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Joist

Catalog

Joist Catalog A division of Canam Group
Joist Catalog A division of Canam Group

A division of Canam Group

Joist Catalog A division of Canam Group

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages identified with a red tab or the Canam logo as shown above
Pages identified with a red tab or the Canam logo as shown above are Canam’s

Pages identified with a red tab or the Canam logo as shown above are Canam’s supplement to the Steel Joist Institute (SJI) 41 st EDITION, STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS, LOAD TABLES & WEIGHT TABLES FOR STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS, meant to advance the easy application of steel joists in North American construction.

application of steel joists in North American construction. Pages identified with the black tab or the
application of steel joists in North American construction. Pages identified with the black tab or the

Pages identified with the black tab or the SJI logo as shown above are a reproduction of the SJI’s 41 st EDITION, STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS, LOAD TABLES & WEIGHT TABLES FOR STEEL JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS, provided in this catalog by Canam.

Canam and Design, Red Dot Design, Murox, and Sun Steel Buildings are registered trademarks of Canam Group Inc. Solutions + Services is a trademark of Canam Group Inc. Hambro is a trademark of Hambro International (Structures) Ltd.

PAGE

SUBJECT

6

Quality Assurance

8

Detailing with Open Web Steel Joists Combined Bridging Tables Girder and Joist Connections, Bridging Details Square Ends, Added Members, Uplift Sloped Seats Field Bolted Splice, Pitched Joists, Duct Openings

16

Engineering with Open Web Steel Joists Load / Span Design, Sloped Joists, Special Loads End Moments Standing Seam Roof, Joists Longer than SJI Special Shapes OSHA Highlights Floor Vibration Joist Substitutes, Outriggers and Extensions, Headers Design Economy

30

Steel Joist Institute History and General Information 2002 Revisions to Specifications SJI History SJI Policy, Membership, Publications SJI Joists and Fire Resistance

37

SJI K-Series K-Series TCX, Extended Ends K-Series Specs Sections 1 through 6 K-Series Definition of span K-Series Standard Load Tables

54

SJI KCS and K-Series Economy Tables K-Series KCS joists example K-Series KCS joists Load Table K-Series Economy Table

62

SJI LH & DLH Series LH-DLH-Series Specs Sections 100 through 105 LH-Series Std Load Table DLH-Series Std Load Table

78

SJI Joist Girders Joist Girders Specs Sections 1000 to 1006

86

Canam Joist Girder Tables Conventional Girder, Wood Nailer Girder

96

Recommended Code of Standard Practice Sections 1 through 8 Referenced Specs, Codes, and Standards

105

Appendices on OSHA regulations Bay Length Definitions OSHA Steel Erection Std (OWSJ) Illustration of Bridging Terminus

114

Canam Lists Joist, Joist Girder, Bridging and Accessories Lists Take-off Sheets Business Units and Internet Addresses Mailing Addresses and Telephone

CANAM PLANTS 1 2 4 3 4

CANAM PLANTS

1 2 4 3
1
2
4
3

CANAM PLANTS

5 8 9
5
8
9

Vancouver VancouverVancouver

Issaquah IssaquahIssaquah

3 Sunnyside SunnysideSunnyside

Gold GoldGold HillHill Hill

ModestoModestoModesto

Los Angeles

LosLos AngelesAngeles

OceansideOceansideOceanside

CalgaryCalgary

Calgary

7

13

Ciudad Juárez

CiudadCiudad JuárezJuárez

Chihuahua ChihuahuaChihuahua

12

Monterrey MonterreyMonterrey

Eden EdenEden PrairiePrairie Prairie

LenexaLenexa

Lenexa

San SanSan AntonioAntonio Antonio

Détroit DétroitDétroit

Chicago ChicagoChicago

Columbus ColumbusColumbus

4 IndianapolisIndianapolis Indianapolis

PeruPeruPeru

WashingtonWashington

Washington

2

6 7
6
7
10
10

Québec QuébecQuébec

8

Laval LavalLaval

6

Saint-Gédéon Saint-GédéonSaint-Gédéon

10

11

5

Saint-JosephSaint-Joseph

Saint-Joseph

BouchervilleBoucherville Boucherville

Brockville BrockvilleBrockville

9

Chittenango

ChittenangoChittenango

MississaugaMississauga

Mississauga

BostonBoston

Boston

Wynnewood WynnewoodWynnewood

1

Baltimore

BaltimoreBaltimore

Point PointPoint ofof of RocksRocks Rocks

Purcellville PurcellvillePurcellville

Bealeton BealetonBealeton

Moncton MonctonMoncton

11
11

Jacksonville JacksonvilleJacksonville

WestWestWest PalmPalmPalm BeachBeachBeach HypoluxoHypoluxoHypoluxo

Deerfield Beach

DeerfieldDeerfield BeachBeach

PLANTS

UNITED STATES

Point of Rocks, Maryland

Jacksonville, Florida

Sunnyside, Washington

Washington, Missouri

CANADA

Saint-Gédéon (Quebec)

Boucherville (Quebec)

Calgary (Alberta)

Laval (Québec)

Mississauga (Ontario)

Québec (Quebec)

Saint-Joseph (Quebec)

MEXICO

Monterrey, Nuevo León

Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

13
13

Plant

Canam Sales Office

MéxicoMéxico

México

12
12
León Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
QUALITY ASSURANCE OUR MISSION To be a profitable company, recognized as a leader in the

QUALITY ASSURANCE

OUR MISSION

To be a profitable company, recognized as a leader in the design and fabrication of building solutions and distinguished by our versatility, the high quality of our products, our continuous innovation, our exceptional customer service and the expertise and dedication of our people.

OUR VALUES

Total client satisfaction: Exceptional service Excellent relations with our personnel First quality products: non negotiable Low-cost producer Clean and orderly working environment Good corporate citizen

First quality products: non negotiable Low-cost producer Clean and orderly working environment Good corporate citizen 6

QUALITY ASSURANCE

PLANT AND PRODUCT CERTIFICATIONS

Over the years, we have established strict quality standards. All our welders, inspectors, and quality assurance technicians are certified by the American Welding Society or the Canadian Welding Bureau. We do visual inspections on 100% of the welded joints and non-destructive testing if required.

Plants SJI AISC CWB ISO UL ULC ICBO FM Sunnyside, WA Yes Yes Hambro Steel
Plants
SJI
AISC
CWB
ISO
UL
ULC
ICBO
FM
Sunnyside, WA
Yes
Yes
Hambro
Steel Deck
Steel Deck
& Plant
Jacksonville, FL
Yes
Cbd, Cbr, P
Steel Deck
Steel Deck
& Hambro
Point of Rocks, MD
Yes
Cbd, P
Washington, MO
Yes
Cbd
Boucherville, QC
Yes
9002
Steel Deck
Steel Deck
Steel Deck
Saint-Gédéon, QC
Yes
Cbd, Cbr, P, F
Yes
9001
Hambro
Hambro
Hambro
Mississauga, ON
Yes
Yes
Steel Deck
Steel Deck
Steel Deck
Calgary, AB
Yes
Yes
Steel Deck
Steel Deck
Juarez, CHIH
Yes
Hambro
Plant
Monterrey, NL
Yes
Canada United StatesMex.

SJI:

Steel Joist Institute

AISC:

American Institute of Steel

CWB:

Construction Canadian Welding Bureau

ISO:

International Organization

UL:

for Standardization Underwriters Laboratories

ULC:

Underwriters Laboratories

ICBO:

of Canada International Conference

FM:

of Building Officials Factory Mutual

Cbd:

Complex Steel Building

Cbr:

Structures Major Steel Bridges

P:

Sophisticated Paint

F:

Endorsement Fracture Critical Endorsement

Canam has been producing open web steel joists for the last 40 years and has developed expertise in engineering and fabrication to better serve our customers with quality products. With four plants in the United States, three in Canada, and two in Mexico, the Canam team can deliver all types of joists where and when you need them from any of our SJI certified plants. In our search for quality, Canam has introduced a series of small cold formed channels to provide individual web members for most steel joists spanning over thirty feet. These straight web members allow an easier weld with the chord members.

web members allow an easier weld with the chord members. PAINT Canam’s standard shop paint is

PAINT

Canam’s standard shop paint is GRAY primer. Other primer colors may be available at some locations. The typical shop applied primer that is used to coat steel joists and joist girders is a dip-applied, air dried paint. The primer is intended to be an impermanent and provisional coating which will protect the steel for only a short period of exposure in ordinary atmospheric conditions. Since most steel joists and joist girders are primed using a standard dip coating, the coating may not be uniform and may include drips, runs, and sags. Compatibility of any coating, including fire protective coatings, applied over standard shop primer shall be the responsibility of the specifier and/or painting contractor. The primer coating may require field touch-up/repair. The joist manufacturer shall not be responsible for the condition of the primer if it is not properly protected after delivery.

ENGINEERING & DRAFTING

Our engineering staff is ready and willing to help you with any technical matters you may have with the use of open web steel joists. We have developed a taste for technically challenging projects. We like to innovate and find what’s best for our customers. Canam has developed enough drafting capacity so that 100% of our drawings are done by Canam employees. Canam is not using sub-contractors to perform any of our technical work. This way, we can ensure quick response time, quality, and consistency to our customers.

any of our technical work. This way, we can ensure quick response time, quality, and consistency
DETAILING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS COMBINED BRIDGING TABLES   NUMBER OF ROWS OF BRIDGING**

DETAILING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

COMBINED BRIDGING TABLES

 

NUMBER OF ROWS OF BRIDGING**

 

K-SERIESRefer to the K-Series Load Table and Specification Section 6 for required bolted diagonal bridging. Distances are Joist Span lengths – See “Definition of Span” on page 49.

*Section

1

2

3

 

4

5

Number

Row

Rows

Rows

Rows

Rows

#1

Up thru 16’ Up thru 17’ Up thru 18’ Up thru 19’ Up thru 19’ Up thru 19’ Up thru 20’ Up thru 20’ Up thru 20’ Up thru 20’ Up thru 20’ Up thru 20’

Over 16’ thru 24’ Over 17’ thru 25’ Over 18’ thru 28’ Over 19’ thru 28’ Over 19’ thru 29’ Over 19’ thru 29’ Over 20’ thru 33’ Over 20’ thru 33’ Over 20’ thru 33’ Over 20’ thru 37’ Over 20’ thru 38’ Over 20’ thru 39’

Over 24’ thru 28’ Over 25’ thru 32’ Over 28’ thru 38’ Over 28’ thru 38’ Over 29’ thru 39’ Over 29’ thru 39’ Over 33’ thru 45’ Over 33’ thru 45’ Over 33’ thru 46’ Over 37’ thru 51’ Over 38’ thru 53’ Over 39’ thru 53’

   

#2

#3

Over 38’ thru 40’ Over 38’ thru 48’ Over 39’ thru 50’ Over 39’ thru 51’ Over 45’ thru 58’ Over 45’ thru 58’ Over 46’ thru 59’ Over 51’ thru 60’ Over 53’ thru 60’ Over 53’ thru 60’

#4

#5

Over 50’ thru 52’ Over 51’ thru 56’ Over 58’ thru 60’ Over 58’ thru 60’ Over 59’ thru 60’

#6

#7

#8

#9

#10

 

#11

#12

** Last digit(s) of joist designation shown in Load Table. ** See Section 5.11 of the K-Series specification for additional bridging required for uplift design.

 
 

MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING FOR HORIZONTAL BRIDGING

 
   

**BRIDGING MATERIAL SIZE

 

K-SERIES

Round Rod

 

Equal Leg Angles

HR = Hot Rolled

CF = Cold Formed

 

SECTION

1/2” round r = .13”

1-1/8” CF 1” HR r = .20”

1-3/8” CF 1-1/4” HR r = .25”

1-5/8” CF 1-1/2” HR r = .30”

1-7/8” CF 1-3/4” HR r = .35”

2-1/8” CF 2” HR r = .40”

2-1/2” HR r = .50”

NUMBER*

1 thru 9

3’-3”

5’-0”

6’-3”

7’-6”

8’-7”

10’-0”

12’-6”

10

3’-0”

4’-8”

6’-3”

7’-6”

8’-7”

10’-0”

12’-6”

11 and 12

2’-7”

4’-0”

5’-8”

7’-6”

8’-7”

10’-0”

12’-6”

 

** Refer to last digit(s) of Joist Designation ** Connection to Joist must resist 700 pounds

 

Certain joists require bolted diagonal bridging for erection stability for spans less than 60 feet. The chart below lists those designations and the minimum spans at which bolted diagonal bridging is required. All joists over 60 feet require erection stability bridging.

12K1

23

ft.

22K4

34

ft.

26K10

49

ft.

24LH03

35

ft.

14K1

27

ft.

22K5

35

ft.

28K6

40

ft.

24LH04

39

ft.

16K2

29

ft.

22K6

36

ft.

28K7

43

ft.

24LH05

40

ft.

16K3

30

ft.

22K7

40

ft.

28K8

44

ft.

24LH06

45

ft.

16K4

32

ft.

22K9

40

ft.

28K9

45

ft.

28LH05

42

ft.

16K5

32

ft.

24K4

36

ft.

28K10

49

ft.

28LH06

46

ft.

18K3

31

ft.

24K5

38

ft.

28K12

53

ft.

28LH07

54

ft.

18K4

32

ft.

24K6

39

ft.

30K7

44

ft.

28LH08

54

ft.

18K5

33

ft.

24K7

43

ft.

30K8

45

ft.

32LH06

47

ft.

18K6

35

ft.

24K8

43

ft.

30K9

45

ft.

32LH07

47

ft.

20K3

32

ft.

24K9

44

ft.

30K10

50

ft.

32LH08

55

ft.

20K4

34

ft.

26K5

38

ft.

30K11

52

ft.

36LH07

47

ft.

20K5

34

ft.

26K6

39

ft.

30K12

54

ft.

36LH08

47

ft.

20K6

36

ft.

26K7

43

ft.

18LH02

33

ft.

36LH09

57

ft.

20K7

39

ft.

26K8

44

ft.

20LH02

33

ft.

   

20K9

39

ft.

26K9

44

ft.

20LH03

38

ft.

   

On Canam’s framing plans, the erection stability bridging lines are identified with the following symbol and notation:

APPROVER / ERECTOR NOTE:

ES
ES

Except for column joists noted as “OC”, All ERECTION STABILITY bridging lines shall be installed prior to the slackening of hoisting lines.

DETAILING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

COMBINED BRIDGING TABLES

For KCS-Series joists, use the tables for K-Series with an equivalent section number, as shown in the chart below:

 

BRIDGING

JOIST

TABLE

DESIGNATION

SECT. NO.

10KCS1

1

10KCS2

1

10KCS3

1

12KCS1

3

12KCS2

5

12KCS3

5

14KCS1

4

14KCS2

6

14KCS3

6

16KCS2

6

16KCS3

9

16KCS4

9

16KCS5

9

18KCS2

6

18KCS3

9

18KCS4

10

18KCS5

10

20KCS2

6

20KCS3

9

20KCS4

10

20KCS5

10

22KCS2

6

22KCS3

9

22KCS4

11

22KCS5

11

24KCS2

6

24KCS3

9

24KCS4

12

24KCS5

12

26KCS2

6

26KCS3

9

26KCS4

12

26KCS5

12

28KCS2

6

28KCS3

9

28KCS4

12

28KCS5

12

30KCS3

9

30KCS4

12

30KCS5

12

 

BRIDGING BOLT SIZES

 

SECTION

MINIMUM

SERIES

NUMBER

BOLT SIZE

K

 

ALL

3/8” A307

LH/DLH

2

- 12

3/8” A307

LH/DLH

13

- 17

1/2”A307

DLH

18 & 19

or 3/8” A325 5/8” A307 or 1/2”A325

LH-DLH

MAX. SPACING OF LINES OF BRIDGING

HORIZONTAL

*SECTION

BRACING

NUMBER

FORCE

   

lbs

02,03,04

11’-0”

400

05,06

12’-0”

500

07,08

13’-0”

650

09,10

14’-0”

800

11,12

16’-0”

1000

13,14

16’-0”

1200

15,16

21’-0”

1600

17

21’-0”

1800

18,19

26’-0”

2000

Number of lines of bridging is based on joist clear span dimensions. *Last two digits of joist designation shown in load table

 

K, LH & DLH SERIES JOISTS

 
 

MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING FOR DIAGONAL BRIDGING

 
 

BRIDGING ANGLE SIZE - (Equal Leg Angles) HR = Hot Rolled CF = Cold Formed

 

1-1/8” CF

1-3/8” CF

1-5/8” CF 1-1/2” HR r = .30”

 

1-7/8” CF 1-3/4” HR r = .35”

2-1/8” CF 2” HR r = .40”

JOIST

1” HR

1-1/4” HR

DEPTH

r = .20”

r = .25”

12

6’-6”

8’-3”

9’-11”

 

11’-7”

 

14

6’-6”

8’-3”

9’-11”

11’-7”

16

6’-6”

8’-2”

9’-10”

11’-6”

18

6’-6”

8’-2”

9’-10”

11’-6”

20

6’-5”

8’-2”

9’-10”

11’-6”

22

6’-4”

8’-1”

9’-10”

11’-6”

24

6’-4”

8’-1”

9’-9”

11’-5”

26

6’-3”

8’-0”

9’-9”

11’-5”

28

6’-2”

8’-0”

9’-8”

11’-5”

30

6’-2”

7’-11”

9’-8”

11’-4”

32

6’-1”

7’-10”

9’-7”

11’-4”

13’-0”

36

7’-9”

9’-6”

11’-3”

12’-11”

40

7’-7”

9’-5”

11’-2”

12’-10”

44

7’-5”

9’-3”

11’-0”

12’-9”

48

7’-3”

9’-2”

10’-11”

12’-8”

52

9’-0”

10’-9”

12’-7”

56

8’-10”

10’-8”

12’-5”

60

8’-7”

10’-6”

12’-4”

64

8’-5”

10’-4”

12’-2”

68

8’-2”

10’-2”

12’-0”

72

8’-0”

10’-0”

11’-10”

 

LH SERIES JOISTS MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING FOR HORIZONTAL BRIDGING SPANS OVER 60’ REQUIRE BOLTED DIAGONAL BRIDGING

 
 

**BRIDGING ANGLE SIZE - (Equal Leg Angle)

HR = Hot Rolled

CF = Cold Formed

SECTION

1-1/8” CF 1” HR r = .20”

1-3/8” CF 1-1/4” HR r = .25”

1-5/8” CF 1-1/2” HR r = .30”

 

1-7/8” CF 1-3/4” HR r = .35”

2-1/8” CF 2” HR r = .40”

2-1/2” HR r = .50”

NUMBER*

02, 03, 04

4’-7”

6’-3”

7’-6”

 

8’-9”

 

10’-0”

12’-4”

05

- 06

4’-1”

5’-9”

7’-6”

 

8’-9”

 

10’-0”

12’-4”

07

- 08

3’-9”

5’-1”

6’-8”

 

8’-6”

 

10’-0”

12’-4”

09

- 10

 

4’-6”

6’-0”

 

7’-8”

 

10’-0”

12’-4”

11

- 12

 

4’-1”

5’-5”

 

6’-10”

 

8’-11”

12’-4”

13

- 14

 

3’-9”

4’-11”

 

6’-3”

 

8’-2”

12’-4”

15

- 16

   

4’-3”

 

5’-5”

 

7’-1”

11’-0”

 

17

   

4’-0”

 

5’-1”

 

6’-8”

10’-5”

 

** Refer to last two digits of Joist Designation. ** Connection to joist must resist force listed in Table 104.5.1 of the LH-Series specification.

 
Designation. ** Connection to joist must resist force listed in Table 104.5.1 of the LH-Series specification.
DETAILING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS GIRDER AND JOIST CONNECTIONS 3” 3/4” ø BOLTS 5”

DETAILING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

GIRDER AND JOIST CONNECTIONS

3” 3/4” ø BOLTS 5” GAGE 7-1/2” 6” 1” STABILIZER PLATE GIRDER CONNECTION A BOLTS
3”
3/4” ø BOLTS
5” GAGE
7-1/2”
6”
1”
STABILIZER PLATE
GIRDER CONNECTION
A
BOLTS NOT BY CANAM
3”
3/4” ø BOLTS
5” GAGE
7-1/2”
6”
1”
STABILIZER PLATE
GIRDER CONNECTION
D
BOLTS NOT BY CANAM
1-1/2” 3/4” ø BOLTS 4” GA, @ “LH” & “DLH” 1/2” ø BOLTS 3-1/2” GA,
1-1/2”
3/4” ø BOLTS
4” GA, @ “LH” & “DLH”
1/2” ø BOLTS
3-1/2” GA, @ “K”
2-1/2” @ “K”
5” @ “LH”
3”
1”
STABILIZER PLATE
JOIST CONNECTION
H

BOLTS NOT BY CANAM

1-1/2” 3/4” ø BOLTS 5” GAGE 7-1/2” 3” 1” STABILIZER PLATE GIRDER CONNECTION B BOLTS
1-1/2”
3/4” ø BOLTS
5” GAGE
7-1/2”
3”
1”
STABILIZER PLATE
GIRDER CONNECTION
B
BOLTS NOT BY CANAM
HALF
STD GA
3/4” ø BOLTS
4” GA, @ “LH” & “DLH”
1/2” ø BOLTS
3-1/2” GA, @ “K”
2-1/2” @ “K”
5” @ “LH”
JOIST CONNECTION
E
BOLTS NOT BY CANAM
2” 3/4” ø BOLTS 4” GA, @ “LH” & “DLH” 1/2” ø BOLTS 3-1/2” GA,
2”
3/4” ø BOLTS
4” GA, @ “LH” & “DLH”
1/2” ø BOLTS
3-1/2” GA, @ “K”
2-1/2” @ “K”
5” @ “LH”
1/2”
1”
STABILIZER PLATE
JOIST CONNECTION
K
BOLTS NOT BY CANAM
2” 3/4” ø BOLTS 5” GAGE 7-1/2” 1/2” 1” STABILIZER PLATE GIRDER CONNECTION C BOLTS
2”
3/4” ø BOLTS
5” GAGE
7-1/2”
1/2”
1”
STABILIZER PLATE
GIRDER CONNECTION
C
BOLTS NOT BY CANAM
2-1/2” 3/4” ø BOLTS 4” GA, @ “LH” & “DLH” 1/2” ø BOLTS 3-1/2” GA,
2-1/2”
3/4” ø BOLTS
4” GA, @ “LH” & “DLH”
1/2” ø BOLTS
3-1/2” GA, @ “K”
2-1/2” @ “K”
5” @ “LH”
4” @ “K”
6” @ “LH”
1”
STABILIZER PLATE
JOIST CONNECTION
F

BOLTS NOT BY CANAM

2-1/2 ” 3/4” ø BOLTS 4” GA, @ “LH” & “DLH” 1/2” ø BOLTS 3-1/2”
2-1/2 ”
3/4” ø BOLTS
4” GA, @ “LH” & “DLH”
1/2” ø BOLTS
3-1/2” GA, @ “K”
2-1/2” @ “K”
5” @ “LH”
4” @ “K”
6” @ “LH”
1”
STABILIZER PLATE
JOIST CONNECTION
L
BOLTS NOT BY CANAM

DLH18 and DLH19 will have girder standards.

DETAILING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

GIRDER AND JOIST BEARING

See page 10 for standard girder and joist connections at columns. Joists not falling directly at a column line have to be welded and/or bolted depending on conditions. As per OSHA, any joists in bays over 40’ and bearing on steel framing have to be bolted unless the joists are assembled on the ground into panels and then set in place. Minimum welds are two 1/8” x 1” long fillet welds for K-Series and two 1/4” x 2” long fillet welds for LH and DLH-Series. K-Series joists shall bear at least 2 1/2” on steel and 4” on masonry while LH, DLH, and girder shall bear a minimum of 4” on steel and 6” on masonry.

BRIDGING DETAILS

1/8” 1” TYP MIN SEE PLAN FOR PIECE MARK BRIDGING ANCHOR PIECE MARK BAC =
1/8”
1”
TYP
MIN
SEE PLAN FOR PIECE MARK
BRIDGING ANCHOR
PIECE MARK BAC = 2-1/2” x 2-1/2” x 3/16” x 2-1/2” LONG
ATTACH WITH: 1/2” EXP BOLT (NOT BY CANAM)

TYP

MIN

WELDED-X BRIDGING SEE PLAN FOR PIECE MARK 1/8” 1”
WELDED-X BRIDGING
SEE PLAN FOR PIECE MARK
1/8”
1”
HORIZ. BRIDGING CUT TO FIT IN FIELD LAP TO BE 2” MIN USE ALL DROPS.
HORIZ. BRIDGING
CUT TO FIT IN FIELD LAP TO BE 2” MIN
USE ALL DROPS.
2”
TYP
2”
1/8”
1”
MIN
BRIDGING ANCHOR PIECE MARK BAC = 2 1/2” x 2 1/2” x 3/16” x 2
BRIDGING ANCHOR
PIECE MARK BAC = 2 1/2” x 2 1/2” x 3/16” x 2 1/2” LONG
ATTACH WITH:
1/2” EXP BOLT (NOT BY CANAM) 1/4” 2” “LH” SERIES 1/4” 2” TYP. MIN. 1/8”
1/2” EXP BOLT (NOT BY CANAM)
1/4”
2”
“LH” SERIES
1/4”
2”
TYP. MIN.
1/8”
1”
“K” SERIES
1/8”
1”
TYP. MIN.
MIN
1/8”
2”
KNEE BRACE ONLY
IF REQUIRED BY DESIGN
SEE PLAN FOR LOCATIONS
SERIES 1/8” 1” TYP. MIN. MIN 1/8” 2” KNEE BRACE ONLY IF REQUIRED BY DESIGN SEE
DETAILING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS SQUARE ENDS Whenever joists are bottom chord bearing, a

DETAILING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

SQUARE ENDS

Whenever joists are bottom chord bearing, a row of bolted diagonal cross bridging should be installed from joist to joist at or near the bearing location to provide lateral erection stability.

SQUARE END
SQUARE END

The weight of walls, signage, facia, etc. supported at the end of a cantilever square end must be shown on the contract drawings to be properly considered in the joist design.

FULL DEPTH

CANTILEVER END
CANTILEVER END

ADDED MEMBERS

OF PANEL POINT as specified MORE THAN 3” 3/16” OF POINT LOAD OF PANEL POINT
OF PANEL POINT
as specified
MORE THAN 3”
3/16”
OF POINT LOAD
OF PANEL POINT
MORE THAN 3”
FIELD INSTALLED
ANGLE BRACE, EACH SIDE
NOT BY CANAM~MINIMUM
LEG THICKNESS 3/16”.
OF POINT LOAD

TYPICAL JOIST REINFORCEMENT AT CONCENTRATED LOADS

Joists, including KCS-Series, are not typically designed for localized bending from point loads. Concentrated loads must be applied at joist panel points or field strut angles must be utilized as shown. Canam can provide a specially designed joist with the capability to take point loads without the added struts, if this requirement and the exact location and magnitude of the loads are clearly shown on the contract drawings. Also, Canam can consider the worst case in both the shear and bending moment for a traveling load with no specific location. When a traveling load is specified, the contract drawings should indicate whether the load is to be applied at top or bottom chord, and at any panel point, or at any point with the local bending effects considered.

UPLIFT

Where uplift is a design consideration, the NET uplift value shall be provided on the contract drawings. Additional lines of bridging will be required at the first bottom chord panel points as shown.

UPLIFT BRIDGING:

1 ROW OF HORIZONTAL BRIDGING @ FIRST BOTTOM CHORD PANEL POINT ON EACH END OF JOIST AS SHOWN. TYPICAL ALL JOISTS, ALL BAYS, IN ADDITION TO STANDARD BRIDGING SHOWN ON PLAN.

SHOWN. TYPICAL ALL JOISTS, ALL BAYS, IN ADDITION TO STANDARD BRIDGING SHOWN ON PLAN. FIRST BOTTOM

FIRST BOTTOM CHORD PANEL POINT

DETAILING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

SLOPED SEATS

The shoe depth must always be specified at the gridline. For joists on which the left and right bearings are not at the same level (sloped joist), the exterior and interior shoe depths are determined in such a way as to respect the depth at the gridline.

Interior Shoe Depth Exterior Shoe Depth Shoe Depth at gridline
Interior Shoe
Depth
Exterior Shoe
Depth
Shoe Depth
at gridline
Interior Shoe Depth Exterior Shoe Depth Shoe Depth at gridline
Interior Shoe
Depth
Exterior Shoe
Depth
Shoe Depth
at gridline
Interior Shoe Depth Shoe Depth at gridline Exterior Shoe Depth
Interior Shoe
Depth
Shoe Depth
at gridline
Exterior Shoe
Depth
Interior Shoe Depth Shoe Depth at gridline Exterior Shoe Depth
Interior Shoe
Depth
Shoe Depth
at gridline
Exterior Shoe
Depth

The bearing depth should be increased at sloped joists to insure an adequate depth of bearing seat assembly at the inside end or at the outside end, which depends on which bearing end (left or right) is higher.

12 x 2 1/2” MIN A Shoe Depth at gridline
12
x
2 1/2” MIN
A
Shoe Depth
at gridline
12 x A 2 1/2” MIN Shoe Depth at gridline
12
x
A
2 1/2” MIN
Shoe Depth
at gridline

Reference lines (gridline) are always at center of bearing steel or inside face of wall.

MINIMUM SHOE DEPTH AT GRIDLINE (in.)

A

 

Joist Sloped (x / 12)

 

(in.)

0.5

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

4

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

5.0

5.0

5.0

6.0

6.0

5

3.5

3.5

3.5

5.0

5.0

5.0

6.0

6.0

7.0

6

3.5

3.5

3.5

5.0

5.0

6.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

7

3.5

3.5

5.0

5.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

7.0

8.0

8

3.5

3.5

5.0

5.0

6.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

NOTE: Calculations are based on a top chord vertical leg of 2-1/2(all K-Series and up to LH07).

7.0 8.0 9.0 NOTE: Calculations are based on a top chord vertical leg of 2-1/2 ”
DETAILING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS FIELD BOLTED SPLICE Field bolted splices can be provided

DETAILING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

FIELD BOLTED SPLICE

Field bolted splices can be provided on any joist type when required for shipment or due to site constraints, such as a retrofit use. Note that spliced joists are normally fabricated as one complete piece in Canam’s shops, and are then separated for shipment. In assembling the joist, the erector must “match mates.” The joist mates will be marked “1L” and “1R” or “2L” and “2R” and so on in addition to regular joist piece marks. Two dissimilar mates will not fit together properly. The metal tag for the left half of the spliced joists will be placed near the bearing end, and this end must be placed to match the tagged end on the framing plan. The metal tag for the right half is placed on the left end of this half, near the splice.

SPLICE JOIST TOP CHORD SPLICE CONNECTION 1”
SPLICE
JOIST TOP CHORD
SPLICE CONNECTION
1”

JOIST BOTTOM CHORD SPLICE CONNECTION

NOTE:

QUANTITY AND ARRANGEMENT OF BOLTS AND PLATES MAY VARY. ALL BOLTS ARE TO BE HIGH STRENGTH. (A325 OR A490)

TYP. SPLICE DETAIL

ARE TO BE HIGH STRENGTH. (A325 OR A490) TYP. SPLICE DETAIL PITCHED JOISTS Canam can provide

PITCHED JOISTS

Canam can provide longspan joists with a variety of pitched chord configurations.

joists with a variety of pitched chord configurations. TOP CHORD SINGLE PITCHED UNDERSLUNG TOP CHORD SINGLE

TOP CHORD SINGLE PITCHED UNDERSLUNG

chord configurations. TOP CHORD SINGLE PITCHED UNDERSLUNG TOP CHORD SINGLE PITCHED SQUARE ENDS TOP CHORD DOUBLE

TOP CHORD SINGLE PITCHED SQUARE ENDS

PITCHED UNDERSLUNG TOP CHORD SINGLE PITCHED SQUARE ENDS TOP CHORD DOUBLE PITCHED UNDERSLUNG TOP CHORD DOUBLE

TOP CHORD DOUBLE PITCHED UNDERSLUNG

PITCHED SQUARE ENDS TOP CHORD DOUBLE PITCHED UNDERSLUNG TOP CHORD DOUBLE PITCHED SQUARE ENDS DUCT OPENINGS

TOP CHORD DOUBLE PITCHED SQUARE ENDS

DUCT OPENINGS

Open web steel joists allow the passage of pipes, conduits, and ducts through the joist. The specifier shall clearly show the size and exact location of ducts which have a fixed location and cannot be field located around the joist webs. To maximize the duct openings in a joist girder, the joist girder can be specified as a “VG” type. By aligning the vertical web members of the girder with the joists it supports, the duct opening in the girder, between the joists, is maximized.

“VG” GIRDER DUCT
“VG” GIRDER
DUCT

DETAILING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

MAXIMUM DUCT OPENINGS

DIMENSIONS OF FREE OPENINGS FOR VARIOUS JOIST AND JOIST GIRDER CONFIGURATIONS

NOTE: Since dimension P could vary with the final design, final dimensions of free openings should be verified with Canam.

H
H
P P D S R S L
P
P
D S
R
S
L

WEB CONFIGURATIONS (in.)

 

OPENINGS (in.)

 

H

 

PDS

   

LR

 

JOISTS

 

8

10

4.5

3.5

2.5

5.5

10

10

6.0

4.5

3.5

7.0

12

12

7.5

6.0

4.5

9.0

14

12

8.5

7.0

5.0

10.0

16

12

9.5

7.5

5.5

11.0

18

12

10.5

8.5

6.0

12.0

20

12

11.5

9.0

6.0

12.5

22

12

12.0

9.5

6.5

13.0

24

12

12.5

10.0

6.5

13.5

When duct-opening dimensions exceed the limits above, some web members must be removed. The shear forces are then transferred to the adjacent web members through the top and bottom chords. The chords will need to be reinforced; this will limit the max- imum height of the free opening as well. The maximum opening height should be limited to the joist depth minus 8” (200 mm). If the opening height cannot be limited to this value, contact Canam. Because the shear forces carried by the web members increase along the joist toward the bearing, the location of the duct opening is more critical near the bearings where more shear forces must be transferred through the top and bottom chords. For this reason, the duct-opening center must be located away from a bearing by a distance of at least 2.5 times the joist depth. The best location (for economical reasons) is at the mid span of the joist.

H
H
P P “V” S R D L S
P
P
“V”
S
R
D
L S

Canam reserves the right to bisect a bottom chord panel with a member Vas shown in the sketch above. Where an opening size close to the maximum dimensions listed in the table below is required, please advise Canam of the specific opening requirement and location.

WEB CONFIGURATIONS (in.)

 

OPENINGS (in.)

 

H

 

PD

S

LR

 
 

JOISTS

 

18

24

13.0

10.5

8.0

16.5

20

24

14.5

11.5

9.0

18.0

22

24

15.5

12.5

9.5

19.0

24

24

17.0

13.5

10.0

20.5

26

24

17.5

14.0

10.5

21.0

28

24

18.5

15.0

11.0

22.0

30

24

19.5

15.5

11.0

23.0

32

24

20.5

16.5

11.5

23.5

36

24

22.0

17.5

12.0

24.5

40

24

23.5

18.5

12.5

25.5

44

26

25.0

20.0

13.5

27.5

48

28

27.5

22.0

15.0

30.5

54

32

31.0

24.5

17.0

34.0

60

36

35.0

28.0

19.5

39.0

WEB CONFIGURATIONS (in.)

 

OPENINGS (in.)

 

HP

 

DS

 

L

R

 

JOIST GIRDERS

 

30

24

17.0

13.5

10.0

20.0

36

24

20.0

16.0

11.0

22.5

42

24

22.5

18.0

12.0

24.5

48

24

24.5

19.5

13.0

26.5

54

24

26.0

21.0

13.5

27.5

60

24

27.5

22.5

14.5

29.0

13.5 27.5 60 24 27.5 22.5 14.5 29.0 Location must be greater than 2.5 x H

Location must be greater than 2.5 x H

4” min. 4” min.
4” min.
4” min.
13.5 27.5 60 24 27.5 22.5 14.5 29.0 Location must be greater than 2.5 x H
13.5 27.5 60 24 27.5 22.5 14.5 29.0 Location must be greater than 2.5 x H

H

13.5 27.5 60 24 27.5 22.5 14.5 29.0 Location must be greater than 2.5 x H
ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS LOAD / SPAN DESIGN As an alternate to a

ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

LOAD / SPAN DESIGN

As an alternate to a standard joist designation in the load tables, Canam can design and manufacture a special “load/span” joist for the exact uniform load requirements. A load/span joist should be designated as follows: ddKSPtl/ll ie. 24KSP300/175

dd

=

depth in inches

tl

=

total load in plf

ll

=

live load in plf

Live load deflection will be governed by L/360 for floors or L/240 for roof unless noted otherwise on the contract drawings.

or

A load/span joist can be used for either DLH-Series.

K,

LH

SLOPED JOISTS

For sloped joists, the load and span shall be defined as outlined below. This allows the use of the load tables for joists with slopes larger than 1/2 inch per foot. Span:

The span of a parallel chord sloped joist shall be defined by the length along the slope. Minimum depth, load- carrying capacity, and bridging requirements shall be determined by the sloped definition of span. The Standard Load Table capacity shall be the component normal to the joist. Load:

Where the design live load is applied vertically over the plan length and the design dead load is applied vertically over the sloped length, select a joist with Load-Table capacity = LL*cos 2 α + DL*cos α Canam will automatically design for the component of the load parallel to the joist which acts as a top chord axial load.

LL α α LL * cos 2 α DL α α DL * cos α
LL
α
α
LL * cos 2 α
DL
α
α
DL * cos α
SPAN
α
LOAD-TABLE
CAPACITY
SPECIAL LOADS PT. PT. LD. LD. LIVE LOAD= DEAD LOAD= PT. LD.
SPECIAL LOADS
PT.
PT.
LD.
LD.
LIVE LOAD=
DEAD LOAD=
PT.
LD.

Canam’s design programs allow for the consideration of numerous special loading conditions. Where special loads, such as snow drifting or equipment loads, will be placed on a joist, the loading information can best be conveyed by using a load diagram such as the sample shown here.

It is important for the load diagram to clearly indicate

which point loads are applied at the joist top chord, and

which are suspended from the bottom chord. And it is important to clearly locate mechanical loads to avoid delays in joist fabrication.

Unless specifically instructed otherwise, it is assumed that field added strut angles will be utilized as described on page 12. Canam has two design capabilities which can be used to help accommodate variable loading conditions. First,

a joist or girder can be designed with multiple loading

cases. Each element of the joist or girder is then sized to handle the worst forces generated by any one of the loading conditions. For example, a joist may have a case one which has a uniform snow load and will create the controlling bending moment. Case two might have a snow drift together with a reduced uniform snow load, which may be a more severe condition for shear.

A second capability is the ability to design for a traveling

load. For each element of the joist or girder, the forces

are determined for the most critical location of the load along the joist length. Traveling loads can be specified as being at any panel point along the top or bottom chord, or at ANY point along the top or bottom chord. By specifying a traveling load to be applied at ANY point, miscellaneous loads within the specified limit

can be applied at any time during the life of the structure without the need for reinforcement or field added members.

Canam’s engineering staff can help find solutions for almost any special loading condition.

ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

END MOMENTS

Tie joists (joists at column lines) or joist girders can be successfully used as part of a moment frame in the structure. The frame analysis shall be performed by the specifier, and the resultant wind/seismic and conti- nuity moments shall be shown on the contract drawings. For purposes of the frame analysis, the moment of inertia of a joist or joist girder can be approximated by the formulas on page 50, 73, 76, and 78, respectively, in this catalog. Detail A shows the suggested method of presenting the moment values, as well as the directions in which they will be applied.

as well as the directions in which they will be applied. M WL M M M

M

WL

M M M LL LL WL
M
M
M
LL
LL
WL

DETAIL A

Canam will presume that all continuity moments are induced by the live load, and unless otherwise instruct- ed by the specifier, will presume that no dead load moment is present. It is Canam’s standard practice to instruct the joist erector to complete the connection of the bottom chords to the columns only after all dead loads are applied. Thus, the joist will act only as a simply supported truss for the dead load case. Where end moments have been specified, Canam will first design the joist or joist girder as a simply supported member with the full gravity loads applied. This ensures adequate strength during construction before the end moment connection is completed, and also provides additional redundancy to the structure in the event that the moment connection is not successfully completed in the field. Canam will then apply all the appropriate combinations of the wind/seismic and continuity moments as a separate load case. Each chord and web member in the joist or joist girder will be designed for the worst condition of either the simple span or end moment case.

condition of either the simple span or end moment case. DETAIL B In addition to providing

DETAIL B

In addition to providing the end moment values on the contract drawings, the specifier must give due consideration to the connections in order to properly develop the end moments. At the joist or girder bottom chord, the connection can be made simply by welding the bottom chord directly to the column stabilizer plate (see Detail B). The typical gap provided between the bottom chord angles is one inch. As shown in Detail C, at the top chord considerable eccentricity will develop if the connection is made at the base of the bearing seat on a typical underslung end. A moment plate shall be used to allow direct transfer from the top chord to the column or abutting joist, similar to

Details D and E. The specifier shall show the size of the plate and the
Details D and E. The specifier shall show the size of the
plate and the required welds on the contract drawings.
These moment plates are not included in Canam’s bid,
unless specified otherwise.
P
e

M = P x e

DETAIL C MOMENT PL TYP. (NOT BY CANAM)
DETAIL C
MOMENT PL TYP.
(NOT BY CANAM)

DETAIL D

Canam’s bid, unless specified otherwise. P e M = P x e DETAIL C MOMENT PL

DETAIL E

Canam’s bid, unless specified otherwise. P e M = P x e DETAIL C MOMENT PL
ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS STANDING SEAM ROOFS Where a standing seam roof is

ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

STANDING SEAM ROOFS

Where a standing seam roof is attached directly to the joist top chord, or any other instance where decking will not provide lateral support on the top chord, Canam will design a bridging system to provide the required top chord lateral support, in accordance with the following specifications of sections 5.8(g) or 104.9(g).

STANDING SEAM ROOF SYSTEM JOIST TOP CHORD
STANDING SEAM
ROOF SYSTEM
JOIST TOP CHORD
Ted Constant Center, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA
Ted Constant Center,
Old Dominion University,
Norfolk, VA

JOISTS LONGER THAN SJI

Canam has the capability to build joists, trusses, and joist girders with spans and depths beyond the limits of the Load Tables. The DLH-series Load Table extends to depths of 72 inches and spans of 144 feet. Canam can fabricate special joists with depths of over 10 feet and lengths over 200 feet. Special consideration is required for these very large joists, and attempting to select a “standard” joist from a load table may be an over-simplification of the true loading conditions and design requirements. Canam recommends that any joist that exceeds the range of the DLH-series Load Table be labeled as a special joist with a load diagram provided to allow accurate design of the joist. The load diagram should clearly indicate if the joist self weight is included in the design loads, or if the loads shown are only the superimposed loads to which self weight must be added. Due consideration must also be given to camber, deflection, bridging or bracing, and erection. Please consult Canam for assistance in specifying these joists. Canam has extensive experience in providing joists beyond the range of the Load Tables, including these recent projects:

* Ford Field Stadium Detroit, MI 128 joists - 120 inches deep, 166 feet long, shipped in 2 pieces

* Ted Constant Convocation Center Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA

17 joists, 168 inches deep, 238 feet long, shipped

in 3 pieces

* Belmont University Nashville, TN

20 joists, 170 inches deep, 211 feet long, shipped

in 3 pieces

* York High School Elmhurst, IL

37 joists, 120 inches deep, 202 feet long, shipped

in 2 pieces

* Jordan Valley Park Expo Center Springfield, MO

35 pieces, 96 inches deep, 150 feet long, shipped

in 2 pieces

* Dubuque Riverfront Education Dubuque, IA

13 pieces, 168 inches deep bowstring, 150 feet long,

shipped in 2 pieces

* Idaho Sports Center Nampa, ID

11 pieces, 120 inches deep scissors, 175 feet long,

shipped in 2 pieces

* Palm Beach County Convention Center West Palm Beach, FL 179 pieces, 80 inches deep, 150 feet long, shipped in 2 pieces

* Mohegan Sun Podium Uncasville, CT

43 pieces, 96 inches deep, 166 feet long, shipped

in 3 pieces

* Angelo State University’s Junell Center San Angelo, TX

33 pieces, 120 inches deep, 224 feet long, shipped

in 3 pieces

ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

Junell Center, San Angelo, TX Junell Center, San Angelo, TX Junell Center, San Angelo, TX
Junell Center,
San Angelo, TX
Junell Center,
San Angelo, TX
Junell Center,
San Angelo, TX
OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS Junell Center, San Angelo, TX Junell Center, San Angelo, TX Junell Center,
ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS SPECIAL SHAPES • As a minimum, the dimensions and

ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

SPECIAL SHAPES

• As a minimum, the dimensions and information shown in the sketches must be provided for joists with special profiles.

• Special shape joists do not to need to have a standard SJI designation. The load/span method, as described in this section, can be utilized for special shape joists with supplementary load diagrams, as shown in the special loads section.

• For joist lengths over 100 feet, a field bolted splice will likely be required for shipment in halves or thirds. Joist depths over 8 feet will require special shippping arrangements.

• When the total depth of the joist profile reaches 15’-6”, it cannot be shipped as a unit and some form of field assembly will be required. For any joist shipped in halves, thirds, or pieces, it is critical that the “match-marked” parts be joined. The parts are not interchangeable.

• Special consideration should be given to the camber of special joists, particularly where they are adjacent to other framing or deck supports. If Canam is provided with the actual design dead load, special camber can be provided.

GABLE JOIST
GABLE JOIST

SCISSOR JOIST

the actual design dead load, special camber can be provided. GABLE JOIST SCISSOR JOIST Idaho Sports
Idaho Sports Center, Nampa, ID
Idaho Sports Center,
Nampa, ID

ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

SPECIAL SHAPES

• Gable joists are commonly specified as bottom chord bearing, as shown in the sketch. The specifier should consider the use of the end walls as an anchorage point for the joist bridging, which is critical to provide lateral stability. • Gable joists need not be symmetric. For any double pitched configuration, an offset ridge can be provided. • Note that barrel and scissor joists are modeled with “pin and roller” supports and the truss will deflect horizontally. The specifier must make provisions to allow for this horizontal movement. Any special limitations on the amount of allowed horizontal deflection must be clearly shown on the contract drawings. • To obtain the most economical design, Canam will vary the configuration of the joist web members within the overall profile provided in the sketch on the contract drawings. If a particular web geometry is required to create specific openings for mechanical needs, catwalks, or architectural reasons, these requirements should be noted with the profile, and specific dimensions locating the joist panel points should be provided.

BOWSTRING JOIST R= BARREL JOIST R= R=
BOWSTRING JOIST
R=
BARREL JOIST
R=
R=
Buckeye Fried Chicken, Columbus OH Buckeye Fried Chicken, Columbus OH
Buckeye Fried Chicken,
Columbus OH
Buckeye Fried Chicken,
Columbus OH
BOWSTRING JOIST R= BARREL JOIST R= R= Buckeye Fried Chicken, Columbus OH Buckeye Fried Chicken, Columbus
ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS OSHA HIGHLIGHTS These pages summarize the key provisions of

ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

OSHA HIGHLIGHTS

These pages summarize the key provisions of the revised OSHA steel erection standard, 29 CFR Part 1926.757. The complete OSHA rule for steel joists is included as an appendix to the Steel Joist Institute Specifications in this publication. The two most critical elements to the safe erection of steel joists are to limit or eliminate the need to “walk” un-bridged joists, and to properly and completely install the bridging as soon as possible. Canam advocates erection methods whereby the erector is not required to “walk” an un-bridged joist to release the hoisting cable. This can be accomplished by using erection stability bridging, working from a man-lift or other ground support, setting the joists in pre-assembled panels, or using a self-releasing mechanism on the crane.

JOISTS AT COLUMNS

Joists at column lines, which are not framed in at least

two directions by solid web structural steel members, shall have a field-bolted connection at the joist bearing seat. In addition, joists at column lines must also have bottom chord extensions (BCX’s). The BCX must extend

to a vertical stabilizer plate. The stabilizer plate is to be

a minimum size of 6 inches by 6 inches, with 3 inches

extended below the bottom chord with a 13/16 inch hole to provide for a cable attachment. Where a steel joist does not lie directly along the column line, the joist nearest the column, on each side of the column, shall have field-bolted bearing seats. However, the bottom chord extensions may be omitted where it is not practical to provide them near the column.

ERECTION STABILITY BRIDGING

The “forty foot” rule no longer applies for the require-

ment of a bolted diagonal bridging line. The spans in the shaded portions of the Load Tables require a row of bolted diagonal bridging. Note that there are many designations and spans of less than forty feet that are shaded and require a row of bolted diagonal bridging. But there are also many designations and spans greater than forty feet which are not shaded and do not require

a bolted diagonal bridging row.

BOLTED BEARING SEATS

Joists in bays of 40 feet or more shall be fabricated and installed with a field-bolted connection from the joist bearing seat to the steel frame. The bay length is the length from cen- ter to center of steel supports, or center of steel to face of wall. An exception to this rule is made for those cases where con- structibility does not allow the bolted connection, or where mul- tiple joists are pre-assembled and set in panels. Typically, the field-bolted bearing seat connection will be made with ASTM-A307 bolts in slotted holes and is considered a temporary connection. The final connection should be made by welding or as specified by the project structural engineer of record.

COLUMN JOIST STABILITY

The OSHA standard states that steel joists at or near columns, that span 60 feet or less, shall be designed with sufficient strength to carry the self-weight of the joists and the weight of one erector. The intent is to allow the hoisting cable to be released without the need for erection stability bridging on a column joist being set in advance of adjacent joists. However, Canam joists are NOT designed to meet this stability requirement and Canam advocates alternate erection methods that allow the hoisting cable to be released without an erector walking on the joist. Achieving the stability criteria desired by OSHA is dependent on a number of erection criteria that are not in the steel erection standard. In addition, it is impossible to meet the stability requirement for certain spans and special conditions, such as slopes, pitches, and bottom chord bearing. Because of these issues, OSHA has adopted an enforcement policy, which will remain in effect indefi- nitely, as follows: for all joists at or near columns that span 60 feet or less, employers will be considered to be in compliance with 1926.757(a)(3) if they erect these joists either by: (1) installing bridging or otherwise stabilizing the joist prior to releasing the hoisting cable, or (2) releasing the cable without having a worker on the joists. In accordance with this enforcement policy, Canam will expect the erector to achieve OSHA compliance through either of the two options, and Canam will not provide column joists specifically designed to provide stability for one erector without the need for erection bridging. In an effort to advise and remind the erector of the above, joists at or near columns that span 60 feet or less will be designated with the symbol “DT” on Canam’s framing plans, and will be supplied with a Danger Tag hung on the joist. Beyond 60 foot spans, OSHA does not have special stability requirements for column joists. Column joists that span more than 60 feet should be set in tandem with all bridging installed, or by the erector’s alternate means of erection.

ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

OSHA HIGHLIGHTS

BUNDLE SIZES AND PLACEMENT

Bridging bundles shall be limited to 1000 pounds maximum. The bridging bundle shall be placed across a minimum of three joists, within one foot of a secured end of the joists. Where Canam supplies metal decking, the deck bundles shall be limited to 4000 pounds maximum. The deck bundles should not be placed before the joist ends are attached and all bridging has been installed, except where the OSHA rule allows the deck bundle to be placed after only one row of bridging is installed and other special conditions are met.

This is a sample Danger Tag which is hung on joists marked “DT” on the drawings.

Tag which is hung on joists marked “DT” on the drawings. BOTTOM BEARING JOISTS Bolted diagonal

BOTTOM BEARING JOISTS

Bolted diagonal bridging is required over or near the support for all bottom chord bearing joists. This includes both square-end joists, and cantilever-square-end joists.

This is a general summary of the OSHA require- ments, but is not intended to constitute legal advice. Canam does not assume responsibility for compliance with OSHA requirements.

This block of notes will appear on all of Canam’s framing plans.

ERECTOR’S NOTES: - IN BAYS 60’-0” OR LESS, THE FOLLOWING APPLIES TO ANY COLUMN JOISTS
ERECTOR’S NOTES:
- IN BAYS 60’-0” OR LESS, THE FOLLOWING APPLIES TO
ANY COLUMN JOISTS OR JOISTS NEAR A COLUMN:
• THESE JOISTS HAVE NOT BEEN DESIGNED
TO SUPPORT AN EMPLOYEE WITHOUT
BRIDGING INSTALLED.
• THESE JOISTS ARE NOT OSHA JOISTS
DESIGNED FOR STABILITY PER SUBPART R
1926.757 (a) (3).
• SPECIAL ERECTION METHODS MUST BE
INCORPORATED
• EMPLOYERS WILL BE CONSIDERED TO BE IN
COMPLIANCE WITH 1926.757 (a) (3) IF THEY
ERECT THESE JOISTS EITHER BY: (1)
INSTALLING BRIDGING OR OTHERWISE
STABILIZING THE JOIST PRIOR TO
RELEASING THE HOISTING CABLE, OR (2)
RELEASING THE CABLE WITHOUT HAVING
A WORKER ON THE JOISTS.
• DO NOT ALLOW EMPLOYEES ON THESE
JOISTS UNTIL ADEQUATELY STABILIZED.
CONSULT THE OSHA SAFETY STANDARDS FOR
SPECIFICS.
- IN BAYS GREATER THAN 60’-0”, JOISTS AT OR NEAR
COLUMNS SHALL BE ERECTED IN TANDEM (PAIR)
WITH AN ADJACENT JOIST. ALL BRIDGING MUST BE
INSTALLED BEFORE LIFTING AND THE PAIR OF JOISTS
MUST BE SECURED TO THEIR SUPPORT BEFORE
RELEASING THE HOISTING LINE. THIS REQUIREMENT
MAY BE WAIVED UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS.
CONSULT THE OSHA SAFETY STANDARDS FOR
SPECIFICS.
LINE. THIS REQUIREMENT MAY BE WAIVED UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS. CONSULT THE OSHA SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SPECIFICS.
ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS FLOOR VIBRATION Floor vibration has become a structural design

ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

FLOOR VIBRATION

Floor vibration has become a structural design issue due to the increased use of longer spans, more open areas and lighter floor systems. The building structural designer must analyze floor vibration and its effect on the building end users and specify the proper characteristics to reduce vibration. The behavior of two-way flooring systems has been studied using models and in-situ testing. Several simplified equations to predict floor behavior and damping values for walking induced vibration have been established according to the type of wall partitions and floor finishes. These equations are now part of Steel Design Guide #11, jointly published by the American and Canadian Institutes of Steel Construction in 1997. This guide covers different types of floor vibrations and is one of the main references on the subject. The formulas shown in Steel Design Guide #11 allow the user to define the vibration characteristics of a floor system: the initial acceleration produced by a heel drop and the natural frequency of the system. These two parameters allow the designer to verify if the floor system will produce vertical oscillations in resonance with rhythmic human activities or with enough amplitude to disturb other occupants. The amplitude of the vibrations will decay according to the type of partitions, ceiling suspensions, and floor finish. The decay rate will also influence the sensitivity of the occupants. Information about the use and architectural finishes of a building is not readily available to the joist supplier. The joist supplier usually receives only the floor drawings and general joist specifications and designation. This is the information that is used for joist design. Furthermore, when a project structural engineer has predetermined the design of a joist including spacing, depth, span, bearing support, and dead loads, the joist design alone cannot be easily modified to reduce floor vibration induced by walking below the annoyance threshold for the other occupants. The following example of this situation is for office floors where the annoyance threshold is defined as a floor acceleration of 0.5% of the gravity acceleration and with enough partitions to provide moderate damping. For floors in a shopping mall, the threshold would be an acceleration of 1.5% of the gravity acceleration. This higher threshold means that the occupants are less disturbed by vibrations produced by walking loads.

TYPICAL OFFICE FLOOR INITIAL DESIGN:

In the example, the floor area is 90’ by 96’, the joists have a 30’-0’’ (9 150 mm) span, a 20’’ (approx. 500 mm) depth, and are spaced at 4’-0’’ (1 220 mm) on center. The joists are bearing on beams at both ends on 2 1/2’’ (65 mm) deep seats. The assumption is that the beams will be only partially composite for vibration calculations because of the relative lack of stiffness of such a

bearing seat. The beam span is 24’-0’’ (7 315 mm) with joists bearing from both sides and acts as a single span. The floor is made of a 4’’ (100 mm) concrete slab, including the 1 1/2’’ (38 mm) steel deck profile. The loads are as follows:

Structural steel Steel joists Deck-slab of 100 mm Ceiling, mechanical & floor finish Partitions DEAD LOAD TOTAL LIVE LOAD

5 psf (0.24 kPa)

4 psf (0.19 kPa) 38 psf (1.82 kPa) 10 psf (0.48 kPa) 20 psf (0.96 kPa)

89 psf

(4.27 kPa)

50 psf

(2.40 kPa)

From the SJI K-Series load table, select a joist with

a

w

A

a

deflection equal to the span of 360 which is fine since the live load is 200 plf.

By reducing the simple span deflection formula under uniform load for span/360, we obtain the following approximation of the moment of inertia:

a

joist with a 20K10 designation will support 533 plf for

30’-0’’ span to support the following loads:

= 4’ x (72 + 50) = 488 plf

30’-0’’ span and a uniform load of 336 plf will produce

I joist

I joist

= W 360 x (span) 3 / 38,000, where

= moment of inertia in in. 4

w 360 = uniform load producing a deflection equal to span / 360 in. plf Span = span of joist in feet

I joist = 336 x (30) 3 / 38,000 = 238 in. 4

The center of gravity of the joist steel cross section can be assumed to be at mid depth.

A joist

chords = I joist / (depth / 2) 2 = 2.38 in. 2

The beam can be chosen from the AISC selection tables as W18 x 60 with F y = 50 ksi and a moment of inertia of 984 in. 4 . ALTERNATE 1:

If a slab of 5’’ instead of 4’’ is used, the dead load increases and the size of the joists and beams may also increase.

Structural steel Steel joists Deck-slab of 5”

Ceiling, mechanical & floor finish 10 psf (0.48 kPa)

Partitions DEAD LOAD TOTAL LIVE LOAD

From the SJI K-Series load table, select a joist with

a

30’-0’’ span to support the following loads:

w

= 4’ x (84 + 50) = 536 plf

ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

FLOOR VIBRATION

The same 20K10 joist will work for a 30’-0’’ and the properties will be the same.

I joist = 336 x (30) 3 / 38,000 = 238 in. 4

joist chords =I joist

A

/ (depth / 2) 2 = 2.38 in. 2

This time, the beam chosen from the AISC selection tables

with F y = 50 ksi and a moment of

is W18 x 65

inertia of 1,070 in. 4 . ALTERNATE 2:

Starting from the base example, consider that the structural engineer of the building clearly indicates that the size of the joists should be doubled to reduce floor

vibration. Since there are no standard K-Series joists with the same depth that are twice the size of a 20K10, we will double up the joists by spacing the 20K10 joists

at 2’ on center.

ALTERNATE 3:

we

evaluate a 5’’ slab

on center. Using the data of those 4 conditions, with the proposed equations of Steel Design Guide #11 and considering an open floor even if the structure is designed for a possible partition load, we obtain the vibration properties shown in the comparison table below:

on 20K10 joists spaced at 2’-0”

Combining the changes of alternates 1 and

2,

COMPARISON OF VARIOUS ARRANGEMENTS

PARAMETERS

 

INITIAL

ALTERNATE 1

ALTERNATE 2

ALTERNATE 3

DESIGN

INCREASED

DOUBLE JOIST OF SAME SIZE

DOUBLE JOIST OF SAME SIZE AND INCREASED THICKNESS OF SLAB

THICKNESS

OF SLAB

 

Peak acceleration a o with open floor

(% g)

1.11%

0.87%

0.81%

0.65%

Peak acceleration a o with some partitions

(% g)

0.74%

0.58%

0.54%

0.44%

Peak acceleration a o with full height partitions

(% g)

0.44%

0.35%

0.32%

0.26%

System frequency f

(Hz)

4.7

4.6

5.1

5.2

Joist length

(ft.)

30’-0”

30’-0”

30’-0”

30’-0”

Joist depth

(in.)

20

20

20

20

Joist spacing

(ft.)

4’-0”

4’-0”

2’-0”

2’-0”

Joist moment of inertia (steel)

(in. 4 )

238

238

238

238

Deck depth

(in.)

1.5”

1.5”

1.5”

1.5”

Slab-deck thickness

(in.)

4”

5”

4”

5”

Slab-deck-joist dead weight

(psf)

38

50

38

50

Additional participating load

(psf)

20

20

20

20

Beam size

W18 x 60

W18 x 65

W18 x 60

W18 x 65

Beam span

(ft.)

24’-0”

24’-0”

24’-0”

24’-0”

This comparison shows that the vibration characteristics improve by adding dead weight or by doubling the joists. One must note that the alternates 1 and 2 used did not sufficiently improve the vibration properties of the floor to lower

their amplitude to below the annoyance threshold for offices. Additional calculations shown as alternate 3 indicate that using

a 5’’ deck-slab with a 100% increase in the joist sections would lower the peak acceleration to below the annoyance

threshold of 0.5% of g. The building designer controls the main parameters affecting floor vibration characteristics and he or she must make the vibration calculations to find an economical solution. The information supplied in this catalog will allow the structural engineer to evaluate the vibration properties of the floor joists during the initial design.

The project structural engineer should always specify the proper slab thickness and the minimum moment of inertia of the steel joists to have a floor with vibration characteristics below the annoyance threshold based on the type

of occupancy. The joist designer will then verify conformance to the minimum moment of inertia required by the building

designer for the joists.

will then verify conformance to the minimum moment of inertia required by the building designer for
ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS JOIST SUBSTITUTES The Steel Joist Institute has introduced a

ENGINEERING WITH OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS

JOIST SUBSTITUTES

The Steel Joist Institute has introduced a joist substitute series, the 2.5K series. SJI load tables and specifications can be found on page 37 of this catalog. Joist substitutes are intended to be used for relatively short spans. It is more economical to use joist substitutes rather than joists for spans of 10 feet and under. Canam has extended the load tables to allow the specifier to make proper selection of joist substitutes. Joist substitutes are solid members made of angles, channels, or tube steel.

are solid members made of angles, channels, or tube steel.   JOIST SUBSTITUTES     2.5K1
 

JOIST SUBSTITUTES

 
 

2.5K1

2.5K2

2.5K3

S

(in. 3 )

0.600

0.834

1.200

Mr (k-ft.)

1.50

2.09

3.00

I

(in. 4 )

0.800

1.103

1.502

Span (ft.)

 

ALLOWABLE LOADS (plf)

 
 

4’

550

550

550

 

5’

550

/ 338

550

/ 465

550

 

6’

374

/ 189

519

/ 260

550

/ 354

 

7’

270

/ 116

375

/ 160

540

/ 218

 

8’

204 / 76

284

/ 105

408