna6 and the teachin(#
The teachin( o* the >uddha shows us the way *or the ractise o* meditation so at this sta(e it is
imortant to ha;e com!ete *aith in that teachin(#
PCan /hOEna rea!!y be attained by /ust watchin( the in breath and out breathV
+s what has been said about
the nimitta !ike white cotton
woo! bein( the u((aha nimitta
and the nimitta !ike c!ear ice or (!ass
bein( the aEibhOE(a nimitta rea!!y trueVQ
+* these sorts o* thou(hts become stron( they wi!! resu!t in be!ie*s such as6 PBhOEna cannot be attained
in this resent a(e6Q and then because o* that be!ie* a erson wi!! dec!ine in *aith in the teachin( and
a!so he wi!! not ha;e the
w
55
stren(th to sto
So a erson who is de;e!oin( sub/ect !ike mind*u!ness o* de;e!o mind*u!ness o* breathin( thinkin(6
PBhOEna can be achie;ed i* + *o!!ow the @u!!y En!i(htened >uddhaQ#
+*6 howe;er6 a erson !ets his *aith be e<cessi;e ob/ects that he shou!d ha;e *aith in6 and here the
meditation sub/ect o* mind*u!ness o* breathin(6 the *unction o* *aith to decide about an ob/ect bein(
*acu!ty o* wisdom wi!! not be c!ear and the other *acu!ties mind*u!ness6 and concentration wi!! a!so be
weakened# time the *acu!ty o* e**ort wi!! not be ab!e to er*orm its *unction raisin( the other
concomitant *actors to the ob/ect o* the aEibhOE(a nimitta and not !ettin( them *a!! away#
A!so mind*u!ness wi!! not be ab!e to er*orm its *unction o* estab!ishin( know!ed(e o* the aEibhOE(a
nimitta# The *acu!ty o* concentration wi!! not be ab!e to er*orm its *unction o* stoin( the mind *rom
(oin( to another ob/ect other than the aEibhOE(a nimitta#
The *acu!ty o* wisdom wi!! not be ab!e to er*orm its *unction o* seein( enetrati;e!y the aEibhOE(a
nimitta# This !eads to a decrease in the *acu!ty o* *aith because o* wisdomGs inabi!ity to understand the
aEibhOE(a nimitta and to suort the maintenance o* the *acu!ty o* *aith#
+* the *acu!ty o* e**ort is too stron( then the other *acu!ties o* *aith6 mind*u!ness6 concentration6 and
wisdom wi!! a!so not be ab!e to er*orm their resecti;e *unctions o* decision6
estab!ishin(6 absence
o* distraction6 and seein( enetrati;e!y#
Thus e<cessi;e e**ort causes the mind not to stay ca!m!y concentrated on the ob/ect o* the aEibhOE(a
nimitta and causes the en!i(htenment *actors o* ca!m6 concentration6
and eCuanimity to arise insu**icient!y#
w
54
w
54
The ba!ancin( o* *aith with is raised by the wise# +* is weak then a erson wi!! de;e!o are without
essence and are use!ess# *aith and re;erence *or ob/ects that are other re!i(ions outside Thera;ada
>uddhism#
@or instance *aith and re;erence in the Ouardian Sirits o* >urma or
+*6 on the other hand6 wisdom is stron( and *aith is can become Cuite cunnin(#
Without ractisin( *or themse!;es they wi!! sim!y send their time makin( /ud(ements and e;a!uatin(#
They are as di**icu!t to cure o* this as is a disease caused by medicine#
+*6 howe;er6 *aith and wisdom are ba!anced then a erson wi!! ha;e *aith in ob/ects that they shou!d
ha;e *aith in#
They wi!! be!ie;e
in the Tri!e Oems6 and in kamma and its e**ects#
They wi!! be!ie;e that i* they ractise *or themse!;es in accordance with the instructions
o* the >uddha they wi!! be ab!e to attain the aEibhOE(a nimitta and /hOEna# +* they ractise with
such *aith as this and are ab!e to discern the aEibhOE(a nimitta with wisdom then at that time their
*aith and wisdom wi!! be ba!anced#
A(ain i* concentration is stron( and e**ort is weak then because o* concentrationGs tendency to roduce
!aWiness6 !aWiness can o;ercome
the mind#
+* e**ort is stron( and concentration is weak then because o* e**ortGs tendency to roduce a(itation6
a(itation can o;ercome
the mind# So when concentration and e**ort are ba!anced a erson wi!! not *a!! into !aWiness6 or a(itation
and wi!! be ab!e to attain /hOEna#
w
59
w
59
riate
to ha;e ;ery reach /hOEna i* + de;e!o by the ower o* that be!ie* aEibhOE(a nimitta they wi!!
BhOEna is rimari!y based on concentration#
@or a erson de;e!oin( ;iassanOE be stron( because when wisdom is stron( enetrati;e!y see the
three characteristics that rea!ises the three characteristics#
When concentration and wisdom are ba!anced then can arise and a!so because the >uddha has tau(ht to
tranCui!!ity and insi(ht to(ether the !okuttara /hOEna can arise when concentration and wisdom are
ba!anced#
,ind*u!ness is a!ways necessary in order to ba!ance *aith with wisdom6 concentration with e**ort6 and
concentration with wisdom# ,ind*u!ness is desirab!e in any circumstance because mind*u!ness rotects
the mind *rom *a!!in( into a(itation because o* an e<cess o* *aith6 e**ort6 or wisdom which wou!d
otherwise roduce a(itation# ,ind*u!ness a!so rotects the mind *rom *a!!in( into !aWiness because
o* an e<cess in concentration which wou!d otherwise roduce
!aWiness#
So that mind*u!ness is aroriate in a!! circumstances as a seasonin(
o* sa!t in a!! sauces6 as a rime minister in a!! the kin(Gs business#
Hence it has been tau(ht in the ancient commentaries that the >!essed One said6 P,ind*u!ness is
a!ways necessary in any meditation
sub/ectQ# Why is thatV +t is because mind*u!ness is a re*u(e and rotection to the meditatin( mind#
,ind*u!ness is a re*u(e because it he!s the mind to arri;e at the secia! and hi(h states that it has not
yet reached or known#
Without mind*u!ness the mind is not caab!e o* attainin( any secia! and e<traordinary states#
,ind*u!ness ro
w
5'
tects the mind and That is why mind*u!ness know!ed(e6 as that which the mind o* the meditator# !i*t u
the mind or restrain the tau(ht that it is use*u! e;erywhere#
(See a!so Fsm +F6 ='#
,ahOEEKka
16 153)15=#)
>a!ancin( The Se;en @actors O* En!i(htenment#
>a!ancin( The Se;en @actors O* En!i(htenment#>a!ancin( The Se;en @actors O*
En!i(htenment#>a!ancin( The Se;en @actors O* En!i(htenment#>a!ancin( The Se;en @actors O*
En!i(htenment#>a!ancin( The Se;en @actors O* En!i(htenment#
+t is a!so imortant to ba!ance the se;en *actors in order to achie;e /hOEna usin( mind*u!ness
1#
The en!i(htenment *actor o* mind*u!ness (sati) is which remembers the aEibhOE(a nimitta and
discerns a(ain and a(ain#
:#
The en!i(htenment *actor o* in;esti(ation o* dhamma (dhamma;icaya) is the enetrati;e understandin(
o* the aEibhOE(a nimitta#
2#
The en!i(htenment *actor o* e**ort (;Kriya) is the e**ort to brin( the en!i(htenment *actors to(ether and
ba!ance them on the aEibhOE(a nimitta6 esecia!!y the e**ort to de;e!o the en!i(htenment *actors
o* in;esti(ation o* dhamma and the en!i(htenment *actor o* e**ort#
=#
The en!i(htenment *actor o* /oy (Kti) is the (!adness o* the mind with the e<erience o* the
aEibhOE(a nimitta#
5#
The en!i(htenment *actor o* ca!m (assadhi) is the ca!mness o* the mind and menta! *actors that ha;e
the aEibhOE(a nimitta as their ob/ect#
4#
The en!i(htenment *actor o* concentration (samOEdhi) is the oneointedness o* the mind on the ob/ect
o* the aEibhOE(a nimitta#
9#
The en!i(htenment *actor o* eCuanimity (uekkhOE) is the e;enness
o* mind which becomes neither e<cited or withdraws *rom the ob/ect o* the aEibhOE(a nimitta#
w
5&
w
5&
When there is too much e**ort resent a(itated and distracted#
At that time one shou!d not de;e!o the three en!i(htenment *actors o* in;esti(ation /oy6 but shou!d
instead de;e!o the three en!i(htenment ca!m6 concentration6 and eCuanimity#
+n this way the a(itated and
distracted mind wi!! become restrained and ca!med#
This is how the *i;e contro!!in( *acu!ties and the se;en *actors en!i(htenment are ba!anced#
Attainin( BhOEna
Attainin( BhOEnaAttainin( BhOEnaAttainin( BhOEnaAttainin( BhOEnaAttainin( BhOEna
When the *i;e *acu!ties o* *aith6 e**ort6 mind*u!ness6 concentration6
and understandin( are su**icient!y de;e!oed then concentration
wi!! (o beyond uacOEra u to aanOE concentration# When you reach /hOEna in this way your
mind wi!! continuous!y know the aEibhOE(a nimitta without interrution# This can continue *or
se;era!
hours6 e;en a!! ni(ht6 or *or a who!e day#
The bha;aM(a consciousness is bri(ht and !uminous and the commentaries
e<!ain that it is the mind door (manod;OEra)#
When your mind stays continuous!y concentrated on the aEibhOE(a nimitta without interrution *or
one or two hours then you shou!d try to discern the area in the heart where the mind door (bha;aM(a
consciousness) is restin( deendent on the heart basis matter#
+* you ractise this many times6 a(ain and a(ain6 you wi!! easi!y be ab!e to discern both the bha;aM(a
consciousness deend
w
w
3
in( on the heart in the mind When you can do to discern the *i;e /hOEna eka((ata one at a time# Then
ab!e to discern them a!! to(ether
1#
;itakka L initia! a!ication o* the o* the mind on the ob/ect o* the :#
;icOEra L sustained a!ication o* the mindN o* the mind on the ob/ect o* the aEibhOE(a 2#
Kti
L /oy and !ikin( *or the aEibhOE(a nimitta#
=#
sukha L !easant *ee!in( or hainess associated the aEibhOE(a
nimitta#
5#
eka((ata L one ointedness o* mind on the aEibhOE(a When you are /ust be(innin( to ractise
/hOEna then you shou!d ractise to enter /hOEna *or a !on( time and not send so much discernin( the
/hOEna *actors (/hOEna aM(as)# 7ou shou!d ractise o* the *irst /hOEna# There are *i;e kinds o*
mastery-
1#
,astery in ad;ertin(N bein( ab!e to discern the /hOEna *actors a*ter emer(in( *rom /hOEna#
:#
,astery in attainin(N bein( ab!e to enter /hOEna whene;er you wish to#
2#
,astery o* reso!;eN bein( ab!e to stay in /hOEna *or as !on( a time as you determine to stay#
=#
,astery in emer(in(N bein( ab!e to !ea;e the /hOEna at the time you determine to emer(e#
5#
,astery o* re;iewin(N bein( ab!e to discern the /hOEna *actors#
Ad;ertin( and re;iewin( both occur in the same mind door rocess
(manod;OEra;Kthi)#
Ad;ertin( is er*ormed by the mind door ad;ertin( consciousness (manod;OErOE;a//ana) which in
this case takes as its ob/ect one o* the *i;e /hOEna *actors such as ;itakka#
1e;iewin(
is er*ormed by the *our or *i;e re;iewin( /a;ana
w
41
consciousnesses consciousness
When you ha;e become you can try to ro(ress to enter into the *irst /hOEna and o* the *irst /hOEna
and the ad;anta(es re*!ect that the *irst /hOEna is c!ose to a!so re*!ect that the /hOEna *actors o* ;itakka
/hOEna are (ross and make it !ess ca!m than without them#
So bein( desirous to remo;e these two /hOEna and be !e*t with /ust Kti6 sukha6 and eka((ata you your
mind to concentratin( on the aEibhOE(a nimitta# you wi!! be ab!e to attain the second /hOEna6
ossessed Kti6 sukha and eka((ata#
7ou shou!d then ractise mastery o* the second /hOEna and when you are success*u! in this and you
want to de;e!o the third /hOEna then you shou!d re*!ect on the *au!ts o* the second /hOEna and the
ad;anta(es o* the third /hOEna# The second /hOEna is c!ose to the *irst /hOEna and the third /hOEna is
ca!mer than the second /hOEna# 7ou shou!d a!so re*!ect that the /hOEna *actor o* Kti is (ross and
makes it !ess ca!m than the third /hOEna which is without Kti# 1e*!ectin( in this way a*ter arisin( *rom
the second /hOEna you shou!d de;e!o a desire to attain the third /hOEna and a(ain concentrate on the
aEibhOE(a nimitta# +n this way you wi!! be ab!e to attain the third /hOEna6 ossessed o* sukha and
eka((ata (hainess and one ointedness)#
7ou shou!d then ractise mastery o* the third /hOEna and when you are success*u! in this and you want
to de;e!o the *ourth /hOEna then you shou!d re*!ect on the *au!ts o* the third /hOEna and the
ad;anta(es
o* the *ourth /hOEna# 7ou shou!d re*!ect that the /hOEna *actor o* sukha is (ross and makes it !ess ca!m
than the *ourth /hOEna which is without sukha# 1e*!ectin( in this way a*ter arisin( *rom the third
w
4:
/hOEna you shou!d a(ain concentrate ab!e to attain the *ourth and eka((ata# 7ou shou!d /hOEna#
With the attainment o* the *ourth stos# This com!etes the *ourth sta(e OEnOEOEnasati-
=#PCa!min( the breath body + wi!! breathe and6 PCa!min( the breath body + wi!! breathe himse!*#
This sta(e be(ins /ust be*ore the nimitta aears and as de;e!os throu(h the *our /hOEnas the breath
becomes ca!mer and ca!mer unti! it stos#
+* a meditator has reached the *ourth /hOEna by usin( mind*u!ness o* breathin( and has de;e!oed the
*i;e masteries then when the !i(ht roduced by that samOEdhi is bri(ht6 bri!!iant6 and radiant he is ab!e
to mo;e on to de;e!o insi(ht meditation#
>ut it is a!so aroriate at this
oint to continue to show how to de;e!o the thirty)two arts o* the body meditation6 the bones
meditation6
the white kasi?a meditation and the *our rotection meditations#
These meditations are tau(ht in this order because e<erience has shown it is (enera!!y easier to !earn
them in this order because each one assists the de;e!oment o* the ne<t#
+n articu!ar i* a meditator
has
de;e!oed the white kasi?a he wi!! easi!y and Cuick!y be ab!e to de;e!o the *our rotection meditations
and a!so the detai!ed method o* *our e!ements meditation#
We wi!! now be(in by showin( how to de;e!o the thirty)two arts o* the body meditation6 the bones
meditation6 and the white kasi?a meditation#
w
42
Thirty)two Parts O* The >ody
w
42
@irst!y you shou!d de;e!o o* breathin( and then when and radiant6 and bri!!iant6 discern the thirty)two
arts o* time#
The 2: arts o* the body are-
Earth E!ement Orou
Earth E!ement OrouEarth E!ement OrouEarth E!ement OrouEarth E!ement OrouEarth E!ement
Orou
1#
Head hair6 body hair6 nai!s6 teeth6 skin#
:#
@!esh6 sinew6 bones6 marrow6 kidney#
2#
Heart6 !i;er6 membrane6 s!een6 !un(s#
=#
+ntestine6 mesentery6 (or(e6 *aeces6 brain#
Water E!ement Orou
Water E!ement OrouWater E!ement OrouWater E!ement OrouWater E!ement OrouWater E!ement
Orou
5#
>i!e6 h!e(m6 us6 b!ood6 sweat6 *at#
4#
Tears6 (rease6 sa!i;a6 mucus6 syno;ia6 urine#
Whi!e discernin( the thirty)two arts o* the body you shou!d di;ide the twenty arts o* the Earth
e!ement (rou into *our sets o* *i;e each and a!so di;ide the twe!;e arts o* the water e!ement into two
sets o* si< each and then discern the arts in the !ist one at a time in order#
7ou shou!d be ab!e to c!ear!y see and discern each o* these thirty)two arts /ust as c!ear!y as you wou!d
be ab!e
to see your *ace
c!ear!y
in a c!ean mirror#
+* howe;er whi!e you are doin( this your !i(ht o* concentration shou!d *ade and the art o* the body
you are discernin( becomes unc!ear then you shou!d a(ain re)estab!ish concentration to the *ourth
/hOEna based uon mind*u!ness o* breathin(#
Then when the
!i(ht o* concentration
is bri(ht and stron( you shou!d a(ain return to
w
4=
discernin( the 7ou shou!d ractise whene;er your !i(ht
7ou shou!d ractise to assistance o* the !i(ht o* concentration mind*u!ness o* breathin(#
Practise so that i* you be(in to *rom head hair down to urine6 or hair6 you are ab!e to c!ear!y see each
and kee ractisin( unti! you are ski!!ed
Then usin( the !i(ht o* concentration o* the on mind*u!ness o* breathin( to assist you try to erson or
bein( who is sittin( near you#
+t is esecia!!y (ood to
discern a erson6 or bein(6 who is in *ront o* you#
Then you shou!d discern in that erson6 or bein(6 the 2: arts o* the body6 *rom the hairs o* the head
down to urine#
Then *rom urine u to head
hair#
7ou shou!d discern these 2: arts *orwards and backwards many times#
When you are success*u! at doin( this you shou!d start to discern the 2: arts one round interna!!y6 and
then one round e<terna!!y6 and continue to do this many times6 a(ain and a(ain#
When you are ab!e to discern the 2: arts o* the body interna!!y and e<terna!!y !ike this then the ower
o* the meditation wi!! increase#
"sin( this method you shou!d (radua!!y e<tend the *ie!d o* your discernment by increments *rom
nearby to *araway#
7ou wi!! be ab!e to increase the area o* discernment o* the 2: arts o* the body in bein(s unti! you can
discern them in a!! ten directions#
Abo;e6 be!ow6 east6 west6 north6 south 6 north east6 south east6 north west6 south west#
Whoe;er in these ten directions that you *ind discernib!e by your !i(ht o* concentration be they6 human6
anima! or other bein(s6 you shou!d take each one and discern the 2: arts one round interna!!y and one
round e<terna!!y one erson or bein( at a time#
E;entua!!y when you donGt think o* what you see as men6 woman6 or bu**a!oes6 cows6 or anima!s6 but
instead see on!y a (rou o* 2:
w
45
arts whene;er then you can the discernment o* the
Three Ways
Three WaysThree WaysThree WaysThree WaysThree Ways
When a erson
has become ro*icient in the discernin( 2: arts o* the body both interna!!y any one o* the three
entrances to NibbOEna *rom de*i!ements#
The three entrances to NibbOEna are-
1#
Co!our kasi?a
(;a??a)
:#
1eu!si;eness
(aEikA!a)
2#
Emtiness o* se!*
(suJJata)
7ou can chose to de;e!o any o* these three# @irst!y6 show how to de;e!o the ercetion o* the
reu!si;eness arts#
When you ha;e become ski!!ed in discernin( the 2: arts o* the body then you can take either the
who!e 2: arts as a (rou or one indi;idua! art as an ob/ect and de;e!o meditation on the
reu!si;eness o* the body#
(aEikA!amanasikOEra)
Ske!eton ,editation#
Ske!eton ,editation#Ske!eton ,editation#Ske!eton ,editation#Ske!eton ,editation#Ske!eton
,editation#
Amon(st these ;arious ossibi!ities we wi!! show how to de;e!o the meditation based on the ske!eton
or bones which is one o* the 2: arts o* the body#
To de;e!o this meditation you shou!d return to ractisin( mind*u!ness o* breathin( and once a(ain
estab!ish concentration u to the *ourth /hOEna#
Then when your !i(ht becomes bri(ht6 bri!!iant and radiant discern the 2: arts o* the body in yourse!*#
Then discern the 2: arts e<terna!!y in the nearest erson or bein( to you usin( the !i(ht o*
concentration#
$iscern the 2: arts interna!!y and e<terna!!y
in this way *or one or two rounds#
Then a*ter that take the interna!
ske!eton as a who!e and discern that with wisdom#
Then when that
w
44
ske!eton has become take the reu!si;eness as an ob/ect and
1#
1eu!si;e6 reu!si;e#
(aEikA!a6 aEikA!a)
:#
1eu!si;e ske!eton6 reu!si;e (aEEhikaaEikA!a6 aEEhikaaEikA!a)
2#
Ske!eton6 ske!eton#
(aEEhika6
aEEhika)
7ou can note this in any !an(ua(e that 7ou shou!d try to kee your mind ca!m!y concentrated
reu!si;eness o* the ske!eton *or one or two >ecause o*
the stren(th and momentum o* the *ourth /hOEna the mind*u!ness o* breathin(6 you wi!! *ind that
reu!si;eness wi!! a!so de;e!o and be stron( and >y
meditatin(
in this way you wi!! be ab!e to roduce and sustain and de;e!o the ercetion and
know!ed(e
o*
reu!si;eness#
Note-
Note-Note-Note-Note-Note-
>e Care*u! at this oint to ay attention to the co!our6 shae6 osition and de!imitation o* the ske!eton
so that the reu!si;e nature o* the ske!eton can arise#
When ayin( attention to the reu!si;eness o* the ske!eton as an ob/ect you shou!d remo;e the
ercetion o* the concetua! name o* ske!eton and /ust be mind*u! o* that ske!eton as reu!si;e#
>ut i* whi!e attemtin( to do this the reu!si;e nature o* the ske!eton does not aear to you then do
not remo;e the ercetion o* the ske!eton unti! the ercetion o* reu!si;eness has aeared#
On!y when the ercetion o* reu!si;eness o* the ske!eton aears
shou!d you not ay attention to the concetua! name o* ske!eton
anymore6 but /ust ay attention as Ireu!si;e6 reu!si;eI#
"((ahanimitta6 PatibhOE(a nimitta
"((ahanimitta6 PatibhOE(a nimitta"((ahanimitta6 PatibhOE(a nimitta"((ahanimitta6 PatibhOE(a
nimitta"((ahanimitta6 PatibhOE(a nimitta"((ahanimitta6 PatibhOE(a nimitta
Accordin( to the Fisuddhima((a when you see a art by means o* co!our6 shae6 osition6 and
de!imitation this is the !earnin( si(n
w
49
(u((ahanimitta)6 this reu!si;eness
>y ayin( attention to the reu!si;eness o* bones time the *i;e /hOEna *actors !isted 7ou can de;e!o
the other arts o* the body /hOEna based on reu!si;eness *or each
@i;e BhOEna @actors
@i;e BhOEna @actors@i;e BhOEna @actors@i;e BhOEna @actors@i;e BhOEna @actors@i;e BhOEna
@actors
1#
;itakka L the directin( and !acin( o* the mind the reu!si;eness o* bones#
:#
;icOEra L the sustained keein( o* the mind on the ob/ect reu!si;eness o* bones#
2#
Kti
L /oy and !ikin( *or the ob/ect o* the reu!si;eness o* bones#
=#
sukha
L !easant *ee!in( or hainess associated with e<eriencin(
the ob/ect o* the reu!si;eness o* bones#
5#
eka((ata L one ointedness o* mind on the ob/ect o* the reu!si;eness o* bones#
Boy And Hainess (Kti somanassa)
Boy And Hainess (Kti somanassa)Boy And Hainess (Kti somanassa)Boy And Hainess (Kti
somanassa)Boy And Hainess (Kti somanassa)Boy And Hainess (Kti somanassa)
A Cuestion arises as to how /oy and hainess can arise with the reu!si;eness o* the ske!eton as an
ob/ect# The answer is that a!thou(h in this method o* attention to reu!si;eness the ske!eton is rea!!y a
reu!si;e ob/ect6
you ha;e undertaken this meditation seein( the bene*its o* it and understandin( that you wi!! attain
*reedom *rom a(ein(6 sickness6 and death#
A!so /oy and hainess can arise because
you ha;e remo;ed the de*i!ements o* the *i;e hindrances which cause the mind to be hot and tired#
+t is /ust !ike
a erson who se!!s manure wou!d be de!i(hted to see a bi( hea o* manure thinkin(6 P+ wi!! earn a !ot
o* money *rom this#Q Or !ike a erson who is se;ere!y i!! is re!ie;ed6 hay and /oy*u! to ha;e ;omited
or assed diarrhoea#
w
4'
+nterna!!y And E<terna!!y
w
4'
The Abhidhamma commentary the *irst /hOEna by ske!eton shou!d (o on to Then a*ter that the
meditator him or the nearest bein( that he and take that bein(Gs ske!eton as an reu!si;e and de;e!o
this ercetion rominent#
Accordin( to the commentary e;en thou(h *actors are rominent you cannot ca!! this concentration
aanOE concentration because the ob/ect is !i;in(6 the e<!anation o* the Sub)commentary to the
Abhidhamma6 ,A!aEKka6 i* you ay attention to the e<terna! bones as dead ske!eton you can attain
uacOEra concentration#
When the /hOEna *actors become c!ear in this way then you shou!d a(ain ay to the interna! ske!eton as
reu!si;e#
7ou shou!d ay attention
a!ternate!y once interna!!y and then once e<terna!!y#
When you ha;e aid attention to the reu!si;eness o* the ske!eton !ike this both interna!!y and
e<terna!!y many times and when your meditation on reu!si;eness has become ;ery stron( and
com!ete6 then
you shou!d start to discern the ske!eton e<terna!!y in a!! ten directions#
7ou shou!d take one direction at a time6 where;er your !i(ht o* concentration
reaches6 and de;e!o each direction in the same way#
7ou shou!d
a!y your know!ed(e both *ar and near
and in a!!
directions in this way once interna!!y and once e<terna!!y#
Practise unti! where;er you !ook in the ten directions you on!y see ske!etons# When you ha;e succeeded
in doin( this you are now ready to roceed to the de;e!oment o* the white kasi?a#
Co!our 0asi?a
Co!our 0asi?aCo!our 0asi?aCo!our 0asi?aCo!our 0asi?aCo!our 0asi?a
There are *our co!ours used as a basis *or kasi?a meditation and they are b!ue6 red6 ye!!ow6 and white#
O* these *our co!ours the one
w
4&
trans!ated as b!ue A!! *our o* these kasi?as di**erent arts o* the
@or e<am!e accordin( to co!our o* the head hair6 body de;e!o the nK!a kasi?a u to the *our /hOEnas
are *ound in the suttas whereas c!assi*ies the /hOEnas as bein( *i;e in number#)
The ye!!ow co!our o* *at can be used to de;e!o the ye!!ow kasi?a /hOEna#
The red co!our o* the b!ood6 and *!esh can be the red kasi?a u to the *ourth or *i*th /hOEna#
And the white arts o* the body such as the bones6 teeth6 and nai!s can be the white kasi?a u to the
*ourth or *i*th /hOEna#
White 0asi?a
White 0asi?aWhite 0asi?aWhite 0asi?aWhite 0asi?aWhite 0asi?a
+t is mentioned in the suttas that the white kasi?a is the best o* the *our co!our kasi?as because o* its
abi!ity to make the mind c!ear and bri(ht#
@or that reason we wi!! show how to de;e!o
that articu!ar co!our kasi?a *irst#
To de;e!o the white kasi?a you shou!d *irst!y re)estab!ish the *ourth /hOEna based on mind*u!ness o*
breathin(#
Then when the !i(ht roduced by that concentration is bri(ht6 bri!!iant6 and radiant discern the 2: arts
o* the body interna!!y#
Then discern the 2: arts o* the body e<terna!!y in a bein( sittin( in *ront o* you or nearby where you
are sittin(#
Then amon(st those 2: e<terna! arts discern
/ust the ske!eton#
+* you want to discern that ske!eton as reu!si;e then you can a!so do that6 but i* you do not wish to6
sim!y discern the ske!eton#
Then ha;in( decided which is the whitest !ace o* that ske!eton and usin( that !ace6 or by takin( the
white co!our o* the ske!eton as a who!e6 or by takin( the back o* the sku!! as an ob/ect6 ay attention to
it as Iwhite6 whiteI#
w
93
w
93
tion
to the interna! Then when the ske!eton our as an ob/ect *or re!iminary >ut i* you are unab!e to use an
interna! art as a kasi?a e<terna! ske!eton and use the white de;e!o and meditate with#
Or in another way6 you mi(ht discern e<terna! ske!eton and by de;e!oin( this ske!eton stab!e and *irm
and thus a!so make ske!eton become more e;ident#
Then ha;in( achie;ed that6 instead o* continuin( to ay attention to the ske!eton as reu!si;e ay
attention
to it as Iwhite6 whiteI and thus chan(e to the de;e!oment
o* the white kasi?a#
Ha;in( taken the white co!our o* the e<terna! ske!eton as an ob/ect and ayin( secia! attention to the
white co!our o* the sku!! you shou!d ractise to kee the mind ca!m!y concentrated on that white ob/ect
*or one or two hours at a time#
>ecause o* the assistance and suort o* the concentration o* the *ourth /hOEna based on mind*u!ness
o* breathin( you wi!! *ind that your mind wi!! a!so stay ca!m!y concentrated on the ob/ect o* the white
co!our#
When you are ab!e to concentrate on the white co!our *or one or two hours you wi!! *ind that on!y a
white circ!e remains and the ske!eton disaears#
The white circ!e when it is white !ike cotton woo! is the !earnin( si(n (u((ahanimitta)#
When it becomes bri(ht and c!ear !ike the
mornin( star it is the aEibhOE(a nimitta#
>e*ore the !earnin( si(n has
arisen the ske!eton nimitta is the re!iminary si(n#
+* you ha;e white kasi?a OErami *rom your ast !i;es because o* ha;in( de;e!oed the white kasi?a
in a
ast !i*e durin( this resent
w
91
disensation or /ust makin( e**ort wi!! be ab!e to attain need to en!ar(e the nimitta6 it as Iwhite6 white6I
it wi!! easi!y
+* it haens that the white kasi?a sread to *i!! a!! ten directions then as Iwhite6 white#I
When it becomes radiant white and then c!ean and c!ear which is the aEibhOE(a ractise unti! you
can enter into the *irst /hOEna#
7ou wi!! *ind howe;er that this concentration is not ;ery stab!e and does +n order to make the
concentration stab!e and !ast a !on( to increase the siWe o* the nimitta#
To do this you shou!d concentrate on the white aEibhOE(animitta and de;e!o your concentration so
that it stays with that ob/ect one or two hours#
Then you shou!d make a determination in your mind to en!ar(e the white circ!e by one6 two6 three6 or
*our inches deendin( on how much you think you are ab!e to en!ar(e it#
7ou shou!d try to do this and see i* you are success*u!# $o not try to en!ar(e the nimitta without *irst
determinin( a !imit to the en!ar(ement on!y try to en!ar(e it by determinin( a !imit o* one6 two6 three6 or
*our inches#
E;en whi!e you are doin( this you may *ind that as you en!ar(e the white circ!e it becomes unstab!e
and you wi!! need to continue to note it as Iwhite6 white6I to make it stab!e#
When your concentration
increases in stren(th you wi!! *ind that the nimitta becomes stab!e
and ca!m#
When the nimitta becomes stab!e in its new siWe then reeat the rocess a(ain6 by determinin( to
en!ar(e it a(ain by a *ew inches at a time#
+n this way you can continue to en!ar(e the nimitta unti! it is one metre in siWe6 then two metres in siWe#
When you are success*u! in doin( this you shou!d continue to en!ar(e the nimitta in sta(es
w
w
:
unti! it e<tends +n this way you wi!! reach the white nimitta#
At this oint you wi!! materia! whether interna! kasi?a ob/ect#
Then you shou!d kee your on the white kasi?a ob/ect and that has stoed chan(in( and has become
stab!e then /ust kee kasi?a ob/ect and6 !ike han(in( a hat continue to note it as white6 white#
When your mind becomes ca!m and stab!e the ob/ect wi!! a!so become ca!m and stab!e and a!so
become and bri(ht and c!ear#
This a!so is a aEibhOE(animitta that has been roduced by e<andin( and e<tendin( the ori(ina!
white
7ou must continue to meditate unti! you can kee your mind concentrated on that white kasi?a
aEibhOE(animitta continuous!y *or one or two hours#
Then the /hOEna *actors wi!! become ;ery
rominent6 c!ear6 and stron( in your mind#
At that time you wi!!
ha;e reached the *irst /hOEna#
@i;e BhOEna @actors
@i;e BhOEna @actors@i;e BhOEna @actors@i;e BhOEna @actors@i;e BhOEna @actors@i;e BhOEna
@actors
1#
;itakka L the directin( and !acin( o* the mind on the ob/ect o* the white kasi?a aEibhOE(a nimitta#
:#
;icOEra L the sustained keein( o* the mind on the ob/ect o* the white kasi?a aEibhOE(a nimitta#
2#
Kti
L /oy and !ikin( *or the ob/ect o* the white kasi?a aEibhOE(a nimitta
=#
sukha
L !easant *ee!in( or hainess associated with e<eriencin( the ob/ect o* the white kasi?a aEibhOE(a
nimitta#
5#
eka((ata L one ointedness o* mind on the ob/ect o* the white kasi?a aEibhOE(a nimitta#
Each o* the indi;idua! *actors o* /hOEna on their own are ca!!ed /hOEna *actors6 but when they are
taken to(ether as a (rou they are
w
92
ca!!ed /hOEna#
Practise unti! you the white kasi?a *irst Then when you ha;e o* the *irst /hOEna then the same way as
has been breathin(#
@our*o!d BhOEna ,ethod O* C!assi*ication
@our*o!d BhOEna ,ethod O* C!assi*ication@our*o!d BhOEna ,ethod O* C!assi*ication@our*o!d
BhOEna ,ethod O* C!assi*ication@our*o!d BhOEna ,ethod O* C!assi*ication@our*o!d BhOEna ,ethod
O* C!assi*ication
When the *i;e *actors o* ;itakka6 ;icOEra6 are resent this is the *irst /hOEna#
When the three *actors o* Kti6 sukha6 and eka(atta this is
the second /hOEna#
When the two *actors o* sukha and eka((ata are the third /hOEna#
When the two *actors o* uekkha and eka((ata are resent the *ourth /hOEna#
@i;e*o!d BhOEna ,ethod O* C!assi*ication#
@i;e*o!d BhOEna ,ethod O* C!assi*ication#@i;e*o!d BhOEna ,ethod O* C!assi*ication#@i;e*o!d
BhOEna ,ethod O* C!assi*ication#@i;e*o!d BhOEna ,ethod O* C!assi*ication#@i;e*o!d BhOEna ,ethod
O* C!assi*ication#
When the *i;e *actors o* ;itakka6 ;icOEra6 Kti6 sukha6 and eka((ata are resent this is the *irst /hOEna#
When the *our *actors o* ;icOEra6 Kti6 sukha6 and eka(atta are resent this is the second /hOEna#
When the three *actors o* Kti6 sukha6 and eka((ata are resent this is the third /hOEna#
When the two *actors o* sukha6 and eka((ata are resent this is the *ourth /hOEna#
When the two *actors o* uekkha and eka((ata are resent this is the *i*th /hOEna#
The *i;e*o!d c!assi*ication o* /hOEna is roduced by /ust remo;in( ;itakka and ;icOEra one at a time
whereas in the *our*o!d system both are remo;ed in one ste#
The >uddha tau(ht these two systems to
indi;idua!s accordin( to their temeraments#
@or the du!! indi;idua!s he tau(ht the *i;e*o!d system and *or the c!e;er indi;idua!s he tau(ht the
*our*o!d system#
w
9=
w
9=
+* you ha;e been ab!e to de;e!o usin( the co!our o* bones that are e<terna! a!so de;e!o in a simi!ar
way the brown the head that are e<terna!6 the ye!!ow kasi?a that is e<terna!6 and the red kasi?a based on
When you ha;e succeeded in doin( that then you can de;e!o the di**erent co!our kasi?as based on the
co!our A!! *!owers that are b!ue6 brown6 or b!ack are ca!!in( out and you to ractise b!ue kasi?a#
A!! *!owers that are ye!!ow are ca!!in(
out and in;itin( you to ractise ye!!ow kasi?a#
A!! *!owers that are
red are ca!!in( out and in;itin( you to ractise red kasi?a#
A!! *!owers that are white are ca!!in( out and in;itin( you to ractise white kasi?a# Thus *or a ski!!ed
meditator whate;er he sees that is !i;in( or inanimate6
interna! or e<terna!6 is ab!e to be used as an ob/ect to de;e!o concentration and insi(ht#
+* you ha;e attained the *ourth /hOEna based on the white kasi?a as described abo;e then you wi!! now
be ab!e to use that attainment to easi!y de;e!o the *our rotection meditations be(innin( with the
de;e!oment o* !o;in()kindness meditation# >ut /ust be*ore we describe
how to do this we wi!! brie*!y describe the other kasi?a meditations
and the arAa /hOEnas#
Ten 0asi?as
Ten 0asi?asTen 0asi?asTen 0asi?asTen 0asi?asTen 0asi?as
There are ten kasi?as tau(ht by the >uddha in the OE!i te<ts# They consist o* *our co!our kasi?as !us
si< more the earth kasi?a6 water kasi?a6 *ire kasi?a6 wind kasi?a6 sace kasi?a6 !i(ht kasi?a#
w
95
w
95
The Earth 0asi?a ,editation
The Earth 0asi?a ,editationThe Earth 0asi?a ,editationThe Earth 0asi?a ,editationThe Earth
0asi?a ,editationThe Earth 0asi?a ,editation
To de;e!o the Earth 0asi?a you !ain earth6 the reddish brown co!our *rom sticks6 stones6 and !ea;es6
and then across with a stick or some other instrument#
Then you shou!d !ook
at that circ!e o* earth and note it as Iearth6 7ou shou!d !ook at that circ!e o* earth with your eyes oen
c!ose your eyes and see i* you can ;isua!iWe an ima(e earth#
+* you are unab!e to ;isua!iWe the si(n in this way then shou!d re)estab!ish your concentration based on
mind*u!ness breathin(6 or on the white kasi?a6 u to the *ourth /hOEna#
Then with the assistance o* your !i(ht o* concentration you shou!d !ook circ!e o* earth that you ha;e
reared#
When you can ;isua!iWe the nimitta o* that circ!e o* earth as c!ear!y as i* you were !ookin( at it with
your eyes oen then you can mo;e *rom that !ace and (o where;er you !ike and continue to de;e!o
that nimitta#
7ou shou!d not ay attention to the co!our o* the nimitta as an ob/ect or to the characteristics o* the
Earth e!ement o* hardness6 rou(hness etc#6 but /ust kee your mind concentrated on the ercetion
o* the ordinary concet o* earth#
7ou shou!d then continue to de;e!o this !earnin( si(n unti! you are ab!e to remo;e the *i;e hindrances
and attain uacOEra samOEdhi at which time the nimitta wi!! become the aEibhOE(a nimitta#
At this time the nimitta wi!! be e<ceedin(!y ure and c!ear#
7ou shou!d then e<and the siWe o* that aEibhOE(a nimitta a !itt!e at a time unti! it *i!!s a!! ten
directions and then de;e!o concentration on it u to the *ourth /hOEna#
w
94
The Water 0asi?a ,editation
w
94
To de;e!o the water o* ure6 c!ear water or Then ay attention to that water as Iwater6 water6 !earnin(
si(n#
Then de;e!o this si(n in the ear!ier *or the
earth kasi?a#
The @ire 0asi?a ,editation
The @ire 0asi?a ,editationThe @ire 0asi?a ,editationThe @ire 0asi?a ,editationThe @ire 0asi?a
,editationThe @ire 0asi?a ,editation
To de;e!o the *ire kasi?a you can use the cand!e6 o* any other *ire that you ha;e seen#
+* you ha;e di**icu!ty then you shou!d make a screen with a circu!ar one *oot across#
Then you can osition that screen in *ront o* a wood or (rass *ire in such a way that you can /ust see
throu(h the ho!e in the screen#
Without ayin( attention to the smoke or the *ue! that is burnin( /ust concentrate on the ercetion o*
the *!ames o* the *ire and note them as I*ire6 *ire6 *ireI#
The Wind 0asi?a ,editation
The Wind 0asi?a ,editationThe Wind 0asi?a ,editationThe Wind 0asi?a ,editationThe Wind
0asi?a ,editationThe Wind 0asi?a ,editation
The wind kasi?a can be de;e!oed in two ways throu(h the sense o* touch or throu(h seein(#
+* you wish to de;e!o the nimitta by way o* the sense o* touch then you shou!d be mind*u! o* the wind
as it comes in throu(h a window or door and brushes a(ainst the body and note it as Iwind6 wind6
windI#
+* you wish to de;e!o the nimitta by way o* the sense o* si(ht then you shou!d be mind*u! o* the
mo;ement o* !ea;es6 or the branches6 o* trees in the wind and note it as
Iwind6 wind6 windI# 7ou can do this by de;e!oin( concentration u to the *ourth /hOEna usin( another
kasi?a ob/ect and then usin( your !i(ht o* concentration
to see this mo;ement e<terna!!y and discern the si(n o* the wind# The !earnin( si(n (u((aha nimitta) is
mo;in( !ike steam comin( o** warm mi!k rice6 but the aEibhOE(a nimitta is motion!ess#
w
99
The Li(ht 0asi?a ,editation
w
99
The !i(ht
kasi?a can be de;e!oed into a room throu(h a streams throu(h the saces the earth6 or by !ookin( u
throu(h the !i(ht in the sky abo;e# +* you si(n in these ways then you can (et or !am inside it and *ace
the oenin( that a beam o* !i(ht is emitted *rom the oenin( uon the wa!!#
Then ay attention to the round circ!e o* !i(ht wa!! as I!i(ht6 !i(ht6 !i(htI#
The Sace 0asi?a ,editation
The Sace 0asi?a ,editationThe Sace 0asi?a ,editationThe Sace 0asi?a ,editationThe Sace
0asi?a ,editationThe Sace 0asi?a ,editation
The sace kasi?a can be de;e!oed by seein( the sace a window6 or a keyho!e#
+* you ha;e di**icu!ty in de;e!oin( the nimitta then you can make a iece o* *!at board and cut out
circu!ar ho!e o* ' inches to 1 *oot in diameter in it#
Then ho!d that board u towards the sky with no trees or other ob/ects behind it# Then concentrate on
the sace within that circu!ar ho!e and note it as Isace6 sace6 saceI#
The @our ArAa/hOEnas
The @our ArAa/hOEnasThe @our ArAa/hOEnasThe @our ArAa/hOEnasThe @our ArAa/hOEnasThe
@our ArAa/hOEnas
Once you ha;e attained the *our /hOEnas with each o* the ten kasi?as then you can roceed to de;e!o
the *our arAa /hOEnas ca!!ed the *our immateria! states# The *our immateria! states are-
1#
The >ase Consistin( O* >ound!ess Sace
:#
The >ase Consistin( O* >ound!ess Consciousness
2#
The >ase Consistin( O*
Nothin(ness
=#
The >ase Consistin( O* Neither Percetion Nor Non Percetion
7ou shou!d de;e!o the *our immateria! /hOEnas on!y a*ter you ha;e de;e!oed a!! o* the ten kasi?as
u to the *ourth /hOEna#
7ou can de;e!o the *our immateria! /hOEnas based on any o* the ten kasi?as e<cet the sace kasi?a#
w
9'
The >ase Consistin( O* >ound!ess Sace
w
9'
To de;e!o the *our uon the disad;anta(es The human body that has roduced by the serm and body
(kara/akOEya)#
>ecause o* ha;in( a roduced (kara/akOEya) you are sub/ect to kni;es6 sears6 and bu!!ets and sub/ect
and tortured#
The roduced body is a!so sub/ect to kinds o* diseases such as diseases o* the So that you shou!d *irst!y
understand by wisdom a roduced body made o* matter you are sub/ect su**erin( and that i* you can be
*ree *rom matter you *rom the su**erin( deendent uon matter#
E;en thou(h the *ourth /hOEna based on any kasi?a has a!ready surmounted (ross hysica! matter you
sti!! need to surmount kasi?a rAa since it the counterart o* the (ross hysica! matter# Ha;in( re*!ected
!ike this and ha;in( become disassionate towards the kasi?a rAa you shou!d then de;e!o one o* the
nine kasi?as6 such as the earth kasi?a6 and use it to de;e!o the rAa /hOEnas6 u to the *ourth /hOEna#
Then a*ter arisin( *rom the *ourth rAa /hOEna based on one o* the nine kasi?as you shou!d see the
disad;anta(es o* the /hOEna that is based on matter re*!ectin( that-
This *ourth /hOEna has as its ob/ects kasi?a rAa o* which + ha;e
become disassionate#
This *ourth /hOEna has /oy o* the third /hOEna as its near enemy#
This *ourth /hOEna is (rosser than the *our immateria! /hOEnas#
Since the menta! *actors resent in the *ourth /hOEna and the *our immateria! /hOEnas are the same
you do not need to re*!ect on any disad;anta(es concernin( them as you do when de;e!oin( each o*
the *our rAa /hOEnas#
w
9&
w
9&
Then you need to e<and it is in*inite or as !ar(e an area kasi?a rAa by ayin( attention kasi?a rAa as
Isace6 saceI or Ibound!ess saceI#
So that what is !e*t is the sace !e*t by kasi?a6 or the sace that the kasi?a occuied6 by the kasi?a#
+* you ha;e di**icu!ty in doin( this then you shou!d sace in one art o* the earth kasi?a nimitta and
when that ay attention on!y to sace and you wi!! *ind that it re!aces the earth kasi?a nimitta#
Then you need to continue to ay attention to that si(n o* sace !e*t behind by the remo;a! o* the kasi?a
as Isace6 saceI with initia!
a!ication o* the mind#
>y doin( this a(ain and a(ain you wi!! *ind that the hindrances are suressed and that uacOEra
concentration
arises with the si(n o* sace as its ob/ect#
>y reeated attention to that si(n you wi!! *ind that aana /hOEna arises with the si(n o* sace as its
ob/ect#
This is the *irst immateria! /hOEna ca!!ed the base
consistin( o* bound!ess sace#
The >ase Consistin( O* >ound!ess Consciousness
The >ase Consistin( O* >ound!ess ConsciousnessThe >ase Consistin( O* >ound!ess
ConsciousnessThe >ase Consistin( O* >ound!ess ConsciousnessThe >ase Consistin( O* >ound!ess
ConsciousnessThe >ase Consistin( O* >ound!ess Consciousness
The second immateria! /hOEna is the base consistin( o* bound!ess consciousness and it has as its ob/ect
the consciousness associated with the base consistin( o* bound!ess sace#
+* you wish to de;e!o the base consistin( o* bound!ess consciousness
you must *irst!y attain the *i;e masteries o* the base consistin(
o* bound!ess sace#
Then a*ter that you shou!d re*!ect on the
w
'3
disad;anta(es
This base consistin( o* as its near enemy and it is bound!ess consciousness#
A*ter ha;in( thus become disassionate o* bound!ess sace you shou!d nature o* the base consistin( o*
bound!ess Then you shou!d ay attention to the consciousness resent o* the base consistin( o*
bound!ess sace6 sace as its ob/ect#
7ou shou!d ay attention a(ain and a(ain to that consciousness resent durin( the attainment o* o*
bound!ess sace and note it as IConsciousness6 consciousnessI#
7ou shou!d not note it as /ust Ibound!ess6 bound!ess6I but instead note it as Ibound!ess consciousness6
bound!ess consciousnessI
or I/ust consciousness6 consciousnessI#
Then you need to continue to ay attention to that si(n o* consciousness
resent durin( the attainment o* the base consistin( o* bound!ess sace as Iconsciousness6
consciousnessI with initia! a!ication
o* the mind#
>y doin( this a(ain and a(ain you wi!! *ind that the hindrances are suressed and that uacOEra
concentration arises with that si(n as its ob/ect#
>y reeated attention to that si(n you wi!! *ind that aana /hOEna arises with that si(n as its ob/ect#
This is the second immateria! /hOEna ca!!ed the base consistin( o* bound!ess consciousness#
The >ase Consistin( O* Nothin(ness
The >ase Consistin( O* Nothin(nessThe >ase Consistin( O* Nothin(nessThe >ase Consistin( O*
Nothin(nessThe >ase Consistin( O* Nothin(nessThe >ase Consistin( O* Nothin(ness
The third immateria! /hOEna is the base consistin( o* nothin(ness and it has as its ob/ect the non)
e<istence o* the re;ious consciousness
o* the base consistin( o* bound!ess sace which is the ob/ect o* the base consistin( o* bound!ess
consciousness#
w
'1
w
'1
!ess
consciousness#
Then a*ter that you shou!d o* the base consistin(
This base consistin( o* bound!ess consistin( o* bound!ess sace as its as the base consistin( o*
nothin(ness#
A*ter ha;in( thus become disassionate towards o* bound!ess consciousness you shou!d eace*u!
nature o* the base consistin( o* nothin(ness#
Then you shou!d ay attention to the resent non)e<istence o* that was resent durin( the attainment o*
the base bound!ess sace and is the ob/ect o* the base consistin( o* consciousness#
7ou shou!d ay attention a(ain and a(ain to the non)e<istence o* the ob/ect o* the base consistin( o*
bound!ess consciousness
and note it as INothin(ness6 nothin(ness6 Foid6 Foid or Without6 Without6I#
Then you need to continue to ay attention to that si(n
INothin(ness6
Nothin(nessI with initia! a!ication o* the mind#
>y doin(
this a(ain and a(ain you wi!! *ind that the hindrances are suressed
and that uacOEra concentration arises with that si(n as its ob/ect#
>y reeated attention to that si(n you wi!! *ind that aana /hOEna arises with that si(n as its ob/ect#
This is the third immateria!
/hOEna ca!!ed the base consistin( o* nothin(ness#
The >ase Consistin( O*
The >ase Consistin( O*The >ase Consistin( O*The >ase Consistin( O*The >ase Consistin( O*The
>ase Consistin( O* Neither Percetion Nor Non Percetion
Neither Percetion Nor Non PercetionNeither Percetion Nor Non PercetionNeither Percetion Nor
Non PercetionNeither Percetion Nor Non PercetionNeither Percetion Nor Non Percetion
The *ourth immateria! /hOEna is the base consistin( o* neither ercetion nor non ercetion and it has
as its ob/ect the consciousness resent durin( the attainment o* the the base
w
':
consistin( o* nothin(ness#
+t is ca!!ed the base ercetion nor non is e<treme!y subt!e#
+* you wish to de;e!o the nor non ercetion you must base consistin( o* nothin(ness#
Then a*ter that you shou!d re*!ect on the disad;anta(es o* the base consistin(
This base consistin( o* nothin(ness has the bound!ess consciousness as its near enemy and as the base
consistin( o* neither ercetion nor non Percetion is a disease6 ercetion is a boi!6 ercetion base
consistin( o* neither ercetion nor non ercetion
A*ter ha;in( thus become disassionate towards the base consistin(
o* nothin(ness you shou!d then re*!ect on the eace*u! nature o* the base consistin( o* neither
ercetion nor non ercetion#
Then you shou!d ay attention a(ain and a(ain to the attainment o* the base consistin( o* nothin(ness
as Ieace*u!6 eace*u!I#
Then you need to continue to ay attention to that si(n o* the attainment o* the base consistin( o*
nothin(ness as IPeace*u!6 eace*u!I
with initia! a!ication o* the mind#
>y doin( this a(ain and a(ain you wi!! *ind that the hindrances are suressed and that uacOEra
concentration arises with that si(n as its ob/ect#
>y reeated attention to that si(n you wi!! *ind that aana /hOEna arises with that si(n as its ob/ect#
This is the *ourth immateria! /hOEna ca!!ed the base consistin( o* neither ercetion nor non
ercetion#
w
'2
@our Protections-
@our Protections-@our Protections-@our Protections-@our Protections-@our Protections-
Lo;in(kindness ,editation (,etta >hOE;ana)
Lo;in(kindness ,editation Lo;in(kindness ,editation Lo;in(kindness ,editation Lo;in(kindness
,editation Lo;in(kindness ,editation
+* you wish to de;e!o Lo;in(kindness *irst!y be aware that !o;in(kindness the *o!!owin( ersons in
These areN
1# An antiathetic erson
(aiyau((a!a)#
:# A erson who you !o;e a !ot
(atiiyasahOEyaka)#
2# A neutra! erson
(ma//hattau((a!a)#
=# An enemy
(;erKu((a!a)#
As we!! as these *our6 you shou!d a!so not be(in !o;in(kindness to a ersonN
5#
Who is o* the oosite se<
(!iM(a;isabhOE(a)
4#
Who is not !i;in(
(kOE!akatau((a!a)#
+n the case o* the *irst *our ersonsN an antiathetic erson is one who does not do what is bene*icia! *or
onese!* or *or those one cares *or6 and an enemy is one who does what is detrimenta! to onese!* and to
those one cares *or#
+n either case they are di**icu!t to de;e!o !o;in(kindness to in the be(innin( as an(er may arise
towards them# A!so it is hard in the be(innin( to de;e!o !o;in(kindness towards a erson who you are
indi**erent to#
+n the case o* a erson who you !o;e a !ot then you may be too attached to that erson and e;en cry and
be *i!!ed with concern and (rie* i* you hear that somethin( has haened to them#
So these *irst *our shou!d not be used as ob/ects *or the de;e!oment o* !o;in(kindness in the initia!
sta(es6 but !ater when you ha;e attained /hOEna you can then use them6 and you wi!! *ind that you can
de;e!o !o;in(kindness towards them#
+n the case o* indi;idua! ersons o* the oosite se< they shou!d not be used as ob/ects *or de;e!oin(
!o;in(kindness because !ust wi!! arise towards them6 but a*ter you ha;e attained /hOEna then it is
w
'=
w
'=
@ina!!y in the case o* a erson attain !o;in(kindness /hOEna there is no time at which !o;in(kindness
dead erson#
7ou shou!d be(in to de;e!o !o;in(kindness
order - 1# Onese!*
(atta)
:# A erson who you !ike and resect
(iya)
2# A neutra! erson
(ma//hatta)
=# An enemy
(;erK)
A erson cannot attain /hOEna concentration usin( himse!* as ob/ect e;en i* he were to de;e!o that
meditation by thinkin(6 G+ be hayG *or one hundred years#
So why do you be(in by
de;e!oin( !o;in(kindness to yourse!*V
Lo;in(kindness is *irst de;e!oed by startin( with onese!* sim!y so that you can use yourse!* as an
e<am!e *or comarison#
+t is not *or the urose o* attainin( access concentration (/hOEna) with onese!* as an ob/ect#
A*ter a meditator
has
de;e!oed !o;in(kindness towards himse!*
thinkin(6 G,ay + be hayG he is then ab!e to comare himse!* to others and see that /ust as he wants to
be hay6 dis!ikes su**erin(6 wants to !i;e !on(6 and does not want to die6 so too a!! other bein(s want to
be hay6 dis!ike su**erin(6 want to !i;e !on(6 and do not want to die#
+n this way by usin( himse!* as an e<am!e *or comarison the meditator is ab!e to de;e!o a mind that
wishes and desires the hainess and roserity o* other bein(s#
w
'5
@or the >uddha
PHa;in( searched a!! anyone anywhere who
And in this same way do a!! themse!;es more than anyone e!se6 own we!*are shou!d not harm others#
(sabbOE disOE anuari(amma cetasOE6 ne;a//ha(OE k;aci#
E;aU iyo uthu attOE aresaU6 tasmOE na hiUse kOEmo# saU)1)95)
So in order to make our minds so*t and kind by comarin( with others we shou!d *irst!y de;e!o
!o;in(kindness ourse!*#
7ou can do it by de;e!oin( the *o!!owin( *our thou(hts-
1#
,ay + be *ree *rom dan(er
(ahaU a;ero homi)#
:#
,ay + be *ree *rom menta! ain
(abyOEa//OE
homi)#
2#
,ay + be *ree *rom hysica! ain
(anK(ha
homi)#
=#
,ay + be we!! and
hay
(sukhK attOEnaU ariharOEmi)#
+* a ersons mind is so*t6 kind6 understandin(6 and has emathy *or others then he shou!d ha;e no
di**icu!ty in de;e!oin( !o;in(kindness towards another erson so it is imortant that the
!o;in(kindness you ha;e de;e!oed towards yourse!* is stron( and ower*u!#
So when your mind has become so*t6 kind6 and has emathy and understandin( o* others then you can
be(in to de;e!o !o;in(kindness to other bein(s#
+* you wish to attain !o;in(kindness /hOEna usin( another erson as the ob/ect then you shou!d ractise
as *o!!ows#
w
'4
Per;adin( Lo;in(kindness To A Person Who +s Liked
w
'4
And 1esected#
And 1esected#And 1esected#And 1esected#And 1esected#And 1esected#
+* you ha;e attained the or the white kasi?a you unti! your mind emits bri(ht The *ourth /hOEna based
on white kasi?a is esecia!!y assistance and suort o* the !i(ht concentration it is rea!!y ;ery easy *or
meditation#
The reason *or this is that the concentration /hOEna has uri*ied the mind *rom (reed6 an(er6
de*i!ements#
At the time that you !ea;e the *ourth /hOEna then mind is !iant6 workab!e6 ure6 bri(ht and radiant this
you wi!! in a ;ery short time be ab!e to de;e!o ower*u! com!ete !o;in(kindness with the assistance
o* this *ourth concentration#
So when that !i(ht is stron( and bri(ht you shou!d direct your mind towards a erson o* the same se<
who you !ike and resectN maybe your teacher or a *e!!ow meditator#
7ou wi!! *ind that the !i(ht roduced by the concentration o* the *ourth /hOEna is sread around
yourse!* in a!! directions and you wi!! *ind that whoe;er you ick as an ob/ect *or the de;e!oment o*
!o;in(kindness wi!! become
;isib!e in that !i(ht#
7ou then take the
ima(e o* that erson6
whether sittin( or standin(6 that you !ike the most#
Try to se!ect the
one you !ike the most and that makes you the haiest#
Then takin( one o* those ima(es o* the erson that you ha;e seen be*ore when he was at his haiest6
make the ima(e
aear about = or 5 cubits in
*ront o* you#
Then when you can c!ear!y see that erson in *ront o* you in the !i(ht de;e!o !o;in(kindness towards
him in the *o!!owin(
way-
1#
,ay this (ood erson be *ree *rom dan(er# (ayaU sauriso a;ero hotu)#
:#
,ay this (ood erson be *ree *rom menta! ain
w
'9
(ayaU sauriso
2#
,ay this (ood erson (ayaU sauriso anK(ha #
=#
,ay this (ood erson be (ayaU sauriso sukhKattOEnaU #
1adiate !o;in(kindness towards *or three or *our times and then a*ter !ike the most# @or e<am!e6 G,ay
this dan(erG#
Then takin( an ima(e o* that erson *ree ob/ect who!e hearted!y radiate !o;in(kindness G,ay this (ood
erson be *ree *rom dan(erG6 erson be *ree *rom dan(erG6 a(ain and a(ain many When the mind
becomes ;ery ca!m and steadi!y *i<ed on that ob/ect you can discern i* the *actors o* /hOEna are
resent#
0ee ractisin( ro(ressi;e!y unti! you reach the *irst6 second6 and third /hOEnas#
Then a*ter that take each o* the other 2 remainin( ways *or de;e!oin( !o;in(kindness one at a time
and de;e!o each o* these ro(ressi;e!y
unti! you reach the third /hOEna#
Whi!e you are doin( this you shou!d ha;e an aroriate menta! ima(e *or each o* the *our di**erent
ways to radiate !o;in(kindness#
When you are thinkin( G,ay this (ood erson be *ree *rom dan(erG then you shou!d use an ima(e o*
that erson bein( *ree *rom dan(er#
When you are thinkin( G,ay this (ood erson be *ree *rom menta! ainG then you shou!d use an ima(e
o* that erson bein( *ree *rom menta! ain#
When you are thinkin( G,ay this (ood erson be *ree *rom hysica! ainG then you shou!d use an ima(e
o* that erson bein( *ree *rom hysica! ain# When you are thinkin( G,ay this (ood erson be we!! and
hayG6 then you shou!d use an ima(e o* that erson bein( we!! and hay# +n this way you shou!d
de;e!o the three /hOEnas and then continue to ractise the *i;e masteries (;asK bhOE;a) o* the
/hOEnas#
When you are success*u! with one erson whom you !ike and resect then try to do the same thin(
a(ain with another erson o* the
w
''
same se< that you Try doin( this eo!e o* the same the third /hOEna usin( At this sta(e you can
eo!e o* the same se<6 o* and !o;e a !ot (atiiyasahOEyaka)#
A*ter that then take about ten eo!e and in the same way de;e!o unti! you reach the third /hOEna#
These ten eo!e must a!so be o* the
same se< and !i;in(#
A*ter that then do the same thin( with about ten your enemies or who you dis!ike and de;e!o
!o;in(kindness them unti! you reach the third /hOEna with each#
These ten
eo!e too must a!so be o* the same se< and !i;in(#
+* you are the tye o* Oreat >ein( !ike the >odhisatta when he was Nandiya6 monkey kin(6 who ne;er
thou(ht o* anyone who harmed them an enemy and you rea!!y ha;e no enemies and do not dis!ike or
desise anyone6 then you do not need to search *or or use one here# On!y those who ha;e enemies or
eo!e that they desise shou!d de;e!o !o;in(kindness towards them#
So by ractisin( this method o* de;e!oment o* !o;in(kindness you shou!d (radua!!y be ab!e to
de;e!o concentration u to the third /hOEna usin( one (rou o* eo!e and when the mind has
become !iant then ro(ress onto the ne<t (rou o* eo!e unti! you can attain /hOEna usin( any (rou#
>reakin( $own The $istinctions >etween +ndi;idua!s
>reakin( $own The $istinctions >etween +ndi;idua!s>reakin( $own The $istinctions >etween
+ndi;idua!s>reakin( $own The $istinctions >etween +ndi;idua!s>reakin( $own The $istinctions
>etween +ndi;idua!s>reakin( $own The $istinctions >etween +ndi;idua!s (SKmOEsambheda)#
(SKmOEsambheda)#(SKmOEsambheda)#(SKmOEsambheda)#(SKmOEsambheda)#(SKmOEsambheda)#
As you continue to de;e!o !o;in(kindness u to the third /hOEna towards the *our (rous mentioned
abo;e you wi!! *ind that your !o;in(kindness towards those you !ike and resect and those who you are
articu!ar!y *ond o* and !o;e a !ot wi!! become e;en
and you
w
'&
can take these two Then you wi!! be with on!y *our (rous-
1#
Onese!*#
:#
Any erson one !ikes#
2#
Any erson who is neutra!#
=#
Any erson who is an enemy#
Then you wi!! need to continue to de;e!o that it is ba!anced6 e;en and without distinction these *our
(rous o* indi;idua!s#
Whi!e you are tryin( to achie;e this you wi!! *ind that you cannot attain !o;in(kindness usin( yourse!*
as an ob/ect6 but sti!! in order to achie;e o* distinction between the (rous you wi!! need to inc!ude
+n order to achie;e this you wi!!
need to return to your ori(ina! meditation be it mind*u!ness o* breathin( or the white kasi?a de;e!o
your concentration ti!! the *ourth /hOEna#
Then a*ter the !i(ht becomes stron( and bri(ht send !o;in(kindness to yourse!* *or a short time say a
minute or e;en a *ew seconds#
A*ter that take someone that you !ike as an ob/ect and de;e!o !o;in(kindness towards
that erson unti! you reach the third /hOEna#
Then take someone
who is neutra! as an ob/ect and de;e!o !o;in(kindness towards that erson unti! you reach the third
/hOEna#
Then take someone who is an enemy as an ob/ect and de;e!o !o;in(kindness towards that erson unti!
you reach the third /hOEna#
Then start a(ain and send !o;in(kindness brie*!y to yourse!*6 but now a*ter that send !o;in(kindness to
a di**erent erson who you !ike6 a di**erent erson who is neutra!6 a di**erent erson who is your
enemy#
Whi!e sendin( !o;in(kindness to the !ast three tyes o* erson
remember to de;e!o each to the third /hOEna and a!so to use each o* the *our ways o* sendin(
!o;in(kindness6 G,ay this (ood erson be *ree *rom dan(erG etc#6 to the third /hOEna *or each erson#
w
&3
w
&3
;e!o
!o;in(kindness without distinction !o;in(kindness /hOEna e;en!y without down the distinction
between indi;idua!s sKmOEsambheda and
you wi!! now be ab!e to continue to de;e!o !o;in(kindness accordin( to the method shown
aEisambhidOEma((a (#21=)#
The method o* de;e!oin( !o;in(kindness in aEisambhidOEma((a
consists o*-
1#
@i;e tyes o* unseci*ied er;asion
(anodiso hara?OE)
:#
Se;en tyes o* seci*ied er;asion
(odhiso hara?OE)
2#
Ten tyes o* directiona! er;asion
(disOE hara?OE)
@i;e tyes o* unseci*ied er;asion
1#
A!! bein(s
(sabbe
sattOE)
:#
A!! breathin( thin(s
(sabbe OE?a)
2#
A!! creatures
(sabbe bhAtOE)
=#
A!! ersons
(sabbe u((a!OE)
5#
A!! indi;idua!s
(sabbe attabhOE;aariyOEannOE)
Se;en tyes o* seci*ied er;asion
1#
A!! women
(sabbOE itthiyo)
:#
A!! men
(sabbe
urisOE)
2#
A!! en!i(htened bein(s
(sabbe ariyOE)
=#
A!! unen!i(htened bein(s
(sabbe anariyOE)
5#
A!! $e;as
(sabbe
de;OE)
w
&1
4#
A!! humans
(sabbe
manussOE)
9#
A!! bein(s in the !ower (sabbe
;iniiOEtikOE)
Ten tyes o* directiona!
1#
To the East
:#
To the West
2#
To the South
=#
To the North
5#
To the South East
4#
To the South West
9#
To the North West
'#
To the North East
&#
Abo;e
13#
>e!ow
To de;e!o this sta(e o* !o;in(kindness meditation you shou!d *irst!y return to your initia! ob/ect o*
meditation and then de;e!o concentration a(ain unti! you ha;e reached the *ourth /hOEna usin( the
white kasi?a#
Then as described abo;e de;e!o !o;in(kindness a(ain and a(ain towards onese!*6 someone !iked and
resected6 a neutra! erson6 and someone who is an enemy unti! you ha;e remo;ed
the distinctions between indi;idua!s# When you are ab!e to radiate !o;in(kindness e;en!y to anyone
without distinction then chose as much o* the area as you can around you o* the monastery !and or the
!and o* the house where you are and take a!! o* the bein(s there as an ob/ect#
At that time because o* your concentrated mind you shou!d e<erience bri(ht and sark!in( !i(ht#
With the assistance
o* that !i(ht when you chose a articu!ar area and take the bein(s
in it as an ob/ect you wi!! be ab!e to c!ear!y see a!! those bein(s in the radiance o* that !i(ht#
When you can see a!! those bein(s in this way then you can be(in to ractise the 5 tyes o* unseci*ied
er;asion o* !o;in(kindness and the 9 tyes o* seci*ied er;asion o* !o;in(kindness#
That is you wi!! be er;adin( a tota! o* 1: tyes
w
&:
o* !o;in(kindness#
A!so in each o* radiate !o;in(kindness
1#
,ay a!!
bein(s
be *ree *rom dan(er
:#
,ay a!!
bein(s
be *ree *rom menta! ain
2#
,ay a!!
bein(s
be *ree *rom hysica! ain
=#
,ay a!!
bein(s
be we!! and hay#
Thus you wi!! be radiatin( !o;in(kindness 1: < = L =' ways#
As you radiate !o;in(kindness in this way you way o* radiatin( !o;in(kindness unti! you reach you
mo;e on to the ne<t way#
A!so the bein(s who are the ob/ect o* the !o;in(kindness /hOEna shou!d be c!ear!y ;isib!e !i(ht o* your
concentration and understandin(#
When you are success*u!
in radiatin( !o;in(kindness in these = ways to a!! bein(s6 then mo;e on to the ne<t tye6 a!! breathin(
thin(s6 and radiate !o;in(kindness to this tye in the same = ways#
+n this way you shou!d ro(ressi;e!y radiate !o;in(kindness to the *irst 5 tyes o* bein(s#
When you mo;e onto the ne<t 9 tyes o* seci*ied er;asion i* you are radiatin( !o;in(kindness to a!!
women you shou!d be ab!e to see in your !i(ht a!! the women within the area that you ha;e determined
to radiate !o;in(kindness to#
+n the same way when you radiate !o;in(kindness towards a!! men6 de;as6 bein(s in !ower rea!ms etc#6
you shou!d be ab!e to see a!! the men6 de;as6 bein(s in !ower rea!ms etc#6 in the area you ha;e
determined to radiate !o;in(kindness in#
7ou shou!d then de;e!o and ractise in this way unti! you become ro*icient in the radiatin( o*
!o;in(kindness in these =' ways#
When you can do this you then roceed to e<and the area in which you are radiatin( !o;in(kindness to
inc!ude the who!e mon
w
&2
astery or house6 state6 the who!e country6 the who!e (a!a<y6 and As you e<and the area o* radiation it in
=' ways and each o* them
Then a*ter that you wi!! be ready the 13 directions#
Per;adin( Lo;in(kindness To The Ten $irections
Per;adin( Lo;in(kindness To The Ten $irectionsPer;adin( Lo;in(kindness To The Ten
$irectionsPer;adin( Lo;in(kindness To The Ten $irectionsPer;adin( Lo;in(kindness To The Ten
$irectionsPer;adin( Lo;in(kindness To The Ten
Per;adin( !o;in(kindness to the ten directions er;asions to each o* the 13 directions which (i;es
='L='3 ways to radiate !o;in(kindness# When we o* er;adin( !o;in(kindness as tau(ht abo;e we (et
a =' L 5:' ways to radiate !o;in(kindness#
To ractise the er;asion o* !o;in(kindness accordin( to direction
then you shou!d take a!! the bein(s in the who!e uni;erse that are situated to the east o* you as an ob/ect
and when you can see them in the !i(ht then radiate !o;in(kindness to them in the =' ways mentioned
abo;e#
Then you can do the same thin( in the west6 and ro(ressi;e!y in a!! the other directions#
When you ha;e com!eted this you can a!so (o on to er;ade !o;in(kindness in the ways described in
the ,etta Sutta as we!!# (See >e!ow)
When you ha;e com!eted the de;e!oment o* the ractise o* radiatin( !o;in(kindness in these 5:'
ways you wi!! then know how to send !o;in(kindness in accordance with the instructions o* the >uddha
in $i(ha NikOEya and in other !aces and you wi!! a!so be ab!e to e<erience the e!e;en bene*its o*
ractisin( !o;in(kindness which the >uddha has tau(ht in An(uttara NikOEya#
PHe !i;es ha;in( er;aded one Cuarter with a mind ossessed o* !o;in(kindness and in the same way a
second6 a third6 and a *ourth
w
&=
Cuarter# Thus he across6 e;erywhere o* !o;in(kindness that and *ree *rom ain#
(PSo mettOEsaha(atena cetasOE dutiyaU6 tathOE tatiyaU6 tathOE catutthiU# sabbadhi sabbattatOEya
sabbOE;antaU ;iu!ena maha((atena aamOE?ena a;erena ;iharati#Q)
P>hikkhus6 when the minds)de!i;erance o* !o;in(kindness cu!ti;ated6 de;e!oed6 much ractised6
made the *oundation6 estab!ished6 conso!idated6 and roer!y e!e;en bene*its can be e<ected#
What are the e!e;enV
A man s!ees in com*ort6 wakes in com*ort6 and dreams no e;i! dreams6 to human bein(s6 he is dear to
non)human bein(s6 deities (uard *ire and oison and weaons do not a**ect him6 his mind is easi!y
concentrated6 the e<ression o* his *ace is serene6 he dies uncon*used6 i* he enetrates no hi(her he wi!!
be reborn in the >rahma Wor!d#
(A#
;62=:)Q
,ettOEnisaUsa SuttaU
,ettOEnisaUsa SuttaU,ettOEnisaUsa SuttaU,ettOEnisaUsa SuttaU,ettOEnisaUsa
SuttaU,ettOEnisaUsa SuttaU
,ettOEya bhikkha;e ceto;imuttiyOE OEse;itOEya bhOE;itOEya bahu!KkatOEya yOEnKkatOEya
;atthukatOEya anuEEhitOEya aricitOEya susamOEraddhOEya ekOEdasOEnisaUsOE
OEEikaMkhOE# 0atame ekOEdasa-
SukhaU suati6 sukhaU aEibu//hati6 na OEakaU suinaU assati# ,anussOEnaU iyo hoti6
amanussOEnaU iyo hoti6 de;atOE rakkhanti6 nOEssa a((K ;OE ;isaU ;OE satthaU ;OE kamati6
tu;aEaU cittaU samOEdhiyati6 mukha;a??o ;iasKdati6 asammASho kOE!aU karoti6 uttariU
aaEi;i//hanto brahma!okAa(o hoti#
,ettOEya bhikkha;e ceto;imuttiyOE OEse;itOEya bhOE;itOEya bahu!KkatOEya yOEnKkatOEya
;atthukatOEya anuEEhitOEya aricitOEya susamOEraddhOEya ime ekOEdasOEnisaUsOE
OEEikaMkhOEti#
w
&5
,etta Sutta
,etta Sutta,etta Sutta,etta Sutta,etta Sutta,etta Sutta
This is what shou!d !i;e in eace-
He shou!d be caab!e6 easy to admonish6 (ent!e he has and easy to suort6 not ca!m6 wise6 we!!)
mannered and he shou!d not er*orm e;en the sma!!est he wou!d be b!amed by the wise#
His thou(hts shou!d be6 P ,ay a!! bein(s !i;e hainess and in eace6 may a!! bein(s e<erience
hainessQ#
PWhate;er bein(s there may be without e<cetion6 the the stron(6 the !on(6 !ar(e6 medium6 short6 sma!!
and minute6 ha;e seen and those + ha;e ne;er seen6 those !i;in( *ar away those !i;in( nearby6 those who
wi!! be reborn and those who wi!! not be rebornN may a!! bein(s e<erience hainessQ#
Let him not decei;e another or desise anyone whatsoe;er in any !ace# Let him not wish harm to
another because o* i!!)wi!! or dis!ike#
Bust as a mother wou!d (i;e her !i*e to rotect her on!y chi!d6 in the same way !et him de;e!o an
un!imited mind o* !o;in(kindness towards a!! bein(s#
And !et him de;e!o an un!imited mind o* !o;in(kindness radiatin(
to the who!e uni;erse6 abo;e6 be!ow6 and across6 without !imit6 without enmity6 without i!!)wi!!#
Whether standin(6 wa!kin(6 sittin( or !yin( downN *or as !on( as he is *ree *rom s!oth6 bein( estab!ished
in constant mind*u!ness o* !o;in(kindness6 this is said to be the best way to !i;e#
w
&4
w
&4
The method o* radiatin( metta
1#
,ay a!! bein(s
!i;e in (hysica!) hainess#
:#
,ay a!! bein(s
!i;e in eace#
2#
,ay a!! bein(s e<erience (menta!) =#
Whate;er bein(s there may be that are may
a!! those bein(s e<erience hainess#
5#
Whate;er bein(s there may be that + ha;e seen ne;er seen6 may a!! those bein(s e<erience hainess#
4#Whate;er bein(s there may be that !i;e *araway or nearby6
may a!! those bein(s e<erience hainess#
9#Whate;er bein(s there may be that wi!! be reborn and those who wi!! not be reborn6
may a!! those bein(s e<erience hainess#
'#
Whate;er bein(s there may be that are !on(6 short6 or medium may a!! those bein(s e<erience
hainess#
&#
Whate;er bein(s there may be that are !ar(e6 sma!!6 or medium may a!! those bein(s e<erience
hainess#
13#
Whate;er bein(s there may be that are *at6 thin6 or medium may a!! those bein(s e<erience hainess#
11#
Let not
anyone decei;e another#
1:#
Let not anyone desise anyone whatsoe;er in any !ace#
12#
Let not
anyone wish harm to another because o* i!!)wi!! or
dis!ike#
Comassion ,editation (0aru?OE >hOE;ana)
Comassion ,editation (0aru?OE >hOE;ana)Comassion ,editation (0aru?OE
>hOE;ana)Comassion ,editation (0aru?OE >hOE;ana)Comassion ,editation (0aru?OE
>hOE;ana)Comassion ,editation (0aru?OE >hOE;ana)
+* you ha;e de;e!oed !o;in(kindness meditation as described abo;e then it shou!d not be di**icu!t *or
you to de;e!o comassion as a meditation sub/ect#
+* you want to de;e!o comassion you shou!d *irst!y se!ect a bein( who is su**erin(6 who is o* the
same se< as yourse!* and who is !i;in(6 and re*!ectin( on his su**erin( you shou!d arouse comassion
*or that bein(#
w
&9
w
&9
centration
you shou!d *irst!y based on that erson and enter Then a*ter arisin( *rom that !o;in(kindness /hOEna
whi!e keein( ob/ect you shou!d de;e!o comassion be *reed *rom su**erin(I (ayam sauriso 7ou
shou!d reeat this many times6 a(ain and a(ain6 *irst6 second6 and third /hOEnas and the *i;e masteries
A*ter that you shou!d de;e!o comassion in a simi!ar used to de;e!o !o;in(kindness towards a erson
that erson who is neutra! and a erson who is your enemy#
7ou shou!d
de;e!o each o* these u to the third /hOEna in each instance#
To de;e!o comassion towards bein(s who are hay and not su**erin( in an ob;ious way you shou!d
*irst!y re*!ect that a!! unen!i(htened bein(s are not *ree *rom the ossibi!ity o* bein( reborn
in the !ower rea!ms#
A!so because o* the e;i! actions that they ha;e er*ormed durin( their wanderin(s throu(h the rounds
o* rebirth
and whi!e they are sti!! not *reed *rom the dan(er o* bein( reborn
in !ower rea!ms a!! bein(s are sti!! sub/ect to the e<erience o* the resu!ts o* those e;i! actions#
A!so e;ery bein( is an ob/ect *or comassion because they are not *reed *rom the su**erin( o* a(ein(6
sickness6 and death#
When you succeed in doin( this you shou!d then de;e!o comassion
in a simi!ar way to the way *or de;e!oin( !o;in(kindness to the *our ersons bein(-
onese!*6 a erson one !ikes#6 a neutra!
erson and to an enemy#
Then ha;in( remo;ed the distinctions between indi;idua!s you shou!d de;e!o comassion u to the
third /hOEna in each instance#
w
&'
w
&'
*ied
er;asions6 and R5 8 9 8(13 directions <1: used in the de;e!oment o*
Symathetic Boy ,editation
Symathetic Boy ,editationSymathetic Boy ,editationSymathetic Boy ,editationSymathetic Boy
,editationSymathetic Boy ,editation
(,uditOE
(,uditOE(,uditOE(,uditOE(,uditOE(,uditOE
>hOE;anOE)
>hOE;anOE)>hOE;anOE)>hOE;anOE)>hOE;anOE)>hOE;anOE)
To de;e!o symathetic /oy meditation a erson o* the same se< who is a!i;e and ;ery *ond o* and
*riend!y with#
Se!ect a hay erson who i* you
see makes you hay and (!ad#
Then you shou!d de;e!o the white kasi?a u to the and then when your !i(ht o* concentration is bri(ht
and shou!d discern with that !i(ht that bein( who you ha;e se!ected# When you can see that bein( with
your !i(ht o* concentration shou!d *irst!y de;e!o !o;in(kindness meditation based on that and enter
into /hOEna#
Then a*ter arisin( *rom that !o;in(kindness /hOEna you shou!d de;e!o comassion /hOEna6 and then
ha;in( arisen *rom that you shou!d take that erson as an ob/ect and de;e!o symathetic
/oy thinkin(- I,ay this bein( not be searated *rom the roserity he has attained#I
$e;e!o this a(ain and a(ain unti! you
attain the third /hOEna#
A*ter that de;e!o symathetic /oy in the same way *or a !iked erson6 a neutra! erson6 and an enemy#
Then de;e!o symathetic /oy to onese!*6 a erson you !ike6 a neutra! erson6 and an enemy unti! you
are ab!e to remo;e the distinction between indi;idua!s and then takin( a!! bein(s in the bound!ess
uni;erse as an ob/ect de;e!o symathetic /oy in 12: ways6 consistin( o*-
*i;e unseci*ied er;asions6 se;en seci*ied er;asions6 and one hundred and twenty directiona!
er;asions#
R5 8 9 8(13 directions <1: L 1:3) L 12:T
w
&&
ECuanimity ,editation
ECuanimity ,editationECuanimity ,editationECuanimity ,editationECuanimity
,editationECuanimity ,editation
("ekkhOE >hOE;anOE)
("ekkhOE >hOE;anOE)("ekkhOE >hOE;anOE)("ekkhOE >hOE;anOE)("ekkhOE
>hOE;anOE)("ekkhOE >hOE;anOE)
To de;e!o eCuanimity the white kasina to the o* the same se<6 who is a!i;e and symathetic /oy each
erson#
Then ha;in( arisen *rom the third on the disad;anta(es o* the three brahma;iharas to a**ection6 !ike and
dis!ike6 e!ation Then you shou!d re*!ect on the *ourth /hOEna based on eCuanimity Then takin( a
norma!!y neutra! erson as an ob/ect eCuanimity towards him by thinkin(-
This bein( is the heir to his own actions#
>ecause o* the assistance o* the third /hOEna o* !o;in(kindness6 comassion6 and symathetic /oy you
shou!d not take !on( the *ourth /hOEna o* eCuanimity based on that neutra! erson# Then a*ter that you
can de;e!o the *ourth /hOEna o* eCuanimity towards
a erson you !ike6 then a erson you !ike a !ot6 then an enemy# Then you shou!d de;e!o the *ourth
/hOEna o* eCuanimity a(ain and a(ain to onese!*6 a erson you !ike6 a neutra! erson and an enemy
unti! you ha;e remo;ed the distinctions between indi;idua!s and then takin( a!! bein(s in the bound!ess
uni;erse as an ob/ect de;e!o eCuanimity in 12: ways6 consistin( o*- *i;e unseci*ied er;asions6 se;en
seci*ied er;asions6 and one hundred and twenty directiona! er;asions#
R5 8 9 8(13 directions <1: L 1:3) L 12:T
w
133
1eco!!ection O* The Dua!ities O* The >uddha#
1eco!!ection O* 1eco!!ection O* 1eco!!ection O* 1eco!!ection O* 1eco!!ection O* (>uddhanussati)
(>uddhanussati)(>uddhanussati)(>uddhanussati)(>uddhanussati)(>uddhanussati)
There are nine Cua!ities de;e!o this meditation accordin( Suttas-
+tii so bha(a;OE arahaU sammOEsambuddho samanno su(ato !oka;idA anuttaro de;amanussOEnaU
buddho bha(a;OEti#
This can be trans!ated as-
This >!essed One ha;in( destroyed the menta! de*i!ements worthy o* ;eneration (arahaU)N he has
attained er*ect en!i(htenment by himse!* (sammOEsambuddho)N he is er*ect know!ed(e and the
ractise o* mora!ity (;i//OEcara?a samanno)N he seaks on!y what is bene*icia! and true (su(ato)N he
knows wor!d (!oka;idA)N he is the unsurassab!e !eader o* men *it to be tamed
(anuttarourisadammasOErathi)N he is the teacher o* $e;as and men (satthOE de;amanussOEnaU)N he
is an En!i(htened One (buddho)N he is the most *ortunate ossessor o* the resu!ts o* re;ious
meritorious actions (bha(a;OE)N
To teach this meditation we wi!! (i;e an e<am!e o* how to use the *irst Cua!ity6 ArahaU6 to de;e!o
concentration# The OESi word ArahaU has 5 meanin(s accordin( to the Fisuddhima((a#
They
are-
1#
>ecause he has tota!!y remo;ed without remainder the de*i!ements
and habitua! tendencies and has there*ore made himse!* remote
*rom them the >uddha is a worthy one6
Arahanta#
:#
>ecause he has cut o** a!! o* the de*i!ements with the sword o*
w
131
w
131
2#
>ecause he has broken o* $eendent Ori(ination the >uddha is a worthy one6 =#
>ecause o* his unsurassab!e and wisdom he is (i;en the hi(hest >rahmas6 $e;as6 and men6 there*ore
Arahanta#
5#
>ecause e;en in sec!usion when not seen by he does not er*orm any e;i! by body6 seech6 or mind a
worthy one6 Arahanta#
So to de;e!o this meditation *irst!y you shou!d memorise *i;e reasons why the >uddha is an Arahanta
and !earn them ro*icient!y enou(h so that you can recite them#
Then i* you wish to de;e!o this meditation you shou!d *irst o* a!! a(ain estab!ish your mind in the
*ourth /hOEna based on the white kasi?a or e!se the *ourth /hOEna based on mind*u!ness o* breathin(#
Then with the assistance o* the !i(ht roduced by that concentration you shou!d ;isua!ise a >uddha
ima(e that you ha;e seen be*ore and which you !iked and resected and take that ;isua!ised ima(e as
an ob/ect *or de;e!oin( concentration with# When you can c!ear!y see that ima(e ima(ine that it is
rea!!y the >uddha and continue to watch it#
+* in a ast !i*e you ha;e been *ortunate enou(h to ha;e met the >uddha himse!* you may *ind that a
icture o* the rea! >uddha wi!! arise in your mind#
Then you shou!d start to ay attention to the Cua!ities o* the >uddha and not /ust the ima(e o* the
>uddha#
+* you are tryin( to ;isua!ise the ima(e o* the >uddha and a rea! ima(e o* him does not arise then
sim!y ima(ine that the >uddha ima(e
w
13:
that you ha;e remembered the Cua!ities o* the 7ou can take whiche;er one o* the most *rom the abo;e
!ist reco!!ect it a(ain and a(ain
When your concentration de;e!os ima(e o* the >uddha wi!! disaear stay ca!m!y concentrated on the
Cua!ity When the mind stays concentrated and ca!m!y with *or about one hour then you shou!d re*!ect
and are resent#
>ut in this case the /hOEna here can on!y reach uacOEra
/hOEna#
7ou can a!so de;e!o the other Cua!ities o* the >uddha simi!ar way and ractise to attain the *i;e
masteries with this meditation#
,editation On The 1eu!si;eness O* Corses (asubha)
,editation On The 1eu!si;eness O* Corses (asubha),editation On The 1eu!si;eness O* Corses
(asubha),editation On The 1eu!si;eness O* Corses (asubha),editation On The 1eu!si;eness O*
Corses (asubha),editation On The 1eu!si;eness O* Corses (asubha)
To de;e!o the meditation based on the reu!si;eness o* a corse you shou!d be(in by reestab!ishin(
*ourth /hOEna concentration usin(
either the white kasi?a or mind*u!ness o* breathin(#
When the !i(ht roduced by that concentration is bri(ht and c!ear and i!!uminates
the area around you then you shou!d take as an ob/ect the most reu!si;e corse o* the same se< as
yourse!* that you ha;e e;er seen be*ore#
Try to ;isua!ise that corse in your !i(ht# Try to see it with the assistance o* the !i(ht so that it is e<act!y
as you saw it re;ious!y#
When you are ab!e to see it c!ear!y in this way then ;iew it in the most reu!si;e way that you can and
ha;in( ca!m!y6 concentrated
your mind on it note it as Ireu!si;e6 reu!si;eI (aEikA!a aEikA!a)#
When you are ab!e to concentrate your mind steadi!y on the ob/ect
o*
the corse *or one or two hours you wi!! e<erience a
chan(e
*rom the !earnin( si(n to the aEibhOE(a nimitta#
w
132
w
132
7ou shou!d ay attention to that reu!si;e6 a(ain and a(ain reeated!y6 constant!y on that ob/ect *or one
or two wi!! become c!ear#
When they become c!ear that is the *irst /hOEna# Continue to ractise in this way and de;e!o this
/hOEna#
1eco!!ection O* $eath
1eco!!ection O* $eath1eco!!ection O* $eath1eco!!ection O* $eath1eco!!ection O* $eath1eco!!ection
O* $eath
+n accordance with the OESi o* ,ahOEsatiaEEhOEna sutta and Fisuddhima((a commentary
reco!!ection o* death can be de;e!oed based uon a corse that you ha;e seen be*ore#
There*ore to de;e!o the reco!!ection o* death you shou!d a(ain enter the *irst /hOEna concentration
based on the reu!si;eness o* a corse#
Then when you ha;e attained the *irst /hOEna usin( that e<terna! corse as an ob/ect you shou!d re*!ect
that PThis body o* mine too is o* a nature to die a!so#
+ndeed6 it wi!! die /ust !ike this# +t cannot escae
*rom becomin( !ike this#Q
>y keein( the mind concentrated and
mind*u! o* ones own nature to die you wi!!
a!so *ind the sense o*
ur(ency (saU;e(a) de;e!os#
When that know!ed(e is resent in you6 you wi!! robab!y see your own body as a reu!si;e corse#
Then ercei;in(
that the !i*e *acu!ty has been cut o** in that ima(e o* your own corse you shou!d continue to meditate
and concentrate the mind on that ob/ect o* the cuttin( o** o* the !i*e *acu!ty# Whi!e concentratin( on that
you shou!d note either-
1#
+ am certain to die6 Li*e is imermanent (mara?aU
me dhu;aU6
/K;itaU me adhu;aU)#
:#
+ wi!! certain!y die (mara?aU me bha;issati)#
w
13=
w
13=
,y !i*e wi!! end =#
$eath6 death (mara?aU6 Takin( whiche;er amon(st attention
you can then note it in any 7ou shou!d ut *orth e**ort and ractise unti! the ob/ect o* the cuttin( o** o*
*or one or two hours#
When you are ab!e to do this you that the *i;e /hOEna *actors arise6 but with you can on!y attain access
concentration#
The *our meditation sub/ects o* Lo;in(kindness6 o* the >uddha6 Corse ,editation and 1eco!!ection
ca!!ed the @our Protections6 or the @our Protecti;e because they are ab!e to rotect the meditator *rom
;arious @or this reason it is worthwhi!e to !earn and de;e!o them roceedin( to de;e!o insi(ht#
+n the ,e(hiyasutta (an(# 2# 14&) it states that-
@or the remo;a! o* !ust meditation on reu!si;eness shou!d be de;e!oed6 *or the remo;a! o* an(er
!o;in(kindness shou!d be de;e!oed6 and mind*u!ness o* breathin( shou!d be de;e!oed *or the cuttin(
o** o* discursi;e thou(ht#
Accordin( to this sutta asubha meditation can be considered as the best weaon *or remo;in( !ust#
+* you take a corse as an ob/ect and de;e!o meditation based on that6 as tau(ht abo;e6 it is ca!!ed
reu!si;eness on a !i*e!ess corse (a;iJJOE?aka asubha)#
To take a !i;in( bein(s 2: arts o* the body and ay attention to them as reu!si;e as tau(ht in (
KrimOEnanda sutta (an( 26 2=2) is ca!!ed reu!si;eness based on a !i;in( corse (sa;iJJOE?aka
asubha)#
>oth o* these *orms o* asubha meditation whether based on a !i;in( or !i*e!ess corse are weaons *or
remo;in( !ust#
$e;e!oin( !o;in( kindness can be considered as the best
w
135
weaon *or remo;in( considered as the
There*ore i* !ust arises he shou!d de;e!o asubha
meditation# +* an(er arises he shou!d de;e!o
!o;in( kindness#
When meditation and *aith s!ackens is du!!
he shou!d use >uddhanussati and is !ackin( and he is bored with stri;in( de;e!o mind*u!ness o* death#
The ,ethod @or $e;e!oin(
The ,ethod @or $e;e!oin(The ,ethod @or $e;e!oin(The ,ethod @or $e;e!oin(The ,ethod @or
$e;e!oin(The ,ethod @or $e;e!oin(
The @our E!ements ,editation
The @our E!ements ,editationThe @our E!ements ,editationThe @our E!ements ,editationThe @our
E!ements ,editationThe @our E!ements ,editation
+n the OESi te<ts there are two ways6 in brie* and in detai!6 de;e!oin( the *our e!ements meditation#
The brie* method wi!! be e<!ained here is meant *or those o* Cuick understandin( and the detai!ed
method is meant *or those who ha;e di**icu!ty with the brie* method#
The >uddha tau(ht the brie* method in the ,ahOEsatiaEEhOEna
sutta-
A bhikkhu re*!ects about this ;ery body howe;er it be ositioned or !aced as consistin( o* /ust
e!ements thus6 PThere are in this body /ust the earth e!ement6 the water e!ement6 the *ire e!ement6 and
the air e!ementQ#
The Fisuddhima((a e<!ains *urther-
So *irst!y one o* Cuick understandin( who wants to de;e!o this meditation ###### Then he shou!d ad;ert
to his entire materia! body and discern the e!ements in brie* in this way6 P+n this body what is hard or
rou(h is the earth e!ement6 what is *!owin( or cohesion is the water e!ement6 what is maturin(
(rienin() or heat that is the *ire e!ement6 what is ushin( or suortin( that is the air e!ementQ6 and he
shou!d ad;ert and (i;e attention to it and re;iew
w
134
it a(ain and a(ain e!ement6 that is to As he makes e**ort in arises in him6 which is rein*orced the
c!assi*ication o* the e!ements not reach absortion because it
Or a(ain a!ternate!y6 there are these by the E!der Sariutta *or the urose any !i;in( bein( in the *our
(reat rimary sace is enc!osed with bones6 sinews6 *!esh6 to be the term body (rAa)Q (m#1##1&3)#
And he each o* these6 searatin( them in the way a!ready stated (abo;e)- P+n these what is hardness ###
as its ob/ectsQ#
The method tau(ht at Pa Auk Tawya is to discern in the who!e body-
1#
Earth e!ement
L hard6 rou(h6 hea;y6 so*t6 smooth6 !i(ht#
:#
Water e!ement
L *!owin(6 cohesion#
2#
@ire e!ement
L hot6 co!d#
=#
Air e!ement
L suortin(6 ushin(#
The si< Cua!ities be!on(in( to the earth e!ement can be *ound in dhammasaM(ani (#1936 ara#4=9)#
They are in OESi- 0akkha!aU6 mudukaU6 sa?haU6 harusaU6 (arukaU6 !ahukaU#
The OESi words *or the Cua!ities o* the water6 *ire6 and air e!ements resecti;e!y are-
water-
a((harana6 abandhana or saM(aha (mani*estation)
*ire-
u?ha6
sita
air-
;itthambha?a6
samudira?a
(*unction)
To !earn this meditation you must be(in by !earnin( to discern each o* the twe!;e Cua!ities or
characteristics o* the *our e!ements
w
139
one at a time# "sua!!y which are easier to !ater# They are usua!!y ushin(6 hard6 rou(h6 hea;y6
suortin(6 so*t6 Each characteristic must be body and then it must be tried body#
1#
To discern ushin( you may be(in by the sense o* touch6 o* the ushin( in the center breathe in# Then
when you can discern ushin( mo;e your awareness to another art o* the body !ace and !ook *or it
a(ain there# +n this way you wi!! to discern ushin( *irst!y in the head6 then the neck6 the body6 the
arms6 and the !e(s and *eet# 7ou must do this a(ain a(ain many times unti! where;er you !ace your
awareness body you can see ushin( easi!y#
+* the ushin( o* the breath in the back o* the throat is not easy to discern then try bein( aware o*
ushin( as the chest e<ands when breathin( or as the abdomen mo;es# +* these are not c!ear then try to
discern the u!se beat as the heart ums or any other ob;ious *orm o* ushin(# Where;er there is
mo;ement there is a!so ushin(# Where;er you be(in you must continue to s!ow!y de;e!o your
understandin( so that you can discern ushin( throu(hout the body# +n some !aces it wi!! be ob;ious
and in other !aces subt!e6 but it is resent e;erywhere throu(hout the body#
:#
When you are satis*ied that you can do this then try to discern hardness# >e(in by discernin( hardness
in the teeth# >ite your teeth to(ether and *ee! how hard they are# Then re!a< your bite and *ee! the
hardness o* the teeth# A*ter you can *ee! this then try to discern hardness throu(hout the body in a
systematic way *rom head to *eet in the same way as you used to discern ushin(# Care shou!d
w
13'
w
13'
When you can discern then a(ain !ook *or ushin( between these two6 ushin( discernin( ushin(
throu(hout throu(hout the who!e body *rom many times unti! you are satis*ied that
2#
When you can discern ushin( and hardness discern rou(hness#
1ub your ton(ue o;er the ed(e o* your teeth and you wi!! *ee! rou(hness6 or brush your hand your other
arm and you wi!! *ee! rou(hness# Now rou(hness throu(hout the who!e body in a systematic +* you
canGt *ee! rou(hness try !ookin( at ushin( and hardness a(ain and you may discern it to(ether with
them# When you discern rou(hness then continue a(ain and a(ain to discern ushin(6 hardness6
rou(hness6 one at a time throu(hout the who!e body *rom head to *eet#
=#
When you are satis*ied that you can discern these three characteristics then !ook *or hea;iness
throu(hout the who!e body# >e(in by !acin( one hand on to o* another in your !a and you wi!! *ee!
that the to hand *ee!s hea;y6 or you can *ee! the hea;iness o* the head by bendin( it *orward# Continue
to ractise systematica!!y unti! you can discern hea;iness throu(hout the who!e body and then you
shou!d continue to !ook *or *our characteristics ushin(6 hard6 rou(h6 and hea;y in turn throu(hout the
who!e body#
5#
When you are satis*ied that you can discern these *our characteristics
then !ook *or suortin( throu(hout the who!e body# >e(in by re!a<in( your back so that your body
bends *orward# Then strai(hten your body and kee it strai(ht and erect# The *orce which kees the
body strai(ht6 sti!!6 and erect is suortin(# Continue to ractise systematica!!y unti! you can discern
suortin(
w
13&
throu(hout the +* you ha;e di**icu!ty doin( this then you hardness as this can make Then when you can
discern suortin( ushin(6 hard6 rou(h6 hea;y6 body#
4#
When you can discern these *i;e then ressin( your ton(ue a(ainst the inside Then continue to ractice
systematica!!y throu(hout the who!e body#
Then you shou!d re!a< your body and continue to ractice systematica!!y unti! you throu(hout the
who!e body# 7ou can now !ook hard6 rou(h6 hea;y6 suortin(6 and so*tness throu(hout body#
9#
Ne<t !ook *or smoothness by wettin( your !is and rubbin( your ton(ue *rom side to side o;er them#
Then ractise as abo;e unti! you can discern smoothness throu(hout the who!e body and then !ook *or
se;en characteristics throu(hout the who!e body6 one at a time#
'#
Ne<t !ook *or !i(htness by raisin( a sin(!e *in(er u and down and *ee!in( its !i(htness# Practise unti!
you can discern !i(htness throu(hout the who!e body and then !ook *or ei(ht characteristics as
e<!ained abo;e#
&#
Ne<t !ook *or hotness (or warmth) throu(hout the who!e body# This is usua!!y ;ery easy to do# 7ou can
now discern nine characteristics#
13#
Ne<t !ook *or co!dness by *ee!in( the co!dness o* the breath as it enters the nostri!s and then discern it
systematica!!y throu(hout the body# 7ou can now discern ten characteristics#
Note- The abo;e ten characteristics are a!! known direct!y
w
113
throu(h the sense and cohesion6 are characteristics# That
11#
To discern cohesion be aware to(ether by the skin6 *!esh6 and the skin6 !ike water in a ba!!oon#
Without cohesion the body wou!d
*a!! into searate ieces and artic!es#
The *orce o* (ra;ity which
kees the body stuck to the earth is a!so $e;e!o it as
abo;e#
1:#
To discern *!owin( be(in by bein( aware o* the sa!i;a into the mouth6 the *!owin( o* b!ood throu(h
*!owin( o* air into the !un(s6 or the *!owin( o* heat throu(hout body# $e;e!o it as abo;e#
+* you e<erience di**icu!ty tryin( to discern *!owin( or cohesion then you shou!d *irst!y discern the
other ten Cua!ities a(ain and one at a time throu(hout the who!e body#
When you become ski!!ed in this you wi!! *ind that the Cua!ity o* cohesion a!so becomes c!ear to you#
+* cohesion sti!! does not become c!ear then ay attention a(ain and a(ain to /ust the Cua!ities o*
ushin( and hardness# E;entua!!y you shou!d *ee! as i* the who!e body is wraed u in the coi!s o* a
roe# Then you can discern this as the Cua!ity o* cohesion# +* the Cua!ity o* *!owin( does not become
c!ear then ay attention to(ether with the Cua!ities o* co!d6 heat6 or ushin( and you shou!d then be ab!e
to discern the Cua!ity o* *!owin(#
When you can discern a!! these twe!;e characteristics c!ear!y throu(hout the who!e body *rom head to
*eet you shou!d continue to discern them a(ain and a(ain in this same order# When you are satis*ied that
you can do this you shou!d rearran(e the order to the one *irst (i;en abo;e which was- hard6 rou(h6
hea;y6 so*t6 smooth6 !i(ht6 *!owin(6 cohesion6 hot6 co!d6 suortin(6 ushin(# Continue to use this order
and try to discern each characteristic one at a time
w
111
*rom head to *eet# it Cuite Cuick!y6 e;en
Whi!e ractisin( in this wi!! not be ba!anced and there to become e<cessi;e and unbearab!e# hotness6
and ushin( can become occur you shou!d ay more attention one that is in e<cess and continue to
de;e!o way# 7ou may *ind that this wi!! ba!ance *or this urose that twe!;e characteristics ha;e *irst
!ace#
When the e!ements are ba!anced it is easier to attain
+n ba!ancin( the e!ements the airs o* oosites are-
Hard and
so*t6
rou(h and smooth6
hea;y and !i(ht6
*!owin( and cohesion6
hot and co!d6
suortin( and ushin(#
+* one member o*
these airs is in e<cess6 ba!ance it by ayin( attention to its oosite# @or e<am!e i* *!owin( is in
e<cess ay more attention to cohesion6 or i* suortin( is in e<cess ay more attention to ushin(# The
rest can be treated in a simi!ar way#
Ha;in( now become ski!!ed in the discernment o* the twe!;e characteristics in the who!e body and the
characteristics ha;in( become c!ear6 you shou!d note the *irst si< to(ether at one si(ht as the earth
e!ement6 the ne<t two to(ether at one si(ht as the water e!ement6 the ne<t two as the *ire e!ement6 and
the !ast two as the air e!ement# 7ou shou!d continue to discern as earth6 water6 *ire6 and air6 in order to
ca!m the mind and attain concentration# 7ou shou!d continue to do this a(ain and a(ain *or hundreds6
thousands6 or mi!!ions o* times#
At this oint a (ood method to use is to take an o;er;iew o* the body a!! at once and to continue to
contem!ate the *our e!ements#
w
11:
+n order to kee not mo;e the awareness be*ore6 but instead take best to take the o;er;iew shou!ders# +t
can a!so be done down6 but this may !ead to tension in some meditators#
The sub)commentary to ;isuddhima((a concentration by (i;in( attention in ten ways-
+n order6 not too *ast6 not too s!ow6 wardin( o** distractions6 (oin( discardin( what is not c!ear6
discernin( the characteristics6 accordin( to adhicitta sutta6 anuttarasitibha;a bo//haM(a sutta#
1#
+n order
L
anuubbato
The order re*ers to the order tau(ht by the >uddha which is earth6 water6 *ire6 and air#
:#
Not too *ast
L
nOEtisi(hato
2#
Not too s!ow L
nOEtisanikato
+* you note too *ast then the *our e!ements6 which are the ob/ect o* this meditation6 wi!! not be c!ear!y
seen# +* you note too s!ow!y you wi!! not reach the end o* the meditation#
=#
Wardin( o** distractions
L
;ikkheaaEibOEhanato
7ou shou!d be sure to kee the mind on!y with the ob/ect o* meditation6 the *our e!ements6 and to not
!et it wander o** to other ob/ects#
5#
Ooin( beyond the concet
L
aJJattisamatikkamanato
7ou shou!d not /ust menta!!y recite6 Pearth6 water6 *ire6 airQ6 but be aware o* the actua! rea!ities they
reresent- hard6 rou(h6 hea;y6
w
112
so*t6 smooth6 !i(ht6 ushin(#
4#
$iscardin( what is unc!ear
L
anuaEEhOEnamuJcanato
When you can discern a!! twe!;e de;e!o ca!mness and concentration out those characteristics which
are !eads to ain or tension because o* an 7ou a!so need to kee at !east one characteristic *our e!ements
and you cannot /ust work on e!ements# +* a!! twe!;e characteristics are c!ear and you shou!d not discard
any#
9#
$iscernin( the characteristics
L
!akkha?ato
When you be(in to meditate and the natura! characteristics each e!ement are not c!ear then you can a!so
ay attention to their *unction# When the concentration (ets better then you shou!d concentrate on the
natura! characteristics (sabhOE;a !akkha?a) o* each o* the *our e!ementsN the hardness and rou(hness
o* the earth e!ement6 the *!owin( and cohesion o* the water e!ement6 the hotness and co!dness o* the *ire
e!ement6 and the suortin( o* the air e!ement# At this oint you wi!! on!y see e!ements and see them as
not a erson or se!*#
'#
&# and 13#
These three suttas ad;ise to ba!ance the *i;e *acu!ties (indriyas) o* *aith6 e**ort6 mind*u!ness6
concentration6 and understandin(N and to ba!ance the se;en *actors o* en!i(htenment# P!ease !ook them
u *or yourse!*-
adhicitta sutta (nimitta sutta)6
aM(uttara 1##:5'N
anuttarasatibha;a sutta6 aM(uttara :##29&N
bo//haM(a sutta6 saUyutta 2##91)92#
As you continue to de;e!o concentration based uon the *our e!ements then when you be(in to
aroach access (uacOEra)
w
11=
concentration you meditators the !i(ht continue to discern the become whiter !ike cotton At this oint
your who!e body shou!d continue to concentrate that white *orm and you wi!! *ind or !ike a b!ock o*
(!ass#
This transarent matter (rAa) is the *i;e and these we wi!! ca!! G transarent e!ements e!ements the body
transarent e!ement (sread throu(hout the who!e body# When the body eye transarent e!ement6 ear
transarent e!ement6 e!ement6 and ton(ue transarent e!ement are seen they aear as !ums or b!ocks
because you ha;e not yet remo;ed the three kinds o* comactness ((hOEna)# (See more be!ow in the
section containin( theoretica! e<!anations#)
+* you continue to discern the *our e!ements in the transarent e!ement o* the transarent *orm o* the
body you wi!! *ind that it sark!es and emits !i(ht# A*ter this !i(ht has been roduced continuous!y *or at
!east ha!* an hour6 i* you try to discern the sace e!ement in that transarent *orm by !ookin( *or sma!!
saces in it you wi!! *ind that the transarent *orm breaks down into sma!! artic!es ca!!ed rAa
ka!OEas# Ha;in( reached this sta(e which is uri*ication o* mind (citta ;isuddhi)6 you can roceed to
de;e!o uri*ication o* ;iew (diEEhi ;isuddhi) by ana!ysin( rAa ka!OEas# +* howe;er your !i(ht o*
concentration is weak and you wish to de;e!o a articu!ar samatha meditation it is best to chan(e to
samatha /ust be*ore seein( the rAa ka!OEas# @rom here you cou!d de;e!o
the meditation on the thirty)two arts o* the body# 7ou cou!d take a sin(!e art and de;e!o the *irst
/hOEna by seein( it as reu!si;e6 or you cou!d use the
w
115
co!our o* a art6 to de;e!o concentration *ourth /hOEna# A*ter rotection meditations
+* a meditator is a suddha whose ;ehic!e is ure insi(ht) e!ements accordin( to their indi;idua! see the
transarent e!ements (asada with uacOEra concentration is bri(ht then continue to de;e!o his
meditation unti! ka!OEas#
,ethod O* Ana!ysin( 1Aa 0a!OEas
,ethod O* Ana!ysin( 1Aa 0a!OEas,ethod O* Ana!ysin( 1Aa 0a!OEas,ethod O* Ana!ysin(
1Aa 0a!OEas,ethod O* Ana!ysin( 1Aa 0a!OEas,ethod O* Ana!ysin( 1Aa 0a!OEas
The rAa ka!OEas *a!! into two (rous6 those which are and those that are not transarent# On!y those
rAa which contain one o* the *i;e materia! transarent e!ements rAa) are transarent6 a!! other rAa
ka!OEas are not transarent#
7ou shou!d *irst!y be(in to ractise to discern the *our e!ements6 earth6 water6 *ire6 and air6 in indi;idua!
transarent and not transarent rAa ka!OEas# 7ou wi!! robab!y *ind that the rAa ka!OEas are
arisin( and assin( away ;ery6 ;ery Cuick!y# At this oint you wi!! sti!! not be ab!e to ana!yse the rAa
ka!OEas because you sti!! see the rAa ka!OEas as sma!! artic!es that ha;e siWe# Since you ha;e not
yet remo;ed the three kinds o* comactness6 samAha (hana6 kicca (hana6 etc#6 you are sti!! in the rea!m
o* concets (aJJatti) and ha;e not yet arri;ed at u!timate rea!ity (aramattha)#
>ecause you ha;e not remo;ed the concet o* (rou and shae6 there is the concet o* a sma!! !um or
b!ock remainin(# +* you do not ana!yse dhOEtus (e!ements) *urther than this6 but instead attemt to do
;iassanOE by contem!atin( the arisin( and assin( away o* these artic!es6 then you wou!d /ust be
tryin( to do ;iassanOE based on concets# So you must continue to ana!yse dhOEtus *urther in order
to
w
114
w
114
+* you are unab!e to because o* the e<treme!y ka!OEas6 then you shou!d not away# +t is /ust !ike you
retend you do not want to meet6 but meet and assin( awayN sim!y concentrate e!ements in indi;idua!
rAa ka!OEas and
+* you are sti!! unsuccess*u! you shou!d ay to the earth e!ement in the who!e body a!! at once6 *or the
earth e!ement in a sin(!e ka!OEa# Then ay water e!ement in the who!e body a!! at once6 and then
water e!ement in a sin(!e ka!OEa# Then ay attention to e!ement in the who!e body a!! at once6 and
then !ook *or the e!ement in a sin(!e ka!OEa# Then ay attention to the air e!ement the who!e body a!!
at once6 and then !ook *or the air e!ement in a sin(!e ka!OEa# +* you e<ercise in this way you wi!! be
ab!e to discern the *our e!ements in the transarent rAa ka!OEas and not transarent rAa ka!OEas#
When you ha;e succeeded in this then roceed to discern the *our e!ements in rAa ka!OEas o* the eye
base6 ear base6 nose base6 ton(ue base6 body base6 and mind base each in turn# $iscern the *our
e!ements in both the transarent and not transarent rAa ka!OEas o* these si< bases#
Co!our
L
;a??a-
+s *ound in e;ery rAa ka!OEa and is the ob/ect o* seein( (rAa arammana)# +t wi!! be ;ery easy to
discern this kind o* ob/ect rAa#
Odour6 or sme!!
L
(andha-
+s resent in e;ery rAa ka!OEa# 7ou shou!d be(in by discernin( both the nose transarent e!ement
and the bha;aM(a mind transarent e!ement# To see these you shou!d
w
119
discern the *our nose transarent e!ement# seen in the aroriate success*u!!y discerned the and not
transarent ka!OEas wi!! be ab!e to easi!y discern the transarent e!ement (manod;OEra)# deendin(
on the heart basis (hadaya;atthu u o* not transarent ka!OEas ca!!ed hadaya the tenth *actor
ka!OEas)# Ha;in( thus discerned e!ement and bha;aM(a mind transarent e!ement the odour o* a rAa
ka!OEa which you chose Odour is a dhamma which can be known by either the or the mind
consciousness# The nose consciousness restin( on the nose transarent e!ement# The mind
consciousness arises attracted by the bha;aM(a mind transarent e!ement which itse!* rests uon the
heart basis rAas# This is why when you wish discern odour in rAa ka!OEas both the transarent
e!ements concerned
with this rocess must be discerned to(ether#
Taste
L
rasa-
+s resent in e;ery rAa ka!OEa# Whi!e discernin( both the ton(ue transarent e!ement and bha;aM(a
mind transarent e!ement discern the taste o* a rAa ka!OEa that you chose to contem!ate#
7ou can be(in by discernin( the taste o* sa!i;a which
is on the ton(ue#
+n a simi!ar way to odour abo;e6 the taste o* an ob/ect can be known by either the ton(ue consciousness
or the mind consciousness# These two e!ements must there*ore both be discerned#
The abhidhamma commentary (abhi#com#:##2'') states- Sabboi anessaabhedo manod;OErika
/a;aneye;a !abhati# This shows that the co!our6 odour6 and taste o* an ob/ect can be known by /ust the
mind consciousness on its own# >e*ore your meditation (ets stron( you are usin( the nose and ton(ue
consciousness to assist
w
11'
you to !earn more mind consciousness# then you can know taste a!one#
Nutriti;e essence
L
o/OE-
+s resent in e;ery rAa ka!OEa# *our tyes- O/OE roduced by kamma6 mind6 temerature6 *ood)#
Look inside wi!! *ind the nutriti;e essence ca!!ed o/OE# are seen to mu!ti!y *orth a(ain and a(ain#
(This method o* mu!ti!yin( and (rowth o* ka!OEas !ater#)
Li*e *acu!ty
L
/K;ita-
+s a rAa which sustains the !i*e o* rAas roduced by kamma# +t is not *ound in rAas roduced by or
OEhOEra but on!y in those roduced by kamma# The transarent e!ement rAa ka!OEas are roduced
by kamma on!y and so this where you shou!d be(in to !ook *or it# 7ou shou!d discern the transarent
e!ement rAa ka!OEas and then search *or /K;ita in them# BK;ita sustains the !i*e o* on!y the rAas
resent in the same rAa ka!OEa in which it is resent6 and does not sustain the !i*e o* other ka!OEas#
A*ter you ha;e discerned /K;ita in the transarent rAa ka!OEas then you shou!d a!so try to discern it
in the not transarent rAa ka!OEas#
There are three tyes o* not transarent ka!OEas *ound in the body which contain /K;ita#
One tye6 hadaya dasaka ka!OEas (ka!OEas with hadaya as the tenth *actor) are *ound on!y in the
heart whereas the other two bhOE;a dasaka ka!OEas and /K;ita na;aka ka!OEas (bhOE;a as the
tenth *actor and /K;ita as the ninth *actor ka!OEas) are *ound throu(hout the who!e body# There*ore i*
you can discern /K;ita in a not transarent ka!OEa in any other !ace in the body besides the heart then
you know that it must be either a bhOE;a dasaka ka!OEa or a /K;ita na;aka ka!OEa# To te!! these two
aart you need to be ab!e to discern bhOE;a rAa#
w
11&
Se< determinin( L
bhOE;a rAa-
+s *ound throu(hout who!e body in a!! A*ter you ha;e discerned transarent rAas you shou!d
transarent rAas where you then the ka!OEa is a bhOE;a dasaka na;aka ka!OEa# +n a ma!e there is
on!y ma!e *ema!e bhOE;a rAa# ,a!e bhOE;a rAa know6 PThis is a manQ# @ema!e bhOE;a rAa can
know6 PThis is a womanQ# When you are rAa continue to !ook *or it throu(hout the body ear6 nose6
ton(ue6 body6 and heart base#
Heart basis rAa L
hadaya rAaN
+s the rAa which suorts the bha;aM(a mind transarent e!ement (a!so ca!!ed mano dhOEtu
manod;OEra) and the mind consciousness e!ement (mano;iJJdhOEtu)# The mind consciousness
e!ement inc!udes a!! tyes o* consciousness
e<cet *or the *i;e sense consciousnessesN eye6 ear6 nose6 ton(ue6 and body# The hadaya is the !ace
where the mano dhOEtu and mano;iJJOE?a dhOEtu occur6 and it has the characteristic o* bein( the
rAa on which they deend#
To discern the hadaya rAa *ocus the mind on the bha;aM(a mind transarent e!ement and then try to
discern the rAa ka!OEas which suort the bha;aM(a mind transarent e!ement and the mind
consciousness which is discernin( the bha;aM(a mind transarent e!ement# 7ou shou!d be ab!e to *ind
these rAa ka!OEas in the !ower art o* the bha;aM(a mind transarent e!ement# These rAa ka!OEas
are hadaya dasaka ka!OEas (ka!OEas with hadaya as the tenth *actor)# They are not transarent
ka!OEas and the hadaya;atthu rAa in them is the suort *or the mano dhOEtu and mano;iJJOE?a
dhOEtu#
Ana!ysin( The 1Aa Transarent E!ements
Ana!ysin( The 1Aa Transarent E!ementsAna!ysin( The 1Aa Transarent E!ementsAna!ysin( The
1Aa Transarent E!ementsAna!ysin( The 1Aa Transarent E!ementsAna!ysin( The 1Aa Transarent
E!ements
The or(an o* the eye contains se;era! kinds o* rAas which are
w
1:3
intersersed !ike eye there are two eye transarent e!ement that the cakkhu dasaka rAa are intersersed#
The kOEya transarent e!ement are *ound and are intersersed with the cakkhu the sota dasaka
ka!OEas in the ear6 with the nose6 with the /i;hOE dasaka ka!OEas hadaya dasaka ka!OEas in the
heart# >hOE;a contain bhOE;a as the tenth *actor are a!so sread sense bases and are a!so intersersed
with the transarent ka!OEas# To be ab!e to see this you wi!! need to be(in rAas o* the transarent
e!ements#
Eye transarent e!ement
L
cakkhu asOEda-
The eye transarent e!ement is sensiti;e to the imin(in( o* co!our whereas the body transarent
e!ement is sensiti;e to the imin(in( o* touch# This di**erence
in sensiti;ity to ob/ects a!!ows you to ana!yse and know which is eye transarent e!ement and which is
body transarent e!ement# @irst!y discern the *our e!ements in the or(an o* the eye and discern the
transarent rAa ka!OEas# Then !ook at the co!our o* a rAa ka!OEa that is nearby to it# +* you see that
co!our imin(e on the transarent e!ement which you chose then it is a eye transarent e!ement and the
rAa ka!OEas in that eye transarent e!ement are cakkhu dasaka ka!OEas# +* that co!our does not
imin(e on the transarent e!ement you are !ookin( at6 then it is not an eye transarent e!ement# +t must
be a body transarent e!ement because there are on!y two tyes o* transarent e!ement in the eye#
>ody transarent e!ement
L
kOEya asOEda-
The body transarent e!ement is sensiti;e to the imin(in( o* touch which is the earth6 *ire6 and air
e!ements# $iscern the transarent rAa ka!OEas# Then !ook at the earth6 *ire6 or air e!ement o* a rAa
ka!OEa that is nearby to it# +*
w
1:1
you see one o* e!ement you chose ka!OEas in that body transarent the same way as you did in the
ear6 nose6 ton(ue6 body6
Ear transarent e!ement
L
sota asOEda-
The ear transarent e!ement
is sensiti;e to the imin(in( o* in the or(an o* the ear and discern Then !isten to a sound and i* you see
it imin(e e!ement you chose then it is ear transarent e!ement ka!OEas in it are sota dasaka
ka!OEas# The discernment dasaka ka!OEas *o!!ows the same method as shown eye#
Nose transarent e!ement
L
(hOEna asOEda-
The nose transarent
e!ement is sensiti;e to the imin(in( o* odour# $iscern the e!ements in the nose and discern the
transarent rAa ka!OEas# Then sme!! the odour o* a rAa ka!OEa o* the body# +* you see that odour
imin(e on that transarent e!ement then it is nose transarent e!ement and the rAa ka!OEas in it are
(hOEna dasaka ka!OEas#
Ton(ue transarent e!ement
L
/i;hOE asOEda- The ton(ue transarent e!ement is sensiti;e to the imin(in( o* taste# $iscern the
*our e!ements in the ton(ue and discern the transarent rAa e!ements# Then taste the *!a;our o* a rAa
ka!OEa near to it and i* you see it imin(e on that transarent e!ement then it is ton(ue transarent
e!ement and the rAa ka!OEas in the ton(ue are seen in the same way as *or the eye#
Note- The kOEya dasaka ka!OEas and bhOE;a dasaka ka!OEas are *ound in a!! si< sense bases and
must be seen in each !ace in turn#
,ethod @or Seein( Citta/a 1Aa
,ethod @or Seein( Citta/a 1Aa,ethod @or Seein( Citta/a 1Aa,ethod @or Seein( Citta/a
1Aa,ethod @or Seein( Citta/a 1Aa,ethod @or Seein( Citta/a 1Aa
A!! mano dhOEtu and mano;iJJOE?a cittas that occur deendin(
w
1::
on the hadaya;atthu are caab!e o* roducin( roduced o/OE as the ei(hth caab!e o* roducin( a (reat
which sread out throu(hout
+* you concentrate on the mind transarent that many cittas suorted by the hadaya;atthu continuous!y
roducin( rAa ka!OEas# ha;in( concentrated on the mind transarent o* your *in(ers back and *orth#
7ou wi!! see ka!OEas bein( roduced because o* the mind wantin( *in(er and you wi!! a!so see these
rAas sread out sense bases o* the body# These are not transarent rAa i* ana!ysed are *ound to contain
on!y ei(ht rAas in each# be!ow #93)95)
,ethod @or Seein( "tu/a 1Aa
,ethod @or Seein( "tu/a 1Aa,ethod @or Seein( "tu/a 1Aa,ethod @or Seein( "tu/a 1Aa,ethod
@or Seein( "tu/a 1Aa,ethod @or Seein( "tu/a 1Aa
The *ire e!ement contained in rAas roduced by kamma6 citta6 utu6 or OEhOEra is ca!!ed utu
(temerature)# This *ire e!ement which is ca!!ed utu is caab!e o* roducin( new utu/a o/OE
aEEhamaka rAa ka!OEas (*irst (eneration *rom utu)# These utu/a o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEas a!so
contain *ire e!ement and this can a(ain roduce more utu/a o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEas (second
(eneration *rom utu)# +* the *ire e!ement is that which is resent in a kamma/a ka!OEa6 such as a
cakkhu dasaka ka!OEa6 then this *ire e!ement6 which is utu6 is caab!e
o* roducin( *our or *i;e (enerations o* utu/a ka!OEas as e<!ained
abo;e# This haens on!y when the utu has reached its standin(
hase (thiti kOE!a)# +t is a !aw o* rAas that they ha;e stren(th on!y when they reach their standin(
hase#
Note-
O/a is a!so resent in these utu/a aEEhamaka ka!OEas# This o/OE is a!so caab!e o* roducin(
(enerations o* OEhOEra/a o/OE aEEhamaka when it recei;es assistance *rom OEhOEra/a o/OE#
There*ore you shou!d
w
1:2
note that the *ire roducin( new rAas#
There is a!so mind roduced norma! sensua! wor!d mind aEEhamaka ka!OEas these a!so utu can a!so
roduce utu/a o/OE aEEhamaka *rom mind roduced *ire e!ement)# ka!OEas a!so contain *ire e!ement
which o* utu/a o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEas# This two or three (enerations#
The minds resent durin( the ractice o* re!iminary6 and absortion concentration in samatha
meditation6 ractice o* ;iassanOEN and the ath and *ruition minds are o* roducin( citta/a rAas#
These citta/a rAas contain *ire which is utu which can roduce many (enerations o* o/OE aEEhamaka
ka!OEas not on!y interna!!y but e<terna!!y too# $eendin( on whether the ower o* understandin( is
(reat or !itt!e6 or deendin( on the ower o* concentration these rAa ka!OEas are roduced in !ar(e or
sma!! number sreadin( out *rom the body# (See ;sm#sub)com#:##=:'6=:&6=32)#
This rocess o* mu!ti!ication and roduction o* rAa ka!OEas occurs on!y when the *ire e!ement6 utu6
has reached its standin( hase (thiti kOE!a)#
These citta/a rAa ka!OEas a!so contain o/OE and when this recei;es assistance *rom OEhOEra o/OE
it is caab!e o* roducin( many (enerations o* o/OE aEEhamaka OEhOEra/a ka!OEas6 but these arise
on!y inside the body and not e<terna!!y#
The OEhOEra/a rAa ka!OEas that wi!! be mentioned be!ow contain a!so *ire e!ement that is utu#
When this utu reaches its standin( hase it can roduce many (enerations o* utu/a o/OE aEEhamaka
ka!OEas# +t
w
1:=
may roduce in with the assistance nutriti;e essence) this The utu/a o/OE aEEhamaka o/OE and with
assistance *orm (enerations o* OEhOEra/a o/OE aEEhamaka
,ethod O* Seein( XhOEra/a 1Aa
,ethod O* Seein( XhOEra/a 1Aa,ethod O* Seein( XhOEra/a 1Aa,ethod O* Seein( XhOEra/a
1Aa,ethod O* Seein( XhOEra/a 1Aa,ethod O* Seein( XhOEra/a 1Aa
The ;isuddhima((a states-
+n the case o* the *our6 name!y6 (or(e6 *aeces6 us6 and urine6 which are ori(inated ei(ht tyes o* rAa
occur in the o/OE aEEhamaka on!y by temerature#
(;sm# YF+++6 4)
This shows that these *our arts o* the body consist o* aEEhamaka ka!OEas that are roduced *rom
temerature (There*ore when new!y eaten *ood is sti!! inside the stomach o* on!y utu/a o/OE
aEEhamaka ka!OEas#
With the assistance o* the *ire e!ement in the /K;ita na;aka ka!OEas which make u di(esti;e heat6
which is kammica!!y roduced6 the o/OE in these utu/a o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEas can roduce many
(enerations o* o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEas#
These are rAas roduced by nutriment (OEhOEra/a)6 and can sread throu(hout the si< sense bases#
Nutriment taken on one day can roduce OEhOEra/a o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEas *or u to se;en days
whi!e di;ine nutriti;e essence can do this *or e;en one or two months# The nutriment taken on one day
a!so (i;es suort *or the ne<t se;en days to the o/OE in kamma/a6 citta/a6 and utu/a ka!OEas#
+n order to see these thin(s you can meditate at the time o* eatin(# The OEhOEra/a rAas can be seen
sreadin( throu(hout the body be(innin( *rom the mouth6 throat6 stomach6 and intestines# $iscern the
*our e!ements in the new *ood in the mouth6 throat6 stomach6 and intestines6 and you wi!! see the rAa
ka!OEas there# Continue to !ook unti! you can see that the o/OE in the rAa ka!OEas o* the *ood
roduces6 with the assistance o* the kammica!!y roduced di(esti;e
w
1:5
w
1:5
A!ternate!y you can eatin(# Ha;in( ro(ressi;e!y discern the *our e!ements intestines# Continue to !ook
unti! aEEhamaka ka!OEas in the *ood causes6 kammica!!y roduced di(esti;e heat6 sread throu(hout
the body# Ana!yse these ei(ht rAas *ound in each6 and see they are
$e;e!o concentration and then discern these aEEhamaka ka!OEas sreadin( out throu(h the body
eye# $iscern the ei(ht rAas *ound in these ka!OEas in note that the o/OE *ound in these ka!OEas is
OEhOEra/a o/OE# When OEhOEra/a o/OE meets with the o/OE contained in the cakkhu dasaka it
assists the kamma/a o/OE *ound in the cakkhu dasaka ka!OEas roduce *our or *i;e (enerations o*
rAa ka!OEas# The number o* (enerations is deendent on the stren(th o* assistance o* both kamma
and OEhOEra/a o/OE# A(ain in those *our or *i;e (enerations o* rAa ka!OEas there is *ire e!ement
which is utu and this utu6 at its standin( hase6 can roduce many (enerations o* utu/a o/OE
aEEhamaka ka!OEas# Try to discern this#
A!so try to discern that the o/OE o* the kOEya dasaka ka!OEas6 and bhOE;a dasaka ka!OEas6 with
the assistance o* the OEhOEra/a o/OE can roduce *our or *i;e (enerations o* OEhOEra/a o/OE
aEEhamaka ka!OEas# A!so the *ire e!ement6 utu6 contained in these many (enerations roduces
many more (enerations o* utu/a o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEas#
A!so in the eye in e;ery citta/a aEEhaka ka!OEa there is o/OE#
This citta/a o/OE when it is assisted by the OEhOEra/a o/OE roduces two or three (enerations o*
OEhOEra/a o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEas#
The *ire e!ement (utu) in these a!so roduces many (enerations o* utu/a o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEas#
w
1:4
w
1:4
As shown abo;e in the eye6 *rom the utu or *ire e!ement6 citta/a *ire e!ement6 utu/a *ire e!ement6 a!so
o/OE resent# This utu/a o/OE can6 with roduce ten or twe!;e (enerations o* rAa (See ;sm#subcom#
#=32)
A!so the *ire e!ement6 utu6 contained in the OEhOEra/a ka!OEas is caab!e o* roducin( many utu/a
o/OE aEEhamaka
The way in which OEhOEra/a o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEas are *ood eaten and sread to be resent in
the eye has a!ready abo;e# The o/OE in these is ca!!ed OEhOEra/a o/OE# When the OEhOEra/a
re;ious OEhOEra/a o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEa is (i;en assistance by the o/OE o* a !ater OEhOEra/a
o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEa it can roduce many or (enerations o* rAa ka!OEas# This deends on the
Cua!ity o* the *ood and stren(th o* the di(esti;e *ire e!ement# +n these OEhOEra/a o/OE aEEhamaka
ka!OEas there is a!so *ire e!ement which is utu6 and this can roduce many new utu/a o/OE
aEEhamaka ka!OEas#
When utu or o/OE roduce new ka!OEas as described abo;e they do it when they reach their standin(
hase on!y# +n the roduction o* rAa ka!OEas whether it be *or two6 three6 ten6 or twe!;e (enerations6
the !ast (eneration contains utu and o/OE which cannot roduce new utu/a ka!OEas and OEhOEra/a
ka!OEas#
7ou shou!d read throu(h this descrition o* the roduction o* ka!OEas care*u!!y and !ook a!so at the
*o!!owin( charts# Then by ha;in( a roer teacher and ractisin( systematica!!y you wi!! become
ro*icient in the discernment o* the ka!OEas roduced by the *our causes o* kamma6 citta6 utu6 and
OEhOEra# +n the same way as has been shown in the case o* the eye base you shou!d discern a!! the
rAas in the other *i;e bases and a!so the *orty)two arts o* the body (Which wi!! be e<!ained a*ter the
*o!!owin( charts)#
THE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE E7E
THE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE E7ETHE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE E7ETHE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE E7ETHE 5=
1ZPAS O@ THE E7ETHE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE E7E $OO1
THE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE E7ETHE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE E7ETHE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE E7ETHE 5=
1ZPAS O@ THE E7ETHE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE E7E ( CA00H"
( CA00H"( CA00H"( CA00H"( CA00H"( CA00H" $FX1A)
$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)
cakkhu dasaka kOEya dasaka bhOE;a dasaka citta/a utu/a OEhOEra/a
ka!OEas ka!OEas ka!OEas aEEhaka ka!OEa aEEhaka ka!OEa aEEhaka ka!OEa
1# atha;K6 earth 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K
:# OEo6 water :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo
2# te/o6 *ire 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o
=# ;OEyo6 air =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo
5# ;a??a6 co!our 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a
4# (andha6 odour 4# (andha 4# (andha 4# (andha 4# (andha 4#(andha
9# rasa6 taste 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa
'# o/OE6 nutriment '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE
&# /i;ita6 !i*e *acu!ty &# /i;ita &# /i;ita
13# cakkhu asOEda 13# kOEya asOEda 13# bhOE;a rAa
roduced by kamma6 rod# by kamma6 rod# by kamma6 rod# by mind6 rod# by tem#6 roduced by
nutriment6
transarent transarent not transarent not transarent not transarent not transarent
cakkhu dasaka ka!OEa L eye transarent e!ement as the tenth *actor artic!e# +s sensiti;e to the
imin(in( o* the co!our o* !i(ht#
kOEya dasaka ka!OEa L body transarent e!ement as the tenth *actor artic!e# Sensiti;e to imin(in(
o* touch (earth6 *ire6 and air)#
bhOE;a dasaka ka!OEa L se< rAa as the tenth *actor artic!e# Not a transarent rAa#
citta/a aEEhaka ka!OEa L o/OE as the ei(hth *actor artic!e roduced by mind#
utu/a aEEhaka ka!OEa L o/OE as the ei(hth *actor artic!e roduced by temerature#
OEhOEra/a aEEhaka ka!OEa L o/OE as the ei(hth *actor artic!e roduced by nutriment#
Out o* these 5= rAas the eye transarent e!ement can be ca!!ed asOEda cakkhu or sasambhOEra
cakkhu6 the other 52 are ca!!ed on!y
sasambhOEra cakkhu# w1:9
w1:'
THE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE EA1
w1:'
$OO1
$OO1$OO1$OO1$OO1$OO1 (SOTA
(SOTA(SOTA(SOTA(SOTA(SOTA $FX1A)
$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)
sota dasaka kOEya dasaka bhOE;a dasaka citta/a utu/a OEhOEra/a
ka!OEas ka!OEas ka!OEas aEEhaka ka!OEa aEEhaka ka!OEa aEEhaka ka!OEa
1# atha;K6 earth 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K
:# OEo6 water :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo
2# te/o6 *ire 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o
=# ;OEyo6 air =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo
5# ;a??a6 co!our 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a
4# (andha6 odour 4# (andha 4# (andha 4# (andha 4# (andha 4#(andha
9# rasa6 taste 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa
'# o/OE6 nutriment '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE
&# /i;ita6 !i*e *acu!ty &# /i;ita &# /i;ita
13# sota asOEda 13# kOEya asOEda 13# bhOE;a rAa
roduced by kamma6 rod# by kamma6 rod# by kamma6 rod# by mind6 rod# by tem#6 roduced by
nutriment6
transarent transarent not transarent not transarent not transarent not transarent
Sota dasaka ka!OEa L ear transarent e!ement as the tenth *actor artic!e which is sensiti;e to the
imin(in( o* sound#
O* these 5= rAas the ear transarent e!ement can be ca!!ed asOEda sota or sasambhOEra sota and the
other 52 rAas are ca!!ed /ust
sasambhOEra sota# The kOEya dasaka ka!OEas and the other *our tyes o* artic!es ha;e been
e<!ained on the chart *or the eye door#
THE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE NOSE
THE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE NOSETHE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE NOSETHE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE NOSETHE
5= 1ZPAS O@ THE NOSETHE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE NOSE $OO1
THE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE NOSETHE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE NOSETHE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE NOSETHE
5= 1ZPAS O@ THE NOSETHE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE NOSE (OHXNA
(OHXNA(OHXNA(OHXNA(OHXNA(OHXNA $FX1A)
$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)
(hana dasaka kOEya dasaka bhOE;a dasaka citta/a utu/a OEhOEra/a
ka!OEas ka!OEas ka!OEas aEEhaka ka!OEa aEEhaka ka!OEa aEEhaka ka!OEa
1# atha;K6 earth 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K
:# OEo6 water :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo
2# te/o6 *ire 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o
=# ;OEyo6 air =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo
5# ;a??a6 co!our 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a
4# (andha6 odour 4# (andha 4# (andha 4# (andha 4# (andha 4#(andha
9# rasa6 taste 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa
'# o/OE6 nutriment '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE
&# /i;ita6 !i*e *acu!ty &# /i;ita &# /i;ita
13# (hOEna asOEda 13# kOEya asOEda 13# bhOE;a rAa
roduced by kamma6 rod# by kamma6 rod# by kamma6 rod# by mind6 rod# by tem#6 roduced by
nutriment6
transarent transarent not transarent not transarent not transarent not transarent
OhOEna dasaka ka!OEa L nose transarent e!ement as the tenth *actor artic!e which is sensiti;e to
the imin(in( o* odour#
Out o* these 5= rAas the nose transarent e!ement can be ca!!ed asOEda (hOEna or sasambhOEra
(hOEna6 the other 52 are ca!!ed /ust
sasambhOEra (hOEna# The kOEya dasaka ka!OEas and the other *our tyes o* artic!es ha;e been
e<!ained on the chart *or the eye
door#
w1:&
w123
THE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE TONO"E
w123
$OO1
$OO1$OO1$OO1$OO1$OO1 ( B+FHX
( B+FHX( B+FHX( B+FHX( B+FHX( B+FHX $FX1A)
$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)
/i;hOE dasaka kOEya dasaka bhOE;a dasaka citta/a utu/a OEhOEra/a
ka!OEas ka!OEas ka!OEas aEEhaka ka!OEa aEEhaka ka!OEa aEEhaka ka!OEa
1# atha;K6 earth 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K
:# OEo6 water :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo
2# te/o6 *ire 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o
=# ;OEyo6 air =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo
5# ;a??a6 co!our 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a
4# (andha6 odour 4# (andha 4# (andha 4# (andha 4# (andha 4#(andha
9# rasa6 taste 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa
'# o/OE6 nutriment '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE
&# /i;ita6 !i*e *acu!ty &# /i;ita &# /i;ita
13# /i;hOE asOEda 13# kOEya asOEda 13# bhOE;a rAa
roduced by kamma6 rod# by kamma6 rod# by kamma6 rod# by mind6 rod# by tem#6 roduced by
nutriment6
transarent transarent not transarent not transarent not transarent not transarent
Bi;ha dasaka ka!OEa L ton(ue transarent e!ement as the tenth *actor artic!e which is sensiti;e to the
imin(in( o* taste#
Out o* these 5= rAas the ton(ue transarent e!ement can be ca!!ed asOEda /i;hOE or sasambhOEra
/i;ha6 the other 52 are ca!!ed /ust
sasambhOEra /i;ha#
The kOEya dasaka ka!OEas and the other *our tyes o* artic!es ha;e been e<!ained on the chart *or
the eye door#
THE == 1ZPAS O@ THE >O$7
THE == 1ZPAS O@ THE >O$7THE == 1ZPAS O@ THE >O$7THE == 1ZPAS O@ THE >O$7THE
== 1ZPAS O@ THE >O$7THE == 1ZPAS O@ THE >O$7 $OO1
THE == 1ZPAS O@ THE >O$7THE == 1ZPAS O@ THE >O$7THE == 1ZPAS O@ THE >O$7THE
== 1ZPAS O@ THE >O$7THE == 1ZPAS O@ THE >O$7 (0X7A
(0X7A(0X7A(0X7A(0X7A(0X7A $FX1A)
$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)$FX1A)
kOEya dasaka bhOE;a dasaka citta/a utu/a OEhOEra/a
ka!OEas ka!OEas aEEhaka ka!OEa aEEhaka ka!OEa aEEhaka ka!OEa
1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K
:# OEo :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo
2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o
=# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo
5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a
4# (andha 4# (andha 4# (andha 4# (andha 4#(andha
9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa
'# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE
&# /i;ita &# /i;ita
13# kOEya asOEda 13# bhOE;a rAa
roduced by kamma6 rod# by kamma6 rod# by mind6 rod# by tem#6 roduced by nutriment6
transarent not transarent not transarent not transarent not transarent
Out o* these == rAas the transarent body e!ement can be ca!!ed asOEda kOEya or sasambhOEra
kOEya and the other =2 rAas are
ca!!ed /ust sasambhOEra kaya# The bhOE;a dasaka ka!OEas and the other three tyes o* artic!es
ha;e been e<!ained on the chart *or
the eye door#
w121
w12:
THE 5= 1ZPAS O@ THE ,+N$
w12:
$OO1
$OO1$OO1$OO1$OO1$OO1 (,ANO $FX1A)
(,ANO $FX1A)(,ANO $FX1A)(,ANO $FX1A)(,ANO $FX1A)(,ANO $FX1A)
hadaya dasaka kOEya dasaka bhOE;a dasaka citta/a utu/a OEhOEra/a
ka!OEas ka!OEas ka!OEas aEEhaka ka!OEa aEEhaka ka!OEa aEEhaka ka!OEa
1# atha;K6 earth 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K 1# atha;K
:# OEo6 water :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo :# OEo
2# te/o6 *ire 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o 2# te/o
=# ;OEyo6 air =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo =# ;OEyo
5# ;a??a6 co!our 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a 5# ;a??a
4# (andha6 odour 4# (andha 4# (andha 4# (andha 4# (andha 4#(andha
9# rasa6 taste 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa 9# rasa
'# o/OE6 nutriment '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE '# o/OE
&# /i;ita6 !i*e *acu!ty &# /i;ita &# /i;ita
13# hadaya 13# kOEya asOEda 13# bhOE;a rAa
roduced by kamma6 rod# by kamma6 rod# by kamma6 roduced by mind6 roduced by tem#6
roduced by nutriment6
not transarent transarent not transarent not transarent not transarent not transarent
Hadaya dasaka ka!OEa L heart basis as the tenth *actor artic!e which is the rAa suortin( the mind
e!ement and mind consciousness#
Out o* these 5= rAas the hadaya rAa can be ca!!ed hadaya;atthu (heart basis) or sasambhOEra hadaya
the other 52 are ca!!ed /ust
sasambhOEra hadaya# The kOEya dasaka ka!OEas and the other *our tyes o* artic!es ha;e been
e<!ained on the chart *or the eye
door#
w
122
$etai!ed ,ethod @or $e;e!oin(
w
122
@our E!ements ,editation
@our E!ements ,editation@our E!ements ,editation@our E!ements ,editation@our E!ements
,editation@our E!ements ,editation>y Way O* The =: Parts O* The >ody
>y Way O* The =: Parts >ody>y Way O* The =: Parts >ody>y Way O* The =: Parts >ody>y Way O*
The =: Parts >ody>y Way O* The =: Parts
There are twenty arts o* the redominant-
1#
Head hair L kesOE
4#
@!esh
L
maUsaU
:#
>ody hair L !omOE
9#
Sinews
L
nahOEru
2#
Nai!s L nakhOE
'#
>one
L
aEEhi
=#
Teeth
L
dantOE
&# >one marrow L aEEhimiJ/aU
5#
Skin L taco
13# 0idneys L ;akkaU
11#
Heart L hadayaU
14#
+ntestines
L
antaU
1:#
Li;er L yakanaU
19# ,esentery L anta(unaU
12#
,embrane L ki!omakaU
1'# Oor(e L udariyaU
1=#
S!een L ihakaU
1&# @aeces L karisaU
15#
Lun(s
LahOEsaU
:3# >rain L mattha!uM(aU
O* these twenty arts a!! e<cet (or(e and *aeces (dun() contain == rAas as shown in the charts abo;e
*or the body door# Oor(e and *aeces contain on!y ei(ht rAas and are made o* on!y utu/a atthaka
ka!OEas#
There are twe!;e arts in the body in which water e!ement is redominant-
1#
>i!e
L
ittaU
9#
Tears L assu (14)
:#
Ph!e(m
L
semhaU
'#
Orease L ;asOE
2#
Pus
L
ubbo
(')
&#
Sa!i;a L kheSo (14)
=#
>!ood L !ohitaU
13# ,ucous L siM(hOEnika (14)
5#
Sweat L sedo (14)
11#
Syno;ia!
L
*!uid
!asikOE
4#
@at
L
medo
1:# "rine L muttaU (')
O*
these a!! e<cet us6 sweat6 tears6 sa!i;a6 mucous6 and urine contain == rAas as shown in the charts *or
the body door# Pus and
w
12=
urine ha;e ei(ht tears6 mucous6 and and utu/a ka!OEas6 and
+n order to see and discern a!! *irst!y de;e!o concentration systematica!!y rAa ka!OEas in the si<
sense bases When you are ab!e to do this then discern you wish to contem!ate# When you
can discern that art then discern
the *our e!ements in it# When you see that *orm then !ook *or the sace in it and you wi!! easi!y artic!es
makin( u that art o* the body# +* your meditation stron(!y de;e!oed then as soon as you !ook *or the
*our a (i;en art o* the body you wi!! easi!y see the rAa ka!OEas# you can see the rAa ka!OEas then
ana!yse them and discern kinds o* ka!OEas resent there# With know!ed(e di;ide and discern as they
rea!!y are the ka!OEas roduced by kamma6 mind6 temerature6 and nutriment#
When discernin( the ka!OEas in body hair and head hair ay attention
at the base o* the hairs which are inside the skin# Look *or the == tyes o* rAas there *irst because the
hair that is outside o* the skin has an e<treme!y sma!! amount o* kOEya dasaka ka!OEas and they wi!!
be ;ery di**icu!t to discern# +n a simi!ar way in the nai!s o* the *in(ers and toes you shou!d ay more
attention to the arts o* them that are c!ose to the *!esh#
There are *our arts (here we wou!d rather say comonents) o* the body in which heat is redominant-
1#
santaana te/o
L
heat that warms the body
:#
/Krana te/oL
heat that causes maturin( and a(ein(
2#
daha te/o
L
heat o* *e;er
=#
OEcaka te/o
L
di(esti;e heat (mode o* /K;ita na;aka ka!OEas)
w
125
w
125
There are si< comonents in which air
1#
uddhaM(ama ;OEtOE
L
air that rises u#
:#
adho(ama ;OEtOE
L
air that (oes down#
2#
kucchisaya ;OEtOE
L
air in the abdomen outside the intestines#
=#
koEEhasaya ;OEtOE
L
air inside the intestines#
5#
aM(aman(OEnusarino ;OEtOE
L
air that er;ades throu(h the !imbs#
4#
assOEsa
assOEsaso
L
in and out breath#
O* these a!! e<cet the in and out breath consist o* 22 rAas each# They are made u o* *our tyes o*
ka!OEas-
1#
/K;ita na;aka ka!OEas
L
/K;ita as the ninth *actor (& rAas)#
:#
citta/a aEEhaka ka!OEas
L
mind roduced o/OE as the ei(hth *actor
(' rAas)#
2#
utu/a aEEhaka ka!OEas
L
temerature roduced o/OE as the
ei(hth *actor (' rAas)#
=#
OEhOEra/a aEEhaka ka!OEas
L
nutriment roduced o/OE as the ei(hth
*actor (' rAas)
#
These *our tyes o* ka!OEas contain a tota! o* 22 rAas#
The in and out breath contains on!y nine rAas *ound in what is ca!!ed a citta/a sadda na;aka ka!OEa
(mind roduced sound as the ninth *actor ka!OEa)# These ka!OEas contain earth6 water6 *ire6 air6
co!our6 sme!!6 taste6 nutriment6 and sound#
The in and out breath is roduced by the mind and to see this you ha;e to discern that it is roduced by
consciousness resent in the
w
124
bha;aM(a mind rAas# When you see the *our e!ements in it each o* these ka!OEas you unti! you can
see this#
To ana!yse the other *i;e tyes *irst!y then discern the *our e!ements in each# ka!OEas which shou!d
then be ana!ysed them#
Nine 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y 0amma
Nine 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y 0ammaNine 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y
0ammaNine 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y 0ammaNine 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced
>y 0ammaNine 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y 0amma
+n e<aminin( the rAas in the si< sense bases and *orty)arts o* the body you wi!! *ind that there are
nine kinds ka!OEas roduced by kamma-
1#
cakkhu dasaka (eye)6
:#
sota dasaka (ear)6
2#
(hOEna dasaka (nose)6
=#
/i;ha dasaka (ton(ue)6
5#
kOEya dasaka (body)6
4#
itthi bhOE;a dasaka (*ema!e)6
9#
umbhOE;a dasaka (ma!e)6
'#
hadaya;atthu dasaka (heart)6
&#
/K;ita na;aka (!i*e)#
These kamma/a rAas arise in the resent because o* kamma er*ormed
in the ast !i*e# 0amma/a rAas resent in the ast !i*e were caused by kamma er*ormed in the !i*e
re;ious to it# 0amma/a rAas that wi!! arise in the ne<t !i*e in the *uture wi!! be caused by either
kamma done in this resent !i*e or that er*ormed in a re;ious
!i*e# To know which kamma they are the resu!t o*6 whether dOEna6 sK!a6 or bhOE;anOE6 you wi!! need
to be ab!e to discern the rAas and nOEmas o* the ast and *uture# On!y then wi!! you understand and
e<erience this *or yourse!*# This wi!! come !ater in accaya ari((aha
w
129
JOE?a# At the resent these rAas are roduced
+t shou!d a!so be noted mind6 temerature6 or nutriment6 contem!ated by ;iassanOE Jse!*# There are
a!so not rea! rAas by mind6 temerature6 and nutriment#
Ei(ht 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y ,ind
Ei(ht 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y ,indEi(ht 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y
,indEi(ht 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y ,indEi(ht 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y
,indEi(ht 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y
1#
citta/a suddhaEEhaka ka!OEa
L
the sim!e o/OE as the ei(hth ka!OEa roduced by mind# +t is *ound in a!! si< sense o* the =: arts o*
the body# +t is a rea! rAa that can be ob/ect o* ;iassanOE ractice#
:#
kOEya ;iJJatti na;aka ka!OEa
L
bodi!y intimation as the ninth *actor ka!OEa# Ha;in( discerned the mind transarent e!ement wi((!e
one o* your *in(ers back and *orth# 7ou wi!! see many rAa ka!OEas roduced by mind which when
ana!ysed contain on!y ei(ht rAas6 when the mo;ement o* bodi!y intimation is added it makes nine#
2#
!ahutOE ekadasaka ka!OEa
L
is a ka!OEa with e!e;en *actorsN the basic ei(ht *actors !us !ahutOE6 mudutOE6 and kammaJJatOE
(!i(htness6 so*tness6 and wie!diness)#
=#
kOEya ;iJJatti !ahutOEdid;OEdasaka ka!OEa
L
is a ka!OEa which has twe!;e *actors6 the basic ei(ht !us kOEya ;iJJatti6 !ahutOE6 mudutOE6 and
kammaJJatOE#
5#
;acK ;iJJatti dasaka ka!OEa
L
is a ka!OEa which contains ten rAasN the basic ei(ht !us ;erba! intimation and sound# 1ecite the
!etters Pa6 b6 cQ a!oud# Now6 discern the mind transarent e!ement and then recite the !etters Pa6 b6 cQ
a(ain and see the rAas caused by mind sreadin( to the throat6 ;oca! chords6 and other !aces that take
w
w
'
art in roducin( resent in the citta/a kamma/a ka!OEas (which is roduced
and the ;erba! intimation
4#
;acK ;iJJatti sadda !ahutOEdi terasaka L
a ka!OEa with thirteen *actorsN the basic ei(ht !us mudutOE6 and kammaJJatOE#
9#
assOEsa assOEsa citta/a sadda na;aka ka!OEa
L
a mind roduced
ka!OEa with nine *actorsN the basic ei(ht rea! rAa and a suitab!e ob/ect *or ;iassanOE#
'#
assOEsa assOEsa citta/a sadda !ahutOEdid;OEdasaka ka!OEa
L
a mind roduced ka!OEa with twe!;e *actorsN the basic ei(ht !ahutOE6 mudutOE6 and kammaJJatOE#
Note-
+n 9# and '# the sound is the sound o* breathin(# The ka!OEas containin( not rea! rAas mi<ed with
rea! rAas shou!d be discerned at the time o* discernin( nOEma and rAa but !ater when a!yin( the
three characteristics durin( ;iassanOE they shou!d not be contem!ated#
@our 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y Temerature
@our 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y Temerature@our 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y
Temerature@our 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y Temerature@our 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas
Produced >y Temerature@our 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y Temerature
1#
utu/a suddhaEEhaka ka!OEa
L
a ka!OEa roduced by temerature containin( ei(ht *actorsN the basic ei(ht# +t is a rea! rAa#
:#
utu/a sadda na;aka ka!OEa
L
a ka!OEa roduced by temerature containin( nine *actorsN the basic ei(ht !us sound# +t is a rea! rAa#
2#
!ahutOEdekadasaka ka!OEa
L
!ahutOE as the e!e;enth *actor ka!OEa with the basic ei(ht *actors !us !ahutOE6 mudutOE6 and
kammaJJ atOE# +t is not a rea! rAa#
=#
sadda !ahutOEdid;OEdasaka ka!OEa L a ka!OEa containin( twe!;e *actorsN the basic ei(ht
!us sound6 !ahutOE6 mudutOE6 and kammaJ
JatOE# This is not a rea! rAa#
w
w
O* these the *irst most o* the =: arts in makin( sound in the These *irst two ka!OEas can third and
*ourth ha;e not rea! ob/ects *or ;iassanOE contem!ation6 sta(e in the ractice when nOEmas two are
not *ound e<terna!!y in inanimate interna!!y and e<terna!!y o* !i;in( bein(s#
Two 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y Nutriment
Two 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y NutrimentTwo 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y
NutrimentTwo 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y NutrimentTwo 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas
Produced >y NutrimentTwo 0inds O* 1Aa 0a!OEas Produced >y Nutriment
1#
OEhOEra/a suddaEEhaka ka!OEa L an o/OE as the ei(hth roduced by nutriment#
:#
!ahutOEdekadasaka ka!OEa
L a !ahutOE as the e!e;enth *actor ka!OEa roduced by nutriment# +t contains the basic ei(ht *actors
!ahutOE6 mudutOE6
and kammaJJatOE#
O* these two ka!OEas the *irst consists o* rea! rAas6 is *ound throu(hout the si< sense bases and in
most o* the =: arts o* the body6 and is suitab!e *or ;iassanOE contem!ation# The second is *ound
throu(hout the si< sense bases and in most o* the =: arts o* the body# This ka!OEa consists o* ei(ht
*actors which are rea! rAas and three *actors (!ahutOE6 mudutOE6 and kammaJJatOE) which are not
rea! rAas#
The ei(ht *actors which are rea! rAas are suitab!e *or ;iassanOE contem!ation6 but the three *actors
which are not rea! rAas are not suitab!e *or ;iassanOE contem!ation# >oth these ka!OEas occur
interna!!y in onese!*6 and e<terna!!y in other !i;in( bein(s#
Three 0inds O* Sound
Three 0inds O* SoundThree 0inds O* SoundThree 0inds O* SoundThree 0inds O* SoundThree 0inds
O* Sound
1#
assOEsa assOEsa citta/a sadda na;aka ka!OEa
L
the sound o*
breathin(#
:#
;acK ;iJJatti dasaka ka!OEa
L
the sound o* seech#
2#
utu/a sadda na;aka ka!OEa
L
the sound o* the stomach6 o* the
wind6 etc#
w
1=3
w
1=3
$iscernin( The @our Lakkha?a 1Aas
$iscernin( The @our Lakkha?a 1Aas$iscernin( The @our Lakkha?a 1Aas$iscernin( The @our
Lakkha?a 1Aas$iscernin( The @our Lakkha?a 1Aas$iscernin( The @our Lakkha?a 1Aas
On!y when you are ab!e to discern the rAas resent o* concetion and de;e!oment o* the embryo in
the you be ab!e to discern uacaya ((rowth o* matter)# As /aratOE6 and aniccatOE they are /ust the
arisin(6 standin(6 and away o* the rea! rAas o* the si< sense bases or =: arts o* the body# @irst!y
discern an indi;idua! rAa ka!OEa and ana!yse it to see i* it contains '6 &6 or 13 *actors# Then try to see
a!! the rea! rAas resent in a ka!OEa arisin(6 standin(6 and assin( away to(ether# A*ter that discern
the arisin(6 standin(6 and assin( away o* a!! the rea! rAas resent in the si< sense bases and =: arts
o* the body a!! at once# The rAa ka!OEas do not a!! arise6 stand6 and ass away simu!taneous!yN
they are not in hase#
The Time @or Contem!atin( As P1AaQ
The Time @or Contem!atin( As P1AaQThe Time @or Contem!atin( As P1AaQThe Time @or
Contem!atin( As P1AaQThe Time @or Contem!atin( As P1AaQThe Time @or Contem!atin( As
P1AaQ
@irst!y discern searate!y in each o* the si< sense bases the 5= or == rea! rAas resent# Then try a!so to
discern in each as much o* the not rea! rAas as you can# Then discern a!! the rAas in one base a!!
to(ether accordin( to their characteristic o* bein( mo!ested by chan(e# Then takin( a!! the rAas in each
base to(ether contem!ate them as P1Aa6 rAaQ or PThese are rAaQ or PThese are rAa dhammasQ#
7ou can do the same *or each o* the =: arts
o* the body#
w
1=1
The Characteristic O* >ein( ,o!ested >y Chan(e
The Characteristic Chan(eThe Characteristic Chan(eThe Characteristic Chan(eThe Characteristic
Chan(eThe Characteristic
This means that the co!d6 hard to so*t6 rou(h hardness6 *!owin(6 heat6 and the intensity o* heat in the
rAas !e;e!s6 and when it is co!d !e;e!s# Thus there is an constant chan(in( ka!OEa as they
continuous!y mo!est each
To summarise-
1#
>e*ore you ha;e seen rAa ka!OEas6 de;e!o concentration u to uacOEra concentration by seein(
the *our e!ementsN *ire6 air#
:#
When you can see the rAa ka!OEas ana!yse them to see a!! the rAas in each ka!OEa6 *or e<am!e as
earth6 water6 *ire6 air6 co!)our6 odour6 taste6 nutriment6 !i*e6 eye transarent e!ement#
2#
Then discern- a!! the rAas in a sin(!e sense base6 a!! the rAas in a sin(!e art o* the body6 a!! the rAas
in a!! si< sense bases6 and a!! the rAas in a!! =: arts o* the body# Then ha;in( seen that they a!! ha;e
the characteristic o* chan(in(6 note them as P1Aa6 rAaQ6
P1Aa dhammas6 rAa dhammasQ or PThis is rAa6 this is
rAaQ#
w1=: SEFEN
w1=:
P"1+@+CAT+ONS
P"1+@+CAT+ONSP"1+@+CAT+ONSP"1+@+CAT+ONSP"1+@+CAT+ONSP"1+@+CAT+ONS
9
99999
F+S"$$H+S
F+S"$$H+SF+S"$$H+SF+S"$$H+SF+S"$$H+SF+S"$$H+S
14 [XNAS
14 [XNAS14 [XNAS14 [XNAS14 [XNAS14 [XNAS
S+YTEEN 0NOWLE$OES
S+YTEEN 0NOWLE$OESS+YTEEN 0NOWLE$OESS+YTEEN 0NOWLE$OESS+YTEEN
0NOWLE$OESS+YTEEN 0NOWLE$OES
14# acca;ekkhana JOE?a L 1e;iewin( know!ed(e
Puri*ication by know!ed(e and ;ision 9# JOE?adassana 15# ha!a JOE?a L @ruition know!ed(e
;isuddhi 1=# ma((a JOE?a L Path know!ed(e
12# (otrabhA JOE?a L 0now!ed(e o* chan(e o* !inea(e
1:# anu!oma JOE?a L 0now!ed(e o* con*ormity
11# saMkhOEruekkhOE JOE?a L 0now!ed(e o* eCuanimity towards *ormations
13# atisaMkhOE JOE?a L 0now!ed(e o* re*!ectin(
Puri*ication by know!ed(e and ;ision 4# aEiadOE JOE?a&#
muccitukamyatOE JOE?a L 0now!ed(e o* desire *or de!i;erance *rom *ormations
o* the way dassana ;isuddhi '# nibbidOE JOE?a L 0now!ed(e o* detachment *rom *ormations
9# OEdina;a JOE?a L 0now!ed(e o* dan(er o* *ormations
4# bhaya JOE?a L 0now!ed(e o* *ear*u!ness o* *omations
5# bhaM(a JOE?a L 0now!ed(e o* disso!ution o* *ormations
Puri*ication by know!ed(e and ;ision 5# ma((OEma((a JOE?a=#
udayabhaya JOE?a L 0now!ed(e o* arisin( and assin( away o* *ormations
o* what is and what is not the ath dassana ;isuddhi 2# sammasana JOE?a L 0now!ed(e that
comrehends *ormations in (rous
Puri*ication by o;ercomin( doubt =# kaMkhOE;itara?a :# accaya ari((aha JOE?a L 0now!ed(e that
discerns the causes o* mind and matter
;isuddhi
Puri*ication o* ;iew 2# diEEhi ;isuddhi 1# nOEma rAa ariccheda JOE?a L 0now!ed(e that discerns
mind and matter
Puri*ication o* consciousness :# citta ;isuddhi L uacOEra or aanOE samOEdhi
Puri*ication o* ;irtue 1# sK!a ;isuddhi L *i;e6 ei(ht6 ten6 or ::9 recets
w
1=2
Theoretica! E<!anations @or 1Aa 0ammaEEhOEna-
Theoretica! E<!anations Theoretica! E<!anations Theoretica! E<!anations Theoretica! E<!anations
Theoretica! E<!anations
The $hammas That ,ust >e Contem!ated >y One
The $hammas That OneThe $hammas That OneThe $hammas That OneThe $hammas That OneThe
$hammas That $oin( FiassanOE ,editation
$oin( FiassanOE ,editation$oin( FiassanOE ,editation$oin( FiassanOE ,editation$oin(
FiassanOE ,editation$oin( FiassanOE ,editation
>hikkhus6 without *u!!y knowin(6 without detachin( *rom6 without to end su**erin( ####
>hikkhus6 by *u!!y knowin(6 by comrehendin(6 *rom6 by abandonin( the A!! one is ab!e
SabbaU bhikkha;e anabhi/OEnaU aari/OEnaU aa/ahaU abhabbo dukkhakkhaya#####SabbaU ca
abhi/OEnaU ari/OEnaU ;irOE/ayaU a/ahaU bhabbo dukkhakkhOEya#
(SOE!ayata?a saUyutta6 sabba;a((a6 athama aari/OEnana
sutta)
The commentary to this sutta e<!ains *urther that it is soken with re*erence to the three ariJJOEs
(*u!! understandin(s)# +t says-
+ti imasmiU sutte tissai ariJJOE kathita honti# Abhi/OEnaGnti hi ;acanena JOEtaariJJOE kathita6
ari/OEnaGnti ;acena tira?aariJJOE6 ;irOE/ayaU a/ahaGnti d;ihi ahOEnaariJJOEti#
This means that *u!!y knowin( re*ers to JOEta ariJJOE6 comrehendin(
re*ers to tira?a ariJJOE6 and the !ast two6 detachin( *rom and abandonin(6 re*er to ahOEna ariJJOE
(*u!! understandin( as the known6 as in;esti(atin(6 and as abandonin()#
There*ore on!y by *u!!y understandin( with these three ariJJ)OEs a!! the rAas and nOEmas o* the *i;e
a((re(ates o* c!in(in( wi!! one be caab!e o* remo;in( desire and cra;in( *or the rAas and nOEmas
and be ab!e to make an end to su**erin(# @urthermore the sub)commentary
to ;isuddhima((a commentary says-
TaMhi ana;asesato ariJ JeyyaU6 ekaUsato ;irOE//itabbaU# (;sm#sub)com#:##25')
w
1==
w
1==
cerned
without e<cetion desire and cra;in( *or those instructs to a!y the three nOEmas which are the
ob/ects o*
Accordin( to these te<ts a meditator a!! the rAas and nOEmas which make c!in(in( indi;idua!!y# +n
doin( so-
The know!ed(e that discerns a!! the rAas indi;idua!!y rAa ariccheda JOE?a# The know!ed(e that
discerns indi;idua!!y is ca!!ed nOEma ariccheda JOE?a# The know!ed(e discerns the rAas and
nOEmas as two searate (rous is rAa ariccheda JOE?a#
These three JOE?as are a!so known by a searate set o* names as rAa ari((aha JOE?a6 arAa
ari((aha JOE?a6 and nOEma rAa ari((aha JOE?a# @urthermore6 at this sta(e the know!ed(e that
understands
PThere is no erson6 bein(6 or sou!6 but on!y rAas and nOEmas e<istQ is ca!!ed nOEma rAa
;a;aEEhana JOE?a#
A erson who is endea;ourin( to discern a!! o* the rAas and nOEmas may !ea;e out those connected
with /hOEna i* he has not attained
/hOEna6 but i* he is ab!e to attain /hOEna he shou!d discern and contem!ate with ;iassanOE
know!ed(e the rAas and nOEmas associated
with whiche;er o* the /hOEnas he has attained#
Second!y6 the causes o* those rAas and nOEmas must be known correct!y as they rea!!y are# This
know!ed(e is accaya ari((aha J OE?a#
>ecause these two know!ed(es6 nOEma rAa ariccheda JOE?a and accaya ari((aha JOE?a6 know
c!ear!y6 distinct!y6 and roer!y the
w
1=5
dhammas that are are a!so ca!!ed JOEta
Third!y6 the imermanence6 rAas6 nOEmas6 and their causes o* insi(ht *rom sammasana J;iassanOE6
these rAas6 nOEmas6 and seein( the three characteristics o* each
O* these ;iassanOE JOE?as the two o* sammasana udayabaya JOE?a6 whose *unction are to
in;esti(ate imermanence6 ain*u!6 and not)se!* characteristics nOEmas6 and their causes6 are ca!!ed
tira?a ariJJOE o* in;esti(atin()#
@rom bhaM(a JOE?a u throu(h the remainin( ;iassanOE Jon!y the assin( away o* a!! rAas6
nOEmas and their causes is to(ether with the anicca6 dukkha6 and anatta characteristics o* those
dhammas# As at that time the de*i!ements that shou!d be abandoned are remo;ed temorari!y these J
OE?as are ca!!ed ahOEna ariJJOE (*u!! understandin( as abandonin()#
The ariyama((a JOE?as com!ete!y remo;e without remainder the i(norance (a;i//OE) L de!usion
(moha) which c!oud the mind and make it unab!e to know- A!! the rAas and nOEmas which are dukkha
sacca6 the causes o* these rAas and nOEmas which are samudaya sacca6 and the anicca6 dukkha6 and
anatta nature o* dukkha sacca and samudaya sacca# >ecause o* the ariyama((as *unction and ower to
com!ete the *unction o* knowin( these dhammas and to com!ete the *unction o* in;esti(ation o* these
dhammas as anicca6 dukkha6 and anatta they are (i;en the name o* JOEta ariJJOE and tira?a ariJJ
OE# They are a!so ca!!ed ahOEna ariJJOE because they remo;e de*i!ements without remainder#
A meditator must endea;our to attain com!ete know!ed(e o* a!! the rAas and nOEmas which make u
the *i;e a((re(ates o* c!in(in(
w
w
4
by de;e!oin( shou!d *irst!y know6 >e!ow is an e<!anation
:'
:':':':':'
1Aas
1Aas1Aas1Aas1Aas1Aas@our Oreat E!ements L mahOE Earth e!ement
(atha;K dhOEtu)
OarAatha;K (rou
Lahuatha;K (rou
1#
Hard
:#
So*t
2#
1ou(h
=#
Smooth
5#
Hea;y
4#
Li(ht
Water e!ement L
OEo dhOEtu
1#
@!owin(
:#
Cohesion
@ire e!ement L
te/o dhatu
1#
Hot
:#
Co!d
Air e!ement L
;OEyo dhOEtu
1#
Suortin(
:# Pushin(
PasOEda rAas
L
transarent rAas or *i;e transarent e!ements
(a!so ca!!ed sensiti;ities)
1#
cakkhu
asOEda
L
transarent e!ement o* the eye
:#
sota
asOEda
L
transarent e!ement o* the ear
2#
(hOEna
asOEda
L
transarent e!ement o* the nose
=#
/i;ha asOEda
L
transarent e!ement o* the ton(ue
5#
kOEya asOEda
L
transarent e!ement o* the body (is disersed
throu(hout the body)
Oocara rAas
L
*ie!d rAas or se;en ob/ect rAas
1#
rAa
L
si(ht
L !i(ht
L co!our
:#
sadda
L
sounds
2#
(andha
L
sme!!s L odour
=#
rasa
L
*!a;ours L
taste
5#
hoEEhabba
L
touch
L
5#
earth
e!ement
4#
*ire e!ement
9#
air e!ement
w
1=9
w
1=9
/ects
o* touch# +* they then there are se;en ob/ects :' rAas6 hoEEhabba (touch) rAas earth6 *ire6 and air are
*our mahOE bhAtas#
>hOE;a
rAa
L
rAas o* se<6 : kinds
1#
itthi bhOE;a rAa
L
rAas which cause one to be *ema!e
:#
urisa bhOE;a rAa
L
rAas which cause one to be ma!e
+n any indi;idua! on!y one o* these two rAas on!y the rAas which cause one to be *ema!e the rAas
which cause one to be ma!e# >hOE;a rAa is the body#
Hadaya rAa
L
heart rAa
1#
hadaya;atthu rAa
L
the heart basis which is the rAa deendin(
on
which
the
mind
e!ement6 or mind consciousness e!ement
rests#
The hadaya rAa is *ound as hadaya dasaka ka!OEas which are distributed in the b!ood in the ca;ity o*
the heart# >ecause it is the !ace where the mano dhOEtu or mano;iJJOE?a dhOEtu resides it is ca!!ed
the heart base#
BK;ita rAa
L
!i*e *orce
1#
/i;itindriye
L
!i*e *acu!ty rAa
This rAa is *ound throu(hout the body and it sustains the !i*e o* rAas roduced by kamma (kamma/a
rAas)#
XhOEra rAa
L
nutriment rAa
1#
kaba!ikOEra OEhOEra
L
nutriment6 is the nutriti;e essence (o/OE) *ound
in *ood#
w
1='
w
1='
tained
in the o/OE aEEhamaka in the *ood which has been swa!!owed more recise6 when one has swa!!owed
stomach6 but has not yet been absorbed body then the o/OE in that sta(e is sti!! ca!!ed
With the aid o* the di(esti;e *ire o* the /K;ita is te/o dhOEtu the new *ood is di(ested and this roduces
o* o/OE aEEhamaka rAa ka!OEas# These rAas are o/OE aEEhamaka rAas# The o/OE in these
OEhOEra/a o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEas is ca!!ed OEhOEra/a o/OE#
The abo;e 1' tyes o* rAa dhammas are ca!!ed sabhOE;a rAas (natura! rAas) because they each
ossess a natura! characteristic such as hardness6 etc# ( 1 )
These 1' tyes o* rAa are a!so ca!!ed sa!akkha?a rAas ((enera! characteristic rAas) because they
ossess the (enera! characteristics
o* a!! nOEmas and rAas- bein( imermanent because they arise and ass away6 bein( ain*u! because
they are oressed by arisin( and assin( away6 and bein( not)se!* because they are not ossessed o*
any ermanent6 stab!e essence6 sou!6 or se!*#
( : )
>ecause these 1' tyes o* rAa arise with kamma6 citta6 utu6 and OEhOEra as their causes they are a!so
ca!!ed nihanna rAas
(roduced
rAas)#
( 2 )
>ecause these 1' tyes o* rAa are constant!y unstab!e and chan(e in intensities *rom hot to co!d6 hard
to so*t6 etc#6 they are ca!!ed rAa rAa
(concrete or rea! rAa)#
( = )
w
w
>ecause these three characteristics suitab!e ob/ects *or ;iassanOE sammasana rAas
(rAas suitab!e *or contem!ation)#
( 5 )
The remainin( 13 tyes o* rAa !ike those 1' abo;e but are-
1#
asabhOE;a
rAas
L
rAas without natura! characteristics#
:#
a!akkha?a rAas
L
rAas without the three characteristics#
2#
anianna rAas
L
unroduced rAas#
=#
arAa rAas
L
not rea! rAas#
5#
asammasana rAas
L
rAas not suitab!e *or ;iassanOE contem!ation #
Pariccheda rAa
L
de!imitatin( rAa
1#
OEkOEsa dhOEtu
L
sace
e!ement
That rAa which kees each rAa artic!e *rom mi<in( u with another6 which causes the rAa artic!es
to be ab!e to be de!imitated searate!y6 and which is the sace between rAa ka!OEas is ca!!ed
ariccheda rAa#
FiJJatti rAa
L
rAas o* intimation6
two kinds
1#
kOEya ;iJJatti
L
bodi!y intimation6 actions or mo;ements o* the body which cause communication (body !an(ua(e)#
:#
;acK ;iJJatti
L
;erba! intimation6 actions o* seech which cause
communication#
The actions which cause another erson to know ones thou(hts or desires are ca!!ed ;iJJatti rAa#
0OEya ;iJJatti is the communication
o* ones thou(hts or desires throu(h bodi!y intimation such as si(na!!in( a erson to come by a (esture
o* the hand#
w
153
w
153
FKkara rAa
L
materia!ity as a!teration6 *i;e kinds
1#
!ahutOE
L
!i(htness
(a)
the !i(htness o* rea! rAas caused by mind (citta)
(b)
the !i(htness o* rea! rAas caused by temerature or (c)
the !i(htness o* rea! rAas cause by nutriment (OEhOEra)
:#
mudutOE
L
so*tness
(a)
the so*tness o* rea! rAas caused by citta
(b)
the so*tness o* rea! rAas caused by utu
(c)
the so*tness o* rea! rAas caused by OEhOEra
2#
kammaJJata
L
wie!diness o* matter
(a)
the wie!diness or !iancy o* rea! rAas caused by citta
(b)
the wie!diness or !iancy o* rea! rAas caused by utu
(c)
the wie!diness or !iancy o* rea! rAas caused by OEhOEra
These three rAas !ahutOE6 mudutOE6 and kammaJJata to(ether with the recedin( two rAas kOEya
;iJJatti and ;acK ;iJJatti are ca!!ed the *i;e kinds o* ;KkOEra rAa#
Lakkha?a rAa
L
matter as characteristic6 *our kinds
1#
uacaya
L
(rowth o* matter
(a)
+t has the characteristic o* occurin( at the be(innin( o* rea! rAas o* one !i*e#
w
151
(b)
+t causes (rowth rAas
to reach su**iciency :#
santati L continuity o* rAas in one !i*e a*ter the The >uddha tau(ht the arisin( di;idin( it u into two
time eriods6 de;e!oment o* the *acu!ties eye6 ear6 o* the *acu!ties# These two rAas are /ust rAas#
2#
/aratOE La(ein( or maturin( o* rea! rAas# +t is the (Ehiti) o* rea!
rAas#
=#
aniccata L disso!ution o* rea! rAas# +t is the sta(e o* disso!ution6
disaearance (bhaM(a) o* rea! rAas#
The 1' rea! rAas and the 13 imitation rAas (i;e a tota! o* :' kinds o* rAa# O* these :' rAas the earth6
water6 *ire6 and air rAas are ca!!ed dhOEtus (e!ements)6 mahOE dhOEtus or bhAta rAas# The other :=
kinds o* rAa are ca!!ed uOEdOE rAas (deri;ed materia!ity) because
they arise deendin( on the *our (reat e!ements#
The Nature O* 1Aas
The Nature O* 1AasThe Nature O* 1AasThe Nature O* 1AasThe Nature O* 1AasThe Nature O*
1Aas
These :' tyes o* rAa cannot e<ist indeendent!y or indi;idua!!y
but can on!y e<ist in a (rou which is ca!!ed a rAa ka!OEa# The sma!!est combination or
a((!omeration o* rAas is ca!!ed (hana# The rAas in one rAa ka!OEa are-
ekuOEda
L
they arise to(ether at the same time#
ekanirodha
L
they cease to(ether at the same time#
ekanissaya
L
they deend on the same rAas in the same ka!OEa#
The uOEdOE rAas resent in one rAa ka!OEa are deri;ed *rom or deend on the *our e!ements
resent in that same ka!OEa# They are not deendent on the *our e!ements resent in another rAa
ka!OEa#
w
15:
@urthermore the each other# >oth the are not deendent on rAas that arise to(ether the mahOE bhAtas
and the mahOE
+n order to see with JOE?a these rAas as they tru!y are and to see that the bhAta rAas and bhAta rAas
are deendent necessary to be ab!e to see the rAa ka!OEas# ab!e to see rAa ka!OEas then he wi!!
a!so be rea!ities resent in each and whether there are ei(ht6 more rAas in each# Then he must a!so
endea;our characteristics and roerties o* each o* these rAas each out with JOE?a# On!y then wi!! he
be ab!e to know rea!ity o* rAa# +n these notes this method o* seein( rAa is ca!!ed
Pana!ysis o* e!ementsQ#
+n the mahOE(oOE!OEka sutta o* ma//hima nikOEya6 mA!aa??OEsa6 mahOEyamaka ;a((a6 the
>uddha says-
>hikkhus6 in this same way a bhikkhu ossessed o* e!e;en Cua!ities is incaab!e o* (rowth6
de;e!oment6
or (reatness in this Teachin( and $isci!ine#
O* these e!e;en Cua!ities one enumerated by the >uddha is-
Here6 >hikkhus6 a bhikkhu does not know rAa#
Which is e<!ained *urther by the >uddha to mean-
>hikkhus6 here in this Teachin( a bhikkhu does not know as it rea!!y is that6
PWhate;er rAa there is a!! rAa is the *our (reat e!ements and the rAa deri;ed *rom the *our (reat
e!ementsQ# >hikkhus6 by not knowin( thus a bhikkhu does not know rAa#
The commentary to this says- What is Pnot knowin( rAaQ6 o* the *our (reat e!ements he does not
know them in two ways as to number and as to cause o*
w
152
arisin(# Not knowin( that come in the OESi body baseN si(hts6 sounds6 ma!e *acu!tyN !i*e *acu!tyN
water e!ementN !i(htness6 (rowth6 continuity6 a(ein(6 and o* *ood#
Thus in the same way as a cowherder o* his cows6 a bhikkhu not knowin( the number o* discernin(
rAa6 o* distin(uishin( what discernin( mind6 matter and their causesN o* notin( three characteristics
and o* reachin( the (oa! o* meditation#
Bust as the cowherderGs herd does not increase or (row6 this disensation a bhikkhu does not (row in
;irtue6 concentration6 insi(ht6 ath6 *ruit6 or NibbOEna# Bust as that cowherder does not the *i;e
roducts o* cows6 so too that bhikkhu does not en/oy *i;e (rous o* $hamma that are the ;irtue6
concentration6 understandin(6
*reedom6 and the knowin( and seein( o* *reedom o* an Arahanta#
Not knowin( the cause o* arisin( o* rAas means not knowin(6 P These rAas ha;e one cause o*
arisin(6 these ha;e two causes6 these rAas ha;e three causes6 and these ha;e *our causesQ# Bust as a
cowherder does not know the co!ours6 or aearance o* his cows6 in that same way a bhikkhu not
knowin( the causes o* arisin( o* rAas is not caab!e o* discernin( rAa6 o* distin(uishin( what is not
rAa6 #### (as abo;e) ### *reedom o* an Arahanta#
A meditator who rea!!y wishes to attain ma((a6 ha!a6 and nibbOEna shou!d ay secia! attention to
these words o* the >uddha# To be ab!e to know the number o* rAas and their causes o* arisin( it is
necessary to be ab!e to discern rAa ka!OEas indi;idua!!y and to be ab!e to ana!yse rAa ka!OEas# @or
without bein( ab!e to ana!yse rAa
w
15=
ka!OEas one wi!! which rAas are caused and which by ana!yse rAa ka!OEas there ha;e seen
u!timate rea!ity#
Three 0inds O* Comactness O* 1Aa
Three 0inds O* Comactness O* 1AaThree 0inds O* Comactness O* 1AaThree 0inds O*
Comactness O* 1AaThree 0inds O* Comactness O* 1AaThree 0inds O* Comactness O*
To be ab!e to see the u!timate rea!ity break down the three kinds o* comactness sub)commentary
e<!ains that there are three re!ated to rAas# +t says-
Ohana;inibbho(anGti santati samAha kicca (haJOEnaU ;inibbhu/OEnaU ;i;ecanaU#
(m#sub)com#1##245)
Trans!ation- The breakin( down o* (hana means the breakin( down o* santati (continuity)6 samAha
((rouin()6 and kicca (*unction)
(hana#
1#
santati (hana
L
comactness o* continuity
+n a!! rAa ka!OEas6 whether they are roduced by kamma6 citta6 utu6 or OEhOEra6 there is a!ways *ire
e!ement resent (te/o dhOEtu)# This *ire e!ement is a!so ca!!ed utu (temerature)# This *ire e!ement or
utu causes the arisin( and mu!ti!ication o* new utu/a o/OE aEEhamaka rAa ka!OEas which are
ka!OEas roduced by temerature with nutriment
essence as the ei(hth *actor# These contain earth6 water6 *ire6 air6 co!our6 odour6 taste6 and nutriti;e
essence#
Let us *or e<am!e take the case o* eye sensiti;ity as the tenth *actor rAa ka!OEa# +* we ana!yse this
ka!OEa we wi!! *ind ten *actorsN the abo;e ei(ht !us !i*e *acu!ty and eye sensiti;ity# Amon(st these
ten *actors *ire e!ement is a!so resent# That *ire e!ement causes the
w
155
roduction and *actor that are roduced
A!so in this way e;ery *ire e!ement in cakkhu dasaka ka!OEas to arise *our or *i;e times# contain *ire
e!ement which cannot *rom utu# Other rAa ka!OEas shou!d simi!ar way#
The te/o dhatu o* some rAa ka!OEas causes ka!OEas *our or *i;e times6 some others can cause more
times a(ain# A!! o* the utu/a o/OE aEEhamaka in these ;arious ways are ca!!ed rAas roduced by utu#
+n a simi!ar way as has been shown abo;e6 nutriment that is made o* utu/a o/OE aEEhamaka rAas
which each contain This o/OE whi!e not yet absorbed into the body and disersed is sti!! utu/a rAa# O*
the =: arts o* the body it is known as (or(e# This utu/a o/OE is di(ested with the aid o* the
kammica!!y deri;ed *ire o* the stomach (the *ire contained in a tye o* /K;ita na;aka ka!OEa)6 and is
absorbed and sread throu(h the body in the *orm o* o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEas# These o/OE
aEEhamaka rAas are ca!!ed OEhOEra/a o/OE aEEhamaka ka!OEas (ka!OEas deri;ed *rom *ood)#
With the aid o* this OEhOEra/a o/OE the o/OE o* the kamma/a ka!OEa6 citta/a ka!OEa6 and utu/a
ka!OEa is ab!e to mu!ti!y and roduce a series o* o/OE aEEhamaka rAas *rom three to twe!;e times
in succession#
+* the *ood that is consumed has nutriti;e essence which is stron( then accordin( to its stren(th many
(enerations o* o/OE aEEhamaka rAas can be roduced in succession#
When a meditator can see a!! these rocesses distinct!y and searate!y
and can discern each indi;idua! rAa ka!OEa in these rocesses
then he is said to ha;e remo;ed santati (hana#
w
154
w
154
samAha (hana
L
comactness o* The breakin( down the searation o* aramattha natura! characteristics each rAa
ka!OEa6 whether there ka!OEa#
2#
kicca (hana
L
comactness o* *unction
The breakin( down o* the comactness o* one is ab!e to see with wisdom the *unctions indi;idua!
aramattha rAa resent in a rAa ka!OEa#
To break down a!! three *orms o* comactness a meditator need to be ab!e to discern the characteristic6
*unction6 mani*estation6 and ro<imate cause o* each aramattha rAa resent in any rAa ka!OEa# To
see these thin(s a meditator wi!! need to de;e!o one o* two !e;e!s o* concentration6 either uacOEra
samadhi or aanOE samadhi (access or absortion concentration)#
Puri*ication O* ,ind
Puri*ication O* ,indPuri*ication O* ,indPuri*ication O* ,indPuri*ication O* ,indPuri*ication O*
,ind $o a!! the ei(ht *actors o* the nob!e ath need to be de;e!oedV
A meditator who wishes to attain nibbOEna shou!d reca!! that in the dhammacakka sutta6 the
mahOEsatiaEEhOEna sutta6 and in other suttas6 the ath o* ractice that !eads to the cessation o*
dukkha is a!ways tau(ht to consist o* ei(ht *actors6 *rom sammOE diEEhi (ri(ht ;iew) u to sammOE
samOEdhi (ri(ht concentration)# On!y when a!! ei(ht *actors are resent can a meditator reach
nibbOEna6 which is the cessation o*
dukkha#
O* these ei(ht *actors6 ri(ht concentration is de*ined as the *irst6 second6 third6 and *ourth /hOEnas by
the >uddha in ;arious suttas# This method o* teachin( is ca!!ed either ukkaEEha niddesa method or
ma//hedKaka method# The ukkaEEha niddesa method shows the best
w
159
concentration *or ma//hedKaka method samOEdhi# +t oints to !ane o* *orm) and this must samOEdhi
o* the kamOE;acara samOEdhi6 and with the arAa;acara occur on either side o* the rAa;acara (i;es
the *our /hOEnas as an e<am!e shou!d be understood that a!! nine tyes
So it can be seen that a meditator must
ossess sammOE samOEdhi to do ;iassanOE and to attain nibbOEna# Those who there is no need to
de;e!o samOEdhi to attain nibbOEna6 remo;ed one *actor *rom the ath and made it into a se;en*o!d
Each meditator shou!d consider *or himse!* whether by ractisin( se;en*o!d ath he wi!! be ab!e to
reach nibbOEna or not#
To de;e!o the se;en sta(es o* uri*ication a meditator must *irst de;e!o the uri*ication o* ;irtue (sK!a
;isuddhi) *o!!owed by uri*ication
o* mind (citta ;isuddhi)# Ha;in( achie;ed uri*ication o* mind he can de;e!o the uri*ication o* ;iew
(diEEhi ;isuddhi)#
+n the abhidhammattha saM(aha it is stated that-
Lakkha?a rasa accuaEEhOEna adaEEhOEna ;asena nOEma rAa ari((ho diEEhi;isuddhi nOEma#
(chater &6 ;isuddhibhedo)
Which trans!ates as-
The discernin( o* nOEmas and rAas accordin( to characteristic6 *unction6 mani*estation6 and
ro<imate cause is ca!!ed uri*ication o* ;iew#
A meditator who wishes to com!ete the de;e!oment o* uri*ication
o* ;iew must *irst!y endea;our to achie;e uri*ication o* mind# The ;isuddhima((a de*ines uri*ication
o* mind sayin(- Citta;isuddhi nOEma sauacOEra attha samOEattiyo#
Which means-
w
15'
Puri*ication o* concentration (uacOEra (;sm# YF+++6 1)
So the *our rAa and *our constitute uri*ication o* mind6 to achie;e either uacOEra samadhi6 them
to(ether
to attain uri*ication o* mind#
The samOEdhi sutta o* saUyutta nikOEya states-
SamOEdhiU bhikkha;e bhOE;etha6 samOEhito bhikkha;e yathOEbhutaU OE/OEnOEti6 kiJca
yathOEbhutaU OE/OEnOEti6 ca atthaM(amaJca6 ;edanaya samudayanJca atthaMaya samudayaJca
atthaM(amaJca6 saMkhOErOEnaU samudayaJatthaM(amaJca6 ;iJJOE?assa samudayaJca atthaM(amaJca#
Which can be trans!ated as-
>hikkhus6 de;e!o concentration# >hikkhus6 a bhikkhu who is concentrated knows thin(s as they rea!!y
are# And what does he know as they rea!!y areV The arisin( o* rAa and its causes6 and its assin( away
and its causes# The arisin( and causes o* ori(ination and the assin( away and causes o* disso!ution o*
;edanOE (*ee!in(s)6
### saJJOE (ercetion)6 ### saMkhOErOE (menta! *ormations)6 ### ;iJ JOE?a (consciousness)6 ###assin(
away and its causes#
+n this sutta the >uddha has shown that samOEdhi must be de;e!oed
to be ab!e to know as they rea!!y are-
1#
1Aa6 ;edanOE6 saJJOE6 saMkhOEra6 and ;iJJOE?a6 which are aramattha dhammas#
:#
The causes o* ori(ination o* the *i;e khandhas6 which are a;i//OE6 ta?hOE6 uOEdOEna6 saMkhOErOE6
kamma6 etc# (i(norance6 cra;in(6 attachment6 *ormations6 and kamma)
w
15&
w
15&
The causes o* the are the cessation o* uOEdOEna6 saMkhOErOE6 =#
The arisin( and assin( causes#
Any erson who wishes to attain this Teachin( o* the >uddha because o* de;e!oin( samOEdhi# +*
howe;er meditators de;e!oin( samOEdhi then because o* they wi!!-
1#
Not be ab!e to know correct!y the way in which eriods o* timeN ast6 resent6 and *uture6 resu!tant
roduced because o* causa! dhammas6 or the way in which o* these causa! dhammas cause the
cessation o* the dhammas#
:#
Either not be ab!e to see rAa ka!OEas6 or i* they can see them6 not be ab!e to ana!yse them6 remo;e
comactness6 and discern rea! aramattha dhammas#
2#
Not be ab!e to know as they rea!!y are the arisin( and assin( away o* the *i;e khandhas and their
causesN interna!!y and e<terna!!y6
as we!! as durin( the three times o* ast6 resent6 and *uture#
There*ore6 *or those who sti!! as yet do not know these thin(s6 it is ad;isab!e to resect*u!!y *o!!ow the
>uddhas ad;ice and de;e!o samadhi# +t is in this way6 that one wi!! be ab!e to discern com!ete!y with
the three understandin(s (ariJJas) the *i;e khandhas and attain
nibbOEna# The >uddha has tau(ht in this way6 in order that we may be ab!e to reach the end o* dukkha#
The 0hanika SamOEdhi O* Citta;isuddhi
The 0hanika SamOEdhi O* Citta;isuddhiThe 0hanika SamOEdhi O* Citta;isuddhiThe 0hanika
SamOEdhi O* Citta;isuddhiThe 0hanika SamOEdhi O* Citta;isuddhiThe 0hanika SamOEdhi O*
Citta;isuddhi
There are some resected teachers who be!ie;e that a suddha ;iassanOE yOEnika indi;idua! does not
need to de;e!o samOEdhi6 but
w
143
can roceed to (momentary concentration)# about the khanika samOEdhi at the time o* attainin( citta at
the time o* true ;iassanOE
A samatha yOEnika indi;idua! who /hOEnas and there*ore com!eted citta and who wishes to com!ete
diEEhi ;isuddhi shou!d enter into any o* the /hOEnas6 e<cet neither ercetion nor non ercetion#
A*ter that /hOEna he shou!d discern the /hOEna *actors6 be(innin( etc6 and a!! the menta! *actors
(cetasikas) associated consciousness# Each shou!d be discerned accordin( to *unction6 mani*estation6
and ro<imate cause# A*ter shou!d take them a!! to(ether as nOEma because they a!! ha;e o* bendin(
towards the ob/ect#
Then a(ain he shou!d discern- The hadaya;atthu rAa where those nOEmas reside6 the *our e!ements on
which that hadaya;atthu rAa deends6 and the other deri;ed materia!ity resent there# A!! these shou!d
be discerned accordin( to characteristic6 *unction6 mani*estation6
and ro<imate cause#
(accordin( ;sm# YF+++6 2)
+* howe;er that samatha yOEnika indi;idua! wishes to be(in with discernin( rAa dhammas6 without
ha;in( yet discerned the nOEma dhammas6 then he shou!d roceed in the e<act same way as a suddha
;iassanOE yOEnika indi;idua!# The way in which a suddha ;iassanOE yOEnika indi;idua! de;e!os
diEEhi ;isuddhi is as *o!!ows-
Suddha;iassOEnOEyOEniko ana ayame;a ;OE samathayOEniko catudhOEtu ;a;atthOEne
;uttOEnaU tesaU tesaU dhOEtu ari((aha mukhOEnaU aJJOEtara mukha;asena saMkheato ;OE
;ittarato ;OE catasso dhOEtuyo ari((anhOEti#
w
141
Which means-
A erson whose ;ehic!e is serenity6 but who rAas instead o* nOEmas6 or in detai! in one o* the ;arious
de*inition o* the *our e!ements#
(;sm# YF+++6 =)
Accordin( to these instructions o* the who wishes to roceed direct!y to the ractice /hOEnas as a
*oundation6 or a erson who has ei(ht /hOEnas6 but who wishes to be(in ;iassanOE *irst6 must be(in
by discernin( the *our e!ements or both in brie* and in detai!#
FiassanOE is made u o* two sectionsN contem!ation o* rAa contem!ation o* nOEma# These two
are a!so ca!!ed rAa ari((aha6 discernment o* rAas6 and arAa ari((aha6 discernment o* nOEmas#
The ma//hima commentary and the abhidhamma commentary
say-
Tattha bha(a;OE rAa kammaEEhOEnaU kathento saMkhea manasikOEra;asena
;OE
;itthOEra
manasikOEra;asena
;OE
catudhOEtu;a;atthOEnaU kathesi#
(abhi#com#:##:5:N m#com#1##:'3)
Which means-
O* these two6 rAa kammaEEhOEna (contem!ation o* rAa) re*ers
to the de*inin( o* the *our e!ements by ayin( attention in the brie* way or the detai!ed way#
These instructions *ound in the commentaries concernin( the method o* discernin( rAas in
;iassanOE show that the >uddha has tau(ht that a suddha ;iassanOE yOEnika6 or a samatha
yOEnika who wishes to be(in by discernin( rAas6 must be(in by discernin( the *our e!ements in brie*
or in detai!# +* a meditator ractises accordin(
w
14:
to the Teachin( resu!t#
The Fisuddhima((a c!ear!y which is one o* the =3 sub/ects o* meditations which can reach means that
it is a meditation sub/ect uacOEra concentration#
The method *or the de;e!oment o* *our been described in detai! in Part :#
The >uddha tau(ht this brie*
method in mahOEsatiaEEhOEna sutta sayin(-
Puna caaraU bhikkha;e bhikkhu imame;a kOEyaU thitaU yathOE a?ihitaU dhOEtuso acca;ekkhati6
Gatthi imasmiU atha;K dhOEtu ao dhOEtu te/o dhOEtu ;OEyo dhOEtuG ti#
(m#1##92)
Which means-
>hikkhus6 or a(ain in another way a bhikkhu re*!ects about this ;ery body howe;er it be ositioned or
!aced as consistin( o* /ust e!ements thus6 PThere e<ists in this body /ust the earth e!ement6 the water
e!ement6 the
*ire e!ement6 and the air e!ementQ#
The Fisuddhima((a *urther instructs a meditator to discern the *our e!ements6 in the bones6 sinews6
*!esh6 and skin6 searatin( each out with the hand o* wisdom6 and to do this a(ain and a(ain one
hundred6 one thousand6 or e;en one hundred thousand times#
The Fisuddhima((a *urther states-
Tasse;aU ;OEyamamOEnassa na cirene;a dhOEtuabhedOE;abhOEsana
aJJOEari((ahito sabhOE;adhammOEramma?attOE aanaU aatto uacOEramatto samOEdhi
ua//ati#
w
142
Which means-
As he makes e**ort arises in him6 which the c!assi*ication o* (uacOEra) and does not reach are
u!timate rea!ities (aramattha (;sm# Y+6 =:)
Attention shou!d be aid to the *act that states that meditation on the *our e!ements concentration#
The
sub)commentary
to Fisuddhima((a states-
SamathayOEnikassahi uacOEraanOE bhedaU samOEdhiU itarassa kha?ikasamOEdhiU ubhayesmiU
;imokkhamukhattayaU ;inOE na kadOEcii !okuttarOEdhi(amo saUbha;ati#
(;sm#sub)com#1##15)
Which means-
Without the access and absortion concentration in one whose ;ehic!e is serenity6 or without the
momentary (kha?ika) concentration
in one whose ;ehic!e is ure insi(ht and without the (ateways to !iberation (know!ed(e o*
imermanence6 ain6 and not)se!*) the suramundane can ne;er be reached#
So here the
sub)commentary
uses the term kha?ika samOEdhi (momentary
concentration) to describe the concentration de;e!oed by the suddha ;iassanOE yOEnika indi;idua!6
and the ;isuddhima((a uses the term uacOEra concentration# This distinction in usa(e shou!d be
understood#
Concernin( this usa(e the
sub)commentary
e<!ains-
"acOErasamOEdhiti ca ruShi ;asena ;editabbam# AanOEmhi uecca cOEri samOEdhi
uacOErasamOEdhi aanOEcettha natthi# TOEdisassa
w
14=
ana samOEdhissa (Fsm#subcom#
1#=24)
Which means-
When the commentary says hi(hest concentration attainab!e be understood that it is used in the On!y
the concentration c!ose to /hOEna this *our e!ements meditation there is it has states with indi;idua!
essences as its ower o* concentration attained by *our e!ements to uacOEra concentration the
commentators
So it can be seen that the author o* the
sub)commentary
be!ie;ed that on!y the hi(hest kOEmOE;acara samadhi which has a serenity which is rior to or c!ose
to /hOEna can tru!y be ca!!ed uacOEra concentration# He be!ie;ed that the hi(hest kOEmOE;acara
concentration
attained by doin( *our e!ements meditation is ca!!ed uacOEra concentration by the commentators
because o* its simi!arity to it6 but he be!ie;ed that it shou!d be ca!!ed kha?ika samOEdhi#
+nsi(ht And ,omentary Concentration
+nsi(ht And ,omentary Concentration+nsi(ht And ,omentary Concentration+nsi(ht And ,omentary
Concentration+nsi(ht And ,omentary Concentration+nsi(ht And ,omentary Concentration
The ;isuddhima((a says that a meditator shou!d try to de;e!o the insi(ht know!ed(es *rom
sammasana JOE?a (comrehension by (rous) uwards on!y a*ter he has com!eted *i;e kinds o*
discernment#
These are-
1#
rAa ari((aha
L
discernin( o* rAas#
:#
arAa ari((aha
L
discernin( o* nOEmas#
2#
nOEma rAa ari((aha
L
discernin( o* nOEmas and rAas#
=#
accaya ari((aha
L
discernin( o* dhammas which are causes and dhammas which are resu!ts o* the resent nOEmas and
rAas#
w
145
5#
addhOEna ari((aha
L
discernin( o* dhammas causes and dhammas nOEmas and rAas#
The ob/ects o* insi(ht meditation that are causes6 and dhammas ca!!ed saMkhOEra dhammas
(conditioned
The understandin( (aJJa) that sees as imermanent6 ain*u!6 and not)se!* There*ore6 a meditator who
wishes to de;e!o *rom ma((OEma((a JOE?a dassana ;isuddhi ha;e com!eted diEEhi ;isuddhi and
kaMkhOE;itarana it is the nOEmas rAas and the causes and e**ects those uri*ications (;isuddhi) to
which the three characteristics imermanence6 ain6 and not)se!* must be a!ied and which to be seen
with insi(ht#
+n the ractice o* insi(ht the meditator must a!ternate!y a!y the three characteristics at one time to the
interna! *i;e khandhas6 at another
time to the e<terna! *i;e khandhas6 at one time to the rAas and at another time to the nOEmas
(see ;sm#YY+6 '4)# The Fisuddhima((a a!so instructs to a!y the three characteristics to the dhammas
in the ast and *uture at the time o* doin( insi(ht on the *actors o* deendent
ori(ination durin( sammasana JOE?a and udayabbaya JOE?a (see ;sm# YY6 4 ) & )# The concentration
that occurs whi!e doin( insi(ht is ca!!ed kha?ika samOEdhi6 because it does not remain on a sin(!e
ob/ect continuous!y as it does in samatha#
To be ab!e to systematica!!y ractise insi(ht as described abo;e6 the ractice must certain!y be based
uon uacOEra or aanOE /hOEna concentration# Here uacOEra concentration re*ers to that
roduced by *our e!ements meditation or samatha meditation# On!y the concentration
that occurs when doin( insi(ht in the abo;e way can be ca!!ed ;iassanOE kha?ika samOEdhi#
w
144
w
144
To summariWe6 when de;e!oin( concentration6 ;iassanOE yOEnika indi;idua!Gs hi(hest e!ements
meditation is ca!!ed uacOEra concentration to the uacOEra concentration recedin( /hOEna# is a!so
ca!!ed kha?ika samadhi by thesub)commentary# When a suddha ;iassanOE yOEnika indi;idua!
ractisin( ;iassanOE insi(ht on uacOEra concentration6 which *or him is uri*ication mind (citta
;isuddhi)6 and then roceeds to see with insi(ht henomena6 he has at that time concentration ca!!ed
kha?ika samOEdhi# When the samatha yanika indi;idua! who de;e!os
*irst!y uacOEra or aanOE /hOEna samOEdhi as his uri*ication o* mind then arises *rom that
concentration and sees with insi(ht conditioned
henomena he has at that time concentration ca!!ed ;iassanOE kha?ika samOEdhi#
A!! Three Characteristics
A!! Three CharacteristicsA!! Three CharacteristicsA!! Three CharacteristicsA!! Three CharacteristicsA!!
Three Characteristics
The Fisuddhima((a says-
One man comrehends *ormations as imermanent at the start# >ut emer(ence does not come about
throu(h mere comrehendin( as imermanent since there must be comrehension o* them as ain*u!
and not)se!* too6 so he comrehends them as ain*u! and not)se!*# (;sm#YY+6 '')
This shows that /ust by contem!atin( anicca on!y6 or dukkha on!y6 or anatta on!y one cannot attain the
ariyama((as6 but on!y by contem!atin( each o* the three characteristics a!ternate!y wi!! a meditator be
ab!e to reach the ariyama((as#
w
149
@a!!in( into >ha;aM(a
@a!!in( into >ha;a(a@a!!in( into >ha;a(a@a!!in( into >ha;a(a@a!!in( into >ha;a(a@a!!in( into >ha;a
+n this book we ha;e aanOE /hOEna usin( se;era! such as mind*u!ness o* breathin(6 kasi?a# These
meditation sub/ects concentration uacOEra concentration The concentration that recedes c!ose
concentration is ca!!ed uacOEra concentration resent when one has entered into /hOEna
concentration#
The Fisuddhima((a mentions the otentia! o* the mind to *a!! into a bha;aM(a state durin( the time o* +t
states-
Now concentration is o* two kinds6 that is to say6 access concentration
and absortion concentration- the mind becomes concentrated
in two ways6 that is6 on the !ane o* access and on the !ane obtainment#
Herein6 the mind becomes concentrated on the !ane o* access by the abandonment o* the hindrances6
and on the !ane o* obtainment by the mani*estation o* the /hOEna *actors#
The di**erence
between the two kinds o* concentration is this#
The *actors are
not stron( in access#
+t is because they are not stron( that when access has arisen6 the mind now makes the si(n its ob/ect
and now re)enters the !i*e)continuum (bha;aM(a)6 /ust as when a youn( chi!d is !i*ted u and stood on
its *eet6 it reeated!y *a!!s down on the (round#
>ut the *actors are stron( in absortion#
+t is because they are stron( that when absortion concentration has arisen6 the mind6 ha;in( once
interruted the *!ow o* the !i*e)continuum6 carries on with a stream o* ro*itab!e imu!sion *or a who!e
ni(ht and *or a who!e day6 /ust as a hea!thy man6 a*ter risin( *rom his seat6 cou!d stand *or a who!e day#
w
14'
w
14'
)
Somethin( To >e Care*u! O*
Somethin( To >e O*Somethin( To >e O*Somethin( To >e O*Somethin( To >e O*Somethin( To >e
A meditator who de;e!os as a basis *or the de;e!oment de(ree o* concentration has o* matter ca!!ed
rAa ka!OEas when Then
he must continue *urther
to ana!yse those rAa ka!OEas and discern in each artic!e the *our rimary deri;ed tyes o* matter
resent accordin( *unction6 mani*estation6 and ro<imate When he is ab!e to discern these thin(s this is
ca!!ed know!ed(e materia!ity (rAaariccheda JOE?a)#
At that time he wi!! ha;e rea!ised
and enetrated *or himse!*6 by 1i(ht Fiew6 the "!timate o* materia!ity#
@urther to that he must continue to discern each and e;ery indi;idua!
menta! *actor (cetasika)
that occur to(ether
in e;ery moment o* consciousness that arises# These (rous o* menta! *actors that occur to(ether with
consciousness we ca!! nOEma ka!OEas or menta! (rous#
When he can discern each indi;idua! menta! *actor resent in each menta! (rou (nOEma ka!OEa)
accordin( to characteristic6 *unction6
mani*estation6 and ro<imate cause then this is know!ed(e that discerns menta!ity (nOEma ariccheda
JOE?a)#
At that time he wi!! ha;e rea!ised and enetrated *or himse!*6 by 1i(ht Fiew6 the "!timate
1ea!ity o* menta!ity#
So i*
a meditator is not ab!e to discern materia!ity and menta!ity in this way then he has not yet achie;ed the
know!ed(e that discerns mind and matter (nOEma rAa ariccheda JOE?a)#
And *urthermore i* a meditator has not a!so discerned by direct know!ed(e the nOEmas and rAas in
the ast and *uture then there is no way he can know or see6 by direct know!ed(e6 which causes in the
ast roduced the resent nOEmas and rAas6 or which causes in
w
14&
the resent wi!! So that without knowin( their causes a meditator that discerns the causes JOE?a)#
And so i* a meditator has not yet know!ed(es he is as *ar away as the attainin( rea! ;iassanOE insi(ht
know!ed(e rea!isation o* the Nob!e Path6 Nob!e @ruition
So that i* a meditator is that *ar away *rom attainin( because he
has
not de;e!oed true insi(ht6 he shou!d rea!!y take heed o* the statement in the Fisuddhima((a that a
erson any articu!ar meditation ob/ect
and attains uacOEra concentration
or somethin( eCui;a!ent to
uacOEra concentration can *a!!
into bha;aM(a#
This is because there are some meditators who *a!! into bha;aM(a and say P+ knew nothin(Q or P >oth
the ob/ects and the mind notin( them ceased6Q
and they be!ie;e wron(!y that they ha;e rea!ised NibbOEna6 but actua!!y a!! they ha;e done is to *a!!
into bha;aM(a#
>ecause they do not ha;e the abi!ity to discern the bha;aM(a mind and its ob/ect they say that P+ knew
nothin(Q or P >oth the ob/ects and the mind notin( them ceased#Q
>ut i* they (o on to rea!!y de;e!o accaya ari((aha JOE?a they wi!! *ind that at that time there was
sti!! bha;aM(a cittas resent which ha;e as their ob/ects the ob/ect o* the consciousness c!ose to death in
the re;ious !i*e#
+t is sim!y because o* the subt!ety o* that consciousness
and their !ack o* true know!ed(e o* mind6 matter and causes that the meditators are not ab!e to ercei;e
it#
+t must be a!so ointed out that there is no cessation o* consciousness
when one rea!ises the unconditioned state o* NibbOEna#
The
w
193
Path consciousness ob/ect the unconditioned
The on!y time that consciousness attainment o* Nirodha SamOEatti Arahantas and AnOE(OEmis who
consistin( o* the *our rAa So that to say that PConsciousness some meditators reort is not ossib!e
attainment o* nibbOEna#