Sie sind auf Seite 1von 17
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

Condition Monitoring of FD-FAN Using Vibration Analysis

N. Dileep 1 , K. Anusha 2 , C. Satyaprathik 3 , B. Kartheek 4 , K. Ravikumar 5 ( ASST.PROFFESOR )

1, 2, 3, 4 B.Tech Graduate, Mechanical, V. R. Siddhartha Engineering College,Vijayawada, Krishna (Dt), Andhrapradesh, India.

Abstract-- Machines of some kind are used in nearly every aspect of our daily lives; from the vacuum cleaner and washing machine we use at home, to the industrial machinery used to manufacture nearly every product we use in our daily life. When a machine fails or break down, the consequences can range from annoyance to the financial disaster or personal injury and possible loose of life. For this reason early detection, identification and correction of machinery problems is paramount to anyone involved in the maintenance of industrial machinery to insure continued, safe and productive operation. In order to run the machines efficiently and to know the onset of impending defects condition and monitoring of machines is important. There are several indicating phenomenon like Vibration, noise, heat, debris in oil, sound beyond human abilities etc., which emanate from these inefficiently running machines. Monitoring of these indicators provide early warnings of impending failures. This paper is primarily focused on the implementation of vibration based maintenance on critical rotating machines namely FORCED DRAFT FAN (FD FAN 6B) at DR.NTTPS which is one of the boilers auxiliary. FD fans for boilers force ambient air into the boiler, typically through a preheater to increase overall boiler efficiency. The required vibration readings were taken. The levels of vibration of the fan driving end (hub1) are beyond the safe limits of desired velocity and displacement limit values. These further may cause to failure of the fan. This paper also explains about the Spike energy readings which were calculated and explained. After reading are taken it was noticed that fan driving end bearing was failed due to long life time of bearing, which is one of the cause for the increase of vibrations. This problem was rectified by replacing the new bearing and again vibration readings are noted found to be in safe limits of velocity.

Keywords-- MDE, MNDE, FDE (HUB 1), FNDE (HUB 2), Spectrums, Spike energy, Displacement, Velocity, Condition Monitoring

I. INTRODUCTION TO MONITORING

Monitoring is the systematic collection and analysis and information as a project progresses. It is aimed at improving the efficiency and effectiveness of a project or organization. It is based on targets set and activities planned during the planning faces of work. It helps to keep the work on track and can let management know when things are going wrong. If done properly, it is an invaluable tool for good maintenance, and it provides a useful base for evaluation.

It enables you to determine whether the resources you have available are sufficient and are being well used, whether the capacity you have is sufficient and appropriate and whether you are doing what you planned to do.

three

developmental stages:

1.1

Maintenance

strategies

are

classified

by

1. Break down maintenance

2. Preventive maintenance

3. Predictive maintenance

1.1.1 Break Down Maintenance:

This provides the replacement of defective part or machine after the machine becomes incapable of further operation. Break down maintenance is the easiest method to follow and it avoids the initial costs and training personnel and other related upfront costs.

1.1.2 Draw backs of break down maintenance are:

1. Failures are untimely

2. Since machine is allowed to run till to failure repair is more expensive. Sometimes total replacement is required

3. Failures may be catastrophic. Hence loss will be more.

4. Production loss will be more, as it requires more time to restore normalcy.

5. It reduces the life span of the equipment

1.2.1 Preventive maintenance:

In preventive maintenance, maintenance is scheduled on calendar or hours to run and is performed irrespective of machine condition.

1.2.2 Advantages:

1. Down time of machine is reduced by 50-80%

2. Lower expenses of over pay may same as much as

30%

3. Increases the equipment life expectancy.

4. Reduces the maintenance cost by reducing the capital

spending by 10-20%, labour cost

material cost by 30%

by 10%,

5. Improve the employee’s safety

6. Preventive maintenance results in a catastrophic failure and down time is required to complete all scheduled maintenance costs

7. Damage to machine is less

170

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

1.2.2 Disadvantages:

1. Periodically dismantling of each and every critical machine is expensive and time consuming.

2. It may lead to unnecessary inspections even on healthy machine also which may further lead to more complications.

3. It is difficult to predict time interval between inspections which ultimately may lead to break down maintenance.

4. Preventive maintenance alone cannot eliminate break down. The causes of equipment failure change with the passage of time. Fig 1 shows the failure rate curve which is also called as bath tub curve. Failure rate is taken on ordinate and time is taken on abscissa when the equipment is new there is high failure rate due to design and manufacturing errors. Failure rate increases once again since the equipment approaches the end of its failure.

again since the equipment approaches the end of its failure. FIG 1: BATH TUB CURVE 1.3.1

FIG 1: BATH TUB CURVE

1.3.1 Predictive Maintenance:

Trending and analyzing machinery parameters we can detect the developing problems in early stages. Hence repair works can be carried out before failure of a machine.

1.3.2 Advantages:

1. Shut down can be done at convenient times

2. Work schedule can be prepared for mobilizing men , tools and replacement parts before shut down reducing machinery down time

3. Identifying problem, costly trial and error procedures to solve a problem can be avoided.

4. Machine in good running condition can run continuously as long as problem develops

1.3.3 Disadvantages:

1. Require skilled labour

2. It is costly affair.

For all machines common characteristic is vibrations and hence vibrations become a powerful tool in implementing predictive maintenance program

The vibration predictive maintenance program has four steps:

i.

Detection

ii.

Analysis

iii.

Correction

iv.

Conformation

i.

Detection:

First select all available critical machines in the plant. Prepare a schedule for all these machines for data collection identify bearing locations of the machine train motor non drive end, MND, FNDE, FDE, PNDE, PDE, etc…identify the directions where vibration data is collected like H, V, A etc. define which vibration parameters are to be collected via displacement, velocity, acceleration etc. after doing all these start collecting vibrating data and related data and record them. Collect the data for every fortnight or monthly or so by trending and interpreting the data, identify source of vibration.

ii.

Analysis:

After identifying the source of vibrations analyze to pin point the root cause for vibrations. This can be achieved by eliminating process. Follow confirmative procedures in support of analysis.

iii.

Correction:

Open and inspect he machine at a convenient time and make necessary corrections

iv.

Confirmation:

After corrections put the machine in service and again collect vibration data and look for elimination of source.

II. CONDITION MONITORING

Condition monitoring is the process of monitoring a parameter of condition in machinery, such that a significant change is indicative of a developing failure. The most efficient way of doing predictive maintenance is by condition monitoring technique. Predictive maintenance by condition monitoring technique will boost up the availability of the equipment; will increase the efficiency and industrial safety.

monitoring

The various steps involved program are:

in

condition

1. Plant survey feasibility report.

2. Machine selection strategic and economic importance.

171

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

3. Select optimum monitoring techniques there is a large

number of parameters that can be collected and analyzed in

order to determine machine condition. No single parameter has given consistent results.

4. Establish a predictive maintenance programmed-

inspection schedule, data handling, administration and training.

5. Set acceptable condition, data and lists based on machine

severity charts, manufacturer’s specializations and experience.

6. Machine base line measurements are taken after many

corrective actions. 7-10. Routine monitoring programmed the object of this

is to detect significant deterioration in machine condition through trend analyzed of the measured data.

11. Condition analysis is in the death analysis of machine

condition often involving the joint application of number of techniques. The object of this is to confirm the existing fault, location and the corrective action required.

12. Fault correction having diagnosed the fault it is

required to schedule the corrective action. The details of the identified faults should feedback to the diagnosis and improve the diagnostics capabilities of the program.

CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES:

Vibration monitoring

Debris analysis lubes oil analysis

Corrosion monitoring

Thermography

Visual monitoring

Contaminant monitoring

Performance and behavior monitoring

This paper is mainly focused on vibration monitoring which is the most commonly used method for rotating machines

2.1. Vibration Monitoring:

Vibration monitoring is well established method for determining the physical movement of the machine or structure. Vibration is the best indicator of overall mechanical condition and the earliest indicator of the developing defects. There are other indicators like temperature, pressure and flow and oil analysis. If only one indicator is to be used to monitor machine health then vibration is usually the best choice. All rotating and reciprocating machines vibrate either to a smaller or to a greater extent. Machines vibrate because of defects or in accuracies in the system. When the inaccuracies are more it results in increased vibration.

172

Each kind of defect produces vibration, characterized in a unique way. Therefore, recording vibration level of a machine indicates the condition of the machine. 2.1.1 Advantages of condition monitoring over planned maintenance:

Improved system reliability

Decreased maintenance cost

Decreased number of maintenance operations causes decreasing of human error influence

2.1.2 Disadvantages:

High installation costs, for minor equipment items more than value of equipment

Unpredictable maintenance periods are causing costs to be divide un equally

Increased number of parts(CBM installation ) that need maintenance and checking

III. VIBRATION ANALYSIS

Vibration analysis is a non-destructive technique which helps early detection of machine problems by measuring vibration. Vibration analysis has been proven to be the most successful predictive tool when used on rotating equipment, both in increasing equipment availability and reliability. In order to maximize the finite life associated with rolling element bearings and optimize equipment production life, excessive wear caused by misalignment, unbalance, and resonance must be minimized. The presence of trained vibration specialists with equipment to conduct analysis will form the basis of a strong vibration program.

3.1 Causes for vibrations:

1. Change in direction with time, such as a force generated by a rotating unbalance.

2. Change in amplitude with time, such as unbalanced magnetic forces generated in an induction motor due to unequal air gap between the motor armature and stator.

3. Result in friction between rotating and stationary machine components is much.

4. Cause impacts, such as gear tooth contact or the impacts generated by the rolling elements of a bearing passing over a flaw in the bearing raceways.

5. Cause randomly generated forces such as flow turbulence in the fluid handling Devices such as fans, blowers and pumps; or combustion turbulence in gas turbines or boilers.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

3.2 Machine vibration:

A vibrating object moves to and fro, back and forth motion. We experience many An example in our daily life like vehicles driven on rough terrain vibrates. There are various ways we can tell that something is vibrating. We can touch a vibrating object and feel the vibration. We may also see the back and forth movement of a vibrating objects.

also see the back and forth movement of a vibrating objects. Fig 2: Machine Vibrations 3.3

Fig 2: Machine Vibrations

3.3 Sources of vibration:

1. Misalignment of couplings, bearings and gears.

2. Unbalance of rotating components.

3. Looseness

4. Deterioration of rolling element bearings

5. Gear wear

6. Eccentricity of rotating components such as "v "belt pulleys or gears.

3.4. Detection by Vibration Analysis:

1 Unbalance(Static, Couple, Quasi-Static),

2 Misalignment(Angular, Parallel, Combination)

3 Eccentric Rotor, Bent Shaft

4 Mechanical Looseness, Structural Weakness, Soft Foot

5 Resonance, Beat Vibration

6 Mechanical Rubbing

7 Problems Of Belt Driven Machines

8 Journal Bearing Defects

9 Antifriction Bearing Defects (Inner race, Outer race, Cage, Rolling Elements)

Aerodynamic

10Problems

Machines (Blade or Vane, Flow turbulence, Cavitations)

wear, Tooth load, Gear

11Gear

eccentricity, Backlash, Gear misalignment, Cracked

of

Hydrodynamic

(Tooth

&

Problems

or Broken Tooth)

173

12 Electrical Problems of AC & DC Motor (Variable Air Gap, Rotor bar Defect, Problems of SCRs)

3.5 Methods to detect causes of vibration:

There are literally hundreds of specific mechanical and operational problems that can result in excessive machinery vibration. However, since each type of problem generates vibration in a unique way, a thorough study of the resultant vibration characteristics can go a long way in reducing the number of possibilities hopefully to a single cause. A simple, logical and systematic approach that has been proven successfully in pinpointing the vast majority of the most common day-to-day machinery problems.

Interpreting the Data:

Obtain horizontal, vertical and axial spectrums at each bearing of the machine train in order to take the readings. Once horizontal, vertical and axial FFTs have been obtained for each bearing of the machine train, the obvious next question is: "What is this data telling me?" Essentially, amplitude-versus-frequency spectrums serve two very important purposes in vibration analysis:

1. Identify the machine component (motor, pump, gear box, etc.) of the machine train that has the problem And 2. Reduce the number of possible problems from several hundred to only a limited few.

Identifying the Problem Component Based On Frequency:

Figure3 shows a fan operating at 2200 RPM, belt driven by an 1800 RPM motor. The rotating speed of the belts is 500 RPM. Assume that a vibration analysis was performed on this machine and the only significant vibration detected had a frequency of 2200 CPM or 1 x RPM of the fan. Since the vibration frequency is exactly related to fan speed, this clearly indicates that the fan is the component with the problem. This simple fact eliminates the drive motor, belts and possible background sources as possible causes. Most problems generate vibration with frequencies that are exactly related to the rotating speed of trip in trouble. These frequencies may be exactly 1 x RPM or multiples (harmonics) of 1 x RPM such as 2x, 3x, 4x, etc. In addition, some problem's may cause vibration frequencies that are exact sub harmonics of 1 x RPM such as 1/2x, 1/3x or 1/4 x RPM. In any event, the FFT analysis data can identify the machine component with the problem based on the direct relationship between the measured vibration frequency and the rotating speed of the various machine elements.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013) Fig 3: Components generate different vibration frequencies

Fig 3: Components generate different vibration frequencies

Identifying the Problem Component Based On Amplitude:

Identifying the fan as the source of vibration based on vibration frequency was quite easy in the above example because of the notable differences in the rotating speeds of the various machine components. The obvious question, of course is: What about direct-coupled machines that is operating at exactly the same speed?" In this case, the component with the problem is normally identified as the one with the highest amplitude. For example, consider a motor direct coupled to a pump. Examining the analysis data, it is noted that the highest vibration amplitude on the motor is 1.0 in/sec compared to 0.12 in/sec on the pump. In this case, the motor is clearly the problem component since its vibration amplitude is nearly 8 times higher than that measured on the pump. In general, the machine component that has the problem is usually the one with the highest amplitude of vibration. The forces that cause vibration tend to dissipate in strength at increased distances from the source.

174

However, there are exceptions to this rule such as the example given earlier where a vertical pump was vibrating excessively due to a resonance problem with the discharge piping. In this case, the exciting force was actually generated by the motor/pump but was being amplified by the resonant condition of the piping. Another exception to this rule involves misalignment of direct coupled machines. Sir Isaac Newton's third law of physics slates that "whenever one body exerts a force on another, the second always exerts on the first a force which is equal in magnitude but oppositely directed." In other words, "for every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction." In the case of coupling misalignment, the vibratory force (action) is generated at the coupling between the driver a driven components. As a result, the "reaction" forces on the driver and driven unit; will be essentially equal, resulting in reasonably comparable vibration amplitudes. The only reason one component may have a slightly higher or lower amplitude than the other is because of differences in the mass and stiffness characteristics of the two components. The following chart lists the most common vibration frequencies is they relate to machine rotating speed (RPM), along with the common causes for each frequency. To illustrate how to use the chart, assume that the belt-driven fan pictured in Figure3 has excessive vibration at 2200 CPM which is 1 x RPM of the fan. Of course, this clearly indicates that the fan is the component with the problem and not the drive motor or belts. In addition, since the vibration frequency is 1 x RPM of the fan, the possible causes listed on the chart are:

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

TABLE 1 Vibration Frequencies and the Likely Causes

Frequency

   

in

Terms Of RPM

Most Likely causes

Other possible causes & Remarks

   

I)

Eccentric journals, gears or pulleys

lx RPM

Unbalance

2) Misalignment or bent shaft if high axial vibration

   

1)

Misalignment if high axial vibration

2 x RPM

Mechanical looseness

2)

Reciprocating force

 

3 x RPM

Misalignment

Usually a combination of misalignment and excessive Axial clearance (looseness).

   

I)

Bad drive belts

Less than

Oil Whirl(Less than1/2 x RPM)

2)

Background vibration

lx

RPM

3)

Sub-harmonic resonance

 

4)

"Seat" Vibration

Synchronous (A.0 line frequency)

Electrical Problems

Common electrical problems include broken rotor bars, eccentric rotor, and unbalanced phases in poly- phase Systems, unequal air gap.

2xSynch.Frequency

Torque Pulses

Rare as a problem unless resonance is excited

Many Times RPM (Harmonically Related Freq.)

Bad Gears, Aerodynamic Forces, Hydraulic forces, Mechanical Looseness, Reciprocating Forces

Gear teeth times RPM of bad gear Number of fan blade times RPM

Number of impeller vane times RPM

 

May occur at 2, harmonics

3,

4

and sometimes higher

High Frequency

Bad

1) Capitation, recirculation and flow turbulence causes random high frequency vibration 2)Improper lubrication of journal bearings

3)rubbing

(Not Harmonically

 

Anti-Friction bearing

Related)

 

Comparing Horizontal and Vertical Readings:

When comparing the horizontal and vertical data, it is important to take note of how and where the machine is mounted and also, how the bearings are mounted to the machine. Basically, the vibration analyst needs to develop a "feel" for the relative stiffness between the horizontal and vertical directions in order to see whether the comparative horizontal and vertical readings indicate a normal or abnormal situation. Machines mounted on a solid or rigid base may be evaluated differently than machines mounted on elevated structures or resilient vibration isolators such as rubber pads or springs.

Comparing Radial (Horizontal & Vertical) Data to Axial

Data:

The second important comparison that needs to be made to tri-axial analysis data is how the radial (horizontal and vertical) readings compare to the axial readings.

Relatively high amplitudes normally the result of

1. Misalignment of couplings

of

axial

vibration

are

2. Misalignment of bearings

3. Misalignment of pulleys or sheaves on belt drives

4. Bent shafts

Unbalance of "overhung" rotors.

IV. SPIKE ENERGY

When flaws or defects appear in a bearing, the resulting vibration will appear as a series of short duration spikes or pulses such .The duration or "period" of each pulse generated by an impact depends on the physical size of the flaw; the smaller the flaw, the shorter the pulse period will be. As the size of the defect increases, the period of the pulse becomes longer.

175

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

A short-term (40 millisecond sec) time waveform that

was taken on a ball bearing with a small nick purposefully

ground on the bearing inner race way. It can be seen that

the pulse period lasts only a few microseconds (1

microsecond = 1 millionth of a second). Of course, if the

period of a vibration signals is-known, the frequency of the vibration can be found by simply taking the inverse of the period. For example, if it takes 1/3600 minute to complete

one cycle of a vibration, then the vibration frequency is

3600 cycles per minute (CPM) or the inverse of the period.

In the case of the pulses generated by the bearing defects, since the pulse periods are so short, the period inverses (frequencies) are typically very high. To illustrate, a MICRO-FLAW is generally defined as a defect that is so small that it is essentially invisible to the naked eye. The pulses generated by a micro-flaw are typically less than 10 micro-seconds (i.e. 10 millionths of a second). By taking the inverse of a 10 micro-second pulse, the fundamental frequency becomes 100,000 Hz (TOOK Hz) or 6,000,000 CPM. As bearing deterioration progresses, the flaw gets larger. The next stage is a MACRO-FLAW or one that is detectable with the naked eye. Since the macro-flaw is larger, the duration or period of the pulse generated is longer and, thus, the fundamental pulse frequency is lower. Typically, a macro-flaw will generate a pulse with a period exceeding 20 microseconds, resulting in a fundamental pulse frequency of 50K Hz (3,000,000 CPM) or less. Of course, as the bearing defects continue to increase in size, the resultant pulse periods become even longer resulting in

a decrease in fundamental pulse frequency.

Experimentation has revealed that by the time the fundamental pulse frequency has reduced to approximately 5k Hz (300,000 CPM), bearing deterioration has generally reached severe levels. With the above facts in mind, the following outlines the basic features of the SPIKE ENERGY (abbreviated gSE).

Since the frequencies of bearing vibration are very high, utilize a vibration acceleration signal from an accelerometer transducer.

Incorporate a "band-pass" frequency filter that will electronically filter out frequencies above 50K Hz (3,000,000-GPM) -and below 5K Hz (300,000 CPM). By eliminating frequencies above 50K HI, micro- flaws, defects that are undetectable with the naked eye, will not affect the measurement. In other words, when the SPIKE ENERGY (gSE) measurements reveal a significant increase, a visual inspection of the bearing should provide confirmation with a visible flaw.

Since the spike-pulse signals generated by bearing defects have very low RMS values, incorporate a true peak-to-peak detecting circuit instead of an RMS detecting circuit.

V. DATA PAC 1500

Instrument: Data Pac 1500 Company: ENTEK IRD Feature: portable data collector / analyzer in a small lightweight package. Data PAC 1500 is part of Entek's complete range of monitoring products and services to all industry segments worldwide. The data PAC 1500 is a fully featured portable data collector.

data PAC 1500 is a fully featured portable data collector. Figure 4: DATA PAC 1500 Supported

Figure 4: DATA PAC 1500

Supported Measurements:

Acceleration

Velocity

Displacement

G Spike Energy (GSE)

Temperature

Thrust or axial position

DC voltage

VI. BEARING FREQUENCIES

The bearing frequencies can be calculated based on 4 typical components of bearings.

1. BALL PASS FERQUENCY OUTER RACE (BPFO)

2. BALL PASS FREQUENCY INNER RACE(BPFI)

3. BALL SPINNING FREQUENCY(BSF)

4. FUNDEMENTAL TRAIN FREQUENCY (FTF)

176

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

6.1 FORMULAS FOR BEARING FREQUENCIES:

BPFO: (n b /2 - 1.2) rpm BPFI: (n b /2 + 1.2) rpm BSF: 1/2(n b /2 -1.2/n b ) rpm FTF: (1/2 1.2/n b ) rpm Where n b = no. of balls

(1/2 – 1.2/n b ) rpm Where n b = no. of balls Fig5 Rolling bearing

Fig5 Rolling bearing element components.

Understanding Bearing Vibration Example 1:

If you have the defect multipliers at your disposal, the process of calculating the defect frequency is as follows:

1. Look up the bearing number that is exhibiting the

suspect vibration frequency on a table like the one below:

 

NO.OF

       

BEARING

ROLLING

FTF

BSF

BPFO

BPFI

ID

ELEMENTS

9436

19

0.434

3.648

8.247

10.753

9437

19

0.434

3.648

8.247

10.753

9442

22

0.443

4.191

9.740

12.260

2. Multiply this number by the shaft speed mated with

this bearing and you have the defect frequency that would

be generated by a defect on the element in question. See Figure 7.4 9.740 x 351 rpm shaft speed = 3419 cpm

See Figure 7.4 9.740 x 351 rpm shaft speed = 3419 cpm Outer race bearing defect

Outer race bearing defect If the frequency and harmonics (multiples) of it are present on the vibration spectra, you most probably have an outer race bearing defect. It could be a spall on the raceway, electrical fluting, false brinelling acquired during bearing storage or equipment transport, etc. Be advised that there will be occasions when the calculated defect frequencies don’t exactly match the bearing defect frequencies that appear in the vibration spectra. Typically this is due to higher than normal thrust loads which cause the bearing to run at a different contact angle. These abnormal thrust loads can be caused by sources such as mis-alignment. Also, not all bearing manufacturers use the same number of rolling elements in a particular bearing size. The most common bearing problem is the outer race defect in the load zone; inner race faults are the next most common. It is very rare to see a fault at the bearings ball spin frequency or BsF. Action step: The presence of any of these four fundamental fault frequencies should result in the repair technician replacing the bearing and ensuring the housing fits and shaft journals are within tolerance. Finally, it’s worth discussing the presence of mechanical looseness, which manifests itself as harmonics of 1x running speed, on a new or re- built bearing housing or journal. This indication of looseness could be coming from poor base mounting or one of the following:

1. Loose housing-to-outer race fits

2. Loose journal-to-inner race fits

3. Excessive internal bearing clearance

Sleeve Bearing Defects:

Sleeve bearings do not make use of rolling elements; rather, the shaft rides on a layer of lubricating oil inside the bearing bore. The lubricant is either sealed inside the bearing, gravity fed to the bearing or pumped in (pressure fed). Sleeve bearings which have excessive wear/ clearance exhibit a vibration spectrum similar to the one in Figure 7.5. Notice the series of running speed harmonics (up to 10 or 20). Wiped sleeve bearings often show much higher vertical amplitudes than horizontal. A higher axial reading on one end than the other provides further indication, with the higher vibration level on the end with the damaged bearing.

177

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013) Figure6: Bad bearing fits between housing &outer race.

Figure6: Bad bearing fits between housing &outer race.

Looseness from wear nd clearence problem Clearance Problems In contrast, mechanical looseness caused by loose mounting bolts or cracks in the frame structure or bearing pedestal typically look like the spectrum in Figure 7

pedestal typically look like the spectrum in Figure 7 Fig7: Loose mounting (Structural Looseness) Excessive

Fig7: Loose mounting (Structural Looseness)

Excessive looseness can also cause sub harmonic multiples at exactly 1/2 or 1/3 x rpm (.5x, 1.5x, 2.5x, etc.). During bearing failure the harmonics are matched with taking higher resolution of the spectrum, if it is found to match with the spectrum it is said to be failure of bearing. If the bearing failure occurs there will be little change in the velocity values, no changes may occur in displacement values but the spike energy value will be increasing. During normal cases the spike energy value should be less than one (gSE <1)

If the frequency (cpm) values are less than 600 displacement values are taken into criteria

If the frequency (cpm) values are in between 600-60000 velocity values are taken into criteria

If the frequency (cpm) values are >60000 spike energy values come into criteria.

VII. SPECIFICATION OF FD FAN

FD-MOTOR:

SPEED:

993 RPM

VOLTS: 3300V CURRENT: 229amps TYPE: induction motor.

FREQUENCY: 50HZ

FD-FAN:

PHASE:

3PHASE.

TYPE: axial reaction MEDIUM HANDLED: fresh air SPPED: 1480 rpm NO.OF BLADES: 23 BEARING NO: NU226E HUB DIA: 1100mm OUTERDIA: 1800mm Displacement readings taken on 17 oct 2012.

Table 2 vibration data sheet of FD fan 6B before rectification

     

Velocity

Displacement

S.No

Position

(mm/s)

 

(µm)

H

V

A

H

V

A

   

1 MNDE

8.71

0.751

1.75

108

363

14.8

   

2 MDE

9.93

1.35

1.66

111

8.34

14.6

   

3 HUB1

8.83

1.8

5.14

108

20.5

14.5

   

4 HUB2

9.24

1.76

5.41

114

20.8

16.2

Where, MNDE: motor non drive end MDE: motor drive end. Hub1: fan drive end Hub 2: fan non drive end H: horizontal V: vertical A: axial

Limits as per ISO 10816 part2 (mm/sec peak)

: 0 to 6.0 mm/sec

Satisfactory: 6.0to 12.3mm/sec

Alarm

Not Permitted : >16.0mm/sec

Good

: 12.3 to 16.0 mm/sec

VIII. THE FOLLOWING ARE THE SPECTRUMS TAKEN TO OBSERVE THE CAUSE OF VIBRATIONS

8.1 Spectrums

T AKEN T O O BSERVE T HE C AUSE O F V IBRATIONS 8.1 Spectrums

Velocity spectrum MNDE horizontal direction

178

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013) Velocity spectrum MNDE vertical direction Velocity spectrum

Velocity spectrum MNDE vertical direction

1, January 2013) Velocity spectrum MNDE vertical direction Velocity spectrum MNDE axial direction Velocity spectrum MDE

Velocity spectrum MNDE axial direction

vertical direction Velocity spectrum MNDE axial direction Velocity spectrum MDE horizontal direction Velocity spectrum

Velocity spectrum MDE horizontal direction

axial direction Velocity spectrum MDE horizontal direction Velocity spectrum MDE vertical direction Velocity spectrum

Velocity spectrum MDE vertical direction

direction Velocity spectrum MDE vertical direction Velocity spectrum MDE axial direction Velocity spectrum FDE

Velocity spectrum MDE axial direction

MDE vertical direction Velocity spectrum MDE axial direction Velocity spectrum FDE (HUB 1) horizontal direction Velocity

Velocity spectrum FDE (HUB 1) horizontal direction

direction Velocity spectrum FDE (HUB 1) horizontal direction Velocity spectrum FDE (HUB 1) vertical direction Velocity

Velocity spectrum FDE (HUB 1) vertical direction

direction Velocity spectrum FDE (HUB 1) vertical direction Velocity spectrum FDE (HUB 1) axial direction Velocity

Velocity spectrum FDE (HUB 1) axial direction

direction Velocity spectrum FDE (HUB 1) axial direction Velocity spectrum FNDE (HUB 2) horizontal direction Velocity

Velocity spectrum FNDE (HUB 2) horizontal direction

axial direction Velocity spectrum FNDE (HUB 2) horizontal direction Velocity spectrum FNDE (HUB 2) vertical direction

Velocity spectrum FNDE (HUB 2) vertical direction

179

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013) Velocity spectrum FNDE (HUB 2) axial direction 8.2

Velocity spectrum FNDE (HUB 2) axial direction

8.2 Observations from the spectrums 1) Overall vibrations of all the bearings are in in satisfactory zone as per ISO 10816. 2) Horizontal direction vibration at MNDE, MDE.HUB1, and HUB2 are high side. 3) 1X Frequency is dominant in spectrums in all positions 4) Observed ½ Blade pass frequency and 1XBlade pass frequency and its side harmonics are present in HUB1 and HUB2 in axial direction 5) High vibrations in Horizontal direction at MNDE, MDE, HUB1 and HUB2 due to any flow obstruction in fan blades or may be unbalance in fan rotor

Remarks:-

1) Check for partial close/open position of dampers in connected duct. 2) check for impeller

Suggestion:

1) Check for bearing vibration and temperatures regularly until correction.

IX.

TABLE

Table3

Spike energy readings before rectification:

S.NO

Date

Position

Direction

Reading

 

1 MNDE

 

HORIZONTAL

5.21

 

17/10/12

2 MDE

 

HORIZONTAL

0.0339

 

3 HUB-1

 

HORIZANTAL

0.067

 

4 HUB-2

 

HORIZANTAL

0.033

RPM: 1487

Normal value: <0.8 at 1500 rpm

SAFE LIMITS OF spike energy (gSE):

3600 rpm: 1.4 gSE

1900

rpm: 0.70 gSE

1200

rpm: 0.50 gSE

900

rpm:

0.35 gSE

600

rpm:

0.25 gSE

X. ACTION TAKEN BASED ON REPORT

1. Since each unit runs with 2 FD fans, FD fan-6B is stopped for one day and the failure bearing was removed.

2. Maintenance was taken up and the FD fan was replaced with new bearings.

3. After replacement again the vibrations data was collected.

XI. VIBRATION READINGS AFTER RECTIFICATION

STAGE VI

11.1 vibration reading after changing of bearings:

Load: 210MW

Freq: 49.98Hz

Table 4 vibration data sheet of FD fan 6B after rectification

S. No

Date

Position

Velocity

(mm/sec)

Displacement(µm)

     

H

V

A

H

V

A

1

MNDE

1.1

0.404

0.421

11.5

1.8

2.29

2

19/10/2012

MDE

1.18

0.445

0.411

12.5

1.36

2.29

3

FDE(HUB1)

1.36

0.205

0.552

17.1

2.16

2.35

4

FNDE(HUB2)

1.37

0.228

1.19

17.6

2.67

2.94

11.2 Observations:

1. The values of velocity were reduced from the satisfactory zone to good zone.

2. The high side displacement values are reduced into desired limits.

Limits as per ISO 10816 part2 (mm/sec peak)

Good

: 0 to 6.0 mm/sec

Satisfactory

: 6.0to 12.3mm/sec

Alarm

: 12.3 to 16.0 mm/sec

Not Permitted : >16.0mm/sec

180

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013) 11.3 spectrums after rectification:

Issue 1, January 2013) 11.3 spectrums after rectification: Velocity spectrum of MNDE in horizontal direction Velocity

Velocity spectrum of MNDE in horizontal direction

Velocity spectrum of MNDE in horizontal direction Velocity spectrum of MDE in vertical direction Velocity
Velocity spectrum of MNDE in horizontal direction Velocity spectrum of MDE in vertical direction Velocity

Velocity spectrum of MDE in vertical direction

direction Velocity spectrum of MDE in vertical direction Velocity spectrum of MDE in axial direction Velocity

Velocity spectrum of MDE in axial direction

Velocity spectrum of MNDE in vertical direction

direction Velocity spectrum of MNDE in vertical direction Velocity spectrum of MNDE in axial direction Velocity

Velocity spectrum of MNDE in axial direction

direction Velocity spectrum of MNDE in axial direction Velocity spectrum of MDE in horizontal direction Velocity

Velocity spectrum of MDE in horizontal direction

direction Velocity spectrum of MDE in horizontal direction Velocity spectrum of MNDE in vertical direction Velocity

Velocity spectrum of MNDE in vertical direction

direction Velocity spectrum of MNDE in vertical direction Velocity spectrum of FDE in horizontal direction Velocity

Velocity spectrum of FDE in horizontal direction

in vertical direction Velocity spectrum of FDE in horizontal direction Velocity spectrum of FDE in vertical

Velocity spectrum of FDE in vertical direction

181

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013) Velocity spectrum of FDE in axial direction Velocity

Velocity spectrum of FDE in axial direction

1, January 2013) Velocity spectrum of FDE in axial direction Velocity spectrum of FNDE in horizontal

Velocity spectrum of FNDE in horizontal direction

direction Velocity spectrum of FNDE in horizontal direction Velocity spectrum of FNDE in vertical direction Velocity

Velocity spectrum of FNDE in vertical direction

direction Velocity spectrum of FNDE in vertical direction Velocity spectrum of FNDE (HUB 2) in axial

Velocity spectrum of FNDE (HUB 2) in axial direction

11.4 Spike energy readings:

RPM: 1487

Table 5 spike energy readings after rectification.(19/10/12)

S.NO

Position

Direction

Reading

 

1 MNDE

HORIZONTAL

0.032

 

2 MDE

HORIZONTAL

0.066

 

3 HUB-1

HORIZANTAL

0.0061

 

4 HUB-2

HORIZANTAL

0.011

Normal value: <0.8 at 1500 rpm SAFE LIMITS OF spike energy (gSE):

3600 rpm: 1.4 gSE

1900

rpm: 0.70 gSE

1200

rpm: 0.50 gSE

900

rpm:

0.35 gSE

600

rpm:

0.25 gSE

11.5 Observations after rectification:

1. Vibration frequencies are in normal ranges.

2. Even after the rectification the peaks are obtained at MNDE, MDE, FDE, and FNDE in axial direction which indicate high axial vibrations are existed.

3. The vibrations caused in axial direction indicate bent shaft or angular misalignment

4. The rectification of bent shaft or angular misalignment can be done only during overall shut down period of the unit.

5. Hence the bearing replacement is carried out which lead to reduction of vibrations and allowing smooth running of FD fan.

182

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

XII.

RESULTS

The results that were obtained after rectification of FD fan are as follows:

12.1 Velocity displacement data

Data before Rectification:

S.

Date

Position

Velocity

(mm/sec)

Displacement(µm)

No

 
     

H

V

A

H

V

A

1

MNDE

8.71

0.751

1.75

108

3.63

14.8

2

17/10/2012

MDE

8.93

1.35

1.66

111

8.34

14.6

3

FDE(HUB1)

8.83

1.8

5.14

108

20.5

14.5

4

FNDE(HUB2)

9.24

1.76

5.41

114

20.8

16.2

S.

Date

Position

Velocity

(mm/sec)

Displacement(µm)

No

 
     

H

V

A

H

V

A

1

MNDE

1.1

0.404

0.421

11.5

1.8

2.29

2

19/10/2012

MDE

1.18

0.445

0.411

12.5

1.36

2.29

3

FDE(HUB1)

1.36

0.205

0.552

17.1

2.16

2.35

4

FNDE(HUB2)

1.37

0.228

1.19

17.6

2.67

2.94

Data After Rectification

Limits as per ISO 10816 part2 (mm/sec peak)

Good

: 0 to 6.0 mm/sec

Satisfactory

: 6.0to 12.3mm/sec

: 12.3 to 16.0 mm/sec

Not Permitted : >16.0mm/sec

Alarm

By observing the above tabular forms higher values of velocity and displacement are obtained indicating a flaw in the machine, which were rectified based on several considerations which were further discussed. RPM 1487.

12. 2 Spike energy data

Spike energy data collected before rectification:

SAFE LIMITS OF spike energy (gSE):

S.N

 

Date

Position

Direction

Reading

O

 

1

 

MNDE

HORIZONTAL

5.21

2

 

17/10/12

MDE

HORIZONTAL

0.0339

3

 

HUB-1

HORIZANTAL

0.067

4

HUB-2

HORIZANTL

0.033

S.NO

Date

Position

Direction

Reading

 

1 MNDE

 

HORIZONTAL

0.032

 

19/10/12

2 MDE

 

HORIZONTAL

0.066

 

3 HUB-1

 

HORIZANTAL

0.0061

 

4 HUB-2

 

HORIZANTAL

0.011

Spike energy data collected after rectification:

3600 rpm: 1.4 gSE

1900 rpm: 0.70 gSE
1200 rpm: 0.50 gSE

900 rpm:

0.35 gSE

600 rpm:

0.25 gSE

The spike energy data is taken into criteria because of frequency obtaining >600000 rpm. The equipment used in V.T.P.S is set only to horizontal direction, where the readings are obtained. From the above data flaw is found out at MNDE, and still the spectrum criteria is taken into considerations in order to find out the existing defects.

183

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

12.3 Spectrum data

In Vertical Direction at MNDE

2013) 12.3 Spectrum data  In Vertical Direction at MNDE Before Rectification After Rectification  In

Before Rectification

data  In Vertical Direction at MNDE Before Rectification After Rectification  In vertical direction at

After Rectification

In vertical direction at MDE:

After Rectification  In vertical direction at MDE: Before Rectification After Rectification  Even after the

Before Rectification

 In vertical direction at MDE: Before Rectification After Rectification  Even after the replacement of

After Rectification

Even after the replacement of the failed bearing with new bearing there are still some irregular harmonics observed in axial direction at MDE, FDE (HUB 1) and FNDE (HUB 2). The irregular harmonics in axial directions are shown in the following spectrums.

In axial direction at MDE:

in the following spectrums .  In axial direction at MDE: Before Rectification After Rectification 

Before Rectification

.  In axial direction at MDE: Before Rectification After Rectification  In axial direction at

After Rectification

In axial direction at FDE (HUB-1):

Rectification After Rectification  In axial direction at FDE (HUB-1): Before Rectification 184 After Rectification

Before Rectification

Rectification After Rectification  In axial direction at FDE (HUB-1): Before Rectification 184 After Rectification

184

After Rectification

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013)

In axial direction at FNDE (HUB-2)

1, January 2013)  In axial direction at FNDE (HUB-2) Before Rectification After Rectification  Harmonics

Before Rectification

 In axial direction at FNDE (HUB-2) Before Rectification After Rectification  Harmonics Observed In Axial

After Rectification

Harmonics Observed In Axial Direction Indicates Bending Of Shaft

The replacement of bearing requires a temporary pause of FD-FAN (about a day). But the replacement of the shaft requires the overall shut down of the unit. So instant replacement of shaft is not possible as of bearing. So due this factor the fan is allowed to run with irregular harmonics in axial direction which doesn’t affect majorly for a period of time, and can be rectified during overall maintenance.

REFERENCES

[1 ]

ISSN:0975-5462 International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology

[2 ]

http://electromotores.com/PDF/InfoT%C3%A9cnica/EASA/Underst

anding%20Bearing%20Vibration%20Frequencies.pdf

 

[3 ]

http://www.bsahome.org/Archive/html/escreports/VibrationAnalysis

.pdf

[4 ]

R.bandal,”state of art

in

monitoring

and rotating

[5 ]

machines”ISMA2002, International conference on noise & vibration engineering. R.k Biswas , December 2006 “vibration based condition monitoring on rotating machines”

[6 ]

A.v Barkov, N.A.Barkov & Yu.Azovtsev, in 1997, “vibration based condition monitoring on rotating machines.

[7 ] DR.NTTPS vibration analysis material

[8 ]

http://www.vibrotek.com/ref.htm

[9 ]

Mechanical vibrations-G.K.Groover

XIII.

CONCLUSION

From the above observed graphs the irregular harmonics are observed in the axial direction, which indicates that the bending of the shaft caused due to bearing failure. After replacement of bearing, the previously occurred irregular harmonics were vanished in horizontal and vertical direction.

[10 ] Tanver(ref8), P.J.School of engineering, Durham university, gave areview on CMBS on rotating electrical machines [11 ] Jones.N.B Yu-HuaLI (ref 1). Department of engineering, university of Leicester, Leisister, UK had presented a paper on reciprocating compressor condition monitoring. [12 ] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condition_monitoring [13 ] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolling-element_bearing

185

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ( ISSN 2250-2459, ISO

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013) AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY:

Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013) AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY: N. DILEEP is pursuing 4/4 B.Tech in Department
Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013) AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY: N. DILEEP is pursuing 4/4 B.Tech in Department

N. DILEEP is pursuing 4/4 B.Tech in

Department of Mechanical Engineering at V.R.Siddhartha Engineering College, vijayawada , India. Participated in various technical paper presentations and secured 2 nd prize for “Green Buildings” paper

presentation.

K. ANUSHA is pursuing 4/4 B.Tech in

Department of Mechanical Engineering at V.R.Siddhartha Engineering College, vijayawada , India. Participated in various technical paper presentations and secured 1 st prize for “OTEC” paper presentation.

secured 1 s t pr ize for “OTEC” paper presentation. B.KARTHEEK is pursuing 4/4 B.Tech in
secured 1 s t pr ize for “OTEC” paper presentation. B.KARTHEEK is pursuing 4/4 B.Tech in

B.KARTHEEK is pursuing 4/4 B.Tech in Department of Mechanical Engineering at V.R.Siddhartha Engineering College, vijayawada, India.

Sri K. RAVI KUMAR received B.Tech from V.R. Siddhartha Engineering College, Kanuru, Vijayawada. He has received M.Tech from JNTU-A, ANANTPUR,India. He is currently working as an Asst. Professor in the Dept of MECHANICAL, V.R. Siddhartha Engineering College, Kanuru, Vijayawada, India. He has 5 years of teaching experience.

Vijayawada, India. He has 5 years of teaching experience. C.SATYA PRATHIK is pursuing 4/4 B.Tech in

C.SATYA PRATHIK is pursuing 4/4 B.Tech in Department of Mechanical Engineering at V.R.Siddhartha Engineering College, vijayawada , India.

186