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Probability
Study Guide
by
David M. Levine, Ph.D.
#VAI -S1779
v1.0
To inquire about any of our products:
web: videoaidedinstruction.com
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phone: 1-800-238-1512 or 516-939- 0707
fax: 516-935-5552
mail: Video Aided Instruction, Inc.
P.O. Box 332
Roslyn Heights, NY 11577- 0332
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Algebra 2
& Trigonometry
set of 5 DVDs
This study guide should be used along with the follow-
ing program published by Video Aided Instruction. The
instructor works through the exercises found in this
guide and much, much more during the course of the
actual program.
Probability
2 DVDs 4 hrs.
item #VAI -1779 price $79.95
isbn 1-57385-177-9 upc 600459177997
Copyright 2007 Video Aided Instruction, Inc.
To all users of the Video Aided Instruction publication
named above, permission is hereby granted to create
one (1) paper imprint of this document per person. In
addition, teachers and librarians may reproduce paper
imprints of this document in quantities not to exceed
one hundred (100) imprints annually. All imprints and
reproductions made must retain all copyright notices
contained herein. This authorization is granted for this
specifc document only, and only when the document is
used along with the publication named above.
Any reproduction or distribution of this electronic
document fle itself for example, copying this fle to or
from an Internet server, a disc, or an e-mail message is
strictly prohibited. In addition, no part of this docu ment
may be reproduced by any means or for any purpose
other than as an aid during self-study or group instruc-
tion along with the aforementioned publication.
Other Video Aided Instruction titles you might enjoy:
Statistics
set of 3 DVDs
Probability Study Guide
Introduction
The fundamentals of probability are integrated into
diverse math courses taught in high school and col-
lege. Now every student can master introductory
probability quickly and easily with this unique course.
The ultimate resource for high school students, col-
lege students, and adult learners, this set covers the
standard probability topics taught in math classes
and is jam-packed with practice questions and strate-
gies for tackling even the most confusing problems.
For easier studying and maximum success, we recom-
mend that you view the program over a number of
short sessions: dont try to absorb too much at one
time. Review the entire program, or specific sections,
as many times as you find necessary in order to mas-
ter the material.
Remember, you control the pace of your own learn-
ing with Video Aided Instruction. While watching
this program, you can use the following buttons on
your remote control or DVD player:
Use REVERSE SKIP to start over
the problem or section that youre watching.
Use FORWARD SKIP to jump ahead
to the next problem or section.
Use PAUSE to temporarily freeze the
screen so you can read important graphics
or try to answer questions on your own.
Also, be sure to keep plenty of scrap paper handy so
you can jot down ideas, work through concepts, and
more. Finally, be sure to use the myriad on-screen
graphics to take notes for yourself when youre
done, youll have a notebook you can refer back to
again and again.
Now its easier than ever to earn high test marks in
school or relearn forgotten mathematics all with
your own private teacher!
About Your Instructor
David M. Levine, Ph.D., is a Professor Emeritus of Sta-
tistics and Computer Information Systems at Baruch
College, City University of New York. Dr. Levine is an
award-winning educator and bestselling author. He
has written 14 textbooks, many of which have been
translated into foreign languages and adopted by
leading academic institutions around the world.
Probability Study Guide
3
Copyright 2007 Video Aided Instruction, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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PART 1 Introduction to Probability
1. A fair coin is tossed. What is the probability of obtaining a head?
2. A fair die is rolled. What is the probability of rolling the number 4?
3. A single card is selected at random from a standard deck of 52 cards. What is the probability that it
is a nine?
PART 2 Simple Probability
1. A single card is selected at random from a standard deck of 52 cards. Find the probability that the
card is:
(a) a three (b) a red card (c) a king (d) not a king (e) a club
(f) not a club
2. A fair die is rolled once. Find the probability that the number rolled is:
(a) 1 (b) 5 (c) not a 5 (d) even (e) odd
(f) 7
3. An urn contains 2 red balls, 5 white balls, and 3 green balls. If one ball is selected at random, fnd
the probability that it is:
(a) red (b) white (c) green (d) yellow
4. A group of students was asked to indicate their preference for regular or diet soft drinks. Of 14
males, 11 preferred regular soft drinks. Of 11 females, 7 preferred diet soft drinks. Find the prob-
ability that a student selected at random:
(a) prefers diet soft drinks (b) prefers regular soft drinks (c) is a female
PART 3 Joint Probability
1. A single card is selected at random from a standard deck of 52 cards. Find the probability that the
card is:
(a) the three of diamonds (b) a black king (c) a king and an ace
2. A group of students was asked to indicate their preference for regular or diet soft drinks. Of 14
males, 11 preferred regular soft drinks. Of 11 females, 7 preferred diet soft drinks. Find the prob-
ability that a student selected at random is a:
(a) male who prefers regular soft drinks
(b) female who prefers diet soft drinks
(c) female who prefers regular soft drinks
3. A sample of 50 female psychology majors indicated that 20 had brown hair, 8 were left-handed,
and 3 of the left-handed females had brown hair. (Assume none of the students are ambidex-
trous.) If an individual student is selected at random, fnd the probability that she:
(a) has brown hair and is left-handed
(b) does not have brown hair and is right-handed
(c) does not have brown hair and is not right-handed
(d) is left-handed and right-handed
4
Copyright 2007 Video Aided Instruction, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Probability Study Guide
PART 4 The Addition Rule
1. A single card is selected at random from a standard deck of 52 cards. Find the probability that the
card is a:
(a) queen or a heart (b) seven or a red (c) king or a three
(d) picture card (e) red or a black
2. A fair die is rolled once. Find the probability that the number rolled is:
(a) 3 or 4 (b) less than 5 (c) at least 5
(d) more than 5 (e) even or less than 5 (f) even or odd
3. A group of students was asked to indicate their preference for regular or diet soft drinks. Of 14
males, 11 preferred regular soft drinks. Of 11 females, 7 preferred diet soft drinks. Find the prob-
ability that a student selected at random prefers:
(a) diet soft drinks or is a female
(b) regular soft drinks or is a female
(c) regular soft drinks or is a male
4. A sample of 50 female psychology majors indicated that 20 had brown hair, 8 were left-handed,
and 3 of the left-handed females had brown hair. (Assume none of the students are ambidex-
trous.) If an individual student is selected at random, fnd the probability that she:
(a) has brown hair or is left-handed
(b) has brown hair or is right-handed
(c) is right-handed or is left-handed
5. If P(A) = .4, P(B) = .7, and P(A and B) = .3, what is P(A or B)?
PART 5 The Multiplication Rule
1. Referring to Part 4 problem 1, is the color of the card statistically independent of whether it is a
picture card?
2. Referring to Part 4 problem 3, is preference for the type of soft drink statistically independent of
gender?
3. Referring to Part 4 problem 4, is hair color statistically independent of whether the student is right-
handed or is left-handed?
4. Suppose you believe that the probability that you will get an A in mathematics is 0.6 and the prob-
ability that you will get an A in history is 0.2. If these events are statistically independent, what is
the probability that you will get an A in both mathematics and history?
5. Two fair dice are rolled. What is the probability that both dice will land on a 1?
6. Two fair dice are rolled. What is the probability that the sum of their faces will be equal to 4?
7. Two cards are selected at random from a standard deck of 52 cards with replacement. What is the
probability that both cards selected will be jacks?
8. Two cards are selected at random from a standard deck of 52 cards without replacement. What is
the probability that both cards selected will be jacks?
5
Copyright 2007 Video Aided Instruction, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Probability Study Guide
9. An urn contains 2 red balls, 5 white balls, and 3 green balls. If two balls are selected at random,
fnd the probability that both balls are red:
(a) with replacement (b) without replacement
10. Referring to problem 9, fnd the probability that the frst ball is red and the second is white:
(a) with replacement (b) without replacement
11. Referring to problem 9, fnd the probability that one ball will be red and one will be white:
(a) with replacement (b) without replacement
PART 6 Counting Principles
1. Suppose that an outft consists of a shirt and a pair of pants. If you have 4 different shirts and 3 dif-
ferent pairs of pants, how many outfts can you have?
2. Suppose that an ice cream store has 12 different favors and 9 different toppings. How many differ-
ent ways are there to combine a favor and a topping on an ice cream cone?
3. Suppose that Davids outft consists of a shirt, a tie, and a pair of pants. He has 15 shirts, 17 ties,
and 5 pairs of pants. How many different outfts can David have?
4. Suppose that an ice cream store not only has 12 different favors and 9 different toppings, but also
3 different sizes, plus the choice of a cone or a cup. How many different ways are there to combine
a favor, a topping, and a size with the choice of a cone or a cup?
5. If a fair coin is tossed 4 times, how many different outcomes are there in terms of the sequence of
heads and tails?
6. If a fair die is rolled 5 times, how many different outcomes are there in terms of the sequence of
numbers on the faces?
7. If there are 3 multiple-choice questions on a test, each having 4 possible outcomes, how many dif-
ferent possibilities are there in terms of the sequence of correct answers?
PART 7 Permutations
1. In how many different ways can Alyson, Jessica, and Sharyn board a bus?
2. At one time there were 7 teams in the Eastern Division of the American Baseball League: Baltimore,
Boston, Cleveland, Detroit, Milwaukee, New York, and Toronto. In how many different ways could
the teams fnish the season?
In 35, assume that even nonsense arrangements of letters can be considered words.
3. If each letter is used once, how many different four-letter words can be formed using the letters
A, D, E, and W?
4. How many different arrangements or words can be formed from all of the letters in each of the
following words?
(a) toy (b) too (c) theorem (d) probability
5. How many two-letter words can be formed from the word GROW?
6. Referring to problem 2, how many orders of fnish are there for the frst 4 positions only?
6
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Probability Study Guide
7. There are ten horses entered in a particular race. The Triple consists of the correct selection of the
order of fnish of the frst three horses. How many different Triple outcomes are there for this race?
8. There are 20 students in a class. Every day the teacher calls 5 students to the board, where they
each must solve a different problem. In how many different ways can the teacher call the students
to the board?
9. Marilyn has 4 white beads, 3 red beads, and 2 blue beads, all of the same size. In how many differ-
ent ways can she string all of these beads to make a necklace?
10. Three boys and two girls are sitting on a bench.
(a) In how many different ways can they be arranged?
(b) In how many different ways can they be arranged if the boys have to sit together and the girls
have to sit together?
(c) In how many different ways can they sit if the girls cannot sit together?
(d) In how many different ways can they sit if no two boys can sit next to each other?
11. A state issues license plates consisting of the digits 09 and the letters AZ. How many different
license plates can be made if
(a) 2 letters are followed by 3 digits (repetitions allowed)?
(b) 2 letters are followed by 3 digits (repetitions not allowed)?
(c) they consist of 5 letters only (repetitions not allowed)?
(d) they consist of even numbers containing 5 digits (repetitions not allowed)?
PART 8 Probability & Permutations
1. Alyson, Jessica, and Sharyn are planning on boarding a bus. What is the probability that Sharyn
boards frst, Alyson second, and Jessica third?
2. If the letters in the word WADE are rearranged at random, fnd the probability that the frst two
letters include A and D.
3. There are ten horses entered in a particular race. The Triple consists of the correct selection of the
order of fnish of the frst three horses. If each order of fnish is considered to be equally likely, fnd
the probability of correctly predicting the Triple.
4. Marilyn has 4 white beads, 3 red beads, and 2 blue beads, all of the same size. If she wants to string
all of these beads on a chain, what is the probability that she will place 4 white beads, followed by
3 red beads, followed by 2 blue beads on the chain?
PART 9 Combinations
1. Alyson, Jessica, Marilyn, and Sharyn are candidates for the offces of president and vice-president
of a club.
(a) In how many different ways can a president and vice-president be chosen from these
four children?
(b) In how many different ways can two of these children be chosen as student council
representatives?
7
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Probability Study Guide
2. An art collector has 6 positions available for hanging paintings on a wall and she has 10 paintings
to choose from. How many ways are there to choose 6 paintings to be displayed:
(a) irrespective of the positions in which the paintings are displayed?
(b) if she is concerned with the positions in which the paintings are displayed?
3. A committee of 5 students is to be chosen from 6 boys and 5 girls.
(a) How many different 5-member committees are possible?
(b) How many committees will consist of exactly 3 boys and 2 girls?
(c) How many committees will consist of no girls?
(d) How many committees will consist of at most 2 boys?
(e) How many committees will consist of at least 4 boys?
4. A basket contains 4 yellow apples, 3 green apples, and 5 red apples. If 3 apples are selected at ran-
dom:
(a) how many combinations of 3 apples are possible?
(b) how many combinations will contain exactly one of each type apple?
(c) how many combinations of 3 apples are of one type?
(d) how many combinations will be all green?
PART 10 Probability & Combinations
1. Alyson, Jessica, Marilyn, and Sharyn are candidates for the offcers of student council. If two people
are chosen, what is the probability that they will be Alyson and Sharyn?
2. A committee of 5 students is to be chosen from 6 boys and 5 girls. Find the probability that the
committee will consist of:
(a) exactly 3 boys and 2 girls (b) no girls (c) at most 2 boys
(d) at least 4 boys
3. A basket contains 4 yellow apples, 3 green apples, and 5 red apples. Find the probability that if 3
apples are randomly chosen from the basket they will be:
(a) exactly one of each type apple
(b) all the same type
(c) all green
4. Two cards are drawn at random from a standard deck of 52 cards, without replacement. What is
the probability of drawing:
(a) two kings?
(b) the ace of diamonds and the queen of diamonds in any order?
(c) an ace and a queen in that order?
(d) an ace and a queen in any order?
PART 11 Binomial Distribution
1. A family has 3 children. Find the probability that there are:
(a) exactly two girls (b) at least two girls (c) at most two girls
8
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Probability Study Guide
2. A fair coin is tossed four times. Find the probability of tossing:
(a) exactly three heads (b) at least three heads
(c) more than three heads (d) less than three heads
3. A professional basketball player has made 85% of his free throw shots in the past year. Determine
the probability that of his next six free throw shots he makes:
(a) all six (b) at least four (c) at most fve
PART 12 Conditional Probability
1. A single card is selected at random from a standard deck of 52 cards. If you knew that the card was:
(a) red, what would be the probability that it was also a picture card?
(b) a picture card, what would be the probability that it was also red?
(c) red, what would be the probability that it was also black?
2. A group of students was asked to indicate their preference for regular or diet soft drinks. Of 14
males, 11 preferred regular soft drinks. Of 11 females, 7 preferred diet soft drinks. If a student was
selected at random:
(a) given the student was a male, what would be the probability that he preferred regular
soft drinks?
(b) given the student preferred regular soft drinks, what would be the probability that the
student was a male?
3. A sample of 50 female psychology majors indicated that 20 had brown hair, 8 were left-handed,
and 3 of the left-handed females had brown hair. If an individual student is selected at random
and given that she:
(a) has brown hair, what would be the probability that she is left-handed?
(b) is left-handed, what would be the probability that she has brown hair?
(c) is right-handed, what would be the probability that she has brown hair?
PART 13 Bayes Rule
1. Use Bayes Rule to compute the probability in Part 12 problem 3(b).
2. A weather forecaster for a radio station is to be evaluated for her accuracy in predicting snow
during the winter season. Based on records kept for the last fve years, we have the following
information: on days that it actually snowed, the forecaster predicted snow 75% of the time; on
days it actually did not snow, the forecaster predicted snow 15% of the time; it actually snowed
30% of the days. Given that the forecaster predicated snow, what is the probability that it actually
snowed?
PART 14 Expected Value of a Probability Distribution
1. A carnival game consists of the roll of two dice. The variable of interest represents the sum of the
two numbers that occur when a pair of fair dice is rolled. Set up the probability distribution of the
sum of the two numbers and compute the expected value.
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Probability Study Guide
2. Referring to the carnival game in the previous problem, if you made a $1 bet on the sum being
equal to exactly 7, you would win $4 if 7 occurred, and lose $1 otherwise. What is the expected
return to you of betting $1 on the number 7?