ARMA/USRMS 05769
Applying fully coupled geomechanics and fluid flow model theory to petroleum wells
Ta, Q.D.
Australian School of Petroleum, The University of Adelaide, SA, Australia
Hunt, S. P.
Australian School of Petroleum, The University of Adelaide, SA, Australia
Sansour, C.
Australian School of Petroleum, The University of Adelaide, SA, Australia
Copyright 2005, ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association
This paper was prepared for presentation at Alaska Rocks 2005, The 40th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS): Rock Mechanics for Energy, Mineral and Infrastructure Development in the Northern Regions, held in Anchorage, Alaska, June 2529, 2005.
This paper was selected for presentation by a USRMS Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted earlier by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by ARMA/USRMS and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of USRMS, ARMA, their officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of ARMA is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgement of where and by whom the paper was presented.
ABSTRACT: In the last century, there has been strong emphasis on numerical formulations related to the interaction between rock deformation and multiphase fluid flow behavior in hydrocarbon reservoirs. The emphasis of this work has been to develop a coupled model for a petroleum well used within a reservoir simulator. The coupled interaction between geomechanics and fluid production can significantly influence both the stress state and fluid flow in the reservoir. As a consequence, coupled theory can provide a unique advantage in simulation interaction between porous media and fluid flow. In addition, the coupled well model can be used to model compaction and subsidence problems in the near wellbore area. Applying the advantage of the finite element method, the governing equations will be solved. Initial results show the influences of geomechanical parameters which have been investigated.
1. INTRODUCTION
The coupled formulations of deformation and fluid flow are governed by the principal equations, the mass conservation equation, the momentum equation and Darcy’s equation. These physical laws are presented by partial differential equations that can be solved by either analytical methods or numerical methods. In the last century, many researchers have investigated coupled methodologies for application to reservoir simulation particularly in the area of formation subsidence, compaction and hydraulic fracturing. For example, the coupled formulations of deformation and fluid flow were first analyzed by Terzaghi [1,2] as a problem for material consolidation. Subsequent to this, Biot [3] focused on extending the Terzaghi’s theory into 3 dimensions. Also focusing on a linear stressstrain
relationship and singlephase fluid flow, both Terzaghi’s and Biot’s analyses are linear, but have not yet been extended for nonlinear systems. Following that work, coupled models have existed not only in petroleum engineering but also in civil engineering, geotechnical engineering and rock mechanics. This would include the work of Sandhu and Wilson [4], Ghaboussi and Wilson [5], Gambolati and Freeze [6], Noorishad et al. [7], these are some of the earliest coupled hydromechanical models. In recent years, Gutierrez et al. [8] presented the general equations and theory of a fully coupled analysis for hydrocarbon reservoir compaction and subsidence. They showed that compaction drive could not be properly represented by simply adjusting the value of rock compressibility used in traditional reservoir simulation. Also Chen et al. [9]
1
examined and extended Biot’s two phase, isothermal and linear poroelastic theory for porous fluidflow modeling. Their theory can be applied for coupled rock mechanics and fluid flow problems. Chin et al. [10] have developed a fully coupled geomechanics and fluid flow model of wells with stress dependence. However, these theories were just applied in two dimensions and for Cartesian coordinates. McKinley [11] has investigated coupled consolidation for a radial coordinate system. He has derived a new formulation for the plane strain axisymmetric consolidation problem. Although the work presents results for coupling effects, he applied the finite difference method for numerical computation. Bai et al. [12] used the dual porosity poroelastic model applied to cylindrical co ordinates. This research presented good results for a simplified axisymmetric configuration in which numerical analysis attempted to replicate experimental results where both divergent flow through a centrallylocated borehole and point injection and collection across a cylindrical rock specimen were incorporated. However, their research did not describe application of the coupled porosity value at each time step. In advancing this research, Wan [13] developed a new framework for the coupled analyses, using the stabilized finite element method for the force balance equations. Although the studies applied to fully coupled models, they were also restricted to two dimensions and the numerical method used was the control volume finite difference method which solved the remaining component mass balance equations. In recent research, Sansour [14] has proposed a theory developed for biomedical research which is equally applicable to petroleum engineering and is described herein. Applying Sansour’s coupled theory to this research, the porosity values are updated at each calculation time step and integration point. This advantage allows application to multiporosity models. In this numerical scheme, the finite element method is mainly used to solve the governing differential equations.
on the
The
objective of this paper is to focus
mathematical 
equations 
for 
a 
well 
model 
by 
presenting: 
− New formulations of coupled theories for fluid and solid behaviour applied to radial flow in reservoir engineering. Until now formulations for coupled radial flow have not been fully resolved. These derived governing equations are
then solved using the finite element method within the Matlab programming language. This paper provides the following:
− 
Generalized effects of coupling formulations applied to petroleum reservoirs. 
− 
A case study comparisons with a commercially available reservoir simulator. 
2. 
GOVERNING EQUATIONS 
Constitutive laws reflect the internal constitution of a material, by defining specific types of material behavior. They are fundamental in the sense that they are the starting point studies in the discipline of elasticity, plasticity, and various idealized fluid. The mechanical constitutive laws of a material specify the dependence of stress in a body on kinematic variables such as the strain tensor or the rate of deformation or pressure with the effective stress. The system of equations obtained by applying the conservation laws are not fully determinate, i.e., the system has more unknowns than the number of equations. To close the system, we need additional equations relating stress to deformation. This will close the system of equations, i.e.; the number of unknowns will equal the number of equations. Boundary conditions are to be applied on the boundary which will be transmitted into the material by the rules determined by the system of partial differential equations. Boundary conditions can be given as stresses or solid displacements or fluid pressure prescribed at the boundary.
The governing equations for three dimensions for single phase flow in a deforming porous media can be expressed as following:
2.1.
2.1.1
∂ρ
∂ t
Solid phase
Conservation of mass
+ ∇
.(
ρ
v)
=
0
Applying to solid phase
∂
∂ t
((1
− φ
).
ρ
s
)
+ ∇
.((1
− φ
).
ρ
s
.v
s
(1) 

) 
= 
0 
(2) 
Where v _{s} is the solid velocity, φ the formation
porosity, and ρ _{s} the solid density. Assuming deformation due to rearrangement of solid particles so that ρ _{s} =const
∂
∂ t
(1
− φ
)
+ ∇
.((1
− φ
).v )
s
= 0
(3)
2
Because
∇.((1− φ).v
s
)= (1− φ)∇.v + v .∇(1− φ
s
s
)
So
∂
∂
t
(1
− φ
)
+
(1
)
− φ ∇
.v
s
v
s
.
∇
(1
− φ
)
= 0
+
From the definition of the material derivative
dF
∂
F
=
dt
∂
t
+
v .
s
∇
F
So Eq.(4) become
d
dt
(1
− φ
)
+
(1
)
− φ ∇
.v
s
=
0
(4)
(5)
(6)
With volumetric strain definition we have
ε
vol
= ∇.u
s
= ε
r
+ ε
θ
+ ε
z
Substituting Eq.(7) into Eq.(6) yield:
d
d
dt
(
1
− φ
)
+
(
1
− φ
)
ε
vol
dt
= 0
Rearrange Eq.(8) we have
d
d
(
1 − φ
)
ε
vol
(
1 − φ )
dt
= −
(7)
(8)
(9)
Integrating Eq.(9) both sides with the initial condition, we have the variation of the porosity
φ =
1
−
(
1
− φ
0
)
e
−ε
vol
+ε
vol, 0
(10)
Where φ _{0} is the initial porosity and ε _{v}_{o}_{l}_{,}_{0} is the initial volumetric strain which is the value at the previous time step. At t=0, the initial volumetric strain is equal to zero.
2.1.2 Conservation of momentum
Applying the conservation of momentum for the
solid phase, yields,
∇.σ + f = 0
(11)
According to the theory developed by Fowler and Noon [15], we have the effective stress equation '
σ = σ −
(1
− φ
0
).I.P
σ′
(12)
Where σ and
respectively. I is the identity tensor, P is the pore pressure and f is the body force per unit volume.
are total stress and effective stress,
The effective solid is related to the solid strain with the following linear equation
σ'= D.ε
(13)
In radial coordinates, this becomes
σ =
'
and
D =
⎧ σ
⎪
⎪
σ
τ
⎪
⎪
⎩
σ
'
r
'
θ
'
z
⎨
'
rz
⎫
⎪
⎪
⎬
⎪
⎪
⎭
,
ε =
⎧ ε
ε
ε
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎩
τ
r
θ
z
rz
⎫
⎪
⎪
⎬
⎪
⎪
⎭
⎡ 1 
− ν 
ν 
ν 
0 

E 
⎢ ⎢ 
ν 
1 
− ν 
ν 
0 

( 
1 
+ ν 
)( 
1 
− 
2 
ν 
) ⎢ ⎢ 
ν 
ν 
1 
− ν 
0 

0 
0 
0 
1 
− 
2 
ν 
⎢
⎣
2
(14)
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
Where: E is the elastic modulus and ν is Poisson’s ratio.
2.2. Fluid phase
2.2.1. Conservation of mass
(See figure 1)
m in  m out =m acc
We have
m acc
= (ρ.r.dθ.dz.dr.φ)
(15)
So, the variation of accumulated mass with time is
∂ ^{m} acc
∂
=
∂ t
∂
t
(ρ
θ
.r.d .dz.dr.
φ
)
and
m
in
=
(
m
out
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎛
⎜
⎝
+ ρ
+ ρ
(
(
=
.v
.v
ρ.v .φ.A
r
r
)
+
(
ρ.v .φ.A
z
z
)
+
(
ρ.v .φ.A
θ
⎛
⎜
⎝
Z
θ
(
ρ
.v
.
φ
.A
.
φ
.A
r
.
Z
θ
(
∂ ρ
.v
r
.
φ
.A
r
)
φ
)
.A
+
r
)
(
+
.v
Z
.
φ
∂
.A
r
Z
)
⎞
dz ⎟
⎠
⎞
d θ ⎟
⎠
∂ ρ
)
+
(
∂ ρ
.v
∂
.
θ
z
φ
.A
θ
)
∂θ
⎞
dr ⎟
⎠
With
A
_{r} =
r.d .dz
θ
, A
_{z} =
r.d .dr
θ
, A
θ
= dr.dz
θ
)
(16)
(17)
3
Fig. 1: Schematic showing of fluid flow in a single element
Substituting Eq.(16), Eq.(17) into Eq.(15), yield
∂
∂ t
(
.
ρ φ
)
=
( 
.v 
r 
. 
φ 
.r 
) 
+ 
( ∂ ρ 
.v 
Z 
. 
φ 
) 
+ 
( 1 ∂ ρ 
.v 
θ 
. 
φ 
) 

r 
∂ 
r 
∂ z 
r 
∂θ 
⎛ 1 ∂ ρ − ⎜
⎝
⎟ ⎞
⎠
Because the system is axisymmetric Eq.(18) becomes
φ
∂
∂
t
)
(
.
ρ φ
= − ⎛ ⎜ 1 ∂ ρ
r
.v
r
.
(
.r
)
+
(
∂ ρ
.v
Z
.
φ
)
⎟ ⎞
⎠
⎝
∂ r
∂ z
(18)
(19)
2.2.2. Conservation of momentum
Applying Darcy’s law which can be derived from
have
with i=r, z. Substituting Darcy’s
conservation
of
momentum
we
K ∇ P
φ
v
i
= −β
µ
law into Eq.(19) yields
∂ 2 
P 
1 ∂ P 
+ C 
⎛ ∂ P ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 
2 
∂ 
2 
P 
+ C 
⎛ ∂ P ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 

∂ r 
2 1 
+ r µφ 
∂ r C 
∂ P 
f 
⎝ 
∂ 
r 
⎠ 
+ ∂ 
z 
2 
f 
⎝ 
∂ 
z 
⎠ 

= 

αβ K 
t ∂ t 

With C 
t 
= 
C f + 
C 
s 
= 
1 ρ ∂ P ∂ρ 
+ 1 φ ∂ P ∂φ 
2
(20)
is the total compressibility. C _{f} and C _{s} are fluid and solid compressibility, respectively.
It is clear that
⎛ ∂ P ⎞
⎟
⎜
⎝
⎠
∂
r
2
and ⎛ ⎜ ∂ P ⎞
⎟
⎠
⎝
∂
z
2
are nonlinear and <<1
These terms are often neglected in the equations used for conventional reservoir simulation as follows:
∂ 2 
P 
+ 
1 ∂ P 
+ 2 ∂ µφ P 1 = 
C 
∂ P 

∂ r 
2 
r 
∂ 
r 
2 ∂ αβ z 
K 
t 
∂ 
t 
(21)
By applying the above assumptions, these equations have an analytical solution. Nevertheless, the general case requires a numerical method to be solved which has boundary and initial conditions. a. Boundary conditions There are 2 main types of boundary condition for each phase − Solid phase:
• Dirichlettype prescribed displacement
u(r, z, t) =
~
u
with
∀r,z ∈Γ
s1
(22a)
• Neumanntype prescribed surface traction.
σ.n =
~
h
where Γ
with
s1
∪ Γ
∀r,z ∈Γ
s2
= Γ
s
s2
(22b)
− Fluid phase:
• Dirichlettype prescribed initial pressure
~
p(r, z, t) = p
∀r,z ∈Γ
f1
(22c)
• Neumanntype prescribed normal flux to
boundary
∇p.n = 0
Γ
n
{
n
r
∀r,z ∈Γ
f 2
f1
,n
z
∪ Γ
,n _{θ}
f 2
(22d)
Where
=
= Γ and unit normal vector
f
}
T . Subscript s and f refer to solid and
fluid phase, respectively.
b. Initial conditions (t=0)
u(r,z,0) = u P(r, z,0) = P
0
0
(22e)
(22f)
3. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE
GOVERNING EQUATIONS
The formulations of coupled theories between fluid
and solid applied to radial flow in reservoir
engineering were presented. Unfortunately, the general analytical solution for this equation has not been resolved except for a simplified case. Despite this, a numerical method can be applied to achieve the general solution. The Galerkin finite element method is chosen because of its ability to handle anisotropic and heterogeneous regions with complex boundaries (Young et al. [16]). In the Galerkin method, the unknown variable pressure and displacements can be approximated by a trial solution in space using the shape function N and nodal values (P, u)
4
P
u
u
n
= ∑
i
=
1
n
N P
i
i
r
z
= ∑
i
=
n
1
= ∑
i
=
1
N u
i
N u
i
ri
zi
(23)
(24)
(25)
Therefore, in the coupled simulation, there are three principal degrees of freedoms at each node of the mesh. Applying the time integration technique with the CrankNicolson method we derived the coupled matrix system.
⎡ M
⎢
⎣
(
+ ∆
S
t.K
1
)
0
K
2
⎤ ⎡ P
u
⎦ ⎣
⎥
.
⎢
t
t
+∆
t
+∆
t
⎤
⎥
⎦
=
⎡∆ F
⎢
⎣
t
1
+∆
t
t
2
F
+
+∆
M.P
t
t
⎤
⎥
⎦
(26)
Where
M, K _{1} , K _{2} , S, F _{1} , F _{2} are defined below
^{M} 1
K
1
=
=
∫
1
µφ
αβ
K
C N N dR
t
i
j
∫
∂ N 
i 
∂ N 
j 
dR + 
∫ 
∂ N 
i 
∂ N 
j 
dR − 
∫ 
1 
N 
∂ N 
j 

∂ 
r 
∂ 
r 
∂ 
z 
∂ 
z 
r 
i 
∂ 
r 
K
F
1
2
=
=
∫
∫
∂
N
i
∂
N
j
∂
N
g
∂
∂
g
∫
.D.
P
dR
N
∂
P
i
∂
r
i
∂
z
n dB
r
+
n dB
z
F
2
=
∫
−
N
(1
σ
'n dB
g
+
(1
− φ
0
)
∫
∂
N
∂ g
− φ
0
)
∫
N .I.P.n dB
i
g
.I.PdR
dR
where: g=r,z At each time step, the porosity values are updated through the M _{1} matrix. Matrix Eq.(26) must be completely constrained by initial and boundary conditions described by equations (22) before a solution is obtained.
4. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES
Based on the Galerkin finite element method mentioned in the previous sections, a coupled program named COGEO written in Matlab language has been developed to solve the governing equations. This coupled numerical model have been verified by comparing the results with a conventional simulation model from commercial software
In this model, a fully penetrating well of radius r _{w} is producing a single phase fluid flow at a constant rate q from a saturated reservoir. The reservoir is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic with a boundary being restrained from any radial displacement at the producing wellbore, but free displacement in the vertical direction. The reservoir pressure for the external edge is held constant. The lower boundary at a depth of 5000ft is fixed in all directions. The top of reservoir is free to move both vertically and horizontally. At t =0, the reservoir pressure in the wellbore is equal the initial reservoir
pressure. Due to application of an axisymmetric
model, we used the isoparametric quadrilateral
element applied for a radial model with 204 nodes meshed into 176 elements.
Fig. 2: The wellbore modeling
4.1. Material properties of reservoir
Material properties of the reservoir described are
given in table 1. This data was extracted from an example provided by Roxar Tempest software as well as using general information.
Table 1: Material properties of reservoir in the simulation
Material properties 
Symbol 
Values 
Filed unit 

Initial porosity Poison’s ratio Initial permeably Young modulus Fluid density Fluid compressibility Solid compressibility Initial pressure Production rate Well radius External boundary Thickness Depth Vol convention factor Transmissibility 
_{φ} 
0.2 
 

_{ν} 
0.25 
 

K 
50 
mD 

E 
28.0E6 
psi 

_{ρ} _{f} 
49.8 
p/ft ^{3} 

C 
_{f} 
15.E06 
psi 
^{}^{1} 

C 
_{s} 
7.0E06 
psi 
^{}^{1} 

P 
_{i} 
4800.0 
psi 

q 
123 
STB/d 

r _{w} 
0.205 
ft 

R 
2039 
ft 

h 
40 
ft 

z 
5000 
ft 

_{α} 
5.614583 
 

_{β} 
1.127 
 
5
4.2. 
Discussion 
4.2.1 
Influence of the coupled model to the pressure 
reservoir
As previously described, coupling within the model has a large effect on the predicted behavior of the reservoir, demonstrated by the pressure and deformation response. Figure 3 shows the variation in pore pressure with time during pressure drawdown for a conventional model, geomechanics is not incorporated. In contrast, Figure 4 presents the results for the coupled model in which the values of the initial permeability is held fixed throughout the simulation with K=50mD. The depletion of pore pressure shows a more significant reduction compared with the conventional model. These results come from the application of Eq.(9) where the porosity varies with a negative change in the volume strain at every time step. The initial slight change of pressure (increase) shown in Figure 4 is due to the coarse discretisation of the mesh.
Fig. 3: The pore pressure calculated from a conventional reservoir simulation
Fig . 4: The variation of pore pressure with time duri ng fluid producing applying the coupled model.
The trendline indicates the expected result with increased model descretisation. Discretisation will be increased also a further advancement to the code will be implemented so that permeability varies with porosity reduction.
4.2.2 The importance of the porosity and permeability parameters in the coupled model.
In this work, several numerical tests were undertaken to investigate the interaction between porosity and permeability for the coupled simulation. Figure 5 shows the change in pore pressure with varying initial porosity values and fixed permeability value with K=50mD. This change is slight compared to the results given in Fig.(4). It also can be seen there is a wide gap in variation of pore pressure with the coupled simulation when we change the initial permeability (Fig. 6).
Fig. 5: The influence of reservoir porosity on pore pressure depletion
Fig. 6: The influence of reservoir permeability on pore pressure depletion
Further contrasts in the coupled and noncoupled simulations are presented for a reservoir subsidence analysis.
6
4.2.3 The reservoir subsidence
The deformation shown in the near wellbore environment can be calculated by using equations (10) and (11) with displacement variables at each integration point. Figure 7 shows subsidence (displacement in the z direction) of the reservoir during fluid production. An increase in displacement in the z direction plotted against time represents the subsidence occurring due to the variation of porosity and loss of fluid volume.
Figure 7 and 8 can be compared and show the effect of varying the initial permeability and porosity values, on subsidence. It is evident that permeability has a lesser effect on subsidence; this is expected as the permeability parameter is currently constrained as a constant in the model. In contrast, the degree of subsidence is strongly affected by the initial porosity parameter in the coupled simulation.
Fig. 7. The variation of subsidence with time during production when applying the coupled model
Fig. 8. Influence of the initial porosity on subsidence during production for the coupled model.
The predicted response and constitutive relations will be considered further in future work to account for effects near the wellbore where loose sand may be produced and porosity and permeability reduction will vary significantly. The result is expected to be less dramatic after implementation of permeability and porosity relationships are more adequately defined. This will be developed later using empirical datasets.
5. CONCLUSIONS
This paper has presented new formulations in which the influence of geomechanics is taken into account for a coupled analysis of fluid and solid behaviour applied to radial flow in reservoir engineering. The formulations have been implemented and a simple geometry has been modeled. Results were analysed for pressure and deformation response using the coupled relationships derived. These results have shown that porosity has a strong influence on the degree of subsidence resulting from production of a reservoir.
The permeability variation does also have significant affect on the pore pressure of the reservoir in the coupled model. It is concluded that this parameter cannot be considered constant as is usually the case for a conventional simulation. Further numerical modeling and constitutive behaviour development is proposed to extend the relationships implemented. Also other boundary conditions will be studied in order to obtain a more general solution for the effects of coupling in a petroleum reservoir.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research is sponsored by The Minister of Education, Vietnam through 322 project. Additional support was also provided by Australian School of Petroleum, The University of Adelaide. The authors are grateful to Roxar Company for their valuable supplying Tempest software.
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8
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