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INTRODUCTION

An aircraft are made of the best materials, strongest and lightest parts
would be of doubtful value unless those parts were firmly held together. Several
methods are used to hold metal parts together, they include riveting, bolting,
brazing, and welding. The process used must produce a union that will be as
strong as the parts that are joined.
Riveting is the most common technique of joining sheet of aluminum. A
rivet is a metal pin with a formed head on one end. For example, in aviation
rivets are using for joining spar sections, for holding rib sections in place, for
securing fittings to various parts of the aircraft, and for fastening innumerable
bracing members and other parts together. The rivet creates a bond that is at
least as strong as the material being joined.
Rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a factory head on one end.
The opposite end is called the bucktail. To secure two or more pieces of sheet
metal together, the rivet is placed into a hole cut just a bit larger in diameter
than the rivet itself. Once placed in this predrilled hole, the bucktail is upset or
deformed by any of several methods from hand-held hammers to pneumatically
driven squeezing tools. This action causes the rivet to expand about 112 times the
original shaft diameter, forming a second head that firmly holds the material in
place.











TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT USE FOR SHEET METAL REPAIR (RIVETTING)
PROJECT:
NO ITEM QUANTITY
1 Aluminum sheet (12x12)
1
2 Masking tape 1
3 Scoth brite 1
4 Scribe 1
5 Rivet gun 1
6 Drill gun 1
7 Cleco piller 1
8 Cleco pin 1
9 Bucking bar 1
10 Rivet cutter 1
11 Half round file 1
12 Aviation snips red 1
13 Aviation snips yellow 1
14 Sheet metal shear 1
15 Box brake forming tools 1
16 Rivet set 1
PROCEDURE

PREPARE THE WORK AREA

1.The protective attire was wear
2.All required data regarding riveting was obtained from the maintenance
manual
3.The tools were ensured it is clean and don't have any contaminant or corrosion.



CUTTING ALUMINUM SHEET

1.The measurement was made and marked before its been cutted down.
2.The aluminum sheet was cut into half 12x6 and 6x3using Sheet Metal Shear.
3.All sharp edges of the aluminum was removed with dimeter 1/4R.
4.Form the layout for forming and bending at aluminum sheet 12x6
5.The metal was joggled and bended according to the layout using Box Brake
Forming Tool
6.The 6x3 aluminum used for basic sheet metal rivet technique.







DRILLING

1.The measurement was made with diameter 3/8 inc and marked at every edges
of aluminum 6x3 before its been drilled.
2.Holes were made at 4 side of every edge marked using drill gun and 1/8 size of
drill bits
3.Marked the center of both aluminum metal (12x6 and 6x3) and both were
clam together using g-sets for sure they stay to gather and not removed when
drilling.
4.Drill at the 4 edges of metal 12x6 through the met-al 6x3.
5.Removed g-sets and clamp the 4 holes using clico pin.
6.Made another holes at marked area with distance 7/8 to each others


DEBURRING

1. Made a countersinking hole using countersink
2. Deburred all the holes using a large drill bits or coun-ter sink.
3. All the edges were file until sharp area were removed





ALODIZING

1. The metal was clean using water and soap before put it into alodine
liquit for 10 Mounties.
2. Flush the metal with water and let it dry using air gun.














RIVETING INSTALLATION

1. Do trial rivet on the hold to gain confidence and the comfortable
gripping force.
2. Installed the universal or mushroom head rivet using rivet set by
placed it at the opposites side of the rivet shank and knocked a
rivet shank using ball pin ham-mer.
3. Installed countersunk head rivet using bucking bar by placed it
opposites side of the rivet shank and give some force at the back
using ball pin hammer.
4. Installed blind rivet using special puller gun to drived the rivet
5. Any incident was reported to the instructor immedi-ately and the
work area safety regulation was observed all the time.
6. The preparation was checked by the instructor.





















CONCLUSION


Aircraft rivets are manufactured to much higher standards and specifica-tions
than rivets manufactured for general use. When aircraft manufac-turers started
building all metal aircraft in the 1930s, different manufac-turers had different
rivet head designs. Brazier heads, modified brazier heads, button heads,
mushroom heads, flatheads, and 78 countersunk heads were used, but now a
day as aircraft standardized, there are only four rivet head designs almost
completely replaced all of the others. Riv-ets exposed to the airflow over the top
of the structure are usually either universal head MS20470 or 100 countersunk
head MS20426 rivets. For rivets used in internal structures, the roundhead
MS20430 and the flat-head MS20442 are generally used.

From this project, we learned a lot about how to maintain the safety of
the aircraft by doing sheet metal repair (riveting). Aircraft structure must be
airworthy all the time. An airworthy aircraft is an aircraft that free from crack
and ready to fly. Thank you to our instructor, Sir Abdul Razak Jantan for guiding
us until we finished this project. From this project to , I gain a new knowledge on
how to do riveting on aircraft part on maintaining the aircraft airworthiness .