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Annotated Translation of S tras from the Chinese Sa yuktagama relevant to the Early Buddhist Teachings on Emptiness and the Middle Way

(Second revised edition)

i:p ~X'tAA~¥!

~(ft)·~QJ~~~tf:t~*lflM1?t~

~ !=j rp ~ B<J ~ :tl4

c~ =~i-T~)

by

if! 1m

C HOONG Mun-keat (Wei-keat)

First Edition 2004: Published by Lu Ye Chan Si JOO!ffffr¥:ey=; distributed by Persatuan Penganut Agama Buddha, Xin Lian Jing She ~~1'~.1~~~'®" (Johor, Malaysia)

Second Edition ~=Ji&2010: Published by International Buddhist College, Songkhla

88 , Mu 2, Thu n g Mo Subdistrict, Khuan Sato, Amphoe Sndao,

Songk hla 90240, Thailand

International Buddhist College, Nakhon Ratchasima

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http://ibc.ac.th/en/

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ISBN: 978-6 16-202-126-8

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Contents§~

Foreword • vii Preface• ix

rF . x

Abbrev iations • xii

Introduction I

1. ~="*ijiffl{j: Th e meditative a bode of empt iness- concentration: m-~tt{~ Discourse on Abiding in Purity of Alms-food • 5

2. £~!{~~~JIM~ Connected with emptiness,

confonnab le to the dhanna of conditioned genesis • l 0

3. M}~.1>~( IEJiti:piJ!) The excellent Dharma (Right view,

the middle way) • J6

4. ~'HtJilltlfJi (i:p)tt) Empty of the eternalist and

annihilationist views (The middle way) • 29

5. :::k~~~ The great discourse on the emptiness of

dharmas • 33

6. tilti~JEjt Establishing right view• 39

7. ~~~.&.~~~The dhanna of arising by causal

condition and the dharmas arisen by causal condition • 43

v

8.

kt~~

The dharma of cond itioned arising• 49

9.

i]f!ltAJ:it

The ancient way of the noble ones•

51

I 0.

m--~~

The discourse on emptiness in its ultimate

meaning•

61

11.

~~ff

All empty compounded things•

64

12.

~F1f~~~

Neither ex istence (remai nder) nor non-

existence (non- remainder)

67

13. t!trd:J3!

Empty world • 72

Appendix 1:

His tor ica l and Textual Background of

Buddhism • 75

Appendix 2:

Definitions ofTal)ha (Cravi ng) in Early

Buddhist Sutras •

90

Bibliography

97

VI

Foreword

The entire contents of the Pali Sutta-Pitaka have long been available in English translation, but the corresponding contents of the Chinese Buddhist canon remain, for the most part, inaccessible to the English-reading public. A project is under way that may eventually see the Chinese agamas translated, in their entirety, into 'English. fn the meantime, however, interested readers who are not literate in Chinese have to rely on the still very small number of translations of individual sutras being produced by a few dedicated monks and scholars. The present book makes a substantial contribution to that process, by presenting thirteen significant sutras from the Chinese canon, with Chinese· text and English translation conveniently set out in parallel columns. All of the sutras translated here are from the Chinese Saipyuktagama, a text thought to represent the Sarvastivada or the Mulasarvastivada tradition. Most are from the Nidana- sarpyukta. Of the thirteen sutras, seven have counterparts in the Pali Sarpyutta-nikaya, one is represented in Pali in the Majjh.ima-nikaya and one in the Atiguttara-ni.kaya, and four have no known Pali counterparts. Consequently, this small collection not only opens the way for comparison of Chinese sutras with their Pali counterparts; it also provides access to sutras that, for one reason or another, are not represented in the Pali canon. Importantly, eight of the Chinese sutras (including three of those that are unknown in Pali) exist also in Sanslcrit: they have been identified in a manuscript excavated at Turfan. Close resemblances between the Chinese and Sanskrit versions indicate that these Sanskrit remains reflect closely the source text from which the Chinese translation was made (in the 5th century CE). Doctrinally, these sutras form a natural group: they all deal with the important topic of emptiness. Indeed, this

Vil

collection originated as one aspect of a comparative study of that topic. There is a growing recognition that, whatever the doctrinal issue, comparison of a Pali sutra with its Chinese counterpart can reveal instructive patterns of agreement and disagreement. A large part of the value of this book is that it draws attention to the potential for such Pali-Chinese comparative study. When CHOONG Mun-keat began this translation work during his postgraduate studies at the University ofQueensland, I welcomed it as a valuable aspect of the research he was then engaged in. Now that it has appeared as a published book, I welcome it as a substantial contribution to the on-going process of making the Chinese agamas accessible to the non-Chinese reading public.

Roderick s. BUCKNELL School of History, Philosophy, Religion, and Classics The University of Queensland, Australia

viii

Preface

The sutra translations presented in this book go back to the time when I was doing my MA in the Department of Studies in Religion at The University of Queensland (1993-4). At that time I selected this material for translation because it was particularly relevant to my proposed MA thesis, titled "The Notion of Emptiness in Early Buddhism". That thesis, without the sutra translations, has since appeared as a book, first published in 1995 in Singapore, and then, in a second revised edition, in 1999 in De1hi by Motilal Banarsidass. I always had in mind that my translations of those important early Buddhist sutras should one day be revised for publication as a· book for the benefit of both English and Chinese readers. This dream has come true. The first edition of this book was published in 2004 through the support of Ven. Miao Sheng (:tl'Yfm). Now this second revised edition has been made possible by the support of Ven. Wei Wu (lllf'tif). Here I would like to express my gratitude for their support of my work.

With regard to the first edition of this book, I would like to say thanks to Professors Alan Atkinson and Majella Franzmann at the University of New England, who encouraged me to apply for a UNE Internal Research Grant for this project. I am particularly indebted to Professor Alan Atkinson for suggesting improvements to my ultimately successful IRG application. Finally, I would also like to acknowledge gratefully the help I have received from my teacher, Dr Rod Bucknell. He not only was my teacher at UQ during my MA and PhD studies, but also gave me essential support during the publication process.

CHOONG Mun-keat (Wei-keat) School of Humanities University of New England, Australia

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il!~ Wei-keat {CHOONG Mun-keat)

School of Humanities University of New England

Arirnidale, Australia

Xl

Abbreviations

BCE

Before Common Era, i.e. BC

c. "circa",

approximately

CE

CSA

Common Era, i.e.

~ra.r~*filfi~"ff~

AD

<Ennrui)

[Combined Edition ofSatra and

Siistra

FSA

the

Sar.nyuktiigama]

(3 vols, 1983)

{~**~~.•lfliil3-&fil

Sat1iyuktagama

in Foguang

Tripi!aka

of

 

(4 vols,

1983)

Lamotte

Etienne Lamotte, "Trois Siitra

du

Sarp.yukta

sur la Vacuite"

Bulletin ofthe School of

Oriental and African

Studies,

36 (1973), pp.

313-323

 

P.

Pali

or

Pali

Pali

 

PTS

The

Text Society, London

Skt.

Sanskrit

 

T *IE*~*fil(faisho

Chinese

Tripifaka),

1924-1932 (the standard edition for most

Tripaµll

scholarly purposes)

Chandrabhal Tripa!hi',

Fiinfundzwanzig

SUtras

des

Nidanasarµ.yukta

Verlag, Berlin, 1962)

(Akademie~

XU

Introduction

The teaching of Emptiness (including the Middle Way) is well known as the central philosophy of early Mahayana Buddhism. This teaching in fact exists in both early Buddhism and early Mahayana Buddhism, where it is connected with the meaning of "empty of self-attachment", "empty of the two extremes (the Middle Way)", and ''empty of suffering, affliction, and distress". 1 The translations presented here are of selections from the Chinese Buddhist

itself a translation

of a lost Sanskrit text, Sa1!1yuktiigama. The following paragraphs exp l ain my reasons for choosing this materia l for translation, and provide essential background to the text itself.

The thirteen Chinese siltras translated here are

important early Buddhist materials. 3 They deal with

essential early Buddhist doctrine of Emptiness and the

text, Za-a.han Jing (~irall3-*~), 2 which is

the

1 Details on this Emptiness teaching in early Buddhism can

be found in my work, The Notion of Emptiness in Early

Buddhism (Singapore, 1995; Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1999). Reviewed by Roderick S. BUCKNELL, Australian Religion Studies Review, vol. 13, No. 1 (Autumn 2000), pp. 100-102. 2 Taisho vol. 2, text number 99.

3 Choong (1999), pp. 4-5; The Fundamental Teachings of Early Buddhism; A comparative study based on the Sutriinga portion of the Pali Saf!l;mtta-Nikaya and the

Chinese SCTf!lyuktagama (= Beitrage zur Indologie 32) (Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2000), pp. 7-1 l.

1

Middle Way. The translation from Sanskrit into Chinese was done by the monk Gur:iabhadra (3J<m~J<:Weio between 435 and 445 CE; the .original Sanskrit text was subsequently lost. That Sanskrit text, the Sarr1yuktiigama, is considered to be the Sarvastivadin (or perhaps MUla-Sarvastivadin) counterpart of the Pali Sat!iyutta-nikiiya of the Tamrasaµya tradition (Sri Lankan Pali Buddhism), the self-styled "Theravada Buddhism", Teaching of the Elders. It is widely assumed that only the Pali canon represents "early Buddhism". However, the Pali canon, the scripture of the Theravada or southern Buddhist tradition, represents only one of the early Buddhist schools (so-called "Hinayana Buddhism"), traditionally numbering eighteen. It is not necessarily more representative of early Buddhism than any of the other schools produced by the schisms (beginning about a century after the Buddha's death) whereby the tradition divided and subdivided along sectarian lines. The canons of those other schools are not entirely inaccessible. Although the Indic sow·ce texts have been largely lost, there exist complete Chinese translations of all four iigamas (collections). They are indispensable sources for the study of early Buddhism. In other words, in studies of early Buddhism it is essential to consider not only the Pali canon but also its counterparts from other schools, as preserved in Chinese. 4 Hence, it is impmtant to study the Chfoese version

of the Sal!l)'Uktagama.

The text of the Chinese Sal!lyuktligama used for this translation is that presented as text number 99 in volume 2

4 Cheong (2000), pp. 6-7.

2

(pp. 1-373) of the Taisho Trtpifaka. The Taisho edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon is widely recognised as the standard edition for academic study of Chinese Buddhist texts. The whole set (vols. 1-55 and 85, out of one hundred volumes) is more comprehensive and systematic than any previous compilation. I also made use of Yin Shun's Za-ahan Jing-fun

Huibian (~ira.T~*~IDfii'Wr~) (Combined Edition of Satra

and Siistra of the Sa1'{1-yuktagama] (March 1983, three vols.) (abbreviated CSA) and of the Foguang Tripiiaka's Za-ahan Jing (August 1983, four vols.) (FSA). These are new editions of the Chinese Sa'flyuktagama, with textual corrections, modern Chinese punctuation, comments, and up-to-date infonnation on Pali and other textual counterparts, including different Chinese versions of the text. According to Yin Shun, the existing Chinese version of the Sa1!iyuktiigama is in disorder with regard to the arrangement of its parts, and two fascicles of the original fifty have been lost. In his new edition, Yin Shun restores the supposed original arrangement. 5 Most of the sutras of the Sarµyuktiigama have Pali counterparts, though not necessarily in the Sa1riyutla-nikiiya, and not always with entirely the same content. Of the thirteen sutras translated here, nine have Pali counterparts, as indicated in footnotes. The Sa'flyuktagama has never been translated into English. Therefore, although the present translation covers only thirteen sutras out of the total of 1362 (Taisho edition), it is important in making this material collectively available in English for the first time. The published English

5 Choong (2000), pp. 243-247.

3

translations of the Pali canon were naturally a valuable reference in translating those Chinese sOtras which have Pali counterparts. Fragmentary Sanskrit counterparts of the selected Chinese siitras, reconstrncted and published mainly by Tripa!hi and Lamotte, are not covered in this translation, but are mentioned in footnotes. The Sanskrit equivalents of Chinese terms are shown in footnotes in some cases. Linguistically, the Chinese of the Saf!iyuktiigama is intennediate between classical Chinese and modem vernacular Chinese. It includes numerous Buddhist technical terms, most ofthem translations from the Sanskrit, others phonetic transcriptions. Because of their importance for Buddhist scholarship, and because of occasional uncertainty as to the correct English equivalent, some of these terms have been included in footnotes to the translation in their Sanskrit and/or Pali forms. The Taisho text is punctuated. However, as the above:.mentioned two new editions have shown, this punctuation is sometimes incorrect. Consequently, the modem punctuation given in the new editions was a useful guide in preparing this English translation with annotations.

4

1.

~='*• {t The meditative abode of emptiness-

concentration: nt~~it.f±~ Discourse on Abiding in Purity ofAlms-food 1

T 2 (Taisho Tripi~aka,vol. 2.), p. 57b, sutra No. 236. 2

tlO~ftmlo

- '*Io 1~1±*~1m~~1W~

?Jll~lil0

m'*io ~~~*Ll-9t/i~# ;t{~i*o A*~~'Zi·o

Thus have I heard.

At one time the Buddha was staying at Jetavana, AnathapiQqika's park at SravastI. 3

Then, in the morning, the venerab]e Sariputra, having put on his [outer] robe and taken his bowl, went into the town ofSravasti for alms-food.

Having received alms-food, he returned to the

1 This title is not in the text; it is given here for convenience as a label. The same applies also for the remaining translations.

2 Maijhima-nikaya 151 Pir;l<;lapataparisuddhi-sutta (vol. iii, pp. 293-297 in the PTS Pali edition). Ekottaragama 45. 6 (T 2, p. 773b-c). CSA vol. 1, pp. 280-281; FSA vol. 1, pp. 370-

371.

3 Pali (P.) SavatthI, Cap ital ofKosaJa.

s

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iii

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**U~~*o

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tlt~ot't**

~iS-~*U~o 4-AW~f.qt

1±0

monastery. After putting away his robe and bowl and washing his feet, he took a sitting mat and went into the forest for day-time seated meditation.

When Sariputra arose from

meditation, he went to where the World-Honoured

One (the Buddha) was. He respectfully saluted him by prostrating with his head to

the ground and touching the feet of the Buddha, stepped back, and sat down

at one side. Then, the

Buddha

asked

Sariputra:

"From where have you

come?"

Sariputra replied:

"World

Honoured One, I have

come from day-time seated

meditation in the forest.''

6

The Buddha

Sariputra: "Into which meditative abode (meditative state) do you

enter at this time?"

asked

<Sr*IJ~S1?t8°o

ttt•o

~

4-~**cp,A.~=~f.!fl{!o

Sariputra answered the

Buddha: "World-Honoured One, at this time in the forest I enter the meditative abode of emptiness- conce n trat ion .

"~

i?b~*~UJto tf~o 'i!f~

o ~*U~o &.4-A-1~f¥

Tm~IH!iio

The Buddha said to

Sariputra: "Good, good,

Sariputra.

meditation you are now entering the meditative abode of the Elders.

ln

yow· seated

5

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if

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lii;4-0~Jt~o ~®~.

~.

~~~/Go

,~

wishes to enter

the meditative abode of the

6

"If a monk

Elders,

thus:

he

should practise

"When going into

the

city,

when receiv ing alms-food,

and when leavi ng the city,

should reflect: Now, as

he

my eyes see material

forms,

7

do

I

always give

rise to desire, love, craving,

4

s

6

7

Sanskrit (Skt.) sunyata-samadhi.

Skt

Skt.

sthavira-vihara?

Bhiksu,

il

P.

Bhikkhu.

p

-

. rupa.

.

=

t~

7

attachment?

~*tl'~o t:tli:f'FWl~U

~ o ~n~ITTl£~~1f~2~

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i&o

M'fVJ~/J{!J!o :f~~~­

~1~~o

"Sariputra, if in a monk, thus observing, visual consciousness of material fonn is accompanied by craving, longing and impure attachment, then in order to cut off evil, unskilful states, that monk should make an effort so that he is able to practise restraining the mind.

~j:(l01:fAo

.*:J'tUfl{;&o

~

"Just as a man whose

turban was on fire would

'~}tQ:ttJ:.1.f~o

Ei~i&o

mb~<t~o

tit

t:tfr~nl~

make an effort to

extinguish that fire, in the

~

0 ~~ift.1:11JW\1Jff:

0 same way the monk should

~2{!i~o

:15t:t.rril~~o

iS~m

make an effort to practise restraining the mind.

"If

in a monk observing

[his mind], whether on the

~.

t±nYHfo

;CT~ff}cpqj~·-

M;Jtiti

~ road, or in the town receiving alms-food, or coming out of the town, visual consciousness of material fonn is without craving, longing, and impure attachment during that time,

ra~o Hli~

~~o 1l{~ff~*-~~~o

8

ltli/M

~ ~JltW~?H!Hio

then that monk, wishing to

B~*ffllJo ~~ 1~~

maintain this skilful-root

8

o of happiness, makes an

effort and practices restraining the mind and night.

day

~36 t~li~1T .

{£.

~.

~~~~-tto~jiJlt~~

¥rJf:¥'Liit1to

"This is what is called a

monk's purity of alms-food

while walking, standing,

sitting, and recl ining. For

this reason, this discourse is

called 'abiding in purity of alms-food'."

1~~ Jltm Bo

~*~5fLlJf;

tvH!ltP,IT~o ~·$~ro

When the Buddha had taught this discourse, the

venerable Sariputra, having

heard

what the Buddha

said, was delighted and put it into practice.

8 Skt. kusala-milla, P. kusaJa-miila.

9

2.

~~.lt\Ul~m!Jl!J!fi'!Connected

with emptiness,

conformable to the dharma of conditioned genesis.

T 2, p. 83c, sutra No. 293.

9

:(zO~l.itf.iflo

-ago

f'f~o

f?IH:t:E~~i'l!!~fst

l*J~

o

ttttj:lfi·JHt1I.

o

.fJt

BfJt~~o

flJ!E/t~!(jfflto

Yl~Uo /Gm~~l'lo

?§;'&o

Mk!~IJlo

1L.

ft{~~

1

1nt0r

Thus have

I

heard.

Once the Buddha was staying in Kalandaka's

bamboo-grove

Rajagrha.

10

at

Then, the World-Honoured

One (the Buddha) said to

certain monks:

transcended doubt, got away from uncertainty, dug

out the thicket of evil views, and will no more

"I

have

tum

back. Since the mind

has nothing to which to attach, where could U1ere

be a

self?

~W(btJifijt$o ~~btJi

~

~

Mte

ttt~A·~E!!lmrnn

I teach monks dharma (the nature ofphenomena); teach monks the noble, the

I

9 No Pali counterpart. For Skt. version, see

Tripa~hi,Siitra

11. CSA

vol.

2,

pp.

10 P. ve!uvana.

25-26;

FSA

vol.

1,

pp. 563-564.

10

JifrWH?f;!i&$~*1fo ~*

~$~-~o

supramundane, 11 connected with emptiness, 12 conformable to the dhanna ofconditioned genesis. 13

"That is to say: Because thjs exists, that exists; because this exists, that arises.

''That is to say:

Conditioned by ignorance; 14 activities 15 arise; conditioned by acti.vities; consciousness 16 anses;

~htlf6-&o ~t~-€57\A

~o

conditioned by consciousness, name and material fonn 17 atise; conditioned by name and material fonn, the six

11

Skt. loka-uttara, P. lok:uttara. 12 Skt. sunyata-pratisarµyukta> P. sufiiiata-pa!isruµyutta. 13 Skt. pratityasamutpadanulomata. Cf. Choong (2000), pp. 197 and 154. Cf. also No. 7 in this book (siitra No. 296). 14 P. avijja. 15 P. samkhara. 16 P. viftnana. . nama-rupa.

17 p

-

.

-

11

~

~4:~.

i5

0

~Q:J!:tul

.

I!.

;m.

~~lt:*\:75~

'Hai

~o J?7.¥::tu:J~~:k=a=~

~o

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

P.

sa.Jiiyatana.

P.

phassa.

P.

vedanii.

P.

tanha.

P. upadana.

P. bhava.

P.jati.

sense-spberes

18

a1ise;

conditioned by the six sense-spheres, [sensorial and mental] contact arises; conditioned by contact, feeling2° arises;

19

conditioned by feeling,

craving2

1

arises;

conditioned by craving,

attachment22 arises;

conditioned by attachment,

becoming2

3

arises;

conditioned by becoming,

24

birth

arises;

conditioned by birth arises the suffering ofaging,

death, sorrow, and affliction. Thus is the origin

of this whole mass of

12

~Q ~mt~

o

rru

~ l:tli~~ff

~~~Jlo

J'G::f~~H~~.

 
 

::f~~~.

::fmm~o

4-Mr!Bo

•t&.

filJ0

~&.

1

L.'~~~.

m

MJ*o

Jfr~~

Jltlf~bJRo Jfr~~~®o

ff§

@i:~~~Jlo

Pim.

~ii.

wrm- t1JIN

1iW\.

a~.

tJE~o

25 P. gambhira.

13

suffering. And in the same

way is the cessation of this

whole mass ofsuffering.

"In

this way, I teach

dharma, but the monks still

have doubt and uncertainty.

"They cannot at first gain

the perception that is to be

gained, obtain

the

perception that is to be obtained, achieve the perception that is to be achieved.

"Now having heard the

dharma, their minds give

rise to sorrow,

unawareness, and obstacle.

regret,

Why is

this

so?

25

"Profound

indeed is this,

namely

genesis;

conditioned

even more

profound, more difficult

see (perceive) is this, namely the extinction ofall attachment, the destruction

to

jzollt = r!o

~o

~~~.

AA

 
 

~{!.

~~~~1::.

~~o mt~~:if'1::.

~.

:;f'{i,

:;f~.

:if'~o

~~ ~~Ji~1T~a~Y1!!

~o

~~ftdr=a:~o

~o

l!J~$=jS

ofcraving, the fading away of desire, cessation:

nirval}a.

26

"These two dhannas are

namely the compounded

27

and the uncompounded.

28

"The compounded is

arising, persisting, changing, passing away. The uncompounded is not arising, not persisting, not changing, not passing

away.

"Monks, this is to say:

Al

I

activities [compounded

things] are suffering, and

their cessation is nirvliI,la.

"When the causes are there,

suffering arises; when the

causes cease, the sufferii1g

ceases.

26

P. nibbana, extinction of suffering.

27 Skt. sarpslqta, P. saiikhata =conditioned genesis.

28 Skt. asaqtslqta, P. asarpkhata

14

= nirvliI,la.

IWf~~~~o ~~tf§!Jio

k1J

~iH~~o ~~=a=i§o

ttJI.o

~fiiJFJT~o ~1=J~

=r:s

o

q&~~.11:.

mm.

,~

&o

nr~~- t]J~~.

ror.

~W\.

a~.

1!JUjiJlt~B

o

fit

13!~0

t~.fr~1!Jt

m~o ~:j:.$qf0

"All routes

are

cut off, the

continuum ceases. The cessation ofthe

continuum

ending ofsuffering.

29

is called the

11

0 monks! What is it that

ceases? It is any remaining

suffering. Ifthis ceases, that

is coolness, tranquillity,

namely the extinction of

attacfunent,

all

the

destruction

ofcraving, the fading away

of desire, cessation:

nirv~a."

When the

Buddha

had

taught this discourse, all the monks, having heard what Buddha said, were delighted and put it into practice.

29 The Taisho text has

~~;

but I delete one

~).

in accordance with CSA (vol. 2, p. 27).

~

(i.e.

;f1Ufl

15

3.

llJj.f&~( iEJ!i:J:litt) The excellent Dha1·ma (Right

view, the middle way)

T 2, pp. 66b-67a, sutra No. 262. 30

- ~o ~jqt~_t~ttJift

~~*mm1w.Att~Jmff~

~o 1~~~1.§.*9'.o

fWjo ~~IMJWt:.m!!fiA7i;t(M' ~o A.~~~iJ£,Z:'to

it Bo JRtii1fi:&#o ~,@.

Bo ~Fftdo tt~~#o

f>t.!%~UJo 1~~~HrJ!1E~~ ir?.lo »tlm&~~t~Ji~o

Thus have I heard.

At one time there were many senior monks staying in the deer-park at

~~ipatana 31 [near]

Varfu).asr, 32 soon after the passing away of the Buddha.

Then, in the morning, the elder Chanda, putting on his [outer] robe and taking his bowl1 went into the city ofVarai;iasI for alms-food.

After eating, he put away his robe and bowl and washed his feet. Then, taking his door-key he went from grove to grove, from

30 Saqiyutta-nikaya 22. 90 Chatma (vol. iii, pp. 132-135). CSA vol. l, pp. 53-56; FSA vol. 1, pp. 60-64. 31 P. lsipatana. 12 P. Barfu).asI.

16

~~tfft.~~~¥*.~

~

~~Q~.

Ji!.¥*.

~ll.

!ill~tm0

:&'&:~m¥*

eg.

dm.

-m·

r,r

tJJ

0

~tt.Ji~~AlW~i?r. ~

o

;r:g,

X•

*a

~~.

h-

-IJ

~t

jJlE:

iif~nn

- t)Jff~'tf;0 ~t]Jrt;

-

~iX;. ri~a&~.

33

34

35

36

37

38

Skt.

caJikrama,

P. anicca.

P. safifia.

P.

cankama.

The nature of phenomena.

P.

anatta.

P.

nirodha.

17

lodging to lodging, from walking place to walking

place,

33 and to other places,

and asked of the monks:

''Instruct me, teach me

dharma, so that

dhanna and see dharma! I will know according to dharma and observe according to dharma."

I

may know

Then the monks said to

Chanda: ''Material fonn is

impennanent;

perceplion,

34

feeling,

35

activities,

[and] consciousness are

impermanent; all activities impennanent;

dhannas

are

an

36

are non·self;

37

nirv~ais

cessation."

38

Chanda said to those

monks:

"I

know

that

~'*~o - tJJ~r~~0

~~fto

~~~~o

- -tJJ

ff4l

~e~i:r~;o

r&

--tJJa~Hr~~.

~fiH

Jltiti

~ll.

mt~.

~fiiJiftt;

fJt/F

:j:

oo

o

/FPJm.

~~o

o

nu§!la:ll

9a)!Jl~~Jl¥*o

material form is imperma-

nent; feeling, perception, activities, [and] consciousness are

impermanent; all activities are impennanent; a11 dharmas are non-self;

nirvfu:ia is cessation."

And he said:

"But

I

am not

delighted when

all activities are empty, not to be grasped at; and that the destruction of craving, the fading away of desire is nirvfu)a.

I

hear that

39

"In

this case, what is meant

by self? And what is meant

by

and

saying that to know thus

see thus is to see

to

dharma?"

jl=.

~=ZJ)\:Sza:.!!~o !Ml

w~rus- ~

o

rp

~~~Jtt~Y*o

~tHlfifn

±li!

4?!tt;;att.

;!¥*o

A second time and third time, Chanda said the same. And then he asked:

"Who is there here among

you capable of teaching me

39

or

~if5t:,Skt.

sunyata.

vivikta,

which has the same meaning as siinya

18

t!H'F~~o ~;f!WJ~lt~:ff

ftiJ~~WilWH!ilifl

o ~1Jt

~

rt-~mtY:~o

i?tJiJTmW\o

~1t1j~~?$~~Q"

Wt&:\

:l'~fj~~~IDt~0 4)-~~Q#;

Jl$o

~o

MW~~Jlt~Bo

QWJ

~;&~i*oA~m*~~

~o

itBo

AB

o

l£11mi~!V

Ao ~'iJi~

f#;&tj~~#u~iJU

WlJ

a i!W[~JfitftffiLl:ji{ij~5(fl

40 P. Ghositarama

dharma, so that I may know dhanna and see dharma?"

Then he thought:

venerable

staying in Ghosita park

11

The

Ananda is now

40

at

KosambI.

He

attended

on

and closely served the

World-Honoured

One.

He

19

was praised by the Buddha, and is known to all practitioners of the noble

life. He must be capable of teaching me dhanna, so

that

and see dhanna."

I may know dhanna

Then Chanda passed the

night; and

having

robe and taken his alms- bowl, he went into the city ofVarai:iasI for alms-food.

in

the morning,

on

his (outer]

put

After eating, he took up his

bedding and put

then he took his robe and

bowl, and set out for KosambI. Travelling by

it

away;

* m~*i* o ~.@.Bo ~~ ~

~iiJYiremo ~ if1I r~9w. e. o

!P~- Wo

* [¥]11tl!A if ~m;fil!re: cr o

-~. ~J:~ttJifi~mt

~o!lt~iM~~M=~A~ frB*~.Z::~ o

~Bo ~tni:ii~~o j)IG~

Bo ~,Fj'iiJ. f>£**~**o ~m"!f./%. ~~~1rJtL"!f.t.~

1T~o ~}j;Jl~lf:Jio ffij

~Z§ o '&$itf~o ~lJt

~~. ~i!t~IJ¥*. Jt¥*.

stages he reached KosambT.

Having put away his robe and bowl and washed his feet, he went to where the

venerable Ananda was, exchanged respectful greetings, and sat down at one side.

Then Chanda said to the venerable Ananda:

"Once, senior monks were staying in the deer-park at ~~ipatana[near] Varfu")asr.

Then, in the morning,

putting on my [outer] robe and taking my bowl, I went into the city ofVarfu;lasifor alms-food.

''After eating, I put away my robe and bowl and washed my feet. Then, taldng my door-key, I went from gt:ove to grove, from lodging to lodging, from walking place to walking place, and to other places, and asked ofthe monks:

'Instruct me, teach me

20

~o ~ btJi~~~ft~~

~~~

1Wi-m0

0

;;t.

~~-

fl.

- i1)qf~-m0

-

1*M,il(;o

¥!J!~~~o

dharma, so that I may know dharma and see dharma!

I

will know according to

dharma and observe according to dharma.'

"TI1en, the monks taught
a

me dhanna: 'Material f0tm

~ is impennanent; feeling,

ii]

all

perception, activities, [and] consciousness are

impermanent;

activities

are impermanent; all

dhannas are non-self;

nirvfu:la is cessation.'

~ft'J~ITT:f~t~Ji~o

~Q~~~o ~. ~.

ttB

ti".

M'ti~~o - W~f~'M.o

t}]~~!tto ¥3HN!~~o

"I

then

said to those

monks:

'I know that material form is impermanent; feeling,

perception, activities, [and] consciousness are impermanent; all activities

are impermanent; all

dharmas are non-self;

nirvfu:la is cessation.

?/.\~/F~l1fJ

a.

W\.

/FPJ~'·

¥!!.~o

0

-tJJ~Mrr~

~iii. ~It

21

"But I am not delighted when I hear that all

activities are empty, not to be grasped at; and that the

destruction of craving,

the

J1ti:f:lzdilJ~fto

~Q,

iTU~

:(lQ£

tzrJ~J!Ji;:~Jtyto

ftfi~f'F~~o~r:fJW!t~

~jJ~~~.{.wfJt~~o ~fJt

~Q$t.

Jl~o

fading away of desire is

nirvliJ;la.

"In this case, what is meant by self? And what is meant

by saying that to know thus

and see thus is to see

dharma?'

"Then [ thought: 'Who is

there capable ofteaching

me dharma, so that

I may

know dharma and see dharma?'

"And then

I

thought: 'The

:&~~11=~~0 •*~ilJ!Mt

~f:E#iJ~5f9WiJIHiifiIf

[j]

venerable Ananda is now

o staying in Ghosita park at

~~lfml\!tlt~o 1~NT~

1/Ao

~'.f!tfi::1t~~~llmo

t&:16,~A~~it~1*o

4-it

~Q~.

Jl~o

Kosambr. He attended on

and closely served the

World-Honoured One. He was praised by the Buddha, and is known to all practitioners ofthe noble

life. He must be capable of

teaching me dhanna, so that I may know dharma and see dharma.'

'\l~o~~irnJ-~~~~

~~

o

~~~~

Ji!.~o

"Good, venerable Ananda!

Now you should teach me dhanna, so that I may know

22

dhanna and see dharma.

11

Then, the venerable Ananda said to Chanda:

~ o ~~II"J~fU!tfWW~§o

~'t&o

1¥JWto

1Jt~:*:g:o

:fitJi1=~1f~~;tfi·Aiitr

~mm~o fi&:lillf~*Uo

"Good, Chanda! My mind

o is delighted. I praise you as a benevolent one who is able to be open in the presence ofa practitioner of

the noble

the thicket of deception.

life,

destroying

rMl~~o ~~J'VJc)}'T:ffi~M

"O Chanda! an ignorant,

·~A!~~o

§

~.

tr.

~-mo -m~tHr~·~o

41

ordinary person

does not

~ understand that material

form

is impermanent;

i1J$-~o Yi~~~o

feeling, perception,

activities, and conscious- ness are impennanent. All activities (compounded things) are impennanent; all dhannas (the natw-e of phenomena) are non-self; nirvai:ia is cessation.

t9:A,n!§.Jfil;)~o

~A,~

''Now you are capable of

J{f!

0

'M~t.krot

receiving the most

0 excellent dhanna.

42 Now

41

42

P. puthuijana.

Mi~!P$.

23

listen carefully while I

lWj

0

lbll

~'811=Jt~

0

~~

~

:g~~Jm~) G'. ~llififfi1Ci\0

1

~4'-:flf;j~~~:9')~o

m~ o ~iiJWmrrPJ~t -So ~

~fJtf~llflflo ~*~im!MU~

-=- So

tltAMfitl1«~=

~.

~~o

:iio

;o:

teach you."

At that time, Chanda

thought:

delighted to have attained

"Now I am

the most excellent mind, to

have obtained a joyful

mind. Now I am capable of

receiving the most excellent dharma."

Then, Ananda said to

Chanda:

myselffrom the Buddha

"I heard this

when he was teaching

Maha-Katyayana:

43

"Worldlings are confused, depending on two extremes: either existence or non-existence.

"Worldlings become attached to all spheres, setting store by and grasping with the mind.

43

P. Maha-Kaccayana, Kacciina.

24

:im!MH~o ~:If'~.

:f

~1:

1± .

:if'

~tM-

fJt

0

~~~o

/I'~.

Jlt

=a=

1::

ill!!M~~o .M-Jlt:f~.

.

:if'

8:1

~IEJio

:if'~

~f!Brmi1~El ~no ~

jm-*JYrfilto

JlfiW-:a-~o JJll!MH~o ~ow

IElititrai~~o

rai

1li

Jl

o

WI

~IE

f:!1J/f1:.tlt

ttJi

ill:

rei

~o ~ 1J:f1:.tltft~~Jiio

44

45

46

P. samma ditthi.

P. loka-sam~daya.

P. loka-nirodha.

25

"Katyayana!

Ifone does not

feel, nor attach to, nor

dwell in, nor set store by self, then, when suffering arises, it arises; and when ceases, it ceases.

it

"Katyayana!

If

one does not

doubt, is not perplexed, if

one knows it in oneself and

not from others, then that is

right view,

the Tathagata (the Buddha).

44 the teaching of

"Why is this so?

Katyayana!

If

one sees

rightly, as it

really

is, the

arising ofthe world, wi ll not have the

annihi lationist view of the

world.

45 one

If

one sees rightly,

as it really is, the cessation

one wi ll not

have the etemalist view of the world.

of the world,

46

illrrfJIHiE

o ~o* ~ftfi~=Jft

mt~cfm:o

"Katyayana! The Tathagata,

o avoiding these two

extremes,

middle

47

teaches the

8

way,~

Ji)f~~Jl:tff~~1f0 1it1::~

Wf:~o

~rli$~rm1f1ro JY~1::.

~ . ~. ~. ~. ~­ ·~. 15~0 p)Tfif!l JJt 11 i&ti M- .tlt~J£i'ii 0
~
.
~.
~.
~.
·~. 15~0
p)Tfif!l
JJt
11
i&ti
M-
.tlt~J£i'ii
0
{i~o
~fHll~~~"1Jrr~o
JJ"!§.
1::.
;t; .
m.
~
-
~.
;m,
·~.
=f!.f~o

namely: When this is, that

is; this arising, that arises.

"That js to say:

Conditioned by ignorance,

activities arise, and so on

, and thus arises

the

suffering of birth, old age, sickness, death, sorrow,

and affliction.

11 As for the saying, 'when

this is not, that is not; this ceasing, that ceases',

this is to say: Ignorance

ceasing, activities cease,

and so on

, and thus

ceases the suffering of

birth, old age, sickness,

death, sorrow,

and

affliction."

47 P. ubho anta.

48

P.

ma.ijhima

pa~ipada.

26

~~ ~PJf.ilt©i~~~

o

f.¥1

w~

ctJi~Hl~mwo fi~Q~~

0

T$Jffij.o

MW~ctliJl~.

~'

¥!.

~Qri;®~o

Jtil~W.

~to ~ l:l:l~1tho ~txar!i~

#J.o

~~~fJT.m:o

When the venerable Ananda had taught this

dhan11a, the monk Chanda

became freed from defilement and stain and acquired the pw-e dhanna-

eye.49

At that time, the monk Chanda saw dhanna, attained dhanna, Jmew

dhan11a, realised dharma;

transcended doubt

[knowing

not through the dharma of

it]

in

another;

the Great Teacher, he

attained the state of

fearlessness.

Respectfully saluti ng

by

joining palms, he said to the venerable Ananda:

IEff!:tia:.l!o

~r

o

:!zll~I'~~

~~ot.n~fl~fl&~

"It

is just so! As

it

is the

noble life of wisdom, a

good friend

50

teaches the

discipline and the dharma.

49 Skt.

dhanna-~us,P.

dhamma-cakkhu.

so

Skt. kalyaQa-mitra, P. kaJyaJ:ia-mitta.

27

~4-fJt~~~iiJlmJiJT0 llfJ~ll

;l!Y!o

~ -'t}Jff~~ .

\'§'

f$a& .

/f'iiJ~.

~JtI.

~m

W\.

i,mt.

¥3!~0

,ei,~iEit.mmto

ifto

/f'W:Jt~o

/f'm$!!J

P(£jti£

~

o

IJ

i=o

~iiJ~m~IMJ~~go

"Now, I have heard the

dharma from the venerable

Ananda thus:

are empty, tranquil,5 be grasped at; and the

not to

All

activities

1

destruction of craving, the

fad ing away of desire,

cessation, is

nirv~a.

"The mind is joyful, one

dwells

liberation,

returning, no more seeing

self; one sees only the true

dharma."

said to Chanda:

rightly

52

in

and there is no

53

Then Ananda

"Now you have attained

great benefit in the

~~~f}j;:*~Uo ~-l1~ffll

7t

c:p

o

~~~

~g

a~

o profound Buddha-dhanna,

you have attained the

wisdom-eye."

a-Jo

= iE±JftijiW~=tl=o

1:£

~mJJ!Yo ~~-*J!J&o

Then the two noble ones,

delighted with each other,

rose from their seats, and

returned each to his place.

51

52

P. santa.

Skt. vimukti,

vimok~a,P.

vimutti,

vimokkha.

53 Skt. sad-dharma, P. sad-dhamma.

28

4. ~~J!lfJi (i:fit) Empty of the eternalist and annihilationist views (The middle way)

T 2, p. 85c, sutra No. 300. 54

~U~ftMo

- ~o 1?b11:f1iJM:f9l~4~

rio

~o ~ ~~Nffi rjPRi~f~;

fJTo ~1itJ!i:W11H~ito Ji

itBo J.l!~- Tiffo

Eli~§o -zrfilJo Mi; o ~

§~§JtJl~o

Thus have I heard.

At one time, the Buddha was staying in the cow- herding community of the

Kurus.

At that time, a certain 55 brahmin 56 came to where the Buddha was, and exchanged greeting with the World-Honoured One. Having greeted him, he stepped back and sat down at one side.

He said to the Buddha:

"What do you say, Gotama? Is the one who

acts the one who

54 Sa111yutta-nikaya 12. 46 Afiiiataraiµ (vol. ii, p. 75).

Tripa~hI,Sutra 18. CSA vol. 2, pp. 40-41; FSA vol. 1, pp.

574-575.

55 P. aiifiatara, "another" or "a certain".

56 A priest in Brahmanism.

29

~i3-~Kmr,o ~~Jlt~~

EJfF§~o Jlt~11

~o

~o

0

~fnI

ll~0

m~

o

i~~~~ r~o

Jlt~~~o

1tBfF1t!t~~

1mfF1mflo

~~r,s1~o

zdii.To

!ltrl'l~

EJ

1f

§

1to

~§~~o

-ftB

1'\=1filJ'lo

~1J"~~o Jlt~

~1EJ0

57 Skt. avyalqta, P. avyakata.

experiences [the result]?"

The Buddha said to that

brahmin:

"T

say that this is

not to be declared.

the one who acts is the one

57 That

who experiences [the

result] is not to be

declared."

[The brahmin asked]:

"What do you say, Gotama? ls it that one acts

.

and another experiences

(the result]?"

The Buddha said:

"That

one acts and another

experiences [the result],

this too is not to be declared."

The brahmin said to the

Buddha: "What does this mean? When I ask, is the one who acts the one who experiences [the result],

you say that that is not to be

declared; and when I ask is

30

~t15-~m r~

o

§

fi=

§

~Jl1J

m:mJlo

1tM1=1m~JtiJI!!JJWr

Jlo

it that one acts and another

experiences

you also say that that is not

[the

result],

to be declared. What is the

meaning of this?''

The Buddha said:

declare that the one who acts is the one who

experiences [the result] is

"To

to fal l into the etemalist

view.ss To declare that one

acts and another

experiences [the result] is

into the

annihilationist view.s

to

fa ll

9

fl~. ~~o

tttJJt= Jlo

11.fti:t=iitrm~#io

"Teaching the essence, teaching the dharma,

avoid these two extremes.

Keeping

I

to

the Middle

Way, I teach the dharma,

,P,JTfill1lt:ff~~1=T0

JJt~iii

~~o ~~flJ3~To l'J~~

;k~~~o

~aJ.J~~IHf

~o JJ~~ltk!H~~o

namely: When this is, that

is; th is arising, that arises.

Conditioned by ignorance, activities arise, and so on , and thus is the origin of

58

59

Skt.

sasvata-~!i,P.

sassata-diW1i.

Skt.

uccheda-~~i,P.

uccheda-dinhi.

31

this whole mass of suffering. Ignorance ceasing, activities ceases,

is the

, and thus

and so on

ceasing ofthis whole mass

ofsuffering."

When the Buddha had

i~~J!t~E'.o t&~lir~ttk

taught this discourse, the brahmin was delighted, and, rising from his seat, he

:g.~Wo f,t~J81~o

departed.

32

S. ::k3!~~ The great discourse on the emptiness of

dharmas

T 2, pp. 84c-85a, sutra No. 297. 60

j{a~~Mo

-ltfo 19t11t<uiH9l~4~

~o

mltfo ttt~i!!r~~~Ii:o fJt

&'~~~roi~o f}]. ~.

~~o ~~~'*o ~~- m

~o ~~T~Bo ~~*~

~~o

Thus have I heard.

At one time, the Buddha was staying in the cow- herding conununity ofthe Kums.

At that time, the Buddha said to the monks: "I wi ll teach you the dharma, which is good in its beginning, middle, and end; which is ofgood meaning and good flavour, entirely pure, pure for the nobJe life, namely: the great discourse 61 on the emptiness of dhannas. 62

60 Saqiyutta-nikaya 12. 35-36 Avijjapaccaya (vol. ii, pp. 60- 63). Skt. version, Tripa!)U, Sutra 15 and Lamotte ( J973). CSA vol. 2, pp. 36-37; FSA vol. 1, pp. 570-572. 61 sutra.

62~11;;*~·

33

~W~:k~~~o

JiJfm1!lt

ff$1J!lff o

Jlt~t&tfR®o

;l;ffJ

(-$.,/tu.

n~~~

an .-.-

?J1To

¥:~]\:=fS=~~o

~g:~~~

0

(,t.J, /.-

Tl.

~~TU~o

/

.J

;er1fr~i~

o

tfRITTE~?Eo :t?E~Af£o

~_R1J~~o ~f!P~~o

A,

:g?£~ilto :g!/E~!to

"Listen attentively, consider well, and I will teach you.

11 What is the great

discourse on the emptiness

of dhanuas?

It

is this:

Because this exists, that exists; because this arises,

that arises. That is to say:

Conditioned by ignorance, activities arise; because of activities, consciousness

arises,

thus arises this whole mass

and

so on

,

and

ofsuffering.

"Regarding [the statement]

conditioned by birth, aging- and-death arises, someone

may ask: Who is it that

ages-and-dies? To whom does aging-and-death belong?

"And he may answer: It is

the self that ages-and-dies. Aging-and-death belongs to the self; aging-and-death is the self.

34

FJT~o

Jfn&PJ!~

o

9-lGi§"o

$-~~o

iJt~1J-!lo

rm

~1Uillo

"To say that soul same thing as body,

say that soul is one thing

63

is the

64 or to

and body another, these

have the same meaning, though they are expressed differently.

~Jil~

o $F1P~:!'.;}o ~3tt

"For one who has the view

qf~foJT1!~1fo

;a:mlil~

-6trJt~~

ff

0

0

1\tqf*J9T~

which says that soul

is

the

o same thing as body, there is

no point

in

the noble life.

And for one who has the

other view which says that soul is one thing and body another, there is also no

point in the noble

life.

~iJt=J!o l~'fft~~o

[Ji]i:f=li!

0

IE

ft~tl1tit

o

~or.I~JtlHJJJiE

Jilo

63

Skt

.

P

.JIVa.

·-

64 Skt. sarira, P. sarua.

"Following neither of these

two extremes, the mind

should move rightly toward

the Middle Way.

"The noble ones,

transcending the world, free

ofdistortion, have

right

view, seeing the true nature

of phenomena,

35

~11~1:.~~o :AllR::~.

1"r.

f${; .

~.

36

~~.

ITT& •

a~~fHTo

~;.

11\

"/\A

#.¥~

~~ri:i~f!o mt~1-ro

mEo

1-r.11

~~IJ~ ~

;1!fJtP,JT

0

o

~f~ :ljk!Jto

IJ

1"J

~~Q~o

iiJ~p~~o

o iJJ~~~o

gJtff

~jifrJ~P~~~o 1tfi~

M.ffo

~~frJJ4~~~o

3t1f~?J'F~ifo

namely: Conditioned by

birth is aging-and-death,

and similarly conditioned

are birth, becoming, attachment, craving,

feeling, contact, the six

sense-spheres, name and

form, consciousness, and

activities. Conditioned by ignorance, activities arise.

11 And ifsomeone asks:

Who are the activities? To

whom do the activities belong?

11 He may answer: The

activities are the self,

activities belong to the self.

soul is the

same thing as body; or he

"Thus for

him,

may say that soul is one

thing and body another.

"For one who views soul

and body as the same thing,

there is no point in the noble life; and for one who says soul is one thing and

body another, there is also

no point in the noble life.

36

~

~

tll

ttt

o :91l1f/FMii!JiE

Jlr.JT~n0 Ji.JTfil!I~j~a;H=ro

~lt.fio li~aJrnWW\Tro~

ryJo

~ITTt~~o ~~J'mmf

o ~PEJ!IJilfo Jt1J~nltllf;lt

fft;;fs:o

~

~O~~~fUtJHllo

Jn

**tlt1£/f'j:~o

~ ltJi~BJ3~lttiXWg:_~

o

ttml1:o

j:~filto

Jj.3?:ffiE

t!tro

MIT

o

J!IJ

m.*

tr!mmE~o

§;o

IWT

;1\

1rft1J

o

:flll

f&

~~~HJlo ~**tt!:1£/F

1:.~o

"Avoiding these two extremes, move rightly toward the Middle Way.

"The noble ones,

transcending the world, free

of distortion, have right

view, seeing the true nature

of things, namely:

Conditioned by ignorance are activities.

"Monks! As to who ages-

and-dies, and to whom

aging-and-death belongs,

when ignorance fades

away,

arises, aging and death are cut off, and one knows they have been cut offat the root, like the cut offstump

and

knowledge

of a palm tree, never to

arise again

in

the future.

"As

to who is born, and to

whom birth belongs, and so ; and as to who are the activities, and to whom the

activities belong, when ignorance fades away and knowledge arises in a

on

monk, activities are cut off,

37

and one knows they have been cut offat the root, like

the cut offstump of a palm

tree,

never to arise again in

the future.

~ lt

Ji~f!R~U&ffii1::~

"When ignorance fades
o

trf-~~Ji!'HT~o JY~~

:k=iS=~~o

away and knowledge arises

in a monk,

ignorance ceases, and thus activities cease, and so on

in

him

, and

this whole mass of

suffering ceases.

"This is called 'the great

discourse on

the

emptiness

ofdharmas'."

1~~Jlt~Bo ~ t~lififrnt

FJT©to

JFX:g:$1j

When the Buddha had taught this discourse, all the

o monks, hearing what the Buddha had said, were delighted, and put it into practice.

38

6. 1J8i~iEJlEstablishing right view

T 2, pp. 85c-86a, sutra No. 301. 65

91.l~~lifj0

-~o 'fJB{fJj~~~ffH**

itrffl~~0

®~o $:?:tm& ~E:ilill!Mfil

~~f~WTo ~itt1?t£o ~ 11

- mL

sf~§o ttf::!to 91.1ttt•~

lE~o ~fiiJlEJL ~Mill:

$h1'!i~lEJto

Thus have I heard:

At one time, the Buddha was staying at the reception hall in the forest of Natika. 66

Then, the venerable Katyayana 67 came to where the Buddha was, saluted him by prostrating with his head to the ground and touching the feet of the Buddha, and sat down at one side.

He then asked the Buddha:

"World Honoured One, you speak ofright view. What is right view? How, World Honoured One, does one

65 Sarp.yutta-nildiya 12. 15 Kaccayanagotta (vol. ii, p. 16). Skt. version, Tripa!}U, Siitra 19. CSA vol. 2, pp. 41 -42; FSA vol. 1, pp. 576-577. 66 Pali.

67 P. Kaccayana -=- Jr,fX~~:itl!!!MM

39

establish right view?"

1~1~~-mlXl>Bil1!1~!

0 The Buddha

said

to

i!tltr~~

Katyayana:

"There are two

=ffil~

0

~

.~~"

[bases] to which people in

the world

which they adhere:

existence and non-

are

attached,

to

mmiJ5fiMJ

0

i&?fifrli&

~~

~{t(~o

0

~

existence.

"Because

of

their

attachment and adherence,

they are based on either existence or non-existence.

*~JltlfX*0 J~dJ~~~~

:if'IOC.

:if'-ft.

~ITT-ilt~~

iffi1::"

 

=fS~ITTI~o

~1Jf-1'~·~~0~83~

1ffii1ijEJ~l:Jo ~4!;JEJ!o

~

~tzo*.P1Tn1B~.i:EJ¥."

"In

one who has no such

attachment, bondage to the mental realm, there is no attachment to self, no

dwelling

or setting store

in

by self. Then, when

suffering arises, it arises;

and when it ceases, it

ceases.

"Ifone

does not doubt this,

is not perplexed by

one knows

not from others, this is

it,

if

it

in oneselfand

pJTPJ:fE{EJ

0

i!trdJ~~D'.alE

~Jl

0

:fitl!:rai~~/Firo

t!trl'limt~O'.ellE~Jl

ra~ff~

1!li<1f

0

0 ;fii!t

.PJT~ltt1f$:~ff0 Jtt~~

~~o ~~~~aJHTo Jj~

~'h:k~~~o J!~IYJ~ii&rr

~o I'J~~~J\:=a=~~o

68

69

70