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SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN

BUKIT KEMUNING
40460 SHAH ALAM

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT

ALUMINUM TIN

Student’s Name : CHIN WYNN


Form : 4 SCIENCE 1
I.C. No. : 910715-14-5397
Teacher’s Name : MADAM ONG LIN LIN
CHIN WYNN

CONTENTS

NO. TITLE PAGE


1. Acknowledgement 2

2. Introduction 3

3. Conjecture 6

4. Discussion 6

5. Identifying Information 8

6. Strategy 9

7. Results 41

8. Conclusion 42

9. Appendix 44

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CHIN WYNN

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly, I would like to thank our Additional


Mathematics Teacher, Madam Ong Lin Lin for guiding us
throughout this project. She explained and showed us every
contents of this project clearly.

Next, I would like to thank my friends for giving


assistance and advice about this project. Besides that, they
also gave me some mental support to doing this project.

Last but not least, I appreciate that my parents fully


believed and supported me. They sacrificed their time to
send me to my friend’s house in order to complete this
project. They also contributed money for me to carry out
this assignment.

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CHIN WYNN

INTRODUCTION

I am doing a project work to calculate on how to reduce the production


cost of a cylindrical aluminum can company when its production cost is
proportional to the area of the aluminum sheet used.

History of the Aluminum Can

The earliest kind of metal beverage can was made out of steel (similar to a tin
can) and had no pull tab. Instead, it was opened by using a tool called a can
opener or bottle opener (colloquially, a church key). The opener resembled a
bottle opener but had a sharp point. The can was opened by punching two holes
in the lid, a large one for drinking through, and a smaller one that allowed air in
to replace the displaced fluid. Further advancements saw the end pieces of the
can made out of aluminum instead of steel.

In North America, the standard can size is 12 fluid ounces (335 ml). In most of
Europe, standard cans are 330 ml, which is approximately 1/3 of a liter. In
Australia, the standard can size is 375 ml. In South Africa, standard cans are
340 ml. In India, the standard can size is 300 ml.

An empty aluminum can weigh approximately 15 grams, or 0.5 ounce. Therefore,


there are roughly 30 empty aluminum cans to an avoirdupois pound.

The Benefits of Aluminum Can Recycling

Environmental Benefits
Recycling aluminum cans save precious natural resources, energy, time and
money - all for a good cause - helping out the earth, as well as the economy and
local communities.

Aluminum cans are unique in that in 60 days a can is recycled, turned into a new
can & back on store shelves. Aluminum is a sustainable metal and can be recycled
over and over again. In 2003, 54 billion cans were recycled, saving the energy
equivalent of 15 million barrels of crude oil - America's entire gas consumption
for one day.

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CHIN WYNN

Economic Benefits

The aluminum can is the most valuable container to recycle and is the most
recycled consumer product in the U.S. today. Each year, the aluminum industry
pays out over $800 million dollars for empty aluminum cans - that's a lot of
money that can go to organizations, like Habitat for Humanity, the Boy or Girl
Scouts of America, or even a local school. Money earned from recycling cans
helps people help themselves and their communities. Recycling helps build new
homes, pays for a group trip, supports a project or buys a lunch! Today it is
cheaper, faster and more energy-efficient to recycle aluminum than ever
before. The aluminum can is 100 percent recyclable and can be recycled
indefinitely. The can remains the most recyclable of all materials. Used
aluminum beverage cans are the most recycled item in the U.S., but other types
of aluminum, such as siding, gutters, car components, storm window frames, and
lawn furniture can also be recycled. Aluminum has a high market value and
continues to provide an economic incentive to recycle. When aluminum cans are
recycled curbside, they help pay for community services.

Community Benefits
Aluminum can recycling enables charitable organizations and groups to earn
funds to further local projects. The money earned enhances programs,
communities and improves the quality of people's lives. From a local can drive to
raise money for school improvements, to a Boy or Girl Scout troop "Cans Into
Cash" competition to pay for camp, recycling is used all over the country to help
others.

A perfect example of this is the Cans for Habitat program. Through a national
partnership between the Aluminum Association and Habitat for Humanity
International, aluminum cans are recycled via a network of drop-off locations to
raise money for Habitat for Humanity to build decent, affordable housing with
low-income families. To think, just by recycling a can once destined for the
landfill, you are keeping our local environment clean, providing a needed resource
for the aluminum recycling process, and most importantly, helping provide local
housing to those in need. It's a win-win for the individual, community, business,
industry and the environment.

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CHIN WYNN

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK


FORM 4 YEAR 2006
PACKAGE: SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

Aluminum Can

Problem Being Investigated


The Muhibbah Company is a manufacturer of cylindrical aluminum tins. The manager
plans to reduce the cost of production. The production cost is proportional to the
area of the aluminum sheet used. The volume that each tin can hold is 1000 cm3 (1
liter).

1) Determine the value of h, r and hence calculate the ratio h/r when the total
surface area of each tin is minimum. Here, h cm denotes the height and r cm the
radius of the tin.

2) The top and bottom pieces of the tin of height h cm are cut from square-shaped
aluminum sheets.
Determine the value for r, h and hence calculate the ratio h/ r so that the total
area of the aluminum sheets used for making the tin is minimum. (Refer to the
diagram below.)

r cm h cm r cm

Top Surface Curved Surface Bottom Surface

3) Investigate cases where the top and bottom surfaces are cut from
(i) Equilateral triangle.
(ii) Regular hexagon.
Find the ratio of h/r for each case.

Further Investigation
Investigate cases where the top and bottom faces of the tin are being cut from
aluminum sheets consisting shapes of polygons. From the results of your
investigation, what conclusion can you derive from the relationship of the ratio of
h/r and the number of sides of a regular polygon?

Wastage occurs when circles are cut from aluminum sheet, which is not round in
shape. Suggest the best possible shape of aluminum sheets to be used so as to
reduce the production cost.

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CHIN WYNN

CONJECTURE

Polygons with more sides have smaller ratio of h/r and smaller surface area.

DISCUSSION

By using mathematical facts, formulae and methods such as differentiation,


trigonometry and trial and improvement, the minimum areas of aluminum differ
according to the shape cut from it.

Below are some mathematical facts and formulae used for determining the
answers for each question. Furthermore, diagrams, tables and graphs are also
inserted to help presenting the data and information. Also, all answers in this
folio are in at least 4 significant figures.

Mathematical Facts and Formulae that are Used


a) Volume of the tin = 1000cm3
πr2h = 1000
h = 1000
πr2

b) Total surface area of tin,


A = 2(Area of top surface) + Area of curved surface
= 2πr2 + 2πrh
= 2πr2 + 2πr(1000/πr2)
= 2πr2 + 2000/r

c) When A is minimum, dA = 0
dr

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CHIN WYNN

d)
r (cm) A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)

e)
The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)
A (cm2 )

r (cm)

Check the answer from the graph by getting the minimum point.

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CHIN WYNN

IDENTIFYING INFORMATION

 To find the minimum area of the cylinder tin


 The production cost is proportional to the surface area of the aluminum
sheets used
 The volume of each tin is equivalent to 1000cm3 or 1 liter

Question 1
Determine the values of h, r and hence calculate the ratio of h/r when the total
surface area of each tin is minimum.

Question 2
The top and bottom pieces of the tin are cut from square-shaped aluminum
sheets. Determine the values of h, r and hence calculate the ratio of h/r when
the total surface area of each tin is minimum.

Question 3
The top and bottom surfaces are cut from equilateral triangle and regular
hexagon. Determine the ratio of h/r for each case.

Further Investigation
Aluminum sheets are cut from regular polygons. Based on the results of the
investigation, derive a conclusion from the relationship of the ratio of h/r and
the number of sides of the regular polygon. Suggest the best shape of aluminum
sheets to be used so as to reduce the production cost.

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CHIN WYNN

STRATEGY

1) Determine the value of h, r and hence calculate the ratio h/r when the total
surface area of each tin is minimum. Here, h cm denotes the height and r cm
the radius of the tin.

Volume of the tin = 1000cm3

πr2h = 1000

h = 1000
πr2

r cm h cm r cm

Top Surface Curved Surface Bottom Surface

Total surface area of tin, A = 2πr2 + 2πr(1000/πr2)


= 2πr2 + 2000
r

Method 1: Trial and Improvement

r (cm) A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)


1 2006.28
2 1025.13
3 723.22
4 600.53
5 557.08
6 559.53
7 593.59
8 652.12
9 731.16
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.
The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

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CHIN WYNN

2500

2006.28
2000
A (cm 2)

1500

1025.13
1000

731.16
723.22

652.12
600.53

593.59
559.53
557.08
500
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
r (cm)

A More Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)
5.0 557.08
5.1 555.58
5.2 554.51
5.3 553.85
5.4 553.59
5.5 553.70
5.6 554.18
5.7 555.01
5.8 556.19
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.4 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

558
557.08

557
556.19
555.58

556
555.01
554.51
A (cm 2)

555
554.18
553.85

553.70
553.59

554
553
552
551
5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8
r (cm)

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CHIN WYNN

A More Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)
5.40 553.588
5.41 553.583
5.42 553.581
5.43 553.583
5.44 553.589
5.45 553.599
5.46 553.612
5.47 553.629
5.48 553.650
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.42 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

553.650
553.66
553.629

553.64
553.612

553.62
553.599
A (cm 2)

553.589
553.588

553.60
553.583

553.583
553.581

553.58
553.56
553.54
5.40 5.41 5.42 5.43 5.44 5.45 5.46 5.47 5.48

r (cm)

The Most Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 2πr2 + 2000/r (cm2)
5.418 553.581075
5.419 553.581046
5.420 553.581055
5.421 553.581102
5.422 553.581186
5.423 553.581308
5.424 553.581468
5.425 553.581665
5.426 553.581900
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.419 cm.

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CHIN WYNN

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

553.581900
553.5820

553.581665
553.5818

553.581468
553.5816

553.581308
553.581186
A (cm 2)

553.5814

553.581102
553.581075

553.581055
553.581046
553.5812
553.5810
553.5808
553.5806
5.418 5.419 5.420 5.421 5.422 5.423 5.424 5.425 5.426

r (cm)

r = 5.419 cm

h = 1000
πr2
= 1000
π(5.419)2
= 10.84 cm

h = 10.84
r 5.419
= 2.000

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CHIN WYNN

Method 2: Differentiation

Volume = πr2h
1000 = πr2h
h = 1000
πr2

Total surface area of tin, A = 2πr2 + 2πr (1000/πr2)


= 2πr2 + 2000
r

dA = 4πr – 2000
dr r2
When A is minimum,
dA = 0
dr
4πr – 2000 = 0
r2
4πr = 2000
r2
4πr3 = 2000
r3 = 2000

r = 5.419 cm

h = 1000
πr2
h= 1000
π(5.419)2
= 10.84 cm

h/r = 10.84
5.419
= 2.000

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CHIN WYNN

2) The top and bottom pieces of the tin of height h cm are cut from square-
shaped aluminum sheets.
Determine the value for r, h and hence calculate the ratio h/ r so that the
total area of the aluminum sheets are used for making the tin is minimum.

2r

r cm 2r r cm
h cm

Top Surface Curved Surface Bottom Surface

V = 1000
πr h = 1000
2

h = 1000
πr2

Total Surface Area,


A = 4r2 + 4r2 + 2πrh
= 8r2 + 2πr(1000)
πr2
= 8r2 + 2000
r

Method 1: Trial and Improvement

r (cm) A = 8r2 + 2000/r (cm2)


1 2008.00
2 1032.00
3 738.67
4 628.00
5 600.00
6 621.33
7 677.71
8 762.00
9 870.22
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.

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CHIN WYNN

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

2500

2008.00
2000

1500
A (cm 2)

1032.00

870.22
1000

762.00
738.67

677.71
628.00

621.33
600.00
500

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
r (cm)

A More Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 8r2 + 2000/r (cm2)
5.0 600.000
5.1 600.237
5.2 600.935
5.3 602.078
5.4 603.650
5.5 605.636
5.6 608.023
5.7 610.797
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.0 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

615
610.797
608.023

610
605.636
603.650
602.078

605
A (cm 2)

600.935
600.237
600.000

600

595

590
5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7
r (cm)

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CHIN WYNN

A More Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 8r2 + 2000/r (cm2)
5.00 600.000
5.01 600.002
5.02 600.010
5.03 600.022
5.04 600.038
5.05 600.060
5.06 600.086
5.07 600.117
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.00 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

600.15

600.117
600.086

600.10
600.060
600.038

600.05
600.022
A (cm2)

600.010
600.002
600.000

600.00

599.95

599.90
5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07

r (cm)

The Most Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 8r2 + 2000/r (cm2)
5.000 600.00000
5.001 600.00002
5.002 600.00010
5.003 600.00022
5.004 600.00038
5.005 600.00060
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.000 cm.

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CHIN WYNN

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

600.0008

600.00060
600.0006

600.00038
600.0004

600.00022
A (cm2)

600.00010
600.0002

600.00002
600.0000 600.00000

599.9998
599.9996
5.000 5.001 5.002 5.003 5.004 5.005

r (cm)

r = 5.000 cm

Substitute into h = 1000,


πr2
h= 1000
π(5.000)2
= 12.73 cm

h = 12.73
r 5.000
= 2.546

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CHIN WYNN

Method 2: Differentiation

Volume of the tin = 1000 cm3


πr2h = 1000
h = 1000
πr2

Total surface area of tin,


A = 4r2 + 4r2 + 2πrh
= 8r2 + 2πr(1000/πr2)
= 8r2 + (2000/r)

dA = 16r – 2000
dr r2

When A is minimum,
dA = 0
dr
16r – (2000/r2) = 0
16r = (2000/r2)
16r3 = 2000
r3 = 2000/16
= 125
r = 5 cm

h = 1000
π(5)2
= 12.73 cm

h = 12.73
r 5
= 2.546

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CHIN WYNN

3) Investigate cases where the top and bottom surfaces are cut from
(i) Equilateral triangle
(ii) Regular hexagon
Find the ratio of h/r for each case.

(i) Equilateral triangle

Method 1: Trigonometry and Differentiation

60o h
r
x 30o
Top and Bottom Surface Curved Surface

tan 60o = x/r


x = r tan 60o

Area of the triangle = 0.5 x (2x)(r) x 3


= 3 xr
= 3(r tan 60˚)(r)
= 3r2√3 (tan 60˚ = √3)

Total Surface Area,


A = 2 x (3r2√3) + 2πrh
= 6r2√3 + 2πr(1000) (h = 1000)
πr2 πr2
= 6r2√3 + 2000
r

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CHIN WYNN

dA = 12r√3 – 2000
dr r2

When A is minimum,
dA = 0
dr
12r√3 – 2000 = 0
r2
12r√3 = 2000
r2
r3 = 2000
12√3
r = 4.582 cm

h = 1000
πr2
= 1000
π(4.582)2
= 15.16 cm

h/r = 15.16
4.582
= 3.309

Method 2: Trial and Improvement

r (cm) A = 6r2√3 + 2000/r (cm2)


1 2010.392
2 1041.569
3 760.197
4 666.277
5 659.808
6 707.456
7 794.937
8 915.108
9 1063.999
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.

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CHIN WYNN

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

2500

2010.392
2000
1500
A (cm 2)

1063.999
1041.569

915.108
794.937
760.197
1000

707.456
666.277

659.808
500
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

r (cm)

A More Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 6r2√3 + 2000/r (cm2)
4.4 655.740
4.5 654.889
4.6 654.684
4.7 655.098
4.8 656.105
4.9 657.683
5.0 659.808
5.1 662.461
5.2 665.623
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 4.6 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

670
665.623
662.461

665
659.808
657.683

660
A (cm 2)

656.105
655.740

655.098
654.889
654.684

655

650

645
4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2

r (cm)

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CHIN WYNN

A More Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 6r2√3 + 2000/r (cm2)
4.55 654.707
4.56 654.690
4.57 654.679
4.58 654.674
4.59 654.676
4.60 654.684
4.61 654.698
4.62 654.718
4.63 654.744
From the tables above, A is minimum when r = 4.58 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

654.76

654.744
654.74
654.718
654.707

654.72
654.698
654.690
A (cm2)

654.70
654.684
654.679

654.676
654.674

654.68
654.66
654.64
654.62
4.55 4.56 4.57 4.58 4.59 4.60 4.61 4.62 4.63

r (cm)

The Most Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 6r2√3 + 2000/r (cm2)
4.580 654.6743661
4.581 654.6742455
4.582 654.6741874
4.583 654.6741916
4.584 654.6742582
4.585 654.6743871
4.586 654.6745783
4.587 654.6748317
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 4.582 cm.

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CHIN WYNN

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

654.6748317
654.6750

654.6745783
654.6748

654.6743871
654.6743661
654.6746

654.6742582
A (cm 2)

654.6742455

654.6741874

654.6741916
654.6744
654.6742
654.6740
654.6738
4.580 4.581 4.582 4.583 4.584 4.585 4.586 4.587

r (cm)

r = 4.582 cm

Substitute into,
h = 1000
πr2
= 1000
π(4.582)2
= 15.16 cm

h/r = 15.16
4.582
= 3.309

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CHIN WYNN

(ii) Regular Hexagon

Method 1: Trigonometry and Differentiation

30o r h
2x cm

Top and Bottom Surface Curved Surface

tan 30˚ = x/r


x = r tan 30˚
=r(1) (tan 30˚= 1 )
√3 √3
= r
√3

Area of the hexagon = 0.5 x (2x)r x 6


= 6xr
= 6( r)r
√3
= 6r2
√3

Total Surface Area,


A = 2(6r2) + 2πrh
√3
= 12r2 + 2πr(1000)
√3 πr2
= 12r2 + 2000
√3 r

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CHIN WYNN

dA = 24r – 2000
dr √3 r2

When A is minimum,
dA = 0
dr
24r – 2000 = 0
√3 r2
24r = 2000
√3 r2
r3 = 2000√3
24
r = 5.246 cm

h = 1000
πr2
= 1000
π(5.246)2
= 11.57 cm

h/r = 11.57
5.246
= 2.205

Method 2: Trial and Improvement

r (cm) A = 12r2 + 2000 (cm2)


√3 r
1 2006.928
2 1027.713
3 729.020
4 610.851
5 573.205
6 582.749
7 625.196
8 693.405
9 783.407
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.

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CHIN WYNN

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

2006.928
2500
2000
A (cm 2)

1027.713
1500

783.407
729.020

693.405
625.196
610.851

573.205

582.749
1000
500
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
r (cm)

A More Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 12r2 + 2000 (cm2)
√3 r
5.0 573.205
5.1 572.359
5.2 571.954
5.3 571.972
5.4 572.397
5.5 573.215
5.6 574.411
5.7 575.975
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.2 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

577
575.975

576
574.411

575
573.205

573.215

574
A (cm )
2

572.397
572.359

573
571.954

571.972

572
571
570
569
5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7
r (cm)

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CHIN WYNN

A More Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 12r2 + 2000 (cm2)
√3 r
5.21 571.9370
5.22 571.9242
5.23 571.9156
5.24 571.9112
5.25 571.9110
5.26 571.9149
5.27 571.9229
5.28 571.9351
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.25 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)


571.9370

571.9351
571.940
571.9242

571.930
571.9229
571.9156

571.9149

571.920
A (cm )
2

571.9112

571.9110

571.910

571.900

571.890
5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28
r (cm)

The Most Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 12r2 + 2000 (cm2)
√3 r
5.245 571.9105827
5.246 571.9105795
5.247 571.9106180
5.248 571.9106980
5.249 571.9108195
5.250 571.9109825
5.251 571.9111870
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.246 cm.

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CHIN WYNN

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

571.9111870
571.9114

571.9109825
571.9112

571.9108195
571.9110

571.9106980
A (cm 2)

571.9106180
571.9105827

571.9105795
571.9108
571.9106
571.9104
571.9102
5.245 5.246 5.247 5.248 5.249 5.250 5.251

r (cm)

r = 5.246 cm

Substitute into,
h = 1000
πr2
= 1000
π(5.246)2
= 11.567

h = 11.57
r 5.246
= 2.205

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CHIN WYNN

Further Investigation
Investigate cases where the top and bottom faces of the tin are being cut from
aluminum sheets consisting shapes of polygons. From the results of your
investigation, what conclusion can you derive from the relationship of the ratio
of h/r and the number of sides of a regular polygon?

Wastage occurs when circles are cut from aluminum sheet, which is not round in
shape. Suggest the best possible shape of aluminum sheets to be used so as to
reduce the production cost.

Answer
To determine the relationship between the ratio of h/r and the number of sides
of a regular polygon, different types of regular polygons are used, such as an
equilateral triangle, a square, a regular pentagon, a regular hexagon and a
regular octagon.

From the answers of Question 2, 3(i) and 3(ii), we already calculated the ratios
of h/r of a square, an equilateral triangle and a regular hexagon. However, we
still have to calculate the ratios of a regular pentagon and a regular octagon.
The calculations for determining the ratios of a regular pentagon and a regular
octagon are shown below.

Finding the Value of h/r of A Regular Pentagon

Method 1: Trigonometry and Differentiation

h
r
x x

Top and Bottom Surface Curved Surface


x/r = tan 36˚

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x = r tan 36˚
= 0.7265r

Area of the small triangle = 0.5 x 2x x r


= xr
= 0.72654r x r
= 0.7265r2
Total surface area,
A = 2[5(0.7265r2)] + 2πrh
= 7.265r2 + 2πr(1000)
πr2
= 7.265r2 + 2000/r

dA = 14.53r – 2000/r2
dr

When A is minimum,
dA = 0
dr
14.53r – 2000/r2 = 0
14.53r3 – 2000 = 0
14.53r3 = 2000
r3 = 2000
14.53
r = 5.163 cm

h = 1000
πr2
= 1000
π(5.163)2
= 11.94 cm

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h/r = 11.94
5.163
= 2.313

Method 2: Trial and Improvement

r (cm) A = 10(tan36˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)


1 2007.27
2 1029.06
3 732.06
4 616.25
5 581.64
6 594.89
7 641.72
8 714.99
9 810.72
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

2500
2007.27

2000

1500
A (cm2)

1029.06

1000
810.72
732.06

714.99
641.72
616.25

594.89
581.64

500

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
r (cm)

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CHIN WYNN

A More Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 10(tan36˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
5.0 581.636
5.1 581.131
5.2 581.072
5.3 581.444
5.4 582.230
5.5 583.415
5.6 584.987
5.7 586.931
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.2 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

588

586.931
586
584.987
583.415

584
A (cm 2)

582.230
581.636

581.444
581.131

581.072

582

580

578
5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7
r (cm )

A More Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 10(tan36˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
5.15 581.0468
5.16 581.0432
5.17 581.0440
5.18 581.0492
5.19 581.0587
5.20 581.0725
5.21 581.0906
5.22 581.1130
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.16 cm.

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CHIN WYNN

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

581.1130
581.12

581.0906
581.10

581.0725
581.08

581.0587
A (cm 2)

581.0492
581.0468

581.0440
581.0432
581.06
581.04
581.02
581.00
5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22
r (cm)

The Most Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 10(tan36˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
5.160 581.0432066
5.161 581.0430919
5.162 581.0430209
5.163 581.0429934
5.164 581.0430096
5.165 581.0430693
5.166 581.0431726
5.167 581.0433195
5.168 581.0435099
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.163 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)


581.0435099

581.0436
581.0433195
581.0432066

581.0431726

581.0434
581.0430919

581.0430693
581.0430209

581.0430096
581.0429934

581.0432
A (cm2)

581.0430
581.0428
581.0426
5.160 5.161 5.162 5.163 5.164 5.165 5.166 5.167 5.168

r (cm)

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r = 5.163 cm

V = 1000
πr2h = 1000
h = 1000
πr2
= 1000
π(5.163)2
= 11.94 cm

h/r = 11.94
5.163
= 2.313

Finding the Value of h/r of A Regular Octagon

Method 1: Trigonometry and Differentiation

r h

x x
Top and Bottom Surface Curved Surface

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CHIN WYNN

x/r = tan 22.5˚


x = r tan 22.5˚
= 0.4142r

Area of small triangle = 0.5 x 2x x r


= xr
= 0.4142r x r
= 0.4142r2

Total surface area,


A = 2[8(0.4142r2)] + 2πrh
= 6.6272r2 + 2πr(1000)
πr2
= 6.6272r2 + 2000
r

dA = 13.2544r - 2000
dr r2
When A is minimum,
dA = 0
dr
13.2544r – 2000/r2 = 0
13.2544r3 – 2000 = 0
13.2544r3 = 2000
r3 = 2000/13.2544
r = 5.324 cm

h = 1000
πr2
= 1000
π(5.324)2
= 11.23 cm

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CHIN WYNN

h/r = 11.23
5.324
= 2.109

Method 2: Trial and Improvement


r (cm) A = 16(tan 22.5˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
1 2006.63
2 1026.51
3 726.31
4 606.04
5 565.69
6 571.92
7 610.46
8 674.15
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

2500
2006.63

2000

1500
A (cm )
2

1026.51

1000
726.31

674.15
610.46
606.04

565.69

571.92

500

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
r (cm)

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A More Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 16(tan 22.5˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
5.0 565.685
5.1 564.536
5.2 563.821
5.3 563.523
5.4 563.626
5.5 564.116
5.6 564.979
5.7 566.202
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.3 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

567

566.202
565.685

566
564.979
564.536

565
A (cm 2)

564.116
563.821

563.626
563.523

564
563
562
5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7
r (cm)

A More Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 16(tan 22.5˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
5.30 563.5226
5.31 563.5151
5.32 563.5117
5.33 563.5121
5.34 563.5166
5.35 563.5250
5.36 563.5374
5.37 563.5536
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.32 cm.

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CHIN WYNN

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)

563.5536
563.56
563.55

563.5374
563.54

563.5250
563.5226
A (cm 2)

563.53

563.5166
563.5151

563.5121
563.5117
563.52
563.51
563.50
563.49
5.30 5.31 5.32 5.33 5.34 5.35 5.36 5.37
r (cm)

The Most Comprehensive Table


r (cm) A = 16(tan 22.5˚r2) + 2000/r (cm2)
5.320 563.5116565
5.321 563.5115267
5.322 563.5114368
5.323 563.5113866
5.324 563.5113762
5.325 563.5114056
5.326 563.5114747
5.327 563.5115835
5.328 563.5117321
From the table above, A is minimum when r = 5.324 cm.

The Graph of A (cm2) against r (cm)


563.5117321

563.5118
563.5116565

563.5115835

563.5117
563.5115267

563.5114747

563.5116
563.5114368

563.5114056
563.5113866

563.5113762
A (cm2)

563.5115
563.5114
563.5113
563.5112
563.5111
5.320 5.321 5.322 5.323 5.324 5.325 5.326 5.327 5.328

r (cm)

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CHIN WYNN

r = 5.324 cm

V = 1000
πr2h = 1000
h = 1000
πr2
= 1000
π(5.324)2
= 11.23 cm

h/r = 11.23
5.324
= 2.109

A table is drawn to conduct comparisons on the ratio of h/r of different regular


polygons, so as to see the relationship of the ratio of h/r and the number of
sides of a regular polygon.

Regular Polygons h r h/r


Circle

10.84 5.419 2.000

Octagon

11.23 5.324 2.109

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CHIN WYNN

Hexagon

11.57 5.246 2.205

Pentagon

11.94 5.163 2.313

Square

12.73 5.000 2.546

Equilateral Triangle

15.16 4.582 3.309

From the table above, we can conclude that polygons with more sides have
smaller value of h/r and it is near to 2. Also, the more the sides of a polygon,
the more minimum the area is. Therefore, aluminum sheets with more sides like
regular octagons are used to save the production cost of aluminum can.

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CHIN WYNN

RESULTS

Question 1
Minimum radius, r = 5.42 cm
Minimum height, h = 10.84 cm
Ratio of h/r = 2
Minimum area, A = 553.581 cm2

Question 2
Minimum radius, r = 5.00 cm
Minimum height, h = 12.73 cm
Ratio of h/r = 2.546
Minimum area, A = 600.000 cm2

Question 3(i)
Minimum radius, r = 4.582 cm
Minimum height, h = 15.161 cm
Ratio of h/r = 3.309
Minimum area, A = 654.674 cm2

Question 3(ii)
Minimum radius, r = 5.246 cm
Minimum height, h = 11.566 cm
Ratio of h/r = 2.205
Minimum area, A = 571.911 cm2

Further Investigation
Polygons with more sides have smaller ratio of h/r and it is near to 2.
The best possible shape of aluminum sheets to be used so as to reduce the
production cost is a regular octagon.

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CHIN WYNN

CONCLUSION

1. Wastage is reduced when the number of sides of the aluminum sheets


used is increased. (Regular polygon-shaped)

2. Types of shapes that can be used are as below:


a) equilateral triangles
b) squares
c) regular hexagons
d) regular octagons

3. So, circles should be cut from those shapes stated above.

a)

Wastage is very high when aluminum


sheets of equilateral triangles are used.

b)

W astage is still high when aluminum


sheets of squares are used.

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CHIN WYNN

c)

Wastage is low when aluminum sheets of regular hexagons are used.

d)

Wastage is very low when aluminum sheets of regular octagons are used.

Therefore, aluminum sheets of regular octagons are the best solution for
minimum wastage so as to reduce the production cost.

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CHIN WYNN

APPENDIX

1. http://nextlevel.com.sg/question/1074
2. Exploring Additional Mathematics Project

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