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University of Khartoum

Faculty of nursing sciences


Master program
Batch seven

Margaret Jean Watson

Philosophy and science of caring
Describe the general aspects of Watsons
ca ring theory.
Describe how Watsons caring theory can
be applied to clinical practice.
Describe the person through Watsons
caring lens.
Describe the persons health through
Watsons caring lens.
Describe nursing through Watsons
caring lens.
Objective
BACKG ROUND
-Born in southern west Virginia
--Grow up in small town of
Welch 1940
-The youngest of eight children
-High school in west Virginia
-Louis gale school of nursing
1961
-Married and move to Colorado
-She has two daughters and five
grand children

Achievement
-Bs in nursing 1964
-Ms in psychiatric mental health nursing 1966
-PhD in education psychology and counseling 1973
-Joined the school of nursing faculty of Colorado health
science centre
-Chair and assistant dean of under graduate program
-Implementation of the nursing PhD program 1978
-Co-ordinator and director
-Dean of the university of Colorado 1982
Cont- achievement
Professor of nursing and holds chair in caring science
Shared in the development of post baccalaureate nursing
curriculum in human caring
-founder and member of the board of boulder hospice
-high honor of distinguished professor of nursing 1992
-recipient of national league for nursing 1993
-member of executive committee
-certification as a holistic nurse
Publications
-the philosophy and science of
caring -1979
-human science and human care a
theory of nursing -1985
-post modern nursing and beyond -
1999
Theoretical sources
The work k of nightingale ,hinderson,and hall
-peplau and Maslow ,Erikson
-She acknowledges philosophilical and
intellectual guidance for m feminty theory
Her inter personal and transpersonal viewed
from Carl Rogers
Definitions
When medical science has failed to offer a
patient any things that is the opportunity of
nurses to offer every things to the patient
Caring in need is essence of nursing
Caring create greatest impact in the lives of
our patient
Caring attitude makes nurses different
among the rest
(We are the light in the darkness , and in this model
we get to return to the light of our humanity )
She believes that the main focus in nursing on
carative factors
She believes that for nurses to develop humanistic
philosophies and values system a strong Liberal arts
back ground is necessary
She believes that the nursing is being threatened by
the task and technology

nursing
Health
promotion
Prevent ill
ness
Caring for
sick
Restoring
health

Assumptions
Caring demonstrated
interpersonally
Caring results in the
satisfaction of human
needs
Accepts person as may
become
Caring environment
allow the pt to choose
the care
Caring healthogeni
more than curing
Caring is central to
nursing
Effective caring
promotes health and
individual growth
caring
response
Central
health
ogenic
choice
Needs
satisfaction
Promotion
of health
personal
Primary carative factors
Watson mentioned ten
carative factors
1= Formation of humanistic altruistic
System of values
2=Instillation of faith hope
3=Cultivation of sensitivity to ones self
and
To others
Philosophical
foundation
Other carative factors
4-Establishing a helping-trust relation ship
5-expression of feeling
6-systemic use of the scientific problem-
solving
7-promotion of interpersonal teaching
learning
8-provision for supportive ,protective ,and
corrective mental ,physical ,socio cultural and
spiritual ,environment
9-assistance with gratification of human
needs
10- allowance for existential phenomological
forces
Watson's Ordering needs
Lower ordering needs
biophysical
Food-ventilation-
elemination
Lower ordering needs
Psycho-physical
Activity-inactivity)-sexuality
Higher ordering needs
Achievement -affiliation
Psycho-social
Higher ordering needs
Self -actualization
Development of
the theory
She added to develop her theory :
1
Philosophy of human freedom and responsibilities
Related to nursing practice
2
A biology and psychology of holism intercountered
With nature
3
Epistemology allows for advancement of esthetics
,and ethical
Values
4
Ontology of time
5
Context of inter human events
and relationship
6
Scientific world view
That is open
soul
Foundation for further
development
emotions
mind
Major
Concep
t
Human
being
Nursing
Environment
Health
Evaluation
Intervention
Plan
Assessment
anxiety
Inactivity or
weakness
Vomiting and diarrhea
Assessment
plan
Assessment
Intervention
Acceptance by the nursing
community
Institutions that are seeking
holistic approach to nursing care
are integrating many aspect of
Watson theoretical commitment
to care
Practice as general

According
to
Watson
Clinical
setting
population
Education
active In curriculum
planning at the university
of Colorado
Framework is being
taught in numerous
baccalaureate nursing
curricula
In addition this concepts
are now widely used in
nursing program in
saturnalia
She defines her intent
to describe the core of
nursing
Research
Watson and colleagues are
attempting to research the caring
framework and to arrive at empirical
data amenable to research
techniques
Colleagues have analysis the caring
literature for themes related to
conceptual and theoretical
development
Research and practice must focus
on both subjective and objective
patient outcomes


to describe the similarities
and differences between
what nurse consider care
and what patients consider
care
goal
To classifying
the caring
behaviors
To Generate
testable
hypotheses
Open- ended questionnaire
Taking care
of
Caring
about
patient
patients
Nursing
students
Registered
nurses
Discrepancy in the values
considered most important by
:RN,SN,PT
Raised a question about differences
in values for persons in various
situations and the question of
meeting minimum care needs
before the quality of care can be
evaluated
CRITIQUE
CLARITY SIMPLICITY
GENERALITY EMPIRICAL PRECISION
DERIVABLE CONSEQUANCES


CLARITY
Sophisticated
language
Lengthy
phrases
Sentences
need more
reading
Expand
philosophical
nature
Tangible and more
aesthetically
appealing
Personal
reflections
Art work
poetry
Complex
concept
Variety of
subject
matters
Number of
disciplines
simplicity
generality
Aspect of
health
Aspect of
illness
Patient
nurse
interaction
Some critics have stated that the
generality is limited

By the emphasis placed on the
psychological aspect rather than
physiological aspect
Empirical precision
Difficult to study
empirically
Acknowledges the
newness of theory
Descriptiv
theory
Continues to
develop her theory
Derivable consequences
Identify
patient need
Caring
process
Metaphysical
orientation
strengths
family
Communit
y culture
practice
client
limitations
Little
attention
Delineate
psychosoci
al need
Need for
more
research
THANK YOU