Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

AP Chemistry Chapter 13, Chemical Equilibrium Study Guide & Ch.

16a Ksp
Students should be able to...
Describe a system in equilibrium
Find the reaction quotient, Q, (Keq) for a reaction equation
Solve for Q given initial concentrations or pressures
sing !e"hatlier#s principle, determine the direction of shift in an equilibrium $hen
conditions are changed (concentration, pressure, phase change)
Setup a Ksp e%pression for a slightly soluble product.
"alculate the ion concentrations $hen given a Ksp.
Determine is a slightly soluble product $ill precipitate or not.
Sample Multiple Choice AP Questions (Copyright College Board)
(1989) 29 !n "hich o# the #ollo"ing systems "ould the num$er o# moles o# the su$stances present at
e%uili$rium &'( $e shi#ted $y a change in the )olume o# the system at constant temperature*
(A) C'(g) + &'(g) ,---. C'2(g) + 1/2 &2(g)
(B) &2(g) + 0 12(g) ,---. 2 &10(g)
(C) &2(g) + 2 '2(g) ,---. 2 &'2(g)
(2) &2'3(g) ,---. 2 &'2(g)
(4) &'(g) + '0(g) ,---. &'2(g) + '2(g)
(1993) 50 2 S'2(g) + '2(g) ,---. 2 S'0(g)
6hen 737 mole o# S'2 and 787 mole o# '2 are placed in an e)acuated 1779liter #las:; the reaction
represented a$o)e occurs A#ter the reactants and the product reach e%uili$rium and the initial temperature
is restored; the #las: is #ound to contain 707 mole o# S'0 Based on these results; the e%uili$rium constant;
<c #or the reaction is
(A) 27
(B) 17
(C) 85
(2) 27
(4) 12
8= (he solu$ility o# Cu! is 2 > 17?
8
molar 6hat is the solu$ility product constant; <sp; #or Cu!*
(A) 13 > 17?
0
(B) 2 > 17?
8
(C) 3 > 17?
12
(2) 2 > 17?
12
(4) 8 > 17?
18

88 MnS(s) + 2 1
+
,---. Mn
2+
+ 12S(g)
At 2= @C the solu$ility product constant; <sp; #or MnS in = > 17?
1=
and the acid dissociation constants <1
and <2 #or 12S are 1 > 17?
5
and 1 > 17?
10
; respecti)ely 6hat is the e%uili$rium constant #or the reaction
represented $y the e%uation a$o)e at 2= @C*
(A) 1 > 17?
10
/ = > 17?
1=
(B) = > 17?
1=
/ 1 > 17?
5
(C) 1 > 17?
5
/ = > 17?
27
(2) = > 17?
1=
/ 1 > 17?
27
(4) 1 > 17?
27
/ = > 17?
1=

Ans"ers to multiple choiceA 29 4 50 A 8= C 88 2
ree !esp"#se $1%%&'
MgB2(s) ,---. Mg
2+
(a%) + 2 B?(a%)
!n a saturated solution o# MgB2 at 18@ C; the concentration o# Mg
2+
is 121 > 17?
0
molar (he e%uili$rium is
represented $y the e%uation a$o)e
(a) 6rite the e>pression #or the solu$ility9product constant; <sp; and calculate its )alue at 18@ C
($) Calculate the e%uili$rium concentration o# Mg
2+
in 1777 liter o# saturated MgB2 solution at 18@C to
"hich 7177 mole o# solid <B has $een added (he <B dissol)es completely Assume the )olume change is
negligi$le
(c) Predict "hether a precipitate o# MgB2 "ill #orm "hen 1777 milliliters o# a 077 > 17?
0
molar Mg(&'0)2
solution is mi>ed "ith 2777 milliliters o# a 277 > 17?
0
molar &aB solution at 18@C Calculations to
support your prediction must $e sho"n
(d) At 25@C the concentration o# Mg
2+
in a saturated solution o# MgB2 is 115 > 17?
0
molar !s the dissol)ing
o# MgB2 in "ater an endothermic or an e>othermic process* Ci)e an e>planation to support your
conclusion
ree !esp"#se $()))'
1993)
a) t"o points
<sp - DMg
2+
EDB?E
2
- (121 > 17?
0
) (2 > 121 > 17?
0
)
2
- 579 > 17?
9
$) t"o points
<sp - DMg
2+
E (2> + 7177)
2
since 2> is much less than 7177
- 579 > 17?
9
- DMg
2+
E (7717)
2
DMg
2+
E - (579 > 17?
9
) / (17?
2
)
- 579 > 17?
5
M
&oteA '< i# 7172 is used #or DB?E; then <sp - 858 > 17?
5
c) three points (#irst point earned i# $oth concentrations are correctF correct su$stitution and calculation o#
the "rong concentration )alues earns the second point Dcalc o# QE; $ut not the #irst
DMg
2+
EA
1777 > 077 > 17?
0
- 0777 > DMg
2+
E
DMg
2+
E - 177 > 17?
0
M
DB?EA
2777 > 277 > 17?
0
- 0777 > DB?E
DB?E - 100 > 17?
0
M
Q - !on Product - DMg
2+
E DB?E
2
- (177 > 17?
0
) (100 > 17?
0
)
2
- 155 > 17?
9
Since Q , <sp; no precipitate "ill #orm
&oteA conclusion must $e consistent "ith Q )alue
d) t"o points
Solu$ility o# MgB2 decreases "ith the increasing temperature; thus dissolution process is e>othermic
MgB2 999. Mg
2+
+ 2B? + Q (or 1)
GeasonA
i) !ncreased temperature puts a stree on the system (HeChItelier) (he system "ill reduce the stree $y
shi#ting the e%uili$rium in the endothermic (le#t) direction
'G
ii) A data supported argument such as comparing ion concentrations; calculating second <sp and gi)ing
proper interpretations