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Introduction

Consumer buying behavior is a complex process because it depends on the impact of various
external and internal factors. Normally the consumer buying of a product will go through four
major steps, problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision
and post purchase evaluation. Traditionally the buying behavior of the consumer depends
directly of three factors like income, price and preference. ut according to modern principle
income is only a limiting factor for the consumer decision making process. The characteristics of
product, individual and environment have great influence in the consumer behavior.
!rgani"ations studying the consumer behavior with theories and models to support their
marketing practices like advertisement and also the expansion of the business.#$olomon ,%&&'(
)dvertisement can influence the customer behavior to a great extant. In tight competition
advertisement is necessary of any type of business to maintain their market share. The sale of the
company can also increase with advertisements. The advertisement strategies of each company
are different from other. Companies will implement different types of strategies to influence the
buying behavior of the customers. #consumer psychologist, n.d. ( $aying negative things about
the products is one among the modern marketing strategy. ecause of its high impact in
customers mind a number of branded companies are using this strategy. In this project this type
of marketing strategy is critically evaluated.
*ain body
In any type of business consumers are the critical elements which determines the profitability
and brand image of the company. Consumers are the end user of any product and their attitude
and behavior towards the product determines the success of that particular product. $o the study
of the customers will help the company to improve their marketing strategy according to the
customer buying behavior. Thus helps the firms to deliver products according the customer
demand and market trends. In fact this helps the organi"ation to identify the issues like,
The consumer behavior can be the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and
select between different alternatives in the market
The psychology of +how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment like
family , culture , media etc,
The behavior of the consumers while shopping and making decision to by a product.
The behavior of the consumers can be influenced by some limitations in the knowledge
about a product or the in abilities in information processing.
-hen the level of importance or interest to a products changes, the consumer motivation
and decision making strategies will also changes.
.ow the companies frame outs or adapt their campaigns and marketing strategies to
ensure the reach of the products to the right customers. #tutor%u, n.d.(
Thus the consumer behavior can be defined as /The study of individuals, groups, or
organi"ations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services,
experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer
and society./ This project deals with the detailed study of +the negative saying advertisement
strategies +which have a great influence in the marketing strategy and consumer behavior.
Companies frame out this type of marketing strategy with the detailed study on the behavior of
their targeted consumer group.
In addition to the study of the buying behavior of the consumers, the consumer behavior study
also considers the use and disposal, so that the company can track the influence of the product in
the mind of the customers. 0or example the perfume companies identified that a good percent of
the consumers uses perfumes for the intersexual attraction .$o they framed their marketing
strategy according to that. In this way the product use holds great importance to the marketer to
place or positioned the product perfectly in the market. Increased conception of the product can
encouraged by targeting the customers with different advertisement strategies. The study of the
consumer behavior impact on the society is also relevant to this project for example, the
aggressive marketing of perfumes, textiles, high fat foods, easy credits etc have serious
repercussions on the youth national health and economy. #-ringht ,%&&1( 2et see some of the
factors which influence consumer behavior.
Influences in consumer behavior
There are a lot of factors which affect the customers
The cultural and social factors can influence the behavior of a person buying behavior. In
addition to that the physical factors, marketing strategy, attraction, sensation, perception, etc can
also influence the behavior of the customer to a great extend. 0or example if a person is thirsty
he will think about buying a drink, a effective marketing campaign will attract this customers to
them. 2ikewise the radio and T3 uses the strategy to advertise the food products late afternoon
when the consumers are supposed to be getting hungry. The self image of a person also
influences the buying behavior to a great extant. The regular buying behavior of the customers is
normally influenced by the social factors. This is because consumer normally tries to imitate the
person whom they admire and will buy the same product or same brand. The main stream culture
is also an influencing factor in social environment. 0or example the )mericans prefer corn
flakes, eggs or harm for their breakfast but at the same time most of the )sian countries likes
rice. The learning of the consumer also influences the buying behavior, like new products in the
market 4 consumer buys it learn the benefits and if they satisfied they will buy it again. The
whole process is like a learning cycle about the product. 0or example imagine a person is trying
the hamburger for the first time , if it satisfies his needs he will but it when the next time he
become hungry he will think about the taste of the hamburger and try to buy a next one. In this
way the buying behavior of a person can be influenced by a lot of things. #Consumer
psychologist, n.d. (
)dvertising strategies
The advertising strategies are normally implemented by the companies to attract and creating
interest in the mind of the customers to buy their product. $ome of the major advertising
strategies are follows.
Celebrity endorsement5 In this the company will make use of celebrity people to promote
the products among the customer.
6rice comparison5 This done by advertising the price of the product with the competitors
indirectly to show that their product is more economic.
6roduct comparison5 Comparing the other products and stating that the product is
superior to others.
$elling a dream or life style5 This will demonstrate how the products will make the dream
of the consumer come true. ut the advertiser should think about the ethics in advertising
as well.
$elling with sex 5 This one of the modern strategy of advertising in which the advertiser
shows that 7 how their product will make consumer popular with the opposite sex,
8motional marketing5 In this strategy the product is connected with the emotional
behavior of the customers.
!ut of these strategies some of them are more subjective than others for example the strategies
like selling a life style the business will aimed to create a brand name. in this type of
advertisement the advertiser will only focus towards selling the product or creating the brand
image it is may not necessary to add real value to the product as well as real life. Consumer is
buying the product because they likes the concept behind it no matter they are good or bad. $o
the ethical factor in the advertisement is really important to the advertiser. #9ewler , %&&1(
8thics
y saying negative thing about their product the advertiser is aiming at attracting the consumer
by emotional strategy or selling with sex or life style. This is to attract a specified targeted
customers normally youngsters. The scenario created by the advertiser will influence he
customers think accordingly. Thus the buying behavior of the consumers can be influenced. ut
there should be cross check that how much ethical is this advertisement. 2ets see some of the
ethical :uestions about the modern advertisement techni:ues,
;esponsibility of the advertiser5 <oes the company educating the consumers in a right
way to the product= 0or example, companies like <iesel are promoting their product by
pictures with over influence of sex which may miss lead the youngster.
The advertiser will suggest that the product will make the person more sexy, beautiful,
interesting, successful. Is there is value added to this type of arguments=
In the celebrity endorsement the advertiser uses to promote the product, but some time
they even don>t know what the product is and also they don>t even use them which is un
ethical.
In the modern world the companies are implementing lot of innovative marketing
strategies without even care the buyers emotions and after effects. $o the buyer should be
aware the strategies because it is their responsibility to not allow advertising to
manipulate their emotions.
The advertiser saying bad things about the product is to manipulate the emotions, feelings, life
style trends so that the person attracted to the product.#media awareness,n.d.( -hen the market
is saturated with positive advertisement strategies the consumers will get easily attracted to the
negative word advertisement about the product. *ore over the advertiser can create a brand
image this can be explained detailed by taking some practical examples as follows,
$!*8 8?)*628$ !0 N8@)TI38 )<38;TI$8*8NT C)*6)I@N$5
$T5 6)A2I 88;5
#loveyourbody,%&B&(
The advertisement shown above is for the beer company. .ere in this advertisement it shows a
beer bottle in the shape of the ladies body. The ) lady is represented as the beer bottle and hair of
the lady represents the beer flushing outside the bottle. This is considered to be really offensive
to the woman. 0rom the early ages onwards the ladies are considered as the second class in the
society. The advertisement shown above clearly indicates the proof of that even in this modern
age. In the modern age also woman is considered to be under the men. .ere the bottle represents
the body of the woman and which is developed with one and only one use and throw. Consuming
every drop in the bottle he will throw away the bottle like that consuming every drop in women
then the men will throw out the girls. This is considered to be the more offensive to the ladies.
8ven though this beer company has greater brand name in the alcohol market and if the
advertisements are made on the basis on negative advertising it can deeply affect the brand
e:uity of the company. The people in the whole world will never think of any good thing but if
there is any bad thing arises it will create a deep impact in the minds of the customers and it will
badly affect the reputation of the company as well. #loveyourbody,%&B&(
@ACCI5
#loveyourbody,%&B&(
This advertisement is from the famous company @ACCI. @ACCI is the one of the biggest
multinational company which is mainly concentrated on the fashion industries concentrating on
both male and female customers around the globe. The main negative concept of this
advertisement is that as we said in the earlier controversial advertisement here also in this
concept the women are considering to be below the feet of the men. In this advertisement it is
well clear and can be seen that a woman touching foot of a men. This is considered to develop a
negative impact on the minds of the women as it is well and clear that the women are below the
men in many aspects of the life even in the case of the fashion. This advertisement has been
banned many parts of the 8uropean nation as it creates a bad impression in the minds of females
of around the globe. #loveyourbody,%&B&(
ANIT8< C!2!;$ !0 8N8TT!N5
#abdu"eedo,n.d.(
The above picture is created by !liviero Toscani is a wellCknown fashion photographer. .e is the
professional photographer who is working for the 8lle, 3ogue etc. The above picture is meant for
the famous company called united colors of enetton. This advertisement is created in the year
B11%. !bviously this advertisement has made him famous all over the world for the above
photography. -ith the help of the above image he had brought the concepts of the making things
together. The above concept was to bring the contrasting opposites together for the better world
but at the same time this had made a wrong impact on the minds of the people around the world.
*ainly this had made a wrong impact on the people of 3atican as they believe that it had created
a wrong impact on the Catholics. The photographer meant this picture for the acceptance of the
multi cultural and the acceptance of the difference among the people around the world to have
better peace and lives for everyone. The people around the world think that doing the
advertisement within the concepts of the religion is utterly bad. .ere the main controversial issue
raised due to the sensual kiss with the sacred girl is the issue that is affected. .ere this sensual
kiss has greatly affected the values of the Catholicism and due this the people in this religion
were tried to pretest around this and finally the above advertisement was banned. 8specially the
in 3atican and 0rance it had created deep impact and finally these posters are finally removed
from the 0rench region. #abdu"eedo,n.d.(
N)N<!$5
# theinspirationroom,%&&'(
The figure that is shown above is an advertisement released by N)N<!$ for their restaurant
business. The main theme behind the advertisement is the girl is doing striping job and bar
dancing for the having the food from the N)N<!$. The se:uence in the advertisement is as
follows. +If you>re a busy woman like me you don>t have time for cravings. )t work I used to
tame my 6eri 6eri cravings with a Nandos 0ix patch. It had its drawbacks though. -ith new
Nandos 0ix @um I can tame my cravings without taming my clients. !f course nothing beats
enjoying Nandos with my family. ut Nandos 0ix @um comes close.,# theinspirationroom,%&&'(
The above wordings in the advertisement had created a wrong impression in the minds of
)ustralian communities. -ithin the introduction of this advertisement a total of D&& complaints
were provoked in order to ban this advertisement. Complaints were the kind of sex exploitation
in the customers. The customers feel that these types of advertisement are inappropriate for the
children around the world and this advertisement is only meant for the age groups that are above
BE years of age. ;ight from the release of this advertisement this had became a major
controversial issue in the )ustralian as well as the )frican region.
;!-N )N< -I22I)*$!N5
#loveyourbody,%&B&(
rown and -illiamson is the famous tobacco company in )merica. They are in the field of
tobacco from the year B1FG. They had used famous celebrities for the advertisement campaigns
for the tobacco. They are showing this kind of advertisement mainly focusing towards the
teenagers. The advertisements are showing as wholesome for the teenagers. They are not all
focusing towards the curse of the cigarettes anywhere in their advertisement at the same time the
advertisements are showing as a wholesome but in reality the smoking up of the cigarettes are
not healthy for the teenagers. The advertisements that are made up of with the celebrities will
create a great impact on the minds of the teenagers. The teenagers will be get easily ruined by
these type of the advertisements and a great part of teenage will get affected by the smoking
habits will disaster the future world. These types of the advertisements are greatly offensive to
the teenagers especially the female teenagers. These advertisements got over the DE& complaints
from the )merican continent by the involvement of the world health organi"ation these type of
commercials are strictly banned in the )merican continent and as well the 8uropean countries.
#loveyourbody,%&B&(

C!NC2A$I!N5
0rom the whole report we can conclude that the buying behavior of the people is typical complex
part of the marketing in the business. uying behavior can be either said as the consumer
behavior process. The characteristics of products and services served by the company plays a
vital role in the consumer buying behavior process. )dvertisements that are framed by the
different companies are basically made on the basis of the consumer behavior process. The
advertisement are made and released to the public are particularly based on the basis of knowing
the perceptions and previous marketing experience. The strategies of the advertisements are
varying from the company to company. )dvertisements can create either positive or negative
impact on the customers. ;ather than the positive impact on the customers negative impacts will
create more impression on the customers. The negative impact can lead to create many
controversial to the advertisement and it can be either blessing or the curse for the company
because with these impacts the brand name of company can be either break up or the brand name
of the company rise into higher level. 0rom all these we can say that even if the marketing
strategy developed by any company for the marketing or for the advertisements it all should be
based upon the ethic of marketing and ethic of advertisements. If the advertisements are based on
the ethical considerations it can be create a peace of mind towards the brand and which will help
in the raising the brand e:uity.
;808;8NC8$ )N< I2I!@;)6.H5
$oloman , * . amossy ,@ . )skegaard ,$ I .ogg,* .%&&' , consumer behavior ,
6rentice .all, 8ngland .
8ast , ;. -ringht, * I 3anuhue , %&&F , Consumer behaviour: applications in
marketing, $age publications.
<rewinary , .I 9ewler ,) , %&&1 Creative Strategy in Advertising, Thomson higher
education,A$).
2ove your body , n.d. !ffensive adds , JonlineK )vailable from A;2
http5LLloveyourbody.nowfoundation.orgLoffensiveads.html #retrieved on &BLB%LB&(
Consumer psychologist , n.d. consumer behaviorJonlineK )vailable from A;2
http5LLwww.consumerpsychologist.comL #retrieved on &%LB%LB&(
The inspiration room, n.d. 0ix 6atch @umJonlineK )vailable from A;2
http5LLtheinspirationroom.comLdailyL%&&'LnandosCfixCpatchCandCgumL #retrieved on
&%LB%LB&(
*edia awareness , n.d. )devertisng JonlineK )vailable from A;2 http://www.media-
awareness.ca/english/resources/educational/handouts/advertising_mar
keting/common_ad_strats.cfm (retrieved on 08/12/10
)bdu"eedo , n.d. )wesome and Controversial )ds from enetton , JonlineK )vailable
from A;2 http5LLabdu"eedo.comLawesomeCandCcontroversialCadsCbenetton #retrieved on
&FLB%LB&(