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CEE 3030: Civil Engineering Materials

Supplementary Cementitious Materials


Types of SCMs
Natural (ASTM C 618 Class N)
Produced from natural mineral deposits (e.g., volcanic ash, diatomaceous
earth)
May require heat treatment (e.g., metakaolin)
Processed / Manufactured
Silica fume (ASTM C 1240)
Slag (ASTM C 989)
Fly Ash (ASTM C 215)
Rice Husk Ash
Benefits of SCMs
Industrial by-products (waste utilization)
Typically cheaper than cement (except for silica
fume and metakaolin)
Environmentally conscious
No CO
2
emission during processing
Less landfill waste
Influence of SCMs
Concrete Fresh State
Heat of Hydration
Water demand
Workability
Bleeding
Setting time
Concrete Hardened State
Mechanical properties
Durability
Hydraulic vs. Pozzolanic Reaction (1)
Latent Hydraulic Reactions:
Pozzolanic Reactions:
Hydraulic vs. Pozzolanic Reaction (2)
Different SCMs React Differently
Basic Cement Hydration
2C
3
S + 6H -> C-S-H + 3CH
2C
2
S + 4H -> C-S-H + CH
Cement Chemistry Notation:
C = CaO; S = SiO
2
; H = H
2
O
C-S-H; molar ratios can vary;
strength-giving phase
No cementitious properties (does
not contribute to strength); easily
leached; prone to chemical attack
SCM Reactions
C
3
S + H C-S-H + CH
C
2
S + H C-S-H + CH
FAST
FAST
SCMs + CH + H C-S-H
SLOW
Fly Ash
Fly Ash
25% limit on cement replacement in Tennessee (15% in GA)
Realistic cement replacement amounts of ~50%
Class F Fly Ash
Derived from anthracite or bituminous coals from
eastern US.
Pozzolanic reaction ->
Typical composition:
Class C Fly Ash
Derived from lignite or sub-bituminous coals from
western US (particularly Wyoming and Montana).
Pozzolanic and hydraulic reactions ->
Chemical composition:
Physical Characteristics of Fly Ash
Mainly solid sphere with some
cenospeheres (hollow) or
plerospheres (containing
smaller spheres)
Particle size ~ 5-20 m
Surface area ~ 300-500 m
2
/kg
Color ranges from off-white to
light gray
Shapes of Fly Ash
Fly ash particles typically exhibit spherical
and irregular shapes.
Silica Fume
Silica Fume
Highly reactive pozzolan due to high SiO
2
content
and extremely small particle size (i.e., large surface
area).
Approximately 200,000 tons/yr produced in US
Silica Fume Product Forms
As-produced
(undensified; easily
inhaled)
Densified
(agglomerated)
Slurry
Silica Fume Properties
Physical
Particle size ~0.1-0.3 m
Surface area ~15,000-25,000 m
2
/kg
Generally, black in color
Chemical
85 - 98% SiO
2
SiO
2
content dependent upon alloy
Shape of Silica Fume
Silica fume is almost
always spherical in
shape
Slag
Slag
Also known as ground granulated blast furnace slag.
Slag is the residue from metallurgical processes, either from
production of metals from ore or refinement of impure metals.
As of 2005, cost is slightly
lower than portland cement
(was significantly less)
Slag Production
Slag Pelletization
May be used as lightweight
aggregate (>4 mm)
To be used in concrete, pellets
must be ground
Slag Properties
Chemical
35 - 45% CaO
32 - 38% SiO
2
8 - 16% Al
2
O
3
5 - 15% MgO
Physical
Particle size < 45m
Surface area ~ 400-600 m
2
/kg
Angular particle shape
Generally, white to off-white color
Slag at high cement replacement
values may cause concrete to turn
greenish! However, this is not why
we call SCM-cement mixes green
concrete!
Metakaolin
Metakaolin
Calcined (700-900 C) clay
Georgia is major source of kaolin (clay)
Typical cement replacement amounts of <10% (similar to
silica fume)
More expensive than portland cement
Metakaolin
Al
2
Si
2
O
5
(OH)
4
+ 700-900 C
Al
2
Si
2
O
7
dehydroxylation,
puckering of layers
Metakaolin
Average particle size:
1-2 m
Chemical composition:
45-55% SiO
2
40-45% Al
2
O
3
Average surface area:
10,000-25,000 m
2
/g
Other SCMs
Rice Husk Ash
90 million tons of rice husks produced worldwide
each year
Particle size ~ 10-20 m
High reactivity (85% SiO
2
)
Diatomaceous Earth
Volcanic Ash
Proprietary Blends
Effect of SCMs on Cement and Concrete
Properties
Many of the beneficial effects of using SCM are related to the
effect they have on the pore structure by:
These effects refine the pore structure and reduce the permeabilty
of concrete thereby making it more resistant to the penetration of
deleterious agents.
Micro-filler effect
Increased C-S-H
Wall effect
Pore blocking
Benefits of SCMs
Heat of Hydration (1)
Most SCMs reduce overall heat of hydration and rate
of heat liberation
Eliminated need for ASTM Type IV cement
Setting
Slag and Class C Fly Ash:
setting (15-60 minutes for initial, 30-120 minutes for final)
Class F Fly Ash:
setting (more than Class C); dependent upon chemical
composition
Silica Fume:
setting due to
high reactivity
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Control MK235 (8%) MK349 (8%) SF (8%)
Sample
T
i
m
e

(
m
i
n
u
t
e
s
)
Initial Set
Final Set
Water Demand
Fly Ash:
water demand due to ball bearing effect of
spherical particles
For every 10% FA, ~2-3% reduction in water
demand
Silica Fume: at typical replacement amounts,
water demand
Slag: water demand
Effect on Decreasing Water Demand:
FA > Slag > SF
Workability
Silica fume containing concretes tend to be
sticky and more difficult to finish, leading to
decreased workability or the need for high-range
water reducer.
Slag and fly ash improve workability.
Bleeding
Fly ash: bleeding
Slag: bleeding; depends upon fineness of slag
particles (fine particles decrease bleeding and vice
versa for coarse particles)
Silica fume: bleeding and may eliminate it
altogether, thus making finishing difficult
Rate of Strength Gain (1)
Rate of Strength Gain (2)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1 3 7 28 90
Age (days)
S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

(
M
P
a
)
Control
MK235
MK349
SF
SF Redo
Total Strength Gain
Effect of Silica Fume
Using smaller particle sizes than cement, SCMs improve
particle packing, leading to decreased transition zone
porosity and increased overall strength gain.
Durability
Pozzolanic materials improve concrete durability due to:
Durability: Permeability (1)
Durability: Permeability (2)
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
0.40 0.50 0.60
w/cm
C
h
a
r
g
e

p
a
s
s
e
d

(
C
o
u
l
o
m
b
s
)
Control
MK235
MK349
SF
HIGH
MODERATE
LOW
VERY
LOW