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Salt Analysis

Step 1: Note Colour of Salt

Colour of Salt Inference


Blue or Bluish Green Cu2+ or Ni2+
Green Ni2+
Light Green Fe2+
Light Pink Mn2+
Dark Brown Fe3+
Yellow Fe3+ or ferrous carbonate
White All above mentioned cations are
absent

Step 2: Smell the salt. Rub a little of the given salt between your fingers and
smell.

Smell Inference
Smell of vinegar CH3COO-
Ammoniacal Smell NH4+
Smell like rotten eggs S-

Step 3: Flame test. Make a paste of salt with concentrated HCl and
introduce small quantity into oxidising flame.

Colour of Flame Inference


Brick red Ca2+
Crimson red Sr2+
Light Green (appears after sometime) Ba2+
Bluish Green Cu2+

Step 4: Solubility test.

Original Solution
Cold distilled water
Hot distilled water
Cold dilute HCl
Hot dilute HCl
Cold concentrated HCl
Hot concentrated HCl
Step 5 (If salt doesn’t dissolve in distilled water): Make sodium
extract (S.E).

Steps to prepare sodium extract:

1. Add 1 portion of salt to beaker.

2. Add 3 portions of Na2CO3.

3. Add 10-15 ml of water

4. Boil the mixture for 5 minutes

5. Cool the mixture.

6. Filter the mixture.

7. Use residue for the experiment.

Step 6: Test for ammonia.

Test for Ammonia Inference


Boil the O.S and pass effervescence Nessler’s reagent turns orange.
through nessler’s reagent.
Heat a small quantity of salt with Ammoniacal smell.
NaOH solution.

Step 7: Dilute H2SO4 test for anions. Add salt to dilute H2SO4 and heat and
pass effervescence through

Lime Water Lime water turns milky CO32-


Lead acetate paper (gas Lead Acetate paper S2-
evolved smells of rotten turns black
eggs)
Acidified Potassium Potassium dichromate SO32-
dichromate paper paper turns green
FeSO4 solution FeSO4 solution turns NO2-
black

Anion Confirmatory Test Result


CO32- Shake salt with water
and filter.
(Soluble CO32-) • Filtrate + dil. HCl • CO2 with
• Filtrate + MgSO4 effervescence
• White precipitate.
(Insoluble CO32-) Residue + dil. HCl CO2 with effervescence.
S2- W.E or S.E + acetic acid Black precipitate
(3 drops) + Lead
acetate solution
SO32- W.E or S.E + BaCl2 White precipitate
solution formed which dissolves
in excess in dil. HCl
NO2- W.E + acetic acid (2 Dark red colour
drops) + FeSO4

Step 8: Concentrated H2SO4 test for anions. Add salt to concentrated H2SO4
and pass effervescence through

AgNO3 solution White precipitate Cl-


formed in AgNO3
solution
Starch paper Starch paper turns Br-
yellow or orange
Starch paper turns blue I-
FeSO4 solution FeSO4 solution turns NO3-
black
If none of the above tests are positive test for SO42- and acetate

Anion Confirmatory Test Result


Cl- S.E + dil. HNO3. Boil and White precipitate
add AgNO3 solution. soluble in NH4OH.
Br- S.E + dil. HNO3. Boil and Pale yellow precipitate
add AgNO3 solution. which is partially soluble
in NH4OH.
I- S.E + dil. HNO3. Boil and Yellow precipitate
add AgNO3 solution. insoluble in NH4OH.
NO3- Salt + conc. H2SO4 +Cu Reddish brown vapours.
chips. Heat.
W.E + FeSO4 + conc. Brown ring formed.
H2SO4 by sides of test
tube.
CH3COO- W.E + neutral FeCl3 Blood red colour.
solution
SO42- W.E or S.E + dil. HCl + White precipitate
BaCl2 solution formed which is
insoluble in dil. HCl
Step 9: Test for Cations. (Check confirmation table if a group precipitates)

Experiment Observation Inference


Group 1:To O.S add White precipitate if Pb2+, Ag+
dilute HCl. formed
Group 2: Acidify O.S Black precipitate is Pb2+, Cu2+
with dilute HCl and pass formed
H2S gas through it.
Group 3: Boil of H2S • Reddish brown • Fe3+
gas completely and precipitate • Al3+
then add I gm of NH4Cl • White precipitate • Cr3+
and 0.5 cm3 of conc. • Green precipitate • Fe2+
HNO3. Boil and cool and • For Fe2+: O.S or
then add NH4OH till it filtrate of group 2 +
smells of ammonia. Potassium
ferricyanide solution.
Group 4: Pass H2S gas • White precipitate • Zn2+
through solution of • Black precipitate • Ni2+
group 3 • Flesh coloured • Mn2+
or precipitate
O.S + NH4OH+ H2S gas
Group 5: Take Filtrate White precipitate Ba2+, Sr2+ or Ca2+
of group 4. Boil of H2S
and divide solution into
three parts. Add NH4Cl,
NH4OH and (NH4)2CO3.
Filter.
Group 6: To filtrate add White precipitate Mg2+
a pinch of NH4OH and
excess of ammonium
phosphate solution.

Confirmation Table:

Cation Confirmatory Test Result


Pb2+ Boil the white • Yellow precipitate
precipitate with distilled • Yellow precipitate
water and divide
solution into two parts
• To one part add KI
solution
• To second part add
K2CrO4 solution
Cu2+ Dissolve black • Deep blue solution
precipitate in 50% • Chocolate brown
HNO3. Bluish green precipitate.
solution formed.
• Add excess of NH4OH
solution to bluish
green solution.
• Acidify bluish green
solution with acetic
acid and add
potassium
ferrocyanide
solution.
Fe3+ Dissolve brown • Prussion blue colour
precipitate in dilute HCl or precipitate
and divide into two • Blood red
parts. colouration.
• To first part add
potassium
ferrocyanide solution
• To second part add
potassium
sulphocyanide
solution.
Fe2+ O.S + Potassium A blue colour or
ferricyanide solution precipitate
Al3+ White precipitate + dil. A blue precipitate
HCl + few drops of blue suspended in a
litmus solution + NH4OH colourless liquid
solution in excess
Zn2+ Dissolve part of white • Bluish white
precipitate in dil. HCl. precipitate
Divide solution into two • White precipitate
parts. soluble in excess of
• To one part add NaOH
potassium
ferrocyanide solution
• To second part add
NaOH solution
Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ Dissolve white • Yellow precipitate
precipitate in dil. Acetic confirms Ba2+.
acid. Boil of CO2. • White precipitate
• To one part K2Cr04 confirms Sr2+.
solution. • White precipitate
• To second part add confirms Ca2+.
ammonium sulphate
solution.
• To third part add
ammonium oxalate
solution.
Mg2+ Wash and suspend a Blue precipitate or
part of white precipitate colouration.
in water. Add a drop of
HCl followed by a few
drops of magneson
reagent and excess of
NaOH solution