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Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.

com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 1
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems
Opportunities and Obstacles

Paul Migliore
AnemErgonics, LLC
www.anemergonics.com
Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 2
Development premise
Small wind turbines are a tough sell.
Depressed economy discourages discretionary spending.
Solar PV is a low cost renewable energy leader.
Reliability and maintainability are customer concerns.
So we must seek cost reductions wherever they are available.
Tower systems are a large part of the installed cost. Therefore, they are
a target of opportunity.
AnemErgonics focuses on monopole towers.
SMarT Tower Systems for Small Wind Turbines
Simple Modular Technology [U.S. Patent 8,161,698 and others pending]
U.S. DOE support in the form of a Small Business Innovation
Grant and ongoing collaborations with NREL.
Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 3
Concepts for tower system innovation
Innovations were aimed at the Skystream 3.7
but apply to small turbines in the 5 kW range.
Monopole towers only
Not interested in guyed or lattice towers
Others already doing this well
Technology components
Fiberglass tower shafts
Ductile cast iron components
No welds, better properties, lower cost
Laser-cut and formed accessories.
No welds, simplicity, multiple vendors
Greatly simplified foundation logistics
UPS-delivered Foundation Kit
Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 4
Which would you rather construct?
AnemErgonics Foundation
Fiber Reinforcement Only
(Pre-packaged Kits)
Mat + Pier
Traditional Steel Reinforcement
(More than 200 Wire Ties)
Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 5
Extensive testing enables innovation
Flexural Strength Tests Pullout Strength Tests
Credit: TEC Services
Lawrenceville, GA
Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 6
Payoff for foundation innovation
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Relative Cost of SMarT Foundations
Traditional
SMarT
Rapid deployment
Kits ship via FedEx, UPS, etc.
Install multiple units in short time
1500 installed worldwide
Speedy completion after excavation
2-4 hours duration
Risk reduction
Ensure parts alignment, placement
Time and cost savings
But scaling up is challenging
due to lack of experience with these
innovations.


Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 7
Which would you rather do?
Crane, High-Lift or Expensive Equipment

Simple Gin Pole for Tilt-Up/Down

Credit: West Wind Solar Electric
Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 8
Extensive testing builds confidence
Tests at DOE / NREL National Wind
Technology Center
20-year-life cycle structural tests
Residual strength test to safety factor of 5
More than 50,000 hours of field tests
97 mph and -20
o
F

















Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 9
Payoff for tower innovation
Half the weight of steel towers
Tilt-up towers to 75 height
Twice the strength of steel towers
Thick walls resist dents and buckling.
Any color
Made in the USA
Inexpensive tool kit
Gin pole and hinge plates
Potential cost savings
But .
Limited potential for scaling up
Towers require electrical grounding
Greater deflections require education of
user community
Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 10
Obstacles to deployment (in order of difficulty)
Technical uncertainty
What material properties to use for fiberglass towers?
What deflections are acceptable?
Extensive and expensive testing may be required.
Standards lag technology
Fiber reinforced concrete is widely used in other applications,
but guidelines are lacking for new purposes?
There are no recognized standards for fiberglass towers.
Test results may or may not be accepted by P.E.s.
P.E.s are risk averse and not prone to think outside the box.
If its not invented here, it cant be any good.
Entrenchment
Vendor loyalty / familiarity
Change is risky and potentially painful.
Better the devil that I know than the devil that I dont

Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 11
Obstacle tower drag reduction







Tower drag can be more than half of the total tower and foundation load.
Fiberglass exhibits significantly less drag than galvanized steel towers.
Can we exploit this technical advantage? Not yet ..
Wind Tunnel Tests
TIA-222G Standard
NACA (Polhamus)
Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 12







FAST predictions of tower top deflection
match field experience fairly well.
At 60 mph a 60 SMarT Tower deflects
approximately 1.7% of its height.
At 120 mph, what is the point of
establishing a deflection limit. Head for
the tornado shelter!
Valid tower top deflection criteria
Avoid blade strikes
Avoid amplified loads
Avoid controls interference
Challenges to setting a standard
Uncertainty about requirements
Inadequate analysis or testing
Lack of experience
Inappropriate standard (TIA-222)
1% of tower height at 60 mph
Total deflection or from mean?
Why 60 mph? Why not cutout?
Conforming towers have failed, so
what is the point of 1%?

Obstacle tower deflection perceptions
Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 13
What do these have in common?
AnemErgonics SMarT Towers
National Wind Technology Center
Boeing 787 Dreamliner
Credit: Long B. Nguyen
www.pbase.com/longbachnguyen
Both use composite materials
that exhibit considerably more
flexibility than traditional
alternatives.
Both systems improve cost
effectiveness by 15-20%.
Both have room for
improvement.
Paul Migliore, AnemErgonics, LLC, paulmigliore@msn.com
New Technology for Small Wind Turbine Monopole Tower Systems Opportunities and Obstacles
Small Wind Conference 2013: Stevens Point, Wisconsin 18-19 J une 2013
Slide 14
Future possibilities
New materials
Goal is 20% increase in fiberglass stiffness without sacrificing strength
or increasing cost.
More convenient, less expensive joining compounds
Obtain exceptions to standards through testing
Fiber reinforced concrete for larger towers
Lower drag coefficient for tower wind loads
Value engineering
Always fruitful