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COLOR 4-19

a day, the last two are the same. An excellent description of the color
control procedure applied in the packaging field was given by Granville
in Illuminating Engineering in December, 1944.
Spectrophotometry control. The type of color standardization and control
provided by spectrophotometric measurements has increased in use. Such
measurements provide a permanent record which can be converted into a
color specification. The application of the spectrophotometer to the
problem of color standardization for production control purposes is almost
universally recognized as the best approach though not the onty one.
Color tolerances. Tolerances are generally thought of in terms of color
differences; however, color tolerances should be considered also on the basis
of what can be done in production. One type of tolerance limit is caused
by production difficulties. Once selected, tolerances can be specified
spectrophotometrically, and tolerance limits can be prepared for visual
comparison on a production basis.
Illuminants for Color Work
Surface colors which match in one quality of illumination but do not
match in another invariably result from unlike spectral reflectance curves.
Conversely a spectral energy match is, in general, required of any illu-
minant intended as a substitute for another whenever colors are to be exam-
ined critically.
Any change in the characteristic spectral curve of illuminants used as
substitutes for each other will cause differences in the appearance of objects
seen under them. The amount of color constancy or color change will
depend on the spectral distribution of the illuminant and on the spectral
reflectance of the object. If the spectral reflectance of an object is non-
selective, that is, equal in all parts of the spectrum (as for nonselective
whites, blacks, and grays) , then there will be little difference in appearance
under two illuminants that have the same color temperature but do not
have similar spectral energy distributions.
Artificial daylighting. Specifications for the best artificial daylighting
for use in grading include: a large source of relatively low brightness; dupli-
cation of color of moderately overcast north sky; illumination of at least
75 footcandles for inspecting light colors, more for dark colors.
The color specification for an artificial daylight illuminant should be
aimed at the best obtainable duplicate of preferred natural daylight condi-
tions. Most commercial grading is done under natural daylight and for
such grading the results of classification under artificial and natural day-
lighting should agree. Also, it takes years of experience to make a good
classer, grader, or inspector, and an accurate memory of color standards is
a necessity. Any great change in illumination requires that classers make
adjustments in their memory of standards. The greater the change, the
more difficult this becomes. If artificial illuminants are to be preferred
rather than be merely tolerated for color grading, psychological as well as
physical standards must be maintained,