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Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.

Essentials of Networking
GSD India Training
HP Confidential
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. 2
Document Title: Essentials of Networking
Process Name: GSD India Training
Prepared By: Rihan Ahmed Document Create Date: 12-Oct-2011
Document Owner: Utpal Narekuli Document Version No: V 1.2
Global Process Owner: Utpal Narekuli Document Version Date: 3-Mar-2014
Last Reviewed Date: 3-Mar-2014 Next Review Date: 15-April-2014
Document URL:
http://ent191.sharepoint.hp.com/teams/ITODOGSDT/TECH%20TRAINING/Forms/AllItems.aspx?RootFolder=%2Fteams%2FI
TODOGSDT%2FTECH%20TRAINING%2FNew%20Hire%20Tech%20Training%20Material%2F10%20Days%20Technical%20Tr
aining%20PPTs
The latest version of this document is stored electronically. Any printed copy is an Uncontrolled copy for reference or training purposes only. All previous documents
are modified to align it to the Global Quality Standard in line with ISO 9001:2000
Version No. Version Date Prepared By Reviewed By Approved by
Affected Section & Description of
Change
V 1.0 12-Oct-2011 Rihan Ahmed Utpal Narekuli Utpal Narekuli Document Created
V 1.1 27-Feb-2012 Preshanth & Rihan Utpal Narekuli Utpal Narekuli
Added wireless related modifications by
Preshanth
V1.2 3-Feb-2014 Rihan Ahmed Utpal Narekuli Utpal Narekuli
Removed values of subnet mask,
networking with Win 7, learning
check on default gateway
Added slide on VPN issues
V 1.3 3-Mar-2014 Naveen Kumar H R Utpal Narekuli Utpal Narekuli
Updated and converted the PPT to new
format
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. 3
Topics
Introduction to networking
IP addressing basics
IP address & Subnet mask
Classification & assignment of IP addresses
Default gateway & routing
Domain Naming Service (DNS)
Virtual Private Networking (VPN)
NAT/Proxy server & Firewall
Wireless Networks
Networking troubleshooting
IPv6
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. 4
Introduction to Networking
Networking is way of sharing resources
among multiple users
Computer networking allows us to share
resources such as printers, files, etc. & also
allows us to communicate in real time
A good network design must take into
account the three important factors
Confidentiality, Integrity & Availability
Shared printer
Shared files
Internet
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. 5
Classification of networks
Geographical classification Architectural
classification
Classification based
on Media
Classification based on
topology
Local Area Network (LAN)
Client server
model
Wired Bus
Peer to peer
model
Wireless
Star
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Ring
Mesh
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Note: Many other types of classifications are possible
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
Ethernet
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Types of Ethernet
Type Name Speed Cable type
Classic Ethernet 10BASE-T 10 Mbps Cat 3 & above
Fast Ethernet 100BASE-TX 100 Mbps Cat 5
Gigabit Ethernet 1000BASE-T 1 Gbps Fibre optics/Cat 5 or
above
Note- This is a simplified classification. Many other subtypes exist
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Network Interface Card
Allows the system to connect to a network
May be built into the motherboard
Maybe wired or wireless
A wireless USB Dongle
A NIC card (Top left), a motherboard with a built in NIC (above) & a RJ45 plug
(left)
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
MAC address
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Media Access Control (MAC) Address
A MAC address is a 48 bit binary address hardcoded into every network interface card. It is
expressed in Hex format for simplicity.
This address is unique for every Ethernet network device & cannot be changed by the user
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How to find MAC Address
To find the MAC address of a given NIC in a computer, run the command ipconfig /all
Alternatively, you can also run the command getmac
But since the MAC address is hardcoded, it does not give us any flexibility. Hence we have
the IP address.
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
IP addressing
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IP addressing
An IP address is a 32 bit binary number
11000000 10101000 00000001 00001010
192 .168 .1 .10
Each octet is expressed in dotted decimal notation
Used to uniquely identify each device on the network
Has two parts Network ID & Host ID
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Classful IP addresses
Class A 1.0.0.1 127.255.255.254 The first
octet is the network ID
Class B 128.1.0.1 191.255.255.254 The
first two octets are network ID
Class C 192.0.1.1 223.255.255.254 The
first three octets are network ID
Note This has largely been replaced by classless IP
addresses
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Classless IP address
Classful IP addresses are wasteful & have been
replaced by classless IP addresses
In this scheme, the network ID & host IP are specified
by a value called a subnet mask
A subnet mask is also a 32 bit binary number
Let us see more details
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Subnet Mask
Helps identify Network ID & Host ID
IP Address -
Subnet Mask-
11000000 10101000 00000001 00001010
11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
Network ID
Host ID
IP address - 192.168.1.10
Subnet Mask - 255.255.255.0
Only systems on the same subnet can communicate with each other directly
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Private IP address
Another way to classify IP addresses
Class Range Subnet Mask
Class A 10.0.0.1 10.255.255.255 255.0.0.0
Class B 172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255 255.255.0.0
Class C 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255 255.255.255.0
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Assigning of IP address
A computer gets an IP address in one of the
following three ways -
Assign IP address manually
Dynamically assigned IP address
Self assigned IP address (APIPA)
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Manual assignment
3.
2.
1
4.
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Activity - Manual assignment of IP address
Follow the trainers instructions & learn how an IP address can be assigned
manually
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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
1. Computer boots up
2. Broadcasts request for IP address
3. DHCP server listens to IP address request broadcasts
4. IP address & other details given
192.168.1.10
5. System send acknowledgement
Computer
DHCP server
6. System configured with IP 192.168.1.10
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APIPA
1. Computer boots up
2. Broadcasts request for IP address
Computer
3. No DHCP server listening
4. System self configured with IP 169.254.0.1 169.254.255.254
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Activity
With the trainers help, go ahead & run the command
Ipconfig /all
Analyze the output & see how it is different from a plain ipconfig. Note the following
details
IP address assigned to your computer
Subnet mask
Whether it is a manually assigned or a DHCP assigned IP address
MAC address
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Activity
Run the command
Ipconfig /release
See what happens to the network connectivity
Now run the command
Ipconfig /renew
Check what happens to the network connectivity
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. 25
Learning check
Which is the most common networking standard in use today?
A. Token ring
B. Token Bus
C. Ethernet
Ans C - Ethernet
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Learning check
What is the speed at which fast Ethernet operates at?
A. 10 Mbps
B. 100 Mbps
C. 1 Gbps
Ans B. 100 Mbps
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. 27
Learning check
A client calls in to the helpdesk with a networking issue. You answer the call & ask the
client to give the MAC address of the network card on their computer. The client doesnt
know how to find that out. What is the command to identify the MAC address of a Network
card? How many bits does a MAC address consist of?
A. Ipconfig /all
B. Show MAC
C. Getmac
D. Display MAC
Ans A & C
MAC address consists of 48 bits & is expressed in hexadecimal format
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Learning check
Look at the following IP address & identify the Network ID. Assume that this is a classful IP
address
IP 121.31.25.10
Ans This is a class A IP address & hence the first octet 121 is the network ID
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Learning check
Classify the following IP address into classes & whether they are private or public
172.16.1.10
Class B private
192.168.10.1
Class C private
156.10.10.1
Class B public
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Learning check
Look at the following IP address & identify the Network ID. Assume that this is a classless
IP address
IP 121.31.25.10 = 01111001 00011111 00011001 00001010
Subnet Mask 255.255.248.0 = 11111111 11111111 11111000 00000000
Ans Looking at the Subnet mask, we can conclude that the Network ID is - 01111001
00011111 00011001 (the first 21 digits of the IP address)
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Learning check
Eomer is in charge of IT in a large organization of several thousand individuals. The
organization was hitherto using pen & paper to get most of the work done, but now wants
to implement IT. The organization is deliberating on how best it can implement a network
infrastructure. Considering this, should the organization go in for
A. Manually assigned IP addresses
B. DHCP
Ans B. DHCP
Considering the size of the organization, it clearly makes sense to go in for DHCP since it
would be a very difficult task to use static IP
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. 32
Learning check
A client calls in stating that he is unable to connect to the network. You have him check the
IP address & it turns out that it is 169.254.10.12 . What does this mean?
Ans Any IP address in the 169.254.x.x range is an APIPA address & means that the
system is not getting valid IP address from the DHCP server
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Networking miscellaneous topics
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Subnet
Consider the diagram & look at the IP
addresses of all the systems
All the systems have the same network ID
192.168.1
Systems having the same network ID are
said to be in the same subnet. A subnet is
a logical unit of a larger network
Systems having the same network ID can
directly talk to each other if networked
IP 192.168.1.10
Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0
IP 192.168.1.11
Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0
IP 192.168.1.20
Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0
IP 192.168.1.21
Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0
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Communication using IP address
Only systems on the same subnet can communicate with each other directly
IP 192.168.1.10
Subnet mask 255.255.255.0
IP 192.168.1.11
Subnet mask 255.255.255.0
IP 192.168.1.24
Subnet mask 255.255.255.0
IP 192.168.2.10
Subnet mask 255.255.255.0
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Routing with Default gateway
IP 192.168.1.10
Subnet mask 255.255.255.0
IP 192.168.2.10
Subnet mask 255.255.255.0
IP 192.168.1.1
Subnet mask 255.255.255.0
IP 192.168.2.1
Subnet mask 255.255.255.0
A router is required in
order to enable
communication between
subnets
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Domain Naming Service
Translates Domain names into IP addresses & vice versa
1. User types in www.yahoo.com
DNS server
Yahoo server
2. Resolution request sent
3. Response sent : 69.147.125.65
4. System contacts: 69.147.125.65
Client computer
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Activity
Nslookup is a command which helps the user to resolve the computername to IP address &
back again. The format of this command is
nslookup <IP address or computername>
Run this command & try to find the IP address of a popular website such as google.com,
facebook.com, etc.
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DNS Cache
Instead of asking the DNS server for for the IP
address everytime, the computer maintains a local
cache for storing recently resolved DNS queries.
This is known as the DNS Cache.
The command to view the DNS cache is
ipconfig /displaydns
The command to clear this cache is
ipconfig /flushdns
Note This is different from the Internet Explorer
Cache
DNS server
Computer
Local DNS Cache
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Activity
Run the command ipconfig /displaydns & check the contents of the DNS Cache
Then, run the command ipconfig /flushdns
Run the display command again & confirm if the cache has been cleared
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Network Address Translation
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Proxy server
Internet
Private network
Private IP address
Public IP address
Proxy server
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Virtual Private Networking (VPN)
Private Network
VPN Server
The internet
Users computer at remote location
Secure virtual connection between
users PC & VPN server
established
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Points of failure in a VPN system
Client side
VPN software faulty
No working internet
connection
Issues with authentication
(token error, certificate
expired, etc.)
Server side
No permissions to VPN in
Server may be down
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Home LAN
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Home LAN
Users connect to internet from home & remote
locations using a variety of different method
Most of these are not supported by us, unless
explicitly specified
Basic knowledge of some of these internet
access mechanisms might prove helpful
Let us look at some of these
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Digital Subscriber Line
Digital subscriber line (DSL, originally digital subscriber
loop) is a family of technologies that provide internet
access by transmitting digital data over the wires of a
local telephone network.
Many subtypes of DSL exist, Asymmetric Digital
Subscriber Line (ADSL) being the most popular.
All in one devices which combine a DSL modem, a
router & a wireless hub are popular with consumers
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Cable internet
Cable Internet or simply cable, is a form of
broadband Internet access that uses the
cable television infrastructure
Internet bandwidth is shared over a group
of users
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Mobile broadband
Mobile broadband is the marketing term for
wireless Internet access through a portable
modem, mobile phone, USB Wireless
Modem,(called "cell phones" in North America
and South Africa) or other mobile devices
Various network standards may be used, such
as GPRS, 3G, WiMAX, LTE, Flash-OFDM, IPW,
iBurst UMTS/HSPA, EV-DO and some portable
satellite-based systems
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Learning check
Balwant Rai is trying to connect to his colleague, Shakaals computer. He is able to connect
using the IP address, but he is unable to connect to the same computer using the computer
name. What could be the issue?
Ans The DNS is not functioning correctly. Check the DNS settings on Balwant Rais
computer
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Learning check
Veeru is at the office. He notices that he is able to access all the intranet resources, but is
unable to get out to the internet. He is unable to understand what the problem could be.
He calls his colleague Jai. You are Jai. How will you resolve this issue?
Ans This seems to be an issue with the proxy server. Check the proxy settings on Veerus
computer
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Learning check
Ethan Hunt is running an errand for his organization overseas. He is currently at
Singapores famous Changi airport. The airport has free wifi available. Ethan hunt
connects to the Wifi, but also needs to access some files on his organizations network.
How can he do this?
Ans Ethan should VPN in to his company network, He can do this if he has the VPN
software installed on his computer & all relevant access
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Network security
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Firewall
1. Computer initiates communication
2. Firewall checks with rules
3. Allows or blocks connection accordingly
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Comparison of Windows firewall
Windows XP Windows Vista Windows 7
Only checks incoming
connections Checks incoming as well as outgoing traffic
Single Profile
Three different profiles for
different networks. However,
only one profile can be active at
any given point of time
Three different profiles for
different networks. Each
network adapter has a
separate profile active
PC vulnerable during boot
time
Boot time filtering
Basic firewall settings only Console for setting advanced options also available
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Digital Certificates
A digital certificate is akin to an ID proof
A digital certificate is issued to a person, a
computer, a website, etc.
The certificate is produced to a validating
authority & serves as a proof of identity
Certificates are used in high security
transactions like VPN, Wi-Fi, etc.
User Validating authority
Certificate authority
Issuance Trust
Certificate
presented for
verification
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Wireless
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Wireless LAN
The Wireless networking allows users to connect
to the network without using cables
The most popular wireless standard is Wi-Fi or
IEEE 802.11
Different subtypes of Wi-Fi exist
A computer must a Wi-Fi adapter to be able to
connect to a Wi-Fi network
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Wireless devices
Wireless Cards
PCI wireless adapter card
Mini PCI wireless card
PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association)
Express Cards
Compact Flash cards
USB Adaptors
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802.11 standards
Standard Operating Frequency
Maximum bit rate
(Bandwidth)
Maximum Range
(indoor / outdoor)
802.11a 5 GHz 54 Mbps 10 m to 70 m
802.11b 2.4 GHz 11 Mbps 50 m 200 m
802.11g 2.4 GHz 54 Mbps 27m 75 m
802.11n 5 GHz and/or 2.4 GHz 600 Mbps ~92 m
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Which network to connect to?
If you are trying to connect to a
wireless network, the question is as to
which wireless network to connect to.
This is due to the fact that there may
be multiple wireless networks in the
area.
This problem is resolved by what is
known as the Service Set Identifier or
SSID. An SSID is nothing but the name
of the wireless network
Home Wireless
Neighbor's
Wireless
Coffee shops wireless
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Wireless security
Security is essential to wireless networks due to
their open air nature
Wireless networks may be accessible even outside
the desired boundaries
Here we see the wireless network is even
accessible outside the office area
This poses a security hazard.
Office
Nearby building
Range of the wireless network
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Wireless Security types
There are two security encryption types to
be used with Wi-Fi
-WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)
-WPA (Wi-Fi protected Access)
WEP has very weak security & is not
recommended
Both these can be used in conjunction with
passphrases. WPA can also be used with
more advanced authentication systems
such as digital certificates, etc.
Office
Nearby building
Unauthorized users cannot
connect even if they are within
range
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Wi-Fi Terminology
Term Description
SSID
Service Set
Identifier
An SSID is the name of a wireless local area network (WLAN). All wireless devices on a
WLAN must employ the same SSID in order to communicate with each other. SSIDs are
case sensitive text strings. The SSID is a sequence of alphanumeric characters (letters or
numbers). SSIDs have a maximum length of 32 characters.
Access point A device which serves as a central wireless connection point for a Wi-Fi network.
Hotspot Hotspot is the place where wireless network is available for public use. HotSpots are
mostly available for free at Coffee shops, Public libraries, Public grounds, Universities,
Airports, Railway Stations etc.
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Network & Sharing center
Center place for configuring networking options
Displays a graphical image of all network devices
Let us look at a demo!
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IPv6
This is a 128 bit IP address
2
128
= 3.4028236692093846346337460743177e+38
Native support in Vista
IP addresses look like
2001:cdba:0000:0000:0000:0000:3257:9652
2001:cdba:0:0:0:0:3257:9652
2001:cdba::3257:9652
IPv6 has a fixed Network ID of 64 bits. Hence no need of subnet mask
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Learning check
A firewall software helps in preventing against
A. Virus
B. Malware
C. Unauthorized intrusions
D. Adware
Ans C. Unauthorized intrusions
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Learning check
Jamie is setting up a wireless network for her home. She has an option of setting up
security using
A. WEP
B. WPA
Which one should she use?
Ans B. WPA
She should use WPA as it offers better security
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Learning check
Jamie is now being asked to enter an SSID. Jamie has no clue about what that is. She calls
up her neighbor Jimmy for help. You are Jimmy. What is an SSID?
A. Security protocol
B. Encryption type
C. Name of the wireless connection
D. Frequency of the wireless connection
Ans C. Name of the wireless connection
Service Set Identifier or SSID is nothing but the name of the Wireless connection
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
Network diagnostics &
troubleshooting
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Some common commands
We will now look at some diagnostic &
troubleshooting techniques.
We have already learnt some commands
Ipconfig /all
Ipconfig /release /renew
Ipconfig /displaydns
Ipconfig /flushdns
Nslookup
Now we will see some more commands
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Ping
This command is used to test connectivity
between two nodes on a network
The format is
Ping <computer name or IP address>
The replies received are echoes sent back
by the destination node. If partial or no
replies are received, then there is a
problem with the connectivity
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Tracert
Ping only tells us whether connectivity exists or
not
Tracert is a more advanced tool which also gives
us information on the path traversed by the data
packets en route to the destination & also where
the break in communication occurring
The format is
Tracert <computername or IP address>
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Activity
Go ahead & ping your exchange server. Check how many packets were sent & how many
were received
Then go ahead and run a tracert on the exchange server. See how many hops exist
between your computer & the server
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Registering with the DNS server
The Ipconfig /registerdns command re-registers your computers name & IP address with the DNS
server.
This command is to be used when the DNS server contains incorrect records for your computer
Usage
Ipconfig /registerdns
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Nbtstat
Netbios was the predecessor to DNS
Though this name resolution system has largely
been replaced, it is still used as a fallback
Usage
Nbtstat RR (make sure the RR is in upper case)
This command sends name release packets to the
WINS server and starts a refresh, thus re-
registering all names with the name server without
having to reboot.
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TCP/IP stack reset
One of the components of the Internet
connection on your computer is a built-in set of
instructions called TCP/IP. TCP/IP can sometimes
become damaged or corrupted. If you cannot
connect to the Internet and you have tried all
other methods to resolve the problem, TCP/IP
might be causing it.
Because TCP/IP is a core component of Windows,
you cannot remove it. However, you can reset
TCP/IP to its original state by using the NetShell
utility
The command to reset the TCP/IP stack is
Netsh int ip reset all
TCP/IP Stack
Winsock
Applications
Issues with the
TCP/IP
stack
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Winsock reset
Winsock, is a technical specification that defines how Windows
network software should access network services, especially
TCP/IP.
It defines a standard interface between a Windows TCP/IP client
application (such as an FTP client or a web browser) and the
underlying TCP/IP protocol stack
Windows sockets settings may get corrupted due to the
installation of a networking software, or perhaps due to
Malware infestation. Hence Winsock may have to be reset.
The command to reset Winsock is
Netsh winsock reset
TCP/IP Stack
Winsock
Applications
Issues with
Winsock
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Loopback address
This is a specific address used to test the
computers own IP stack.
The IP address is 127.0.0.1
Pinging this address allows the user to
verify if the computers own TCP/IP is
working properly or not
You can also run ping localhost
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Troubleshooting approach
No troubleshooting must ever be done
without adequate probing
Determine the users environment
Is the issue with the
internet/intranet/entire
network/application specific?
Is the user at office/home/elsewhere?
Is the user connected to the network via
LAN/WLAN/VPN?
Scope of the issue entire
network/internet only/intranet
only/application specific?
Users location
Office/home/elsewhere
Connection type
LAN/WLAN/VPN
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Learning check
Samwise Gamgee is facing difficulties connecting to a network printer. Sam wants to test
the network connectivity between him computer & the network printer. Which command
should he use?
A. Nslookup
B. Ipconfig
C. Ping
D. Nbtstat
C. Ping is the command to use to check connectivity
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Learning check
Harold Smith is facing difficulties accessing the network. He consults his techie friend,
Norris, for help. Norris advises Harold to reset the TCP/IP stack, but doesnt tell how to do
it. Harold does not want to ask Norris how to do it as Norris happens to be a bit of a loud
mouth. How does Harold reset the TCP/IP stack?.
Ans Run the command netsh int ip reset all & then reboot the machine
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
Known Issues and Resolutions
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Issue: Obtain MAC Address
Scenario: Benny works for Classic Caps Ltd and his office provides WLAN access based
on MAC Address Filtering. Benny is filling an online form to submit a request for adding
his laptop MAC address to the Router Filter list and he doesnt know how to check the
MAC Address. You are required to assist him to check the MAC Address of his laptop.
Resolution: Ask Benny to follow below steps
1. Open command prompt
2. Type IPCONFIG /ALL and hit enter
3. Once the result is displayed ask Benny to look for Physical address
4. Inform Benny Physical address is the Mac address of the computer
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Issue: Apipa IP Address assigned
Scenario: Daniel is trying to connect his laptop to the network using LAN cable in the
Board Room and he is unable to browse internet. He runs IPCONFIG command in
command prompt to check the IP Address and it displays the IP Address as 169.254.0.1.
Resolution: The IP Address assigned is a self-assigned APIPA address.
1. Educate the user that the ports in the board room are not enabled for network
connectivity
2. Ask the user to connect to Wireless if available
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Issue: Dead IP Address
Scenario: Simba calls complaining that none of the network applications are working. However,
the LAN icon in the right lower corner indicates the computer being connected to network. You ask
Simba to restart the computer, remove network cable and reconnect still the issue persists.
Resolution: This could be case of an expired IP Address where the computer is connected to the
network but the assigned dynamic IP Address is not valid to that machine anymore. This can be
resolved by ditching the correct IP Address and obtaining a new one. Guide the user through below
steps:
1. Open command prompt and type IPCONFIG /RELEASE and hit enter
2. Then type IPCONFIG /RENEW and hit enter
3. Now check the IP Address and it should be a new one and also resolve the issue
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Issue: Office laptop is not getting connected to Home wireless
Scenario: Mufasa is at home and his office laptop is not getting connected to the wireless.
Resolution: What you could do to resolve?
1. Guide the user to check if the wireless switch is turned on. If it is turned on, the wireless light should glow in
blue.
2. Guide the user to open services.msc and check if WLAN Auto Config service is Started and set to
Automatic. If this settings are set to something else, ask the user to log in as administrator and set the status
to Started and Automatic.
3. Open wireless page and perform Wireless service search. If any wireless signal detected, try connecting to it.
4. If wireless icon is not showing up in system tray or if you are unable to find wireless icon in Network and Sharing
Center, install the wireless driver from www.hp.com
5. Restart the computer. Sometimes restart would resolve certain issues.
6. If still issue persists, give your best effort to resolve. If there are any error messages, see if you can find some
information in Google.
If the issue is not getting resolved, advice the user to contact their Internet Service Provider (ISP). Sometimes, there
would be particular settings of ISP which requires to be configured and ISP technical help will be able to resolve.
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Issue: Personal laptop is not getting connected to Home wireless
Scenario: Sarabi is at home and her personal laptop is not getting connected to the
wireless.
Resolution: Based on the process contract this may be out of scope, check with your
SME. If its confirmed as out of scope, then politely inform the user, we do not provide
support to personal IT infrastructure. If user is very insistent and says it is needed for
company work, you may implement above steps as Best effort to help the user.
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Issue: Unable to connect to wireless in office
Scenario: Rafiki complains that his official laptop is unable to connect to wireless in the office.
Resolution: What you could do to resolve?
1. Guide the user to check if the wireless switch is turned on. If it is turned on, the wireless light should glow in
blue.
2. Guide the user to open services.msc and check if WLAN Auto Config service is Started and set to
Automatic. If this settings are set to something else, ask the user to log in as administrator and set the status
to Started and Automatic
3. Open wireless page and perform Wireless service search. If any wireless signal detected, try connecting to it.
4. If wireless icon is not showing up in system tray or if you are unable to find wireless icon in Network and Sharing
Center, install the wireless driver from www.hp.com
5. Restart the computer. Sometimes restart would resolve certain issues.
6. If still issue persists, check with your process SME for client specific wireless configuration instructions
7. If required pass it to appropriate 2
nd
level support team
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Issue: Unable to log into VPN
Scenario: Bagoochi is at her friends house and she is trying to log into VPN on her laptop. But VPN is
not getting connected. She asks her friend Lucati for help. You are Lucati. Help your friend now.
Resolution: Check the VPN pre-requisites
1. Is the computer connected to a working high speed broadband internet?
2. Is the laptop Bagoochi is using to connect to VPN provided by office?
3. If it is not provided by Office, is the VPN log in personal laptop permitted by the company?
4. Check if the connection entry or profile or configuration settings of the VPN is correct
5. Does Bagoochi has required access to use VPN?
6. Is Bagoochi entering correct credentials for VPN log in?
7. VPN infrastructure is unique in every process. Check with your SME or Knowledge Base for further
specific instructions.
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Issue: Not connected to Network
Scenario: Stephen is in the office and he has connected a LAN cable to the laptop but
there is no connectivity to the network. His office does not have wireless network.
Resolution: Follow below steps:
1. Ask Stephen to check if the network cable is seated firmly to the laptop and to the
port in the wall socket
2. Check if link lights are glowing
3. Ask Stephen to connect the cable to another network port
4. Request to remove the network cable from a computer that is connected to the
network and connect to this laptop
5. If none of these work, follow your process instruction on port enabling
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
Points to remember
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Points to remember
Computer network can be classified into various types
Ethernet is the most popular networking standard in use today
Ethernet has several subtypes Classic, Fast & Gigabit Ethernet being the most
important
The MAC address is a 48 bit designated address of every Ethernet network adapter. It is
expressed in hexadecimal format for the sake of convenience
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Points to remember
An IP address is a 32 bit address. It is expressed in decimal format for convenience
The IP address & the MAC address can be seen using the ipconfig command
The IP address consists of the network ID & the host ID
The IP address range is divided into classes. The most important ones being Class A , B
& C
Due to the classful IP addressing system being wasteful, a new classless IP addressing
system was introduced
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Points to remember
The classless system uses a subnet mask to help identify the network ID from the host
ID
IP address can be manually assigned or can be assigned by DHCP
A self assigned IP addresses are known as APIPA & are in the 169.254.x.x range
Only computers having common network IDs can communicate with each other directly
Inter subnet communication is enabled by a router
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Points to remember
DNS helps translate computer names into IP addresses & so on
A NAT/proxy server enables public resources to be accessed from a private network
A VPN allows a user to connect & access a private network from a remote location. VPN
requires a working internet connection.
A firewall is a security software which allows/blocks incoming & outgoing connections
based on predefined rules
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Points to remember
The most popular wireless standard for computer networks is 802.11
The common subtypes of Wi-Fi are 802.11.a, 802.11b, 802.11g & 802.11n
Wireless requires additional security as a result of it not being restricted by physical
boundaries
The common wireless security protocols are WEP & WPA. WEP is not recommended
anymore as it offers very weak security
Authentication for wireless can be done using passphrases, digital certificates, etc.
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. 98
Points to remember
IPv6 is set to replace IPv4 in the near future. IPv6 has a 128 bit address & is expressed
in hexadecimal system
Common diagnostic/troubleshooting tools include ping, tracert, nslookup, nbstat &
netsh
Issues can occur with applications, internet access, intranet access or the entire
network may go down. Scope of the issue must be properly understood before
troubleshooting begins
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Summary
We have looked at
IP addresses & how to assign an IP address
DNS, NAT/Proxy server & VPN
Wireless
IPv6
Networking troubleshooting
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Additional resources
Learning&development@HP course CompTIA Network+2009
External sites -
http://think-like-a-computer.com/
http://www.practicallynetworked.com/
Free books - http://www.books24x7.com (register here)
Skillport - http://hp.skillport.com
Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.