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Chapter five

Chapter five
respiration
respiration
Duan-dongxiao

Metabolism
Metabolism

Need oxygen and nutrient

Discharge the carbon dioxide and


the end product of metabolism

Composition of the respiratory system
1. Air passageway 2. lung


Structural and Functional Features

Respiration
Respiration
Concept
Concept
The gas exchange process between
organization and enironment is called
respiration.
!
2
obtain oxygen
"!
2
remoe carbon dioxide

#espiratory function

#espiratory processes
lung
atmosphere
!
2
"!
2
$ulmonary
%entilation
&lood
circulation
!
2
!
2
"!
2 "!
2
'as exchange
(n lung
2. gas
transport
tissue
'as exchange
(n tissue
1 .external
respiration
). internal
respiration

1. $ulmonary %entilation
2. 'as exchange (n lung
). 'as transport
*. 'as exchange (n tissue
!eriew

Section one
Section one
Pulmonary Ventilation
Pulmonary Ventilation

$ulmonary entilation
is the gas exchange
process between lungs
and enironment.

enironment
inspiration expiration

organs to complete pulmonary ventilation
organs to complete pulmonary ventilation

1 . #espiratory passageway+communicates
aleoli and enironment, warms the air,gets
the air wet, filters the air,cleans the air and
completes the defense reflex.
2 . Aleolus+ place for exchange
) . Thorax+ power of pulmonary entilation

Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation
Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation

Two factors+
!ne is the power to push gas flowing.
The other is resistance to preent gas flowing.
The former must oercome the latter , and then
pulmonary entilation can be completed.

power of pulmonary ventilation
power of pulmonary ventilation

1. respiratory movement
2. intrapulmonary pressure
). intrapleural pressure


1. respiratory movement
1. respiratory movement
Thoracic expansion and contraction
caused by respiratory muscles are
called respiratory moement.
-inspiration, expiration.


/uscles of inspiration +
diaphragm and external
intercostal muscles
/uscles of expiration +
internal intercostal muscles
and abdominal muscles
/uscles of assistant inspiration +
scalenus muscles ,
sternocleidomastoid muscles.

1
1

$rocess
1 0upnea a. (nspiration+
inspiration muscles contract
thoraxes expand
lungs expand
lung olumes increase
intrapulmonary pressure
decreases temporarily
gas enters lungs

b. 0xpiration+
diaphragm relax and internal
intercostal muscles contract
thorax recoils
lung recoils
intrapulmonary pressure increases
gas is remoed.



2 labored inspiration
) labored expiration

2
2

patterns
patterns
a. Abdominal breathing
Thoracic breathing
1orm of the moement
b. eupnea
labored breathing
1orm of the moement

2.
2. intrapulmonary pressure
(ntrapulmonary pressure is the
pressure in pulmonary aleoli.
(ntrapulmonary pressure is e2ual
to atmospheric pressure 3nder special
circumstance

intrapulmonary pressure

intrapulmonary pressure

At the first of inspiration, lung olume increases and
intrapulmonary pressure decreases below atmospheric
pressure. Air enters aleoli under the pressure difference.
(ntrapulmonary pressure increases as the increasing of
gas in lung.
At the last of inspiration, intrapulmonary pressure is
e2ual to atmospheric pressure and the air flow stops.

At the first of expiration, lung olume decreases
and intrapulmonary pressure increases until it
exceeds atmospheric pressure. Air outflows lungs
and intrapulmonary pressure decreases by and by.
(ntrapulmonary pressure is e2ual to
atmospheric pressure at the last of expiration.

changes in lung volumes,alveolar pressure,and changes in lung volumes,alveolar pressure,and
transpulmonary pressure during normal reathing transpulmonary pressure during normal reathing


Artificial respiration+
once respiration stops,
intrapulmonary pressure
can be changed factitiously .
$ressure difference between
intrapulmonary pressure
and atmospheric pressure
can be created to maintain
pulmonary entilation .
positie
negatie


).
). (ntrapleural pressure
pleural caity
parietal
pleura
isceral
pleura
intrapleural
pressure

!.
!. (ntrapleural pressure
$leural caity is made up of two layers of pleura.
!ne is isceral layer stic4 to the surface of lung and the
other is parietal layer stic4 to thorax .
There is only little li2uid in the pleural caity but not
gas.

-1. 5ubrication effect between
two layers of pleura.
-2. The power between li2uid
molecules pastes two layers
of pleura to ma4e them tightly.
The effect of this layer of li2uid is +
6ignificance +
7eep the lungs inflated
1acilitate enous return
-respiratory pump.

(f pleura brea4s,
pleural caity will be
open to atmosphere
and air will enter
pleural caity . This is
called pneumothorax.
At this time , two
layers of pleura
separate and lungs
contract for the elastic
recoil.
pneumothorax

Assays of intrapleural pressure
1. direct assay
2. indirect assay
oesophagus

(ntrapleural pressure is usually negatie
pressure.
1. At the end of expiration of eupnea,
the pressure is about 8 9 ) mm:g
2. At the end of inspiration of eupnea,
the pressure is about 1; 9 8mm:g

Power of Pulmonary Ventilation
Power of Pulmonary Ventilation
"Summary#
"Summary#
0xpansion and contraction of respiration muscles

expansion and contraction of thoracic cage
-lungs change with the moing of thoracic cage.
lung olumes change
pressure differences between lung olume
and atmospheric pressure
gas enters or is remoed out of lungs.

1. !ne is non- elastic resistance );
airway resistance
inertia resistance
iscous resistance of organization
#esistance of $ulmonary %entilation
#esistance of $ulmonary %entilation

agus nere<smooth muscle contract
6ympathetic nere-- nere<smooth muscle relax

airway resistance
airway resistance big<radius small
airway resistance small---radius big

2. one is elastic resistance =;
the main resistance of eupnea
elastic resistance of lung
elastic resistance of thorax

1. $lastic Resistance and Compliance
1. $lastic Resistance and Compliance
The deformation power caused by opposing
pressure is called elastic resistance.

"ompliance is the dilating extent of elastic
tissue below pressure.

#elationship between compliance and elastic
resistance
" 1 > #

1
1

$lastic Resistance of %ungs and


$lastic Resistance of %ungs and
Compliance
Compliance
%
change of lung olume
"
5

5>cm:
2
!
lungs compliance $
change of transpulmonary pressure

transpulmonary pressure is the difference between
intrapulmonary pressure and pleural pressure.

1 5ung static compliance diagram
(f cure slope is large , it means the
compliance is large and the elastic
resistance is small.
(f cure slope is small, it means the
compliance is small and the elastic
resistance is large.



lung static compliance diagram
lung static compliance diagram

2 6pecific compliance
6pecific compliance ? /easured lung
compliance 5>cm:
2
! > Total lung
capacity 5

) 6ource of lungs elastic resistance
a. The elastic recoil power of lungs
b. The recoil power caused by surface
tension between the li2uid layer of
inner aleoli and gas in aleoli.


1. Comformation of Pulmonary Surfactant
1. Comformation of Pulmonary Surfactant
6aturation lecithin is *1@ A;@ is D$$"
Non-saturation lecithin is 28@
"holesterol is B


$ulmonary
$ulmonary
6urfactant
6urfactant

D$$" is an important $ulmonary
6urfactant .
1 Cuantity is large. it is 1>) of all
2 "haracter of molecule structure
6trong hydrophobicity
6trong hydrophilicity
) 6trong suspending stability


2.
2. physiological effect of pulmonary surfactant
1 Accommodate surface tension and stable
aleolar pressure.
2 5ower aleolar surface tension and reduce
inspiration resistance. "onsere one tenth of the
wor4ing.
) #educe the producing of aleolar li2uid and
preent pulmonary edema. The effect of suction is
reduced too.


!. source of
!. source of pulmonary surfactant
Synthesised by alveoli cells

&. development of
&. development of $ulmonary surfactant
occurent from cyesising 28 ); wee4s
at the high point in cyesising *; wee4s
reach amniotic fluid through fetus respiratory
tract
abdominal paracentesis to get amniotic fluid
and 2uantitatie analysis

$ulmonary 6urfactant and $ulmonary
Atelectasis
&ecause of little and not well-distributed
suction power of gas molecule to li2uid
molecule, there is surface tension between
the li2uid and gas in aleoli-a 4ind of
suction power or concentric force souced
from surface. . 5i2uid layer surface tension
draw tight the li2uid surface along the
tangent line.it ma4es concentric retraction
force and it is the inspiration resistance.


#etraction force can be
calculated by 1ormula
5aplace .
#etraction force $ ? 2T > r
surface tension dyn>cm
acuole radius or aleoli
radius

when adult get pneumonia or thrombus,he
may get pulmonary atelectasis for reduction
of pulmonary surfactant .
Newborn may get respiratory distress
syndrome een to death for deficiency of
pulmonary surfactant and formation of
pulmonary atelectasis and hyaluronic
membrane in aleoli.

2
2

Dhen thorax is at the natural location and the


lung olume is e2ual to about E= of total
lung capacity.thorax does not deformate and
does not display elastic resistance.


Dhen lung olume is smaller than E= of
total lung capacity,thorax is contracted by
the traction .The elastic resistance outward
is the drie of inspiration and resistance of
expiration.
Dhen lung olume is bigger than E= of
total lung capacity,thorax is enlarged by the
traction.The elastic resistance inward is the
resistance of inspiration and drie of
expiration.

2. non'
2. non'elastic resistance
(nertia resistance
%iscous resistance
Airway resistance
The difference of intrapulmonary pressure
and intrapulmonary pressure -cm:
2
!.
'as flow rate in unit time 5>6

Airway resistance is affected by elocity
of airflow , pattern, caliber size
Airway caliber is affected by the
following four factors+
1 transmural pressure
2 extroersion traction effect of lung
parenchyma to airway wall

). Accommodation of autonomic nerous
system to the relaxation of airway wall
smooth muscles
* 0ffect of chemistry factors
"ontraction factor+ histamine, "!
2

$'1
2F
, endothelins
#elaxation factor+ catecholamine, $'0
2


Work of Breathing
(n the process of respiration,the wor4 done
by respiration muscles to realize pulmonary
entilation and to oercome elastic resistance
and non-elastic resistance is called wor4 of
breathing .



Pulmonary Volume and Pulmonary Capacities
Pulmonary Volume and Pulmonary Capacities
$ulmonary %olume
Tidal %olume-T%. *;;-8;;m5
(#% -inspiratory resere olume. 18;;-2;;;m5
0#% -expiratory resere olume. A;;-12;;m5
#% -residual olume. 1;;;-18;;m5

pulmonary capacities
(" (nspiratory "apacity
T% G (#% 2;;; 28;; m5
1#" 1unctional residual capacity
#%G0#% 2);; m5
$hysiology significance +dampen the change of !
2

and "!
2
in the process of respiration.


%" ital capacity ? T%G (#% G0#%
28;; )8;;m5
1%" forced ital capacity
T%" timed ital capacity
expired B)@ of all ital capacity at the last second
expired AE@ of all ital capacity at the second second
expired AA@ of all ital capacity at the third second


figure of
figure of lung olume and
vital capacity
vital capacity



lung ventilation volume
lung ventilation volume
E B5 *;; 8;; 12 1B
/inute entilation olume?
Tidal %olumeHrespiratory fre2uency

=; 12;5>min
/aximal oluntary entilation

Dead space and Aleolar %entilation
1. dead space
anatomical dead space
physiological dead space.
aleolar dead space
8;;


2. aleolar entilation
-tidal olume- dead space.H respiratory fre2uency
? 8;;m5 18;m5 H12 p>min
? )8; H12


(f tidal olume decreases
half, respiratory fre2uency
increases double./inute
entilation olume 4eeps
constant, but aleolar
entilation will decrease
greatly. "onsidering as
entilation efficiency of
slow and deep respiration
is higher than fast and light
respiration.


elastic resistance of thorax
Total amount
of lung E=@
IE=@ JE=@