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Palacio,Vida Andreana T.

UNITING

1.Cognitive Levels of Learning


Level1
Knowledge
The ability to recall learned materials. It can range from the recall of simple facts to
complete theories. It represents the lowest level of learning outcome, requiring only that
the student recall previously learned information.

Comprehension
The ability to grasp the meaning of material learned. The student may show
understanding of the material by translating it from one form to another by conveying
meaning, or by making summary statements about it.

Level 2
Application
The ability to use learned materials in new and concrete situations. The student is
required to apply rules, concepts, principles, laws, or theories.
Analysis
The ability to break material down into its component parts so that its organizational
structure may be understood. The student demonstrated attainment of objectives
through the ability to identify parts, show relationships, and recognize organizational
principles.
Synthesis
The ability to put parts together to form a new whole. The student demonstrated an
ability to devise a new plan of operation, or to produce a set of abstract relations.

Level3
Evaluation
The ability to judge the value of materials. The student might be required to judge the
value of a statement, a piece of prose, a poem, an advertisement or a research report

2 . T a b l e o f T h e R e v i s e d C o g n i t i v e D o ma i n ( B l o o m s
R e v i s e d T a x o n o my )
Category Example and Key Words (verbs)
Remembering: Recall Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from


previous learned information. memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules.
Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows,
labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls,
recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.
Understanding:
Comprehending the
meaning, translation,
interpolation, and
interpretation of instructions
and problems. State a
problem in one's own words.
Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing.
Explain in one's own words the steps for performing
a complex task. Translates an equation into a
computer spreadsheet.
Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends,
distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends,
generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets,
paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes,
translates.
Applying: Use a concept in
a new situation or
unprompted use of an
abstraction. Applies what
was learned in the classroom
into novel situations in the
work place.
Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee's
vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the
reliability of a written test.
Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs,
demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies,
operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates,
shows, solves, uses.
Analyzing: Separates
material or concepts into
component parts so that its
organizational structure may
be understood. Distinguishes
between facts and
inferences.
Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by
using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in
reasoning. Gathers information from a department
and selects the required tasks for training.
Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares,
contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates,
discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates,
infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.
Evaluating: Make judgments
about the value of ideas or
materials.
Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire
the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a
new budget.
Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes,
contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes,
discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets,
justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.



3.Types of tests
Diagnostic Tools
Used to assess a determined number of areas in greater depth. Usually administered at
the beggining of a course, level, subject.
Formal Tests
They are designed to be given according to a standard set of circumstances, they have
time limits, and they have sets of directions which are to be followed exactly.
Informal Tests
They generally do not have a set of standard directions. They have a great deal of
flexibility in how they are administered. They represent a lack of validity and reliability
Summative Tests
These are meant to measure what the student has learned, frequently in order to
produce marks or grades used for reports of different types.
Formative Tests
Measures the students' grasp of material that is currently being taught. Can also
measure readiness. Formative tests help guide and inform instruction and learning.
Norm-referenced
Compare students' performance to that of a norming or sample group who are in the
same grade or are of the same age. Results are expressed in scaled socres, statistics in
general.
Creating: Builds a structure
or pattern from diverse
elements. Put parts together
to form a whole, with
emphasis on creating a new
meaning or structure.
Examples: Write a company operations or process
manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task.
Integrates training from several sources to solve a
problem. Revises and process to improve the
outcome.
Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles,
composes, creates, devises, designs, explains,
generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges,
reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites,
summarizes, tells, writes.


Criterion-referenced
Student's performance is measured against a standard. One form of criterion-referenced
assessment is the benchmark, a description of a key task that students are expected to
perform.
Survey
These tests typically provide an overview of general comprehension and word
knowledge.
Performance Test
These are a type of assessment that requires an examinee to actually perform a task or
activity, rather than simply answering questions referring to specific parts. The purpose
is to ensure greater fidelity to what is being tested.
4.Principles in Test Preparation:
1. Validity appropriateness, correctness, meaningfulness and usefulness of the
specific conclusions that a teacher reaches regarding the teaching-learning
situation.
- Content validity content and format of the instrument
i. Students adequate experience
ii. Coverage of sufficient material
iii. Reflect the degree of emphasis
- Face validity outward appearance of the test, the lowest form of test validity
- Criterion-related validity the test is judge against a specific criterion
- Construct validity the test is loaded on a construct or factor

b. Reliability consistency, dependability, stability which can be estimated by
- Split-half method
- Calculated using the
i. Spearman-Brown prophecy formula
ii. Kuder-Richardson KR 20 and KR21
- Consistency of test results when the same test is administered at two different
time periods
i. Test-retest method
ii. Correlating the two test results

c. Fairness assessment procedure needs to be fair, which means:
- Students need to know exactly what the learning targets are and wat method of
assessment will be used


- Assessment has to be viewed as an opportunity to learn rather than an
opportunity to weed out poor and slow learners
- Freedom from teacher-stereotyping

d. Practicality and Efficiency
- Teachers should be familiar with the test,
- does not require too much time
- implementable

e. Ethics in Assessment right and wrong
- Conforming to the standards of conduct of a given profession or group
- Ethical issues that may be raised
i. Possible harm to the participants.
ii. Confidentiality.
iii. Presence of concealment or deception.
iv. Temptation to assist students.

Sources:
http://olga-assessment.blogspot.com/2009/05/principles-of-high-quality assessment.html
www.ed.gov.nl.ca/edu/k12/evaluation/crts/cognitive_levels_learning.pdf
www.hec.gov.pk/.../TEST%20AND%20TYPES%20OF%20TEST.pdf
http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html#sthash.ys4SDU5d.dpuf