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Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
IP and MPLS Tunnel
Technology
Introduction
Page1
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foreword
With the development of the mobile network from 2G to 3G
and LTE as well, the data packet becomes the main service
in the transmission network.
The packet transmission solution can encapsulate the
various services in MPLS tunnel by PWE3 technology and
transmit them in packet mode uniformly.
The course is the basics for the further study of OptiX RTN
910/950.
Page2
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objectives
Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
Describe the classification of IP addresses
Describe the basic principle of IP routing
Describe the basic concepts of MPLS
Describe the MPLS tunnel (LSP) creation procedure
Outline the MPLS OAM functions
Page3
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Contents
1. IP Overview
2. MPLS Tunnel Technology
3. MPLS OAM
4. QinQ Overview
Page4
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Contents
1. IP Overview
1.1 TCP/IP Protocol Overview
1.2 IP Address Introduction and Configuration
1.3 IP Routing Overview
Page5
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
TCP/IP and OSI Model
Application Layer
Presentation Layer
Conversation Layer
Transport Layer Transport Layer
Network Layer Network Layer
Data Link Layer Data Link Layer
Physical Layer Physical Layer
Application Layer
TCP/IP Model
OSI Model
Page6
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
TCP/IP Protocol Stack
Physical
Layer
Data Link
Layer
Network
Layer
Transport
Layer
Application
Layer
HTTP, Telnet, FTP,
TFTP, Ping, etc.
TCP/UDP
ARP/RARP
ICMP
IP
Ethernet, 802.3, PPP,
HDLC, FR, etc.
Interfaces and
wires/cables
Provide application program
network interfaces
Establish terminal to
terminal connection
Addressing and route
selecting
Physical media access
Binary data flow
transmission
Page7
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
IP Header Format
Version
(4bits)
Header
Length
Type of Service
(8bits)
Total Length
(16bits)
Identifier
(16bits)
Flags
(3bits)
Fragmented Offset
Protocol
(8bits)
Header Checksum
(16bits)
Time to Live
(8bits)
Source IP Address
(32bits)
Destination IP Address
(32bits)
Options
(Variable Length)
8 8
8 8 8 8
8 8
32bits 32bits
Page8
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
IP Address
IP address is 32 bits long
Including network portion and a host portion.
Network portion
Uniquely identifies a physical or logical link and is common to all
devices attached to that link.
Host portion
Uniquely identifies a particular device attached to the link.
Generally, use dotted-decimal to represent it
For example: 10.1.1.1, 192.168.1.1, etc.
Page9
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Classification of IP Address
First Octet Rule
0
Network
(7bits)
Host(24bits)
1
Network(14bits) Host(16bits) 0
1
Network(21bits)
Host(8bits)
0 1
1
Multicast Address
0 1 1
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Class E
1.0.0.0~
126.255.255.255
128.0.0.0~
191.255.255.255
192.0.0.0~
223.255.255.255
224.0.0.0~
239.255.255.255
240.0.0.0~
255.255.255.255
1 0 1 1 1
Reserved
Page10
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Private IP Address
Private IP Address
10.0.0.0~10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0~172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0~192.168.255.255
Page11
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Subnet Mask
Distinguish network portion and host portion
32-bit string, represented by dotted-decimal format
Mask for class A: 255.0.0.0
Mask for class B: 255.255.0.0
Mask for class C: 255.255.255.0
255 255 255 0
192 168 1 1
192 168 1 0
And And
IP address
Subnet mask
IP subnet segment
Page12
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Subnets and Subnet Masks
IP Subnet: 192.168.1.16 255.255.255.240 or 192.168.1.16/28
Subnet numbers: 2
n
( n=4, 2
4
=16)
Host numbers: 2
m
-2 ( m=4, 2
4
2 = 14)
11000000 10101000 00000001 00010001
11111111 11111111 11111111 11110000
IP address: 192.168.1.17
Network Part
Subnet Part
(n bits)
Host Part
(m bits)
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.240
Page13
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
IP Address Configuration
Interconnection address planning
P2P link, just 2 hosts necessary
Mask length: 30, For example: 10.1.1.0/30
Broadcast network
According to the number of hosts in this network
For example:
60 hosts in the network: 192.168.1.0/28
120 hosts in one network: 192.168.2.128/25
Device Identifier
32 bit mask length
For example: 1.1.1.1/32
Page14
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
IP Routing
Route is the path information that guides packet forwarding
Routing table is the set of route information
R1
N, R1, M
Destination
Network N
Other Networks
Page15
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Routing Protocol
IS-IS (Intermediate
System to Intermediate
System)
B
C
E
D
F
A
SPF calculation
H
e
l
l
o
H
e
l
l
o
Hello
H
e
l
l
o
H
e
l
l
o
H
e
l
l
o
H
e
l
l
o
A
B
Adjacency relationship
establishment
C
E
D
F
L

S
L

S
L S
L

S
L

S
L

S
L

S
A
B
Flood link stateinformation
C
E
D
F
Page16
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Questions
There are 28 sets of RTN 910/950 in the network, and one of
them are the gateway which connected to the NMS, please give
them a private IP subnet in the class C IP address.
Page17
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Contents
1. IP Overview
2. MPLS Tunnel Technology
3. MPLS OAM
4. QinQ Overview
Page18
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parse IP header
mapped to next hop
Parse IP header
mapped to next hop
IP header is parse at each hop, resulting in low efficiency.
It is difficult to deploy QoS and the efficiency is rather low.
All routers are expected to know all routes in the entire network.
Traditional IP Forwarding
Parse IP header
mapped to next hop
Page19
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ATM Switching Process
Connection-oriented
Routing depends on link layer, based on VPI/VCI or label
Ensure QoS and real-time service
Virtual Channel Connection
(VCC)
Virtual Path Connection(VPC)
VP
switching
VC
switching
VC
switching
NNI NNI
VPI = 18
VCI = 44
VPI = 1
VCI = 1
VPI = 26
VCI = 44
VPI = 20
VCI = 30
UNI
UNI
Page20
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
=
Router ATM switch MPLS Router
MPLS-Multi-Protocol Label Switching
Layer 3 routing-scalable and flexible
Layer 2 switching-high reliability and traffic engineering
management
Technology Combination
+
Page21
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
MPLS Introduction
MPLSMulti-Protocol Label Switching
Multi-Protocol
Support various layer 3 protocols, such as IP, IPv6, IPX, SNA
Label Switching
Label the packet, forward packets by label switching instead of IP
forwarding
Page22
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
MPLS Basic Concepts
LSR: Label Switch
Router
LER: Label Edge Router
LSP: Label Switch Path
LER
LER
LER
LER
LSR
LSR
LSR
MPLS domain
IP
MPLS
LSP
Non-MPLS
device
Non-MPLS
device
Page23
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
MPLS Basic Concepts (Cont.)
FEC----Forwarding Equivalent Class
Set of data flows with the same attributes. These data flows
are processed in the same way by LSRs during transmission.
FECs are identified by the address, service type, and QoS.
During IP forwarding through the longest match algorithm,
packets with the same destination belong to an FEC.
Page24
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
MPLS Packet
MPLS packet header locates between layer2 and layer3
L2 Header
L3 Header L3 Payload
MPLS Label
Label
Exp S TTL
0
19 22 23 31
Page25
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
MPLS Label Stacking
IP L1 IP
IP L2 IP L2 L3
IP L2 L4
IP
L2
MPLS Domain
MPLS nested Domain
MPLS
header
Layer2
header
IP header Data
MPLS
header
IP
Page26
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tunnel Technology
The point to point tunnel provides the path for data
transparently transmission.
OptiX RTN 910/950 can form the tunnel by
MPLS LSP
QinQ
Tunnel
A B C D
Page27
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
MPLS tunnel technology
LSP
Ingress
Egress
Core LSR
MPLS domain
Transit Transit
LER LER
IP network
IP network
Core LSR
LSP includes the static LSP and dynamic LSP.
Page28
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
MPLS Label Operations
Label operations include push, swap and pop.
Pus
h
Swap
Swap Pop
LER
LER
IP
IP
L1 IP
L2 IP
L3 IP
Page29
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creating the Static LSP
Static LSPs are manually created by users to assign labels
for each forwarding equivalence class (FEC) .
The principle followed in manually assigning labels:
The value of the OUT label on a node is the value of the IN
label on the next node.
Ingress Transit
Egress
3.3.3.3/32
Page30
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creating the Dynamic LSP
Dynamic LSP is set up automatically by the signaling
protocol.
In OptiX RTN 910/950, RSVP allocates LSP tunnel labels.
Packet forwarding module
Create LSP
Frame
Create LSP
Message diffuse
Frame
Link State
database
TE
database
IGP routing LSP selection
Signaling
module
IS-IS routing
Message diffuse
Page31
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
MPLS Label Forwarding
In the MPLS domain, there is a static LSP to the IP host
3.3.3.3/32
A
(ingress)
3.3.3.3/32 3.3.3.3/32
100 200 300
F
G
I
H
E
B
(transit 1)
C
(transit 2)
D
(egress)
Eth0 Eth0 Eth2 Eth1
Eth2 Eth0
Eth3
Page32
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
MPLS Label Forwarding Table
For the former static LSP to the IP host 3.3.3.3/32, the
MPLS label forwarding table in A, B, C, D are:
Node IN interface IN label OUT interface OUT label (next hop)
A (Ingress) FEC
3.3.3.3/32
B (Transit1) Eth0 300 Eth2 200
C (Transit2) Eth1 200 Eth2 100
Eth0
push Eth0 300
D (Egress) 100 Eth3 pop
Page33
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
MPLS Label Forwarding
The MPLS forwarding for the former FEC
Ingress Ingress Transit1 Transit1
Egress Egress Transit2 Transit2
3.3.3.3/32 3.3.3.3/32
100 200 300
IP Packet
To:3.3.3.3
Push Swap
Swap
Pop
IP Packet
To:3.3.3.3
Label:300
IP Packet
To:3.3.3.3
Label:200
IP Packet
To:3.3.3.3
Label:100
IP Packet
To:3.3.3.3
Eth0 Eth0 Eth2 Eth1 Eth2 Eth0
Eth3
Page34
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Node B
RNC
The MPLS tunnel application in OptiX RTN 910/950:
MPLS Tunnel Application
Page35
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
MPLS TTL Processing
Uniform Mode
MPLS Domain MPLS Domain
CE CE
PE PE P P
PE PE
CE CE
IP TTL IP TTL
255 255
IP TTL IP TTL
254 254
MPLS MPLS
TTL254 TTL254
MPLS MPLS
TTL254 TTL254
IP TTL IP TTL
254 254
MPLS MPLS
TTL253 TTL253
IP TTL IP TTL
252 252
Page36
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
MPLS TTL Processing (Cont.)
Pipe Mode
CE CE
PE PE P P
PE PE
CE CE
IP TTL IP TTL
255 255
IP TTL IP TTL
254 254
MPLS MPLS
TTL100 TTL100
MPLS MPLS
TTL100 TTL100
IP TTL IP TTL
254 254
MPLS MPLS
TTL100 TTL100
IP TTL IP TTL
253 253
MPLS MPLS
TTL 99 TTL 99
Page37
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Summary
Background of the MPLS
MPLS concepts: LER, LSR, LSP, FEC
MPLS label structure and label stacking
MPLS tunnel technology: ingress, transit, egress, push,
swap, pop, static LSP, dynamic LSP, MPLS Label
Forwarding
MPLS TTL processing
Page38
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Contents
1. IP Overview
2. MPLS Tunnel Technology
3. MPLS OAM
4. QinQ Overview
Page39
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Contents
3. MPLS OAM
3.1 MPLS Tunnel Failure Detection
3.2 MPLS OAM
Page40
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
MPLS Ping
MPLS ping is used for LSP failure detection
5.5.5.5/32 5.5.5.5/32
4.4.4.4/32 4.4.4.4/32
MPLS Echo Request message (TTL:255)
MPLS Echo Request reply
1.1.1.0/30 1.1.1.0/30 3.3.3.0/30 3.3.3.0/30
2.2.2.0/30 2.2.2.0/30
Tunnel (LSP) Tunnel (LSP)
Page41
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MPLS Traceroute
MPLS traceroute is used for LSP failure locating
1.1.1.0/30 1.1.1.0/30 3.3.3.0/30 3.3.3.0/30
2.2.2.0/30 2.2.2.0/30
5.5.5.5/32 5.5.5.5/32
4.4.4.4/32 4.4.4.4/32
Tunnel (LSP) Tunnel (LSP)
Echo Request (TTL:1)
Echo reply
Echo Request (TTL:2)
Echo reply
Echo Request (TTL:3)
Echo reply
Page42
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Functions of MPLS OAM
MPLS OAM must realize the following functions:
MPLS OAM provides on-demand and continuous connectivity
verification of LSPs to confirm that faults do not exist on the monitored
LSPs.
If a fault occurs, MPLS OAM must detect, diagnose, and locate the
fault, notify the NMS of the fault, and take actions appropriate to the
fault type.
MPLS OAM functions must be backward compatible.
MPLS OAM has the capability to measure the availability and network
performance of an LSP and provide information for user accounting.
Page43
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MPLS OAM Packets
MPLS OAM packets can be classified into three types:
Connectivity verification packets
CVConnectivity Verification
FFDFast Failure Detection
FDI (Forward Defect Indication) packets
BDI (Backward Defect Indication) packets
Page44
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Connectivity Verification Packets
CV Detection
For the CV detection on the egress, the egress sets a sliding
window to 3 seconds and judges the LSP status according to
the CV packet received in the sliding window.
FFD Detection
For the FFD detection on the egress, the egress sets a sliding
window as three times as the interval for sending the FFD
packet and judges the LSP status according to the FFD packet
received in the sliding window.
Page45
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Backward Defect Indication
Packets
MPLS OAM BDI Detection Case
Source LSR
Transit LSR
Transit LSR
Sink LSR
CV/FFD
14:OAM Alert
LSP Out-label
BDI
14:OAM Alert
LSP Out-label
backwar
d tunnels
Page46
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Questions
Whats the difference between CV packet and FFD packet?
Page47
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Contents
1. IP Overview
2. MPLS Tunnel Technology
3. MPLS OAM
4. QinQ Overview
Page48
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ethernet Frame Structure
Ethernet_II
DMAC SMAC Length/T DATA/PAD FCS
Length/Type Mean
Length/T > 1500
Length/T <= 1500
Type of the frame
Length of the frame
802.3
46---1500 bytes
64---1518 bytes
Page49
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
VLAN Application
VLAN 2
VLAN 1
VLAN 1 VLAN 2
Ethernet frame
with VLAN tag 1
Ethernet frame
with VLAN tag 2
Ethernet frame
without VLAN flag
DA SA TPID (8100) VLAN Ethernet Data
2 N 2 6 6
VLAN Frame
Page50
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QinQ Overview
QinQ is the VLAN (IEEE 802.1Q) stacking technology
DA SA TPID (8100) VLAN Ethernet Data
2 N 2 6 6
DA SA TPID (8100) S-VLAN TPID (8100) C-VLAN Ethernet data
6 6 2 2 2 2 N
VLAN Frame
QinQ Frame
Page51
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Application Scenario of QinQ
Page52
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Summary
IP address classification and application
MPLS basic concepts and tunnel technologies
MPLS failure detection and OAM functions
QinQ application
Thank you
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