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YOUSUF JAMIL SIDDIQUI


(8888)
AHSAN ADIL SHAMSI (9168)
MOHAMMAD MAIRAJ ASIM
(8865)
BILAL AHMED (8806)

BBA (H) SECTION ‘C’.


PSYCHOLOGY REPORT.
LETTER OF ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

April 9th, 2009

Dear Readers,

We would first like to thank the Almighty Allah for giving us the strength and
endowing us with the privilege of completing our report on the subject of
“Stress in Youth”.

We are also extremely thankful to our mentor and guide Mrs. Nadia Ayub Ali
for her constant support, encouragement and guidance, without which we
could not have successfully achieved our task.

STRESS IN
We would also like to thank all the participants of the research, our family;
friends and course fellows who spared their valuable time to help us and
provided us the guidance to finally come up with this report. We will seek
your continuous assistance and support in future

Sincerely, YOUTH
YOUSUF JAMIL SIDDIQUI (8888)
AHSAN ADIL SHAMSI (9168)
MOHAMMAD MAIRAJ ASIM (8865)
BILAL AHMED (8806)

BBA (H) SECTION ‘C’.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...................................................................1

INTRODUCTION.............................................................................2

WHAT IS STRESS?....................................................................................................................2
TYPES OF STRESS....................................................................................................................2
BIOLOGICAL CAUSES OF STRESS.............................................................................................2
GENERAL CAUSES OF STRESS IN YOUTH.................................................................................3
EFFECTS OF STRESS................................................................................................................3
SMOKING CAUSES MORE STRESS RATHER THAN DECREASE IT…………………………….
……………….3

METHODOLOGY............................................................................5

THE SAMPLE............................................................................................................................5
INSTRUMENT...........................................................................................................................5
PROCEDURE............................................................................................................................5
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS............................................................................................................6

RESULTS......................................................................................7

DISCUSSION...............................................................................12

RECOMMENDATIONS...................................................................16

CONCLUSION..............................................................................17

REFERENCES...............................................................................18

APPENDIX A: RESPONSE CHARTS...............................................19

APPENDIX B: SURVEY
QUESTIONNAIRE……………………………………………...26
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Purpose of this study is to analyze what youngsters think are the major
causes of stress for their generation, and how can it be best tackled. This
study examines the relation of stress with different factors (namely,
Academic workload & competition, daily hassles, terrorism, generation
gap, close relationships, peer & group pressure and smoking) for male
and female genders separately. In March 2009, questionnaires were sent
out to a sample of people comprising of youngsters; mostly students of
university level and some being part time workers. It included 19
questions, relevant to the topic of the study. A Total of 100 usable replies
were received (70 males & 30 females). The respondents belong to
different localities of Karachi, Pakistan. The statistics of each question of
all 100 respondents was taken on list and then categorized according to
19 different questions, separating the genders. The score of each
question was then averaged by number of respondents and then the
percentage responses were determined. Academic workload was
observed to be the biggest source of stress for the youth for both genders
followed by High expectations of Parents & teachers, Societal conditions,
Peer & Group Pressure, Daily hassles, and Generation gap respectively. It
was also found that there is a lack of understanding of positive stress-
reducing techniques in the youth, and the stress faced by youth because
of the above mentioned factors does not make them feel suicidal.
Smoking causes more stress rather than decrease it. An important
finding was that most youngsters think that stress can help improve
performance to some extent. It was definitely required to conduct some
study that can reveal the effectiveness of different stressors on youth
because in recent years the levels of stress reported as being suffered by
youngsters has risen dramatically in relation to changes in our society.
INTRODUCTION

The first step before designing the questionnaire was literature review.
Online articles and magazines related to Teenage and Youth stress were
consulted for the background information and to learn about their
effectiveness on human psyche. Below are the important information
collected in this step.

WHAT IS STRESS?
Stress is "a particular pattern of disturbing psychological and physiological
reactions that occur when an environment or event threatens important
motives and taxes one's ability to cope."
In plain English, stress is the "wear and tear" our bodies experience as we
adjust to our continually changing environment. But not all stress is bad --
some stress is good. In fact, everyone needs stress in their lives; without it,
life would be dull and unexciting. Stress adds flavour, challenge and
opportunity to life. Stress can pump you up, give you energy, supply that
zest for living.

TYPES OF STRESS
There are four main types of stress that people experience.

Eustress: is a type of short-term stress that provides immediate strength.


Eustress arises at points of increased physical activity, enthusiasm, and
creativity. Eustress is a positive stress that arises when motivation and
inspiration are needed. A gymnast experiences eustress before a
competition.

Distress: is a negative stress brought about by constant readjustments or


alterations in a routine. Distress creates feelings of discomfort and
unfamiliarity. There are two types of distress. Acute stress is an intense
stress that arrives and disappears quickly. Chronic stress is a prolonged
stress that exists for weeks, months, or even years. Someone who is
constantly relocating or changing jobs may experience distress.
Hyper stress: occurs when an individual is pushed beyond what he or she
can handle. Hyper stress results from being overloaded or overworked. When
someone is hyper stressed, even little things can trigger a strong emotional
response. A Wall Street trader is likely to experience hyper stress.

Hypo stress: is the opposite of hyper stress. Hypo stress occurs when an
individual is bored or unchallenged. People who experience hypo stress are
often restless and uninspired. A factory worker who performs repetitive tasks
might experience hypo stress.

BIOLOGICAL CAUSES OF STRESS


Within the brain, neurotransmitters are responsible for sending and receiving
messages between cells. There are two types of neurotransmitters; one
group is considered the “happy” messengers, and the other group is
considered the “sad” messengers. The “happy” messenger group is made up
of Serotonin, Noradrenalin, and Dopamine.

Serotonin regulates the body clock. It is responsible for setting waking and
sleeping patterns, and it sets bodily functions to the same rhythm. It is
generally the first messenger to begin to fail under distress, and this failure
will cause sleeplessness in the overstressed.

Noradrenalin is responsible for our energy levels. It is the messenger that


makes us feel energized and enthusiastic. When this neurotransmitter begins
to fail, overly stressed teens will begin to feel a lack of energy, and they
won’t feel like they have the energy to get anything done.

Dopamine is the neurotransmitter that runs the pleasure centre of the


brain. Its failure will cause an inability to take pleasure in things that one
used to enjoy.
The failing of these neurotransmitters lowers a person’s tolerance to stress
even more. Poor diet, lack of regular sleep, and lack of physical exercise
makes it harder for the body to replenish its stores of these chemicals when
they’re depleted.

GENERAL CAUSES OF STRESS IN YOUTH


Different surveys conducted, articles and reports show that one third of
youngsters suffer at least one episode of stress every week. Though stress
has the same kind of response in all the age groups, the stress factors are
different. A general idea shows that the biggest causes of stress in
youngsters are: Academic workload, Jobs, Daily hassles, Generation gap,
Romantic relationships & Problems with friends & siblings

EFFECTS OF STRESS
If stressors that a youngster is dealing with are allowed to pile up and are not
dealt with in a proper manner, the teen will experience distress. Too much
stress can cause the youngster to go into a physical state of distress. As the
stress depletes their brain of important chemicals needed to regulate
emotion, they will begin to feel physical and mental symptoms that can
disrupt enjoyment of normal life.

Becoming overly stressed can have many adverse side effects. It can make a
youngster more susceptible to illness. It can also make them feel very tired
and ill equipped to deal with life’s ups and downs. Left to fester, distress can
cause depression, a constant sense of boredom, severe emotional upset,
ulcers, and irritable bowel syndrome among other things. If a youngster does
not learn proper coping techniques early, it can lead to a lifetime of constant
overstress.

SMOKING CAUSES MORE STRESS RATHER THAN DECREASE IT


Many youngsters take up smoking to reduce stress. Studies conducted show
that tobacco use increases stress instead of alleviating it. If you smoke to
reduce stress, you are only adding to your stress, according to a new review
of psychological studies in the October issue of the American Psychological
Association's American Psychologist. Psychologist Andy Parrott, Ph.D., of the
University of East London says the evidence shows that the apparent
relaxant effect of smoking only reflects the reversal of the tension and
irritability that develop during nicotine depletion. Far from acting as an aid
for mood control, nicotine dependency seems to increase stress.
Professor Parrott reviewed studies on the smoking/stress relationship.
According to his studies of initiation and stress during adolescence, evidence
shows that novice smokers report increasing stress as they develop regular
patterns of smoking. A study of Canadian school children found that regular
and heavy smokers reported significantly higher stress than did non-
smokers. In a study of American adolescents, the teenagers were asked
about their smoking behaviour and feeling states over the previous two
years. The findings indicated there was an increase in affective distress as
the adolescents moved from experimental to more regular smoking.
Professor Parrott says studies show that quitting smoking reduces stress. In a
review of cross-sectional studies, the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that
former smokers were found to be less stressed than current smokers in some
studies, whereas in other studies the two groups did not differ significantly.
However, not a single study found former smokers to be more stressed than
current smokers.
Professor Parrott says that stress may be caused by nicotine dependency.
Professor Parrott says that the message that tobacco use does not alleviate
stress but actually increases it needs to be far more widely known. He says
this may help many adults to stop smoking, keep former smokers who have
recently quit from relapsing and help more young people withstand the
social pressures to try cigarettes.
Source:(Article: "Does Cigarette Smoking Cause Stress?" Andy C. Parrott,
Ph.D)
After literature review and our observation of growing stress in youth we
felt that it is definitely required to conduct some study that can reveal the
effectiveness of different stressors on youth because in recent years the
levels of stress reported as being suffered by youngsters has risen
dramatically in relation to changes in our society, in our homes, and in
schools.
METHODOLOGY

THE SAMPLE
In March 2009, around 108 questionnaires were sent out to a sample of
people comprising of youngsters; mostly students of university level, A-level,
and some being part time workers. The final instrument i.e. questionnaire
included 19 questions, relevant to the topic of the study. A Total of 100
usable replies were received – a response rate of 92.59%. The people who
responded to the survey belong to different localities of Karachi, Pakistan.
Demographics of the respondents are as follows,

AGE Sum of NO. OF


RESPONDENTS

17 3

18 22

19 36

20 18

21 15

22 4

23 2

Grand 100
Total
GENDER NO.OF
RESPONDENTS

INSTRUMENT MALE 70
With the criticality of the time factor,
a certain sample size was decided to FEMALE 30
be used for conducting the survey. It
GRAND TOTAL 100
was decided to use a comprehensive
questionnaire as an instrument for
gathering survey data. Some statistical operations were performed on the
gathered raw data to convert it into more structured and analytical form for
drawing inferences.

PROCEDURE
A survey questionnaire was constructed, the copies of which were distributed
among the group members to conduct the survey. Each member was to
obtain responses from at least 25 participants.
For demographic factors, respondents were asked to indicate their age,
gender, and occupation and education level. We used 3 levels of intensity in
most of the questions i.e. Yes very much, To some extent, Not at all. Also in
some questions, the fourth option was open-ended saying “Please specify if
others”, in which the respondents were to give their suggestions. The
questionnaire was intelligently divided and the flow was maintained in
question so as to maintain the logical flow of thoughts. The questionnaire
was constructed keeping in view the 11 factors (shown in table A-1) and the
responses were categorized and analyzed accordingly.
Factor No. of Factor Description
Question
s

1 3 FRUSTRATION

2 1 TERRORISM

3 1 DAILY HASSLES

4 2 ACADEMIC WORKLOAD/ COMPETITION

5 1 GENERATION GAP

6 1 CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS

7 2 JOB OPPORTUNITIES/ COMPETITION

8 1 PUBLIC IMAGE & LOOKS

9 1 SMOKING AND DRUGS

10 2 PEER AND GROUP PRESSURE

11 4 COPING WITH STRESS

Table A-1 indicating the 11 factors considered before designing the


questionnaire
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Analysis has been based on the number of people answering the question
concerned. All the 19 questions were based on the above 11 factors
important for analyzing the causes and effects of stress in youth. The
statistics of each question of all 100 respondents was taken on list and
then categorized according to 19 different questions, separating the
genders. The score of each question was then averaged by number of
respondents and then the percentage responses were determined and
using those figures, the tables and charts were made which are discussed
further in the report. Based on these percentages, the relation of the
above mentioned factors with stress was determined.
RESULTS
Presented below are the different percentage responses of the participants
to the 19 different questions of the survey questionnaire.

Table 1.1: representing the question, “How do you feel when you get
stressed?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
27.1
UNABLE TO SLEEP 4 26.66
12.8
LOSS OF APPETITE 5 23.33
AGGRESSIVE 52.8
BEHAVIOUR 5 50
OTHERS 6.3 0

Table 1.2: representing the question, “Does academic workload cause


stress to you?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
34.2
YES, VERY MUCH 8 43.33
52.8
TO SOME EXTENT 5 46.66
12.8
NEVER 5 10

Table 1.3: representing the question, “Does academic competition


cause stress to you?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
24.2
YES, VERY MUCH 8 13.33
54.2
TO SOME EXTENT 8 70
21.4
NEVER 2 16.66

Table 1.4: representing the question, “The fear that what you are
studying today will be outdated and of less demand in the future
stresses you?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
11.4
YES, VERY MUCH 2 13.33
51.4
TO SOME EXTENT 2 33.33
37.1
NEVER 4 53.33
Table 1.5: representing the question, “Does failing to get admission in
a desired institution or field of interest stress you?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
48.5
YES, VERY MUCH 7 53.33
34.2
TO SOME EXTENT 8 33.33
17.1
NEVER 4 13.33

Table 1.6: representing the question, “High expectation of parents &


teachers is a cause of stress, do you agree?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
YES,VERY MUCH 60 33.33
32.8
TO SOME EXTENT 5 53.33
NO 7.14 13.33

Table 1.7: representing the question, “Do you find the generation gap
responsible for growing stress in youth?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
15.7
YES, VERY MUCH 1 23.33
TO SOME EXTENT 50 50
34.2
NO 8 26.66
Table 1.8: representing the question, “Is your public image a cause of
stress to you?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
22.8
YES, VERY MUCH 5 16.66
32.8
TO SOME EXTENT 5 20
44.2
NO 8 63.33
Table 1.9: representing the question, “How much influence does
competition in peer group has on your lifestyle?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
17.1
YES, VERY MUCH 4 16.66
45.7
TO SOME EXTENT 1 56.66
37.1
NOT AT ALL 4 26.66

Table 2.1: representing the question, “Do you think that many
youngsters take up drugs due to peer & group pressure?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
YES 50 56.66
38.5
MAYBE 7 33.33
11.4
NO 2 10

Table 2.2: representing the question, “Today’s youth gets involved into
a lot of violent activities due to peer & group pressure?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
35.7
YES 1 43.33
NO, NOT AT ALL 8.57 6.66
55.7
TO SOME EXTENT 1 50
Table 2.3: representing the question, “From the following, which
stresses you the most, in terms of societal issues?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
24.2
TERRORISM 8 36.66
52.8
LAW & ORDER OF KHI 5 33.33
GENERATION GAP 4.28 26.66
WHO CARES ABOUT THESE 17.1
ISSUES 4 3.33
OTHERS 0.94 0
Table 2.4: representing the question, “How do you feel when stuck in a
traffic jam?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
EXTREMELY 41.4
IRRITATED 2 40
21.4
I REMAIN CALM 2 13.33
37.1
I'M USED TO IT 4 46.66

Table 2.5: representing the question, “Nowadays, youngsters are very


insecure and stressed about maintaining their close relationships.
How much is it a cause of stress in your opinion?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
22.8
YES, VERY MUCH 5 16.66
44.2
TO SOME EXTENT 8 43.33
18.5
NOT AT ALL 7 13.33
14.2
DON'T KNOW 8 26.66

Table 2.6: representing the question, “When you feel stressed, do you
go to anyone for help?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
YES 30 43.33
44.2
NO 8 36.66
NO ONE CARES FOR 25.7
ANYONE 1 20

Table 2.7: representing the question, “Did you ever felt suicidal due to
some extreme stress?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
YES, MANY TIMES 7.14 6.66
81.4
NEVER 2 63.33
11.4
ONCE 2 30
Table 2.8: representing the question, “In your opinion, how much does
stress helps to improve performance?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
14.2
YES, VERY MUCH 8 10
28.5
NO, NOT AT ALL 7 30
57.1
TO SOME EXTENT 4 60

Table 2.9: representing the question, “Rate according to your opinion


as to what is the best way to release one’s stress?
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
SMOKING 15 7
CONSULT OTHERS 31.5 40
MUSIC &
ENTERTAINMENT 42 34
OTHERS 11.5 19

Table 3.0: representing the question, “What would you suggest should
be done to reduce growing stress level in youth?”
PERCENTAGE
%
RESPONSE
MAL
E FEMALE
37.1
REDUCE STUDY LOADS 4 46.66
MERIT BASED JOB 38.5
OPPORTUNITIES 7 26.66
REDUCE THE GENERATION 12.8
GAP 5 16.66
11.4
OTHERS 2 10
DISCUSSION
Purpose of this study is to analyze what youngsters think are the major
causes of stress for their generation, and how can it be best tackled. This
study examines the effects of different factors (namely, Academic workload
& competition, daily hassles, terrorism, generation gap, close relationships,
peer & group pressure and smoking) on male and female genders
separately.

“How do you feel when you get stressed?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion; aggressive
behavior followed by unable to sleep. Whereas majority of females were of
the opinion; aggressive behavior followed by unable to sleep. The overall
general view could be analyzed as that majority opted that they show
aggressive behavior when they get stressed. In this question both males and
females had the same opinions. However a small amount of people also
listed their views in the others part as feeling anxiety, high blood pressure
and etc.

“Does academic workload cause stress to you?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion; yes to some
extent followed by yes very much. Whereas majority of females were of the
opinion; yes to some extent followed by yes very much. The overall general
view could be analyzed as that majority opted that academic workload does
cause stress to them to a certain extent. In this question both males and
females had the same opinions.

“Does academic competition cause stress to you?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion; yes to some
extent followed by yes very much. Whereas majority of females were of the
opinion; yes to some extent followed by no. The overall general view could
be analyzed as that majority opted that academic competition does causes
stress to them to a certain extent. In this question both males and females
had the same opinions.

“The fear that what you are studying today will be outdated and of
less demand in the future stresses you?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion; yes to some
extent followed by never. Whereas majority of females were of the opinion;
never followed by yes to some extent. The overall general view could be
analyzed as that majority opted that the fear of what they are studying today
will be outdated and of less demand in the future does not causes stress to
them. In this question both males and females had different opinions, the
reason being that in our society earning is mostly dependent on males and
that’s why they are more conscious of the future demand of their careers as
compared to females.

“Does failing to get admission in a desired institution or field of


interest stress you?”

In this question, the majority of the males was of the opinion; yes very much
followed by yes to some extent. Whereas majority of females were of the
opinion; yes very much followed by yes to some extent. The overall general
view could be analyzed as that majority opted that failing to get in a desired
institution or field of interest does causes a great deal of stress to them.. In
this question both males and females had the same opinion.

“High expectation of parents & teachers is a cause of stress, do you


agree?”

In this question, the majority of the males was of the opinion; yes very much
followed by yes to some extent. Whereas majority of females were of the
opinion; yes to some extent followed by yes very much. The overall general
view could be analyzed as that majority opted that the high expectations of
parents and teachers is a great cause of stress for them. In this question
there was a difference of opinion between males and females, the reason
being the fact that in our society there are more expectations from male
children as compared to female children.

“Do you find the generation gap responsible for growing stress in
youth?”
In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion; to some
extent followed by no. Whereas majority of females were of the opinion; to
some extent followed by no. The overall general view could be analyzed as
that majority opted that the generation gap was responsible to some extent
for growing stress in youth. In this question both males and females had the
same opinion.

“Is your public image a cause of stress to you?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion; no it is not
followed by to some extent. Whereas majority of females were of the opinion
no it is not followed by to some extent. The overall general view could be
analyzed as that majority opted that their public image was not a cause of
stress for them. In this question both males and females had the same
opinion.

“How much influence does competition in peer group has on your


lifestyle?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion; yes to some
extent followed by not at all. Whereas majority of females were of the
opinion; yes to some extent followed by not at all. The overall general view
could be analyzed as that majority opted for yes competition in peer group
does have influence on our lifestyle to some extent. In this question both
males and females had the same opinion.

“Do you think that many youngsters take up drugs due to peer &
group pressure?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion; yes they do
followed by may be. Whereas majority of females were of the opinion; yes
they do followed by may be. The overall general view could be analyzed as
that majority opted for yes they do take up drugs due to peer and group
pressure. In this question both males and females had the same opinion.

“Today’s youth gets involved into a lot of violent activities due to


peer & group pressure?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion; yes it does to
some extent followed by yes. Whereas majority of females were of the
opinion; yes it does to some extent followed by yes. The overall general view
could be analyzed as that majority opted for yes it does to some extent. In
this question a greater percentage of males agreed to the group and peer
pressure factor as compared to the females.

“From the following, which stresses you the most, in terms of


societal issues?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion; law and order
of Karachi followed by terrorism. Whereas majority of females were of the
opinion; terrorism followed by law and order of Karachi. The overall general
view could be analyzed as that majority opted for the law and order of
Karachi. In this question the reason for the difference of opinion could be the
factor that mostly males are prone to the law and order situation, such as
mobile snatching, car snatching and etc. as compared to the females.

“How do you feel when stuck in a traffic jam?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion that they feel
extremely irritated followed by that they are used to it now. Whereas
majority of females were of the opinion that they are used to it now followed
by they feel extremely irritated. The overall general view could be analyzed
as that majority opted that they are used to it now. In this question the
reason for the difference of opinion could be the factor that mostly males are
the one’s driving.

“Nowadays, youngsters are very insecure and stressed about


maintaining their close relationships. How much is it a cause of
stress in your opinion?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion that yes it
does cause to some extent followed by yes very much. Whereas majority of
females were of the opinion that yes it does cause to some extend followed
by don’t know. The overall general view could be analyzed as that majority
opted that yes it does cause to some extent.

“When you feel stressed, do you go to anyone for help?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion that they don’t
go to anyone for help followed by yes they do consult for help. Whereas
majority of females were of the opinion that they do consult for help followed
by don’t go to anyone for help. The overall general view could be analyzed
as that majority opted that they don’t go to anyone for help.
“Did you ever felt suicidal due to some extreme stress?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion that they
never felt suicidal followed by once. Whereas majority of females were of the
opinion that they never felt suicidal followed by once. The overall general
view could be analyzed as that majority opted that they never ever felt
suicidal in their life.

“In your opinion, how much does stress help to improve


performance?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion that it does
help to some extent followed by not at all. Whereas majority of females were
of the opinion that it does help to some extent followed by not at all. The
overall general view could be analyzed as that majority opted that it does
help to improve to some extent.

“Rate according to your opinion as to what is the best way to


release one’s stress?

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion that the best
way is through music and entertainment followed by consulting others.
Whereas majority of females were of the opinion that the best way is to
consult others followed by music and entertainment. The overall general
view could be analyzed as that majority opted in the favor of music and
entertainment. There was a difference of opinion between males and
females as males mostly have a better tendency to hide their emotions
within themselves and not expressing them, whereas females are great at
expressing themselves and taking help from others. A large group of people
also mentioned different views in the others part, which included prayers,
meditation, outing, sleeping, taking bath and etc.

“What would you suggest should be done to reduce growing stress


level in youth?”

In this question, the majority of the males were of the opinion that the best
way is to provide merit based job opportunities followed by reducing study
loads. Whereas majority of females were of the opinion that the best way is
to reduce study loads followed by providing job based opportunities. The
overall general view could be analyzed as that majority opted in the favor of
reducing study loads. There was a difference of opinion between males and
females due to the fact that males consider jobs more important whereas
females consider studies as more important. In the others part people
expresses views such as; providing outdoor activities, improving the law and
order, reducing the peer group pressure and etc.
RECOMMENDATIONS
The youth stress should be dealt with both at home and outside home. The
youth should be allowed to talk freely about their problems, parents and
teachers should teach them stress relief methods and the youngsters should
set only reasonable goals in both curricular and extra curricular activities.
Effective Stress Management courses should be offered by educational
institutes which can be of great help to the young generation in learning
positive methods of coping with stress.
CONCLUSION
The Conclusions that we can draw from the whole research work are that
youngsters belonging to both the genders are somewhat equally affected by
stress. The Youth use both healthy and unhealthy ways to cope up with
stress. Girls respond to stress by seeking help from others or by taking
certain positive actions to reduce stress while boys respond to stress by not
dealing with the stress positively or by engaging the mind away from the
sources of stress e.g. smoking, adopting aggressive behavior etc. Academic
workload and competition is the biggest source of stress, followed by High
expectations of Parents & teachers, Societal conditions, Peer & Group
Pressure, Daily hassles, and Generation gap respectively. It was also found
that there is a lack of understanding of positive stress-reducing techniques in
the youth, and the stress faced by youth because of the above mentioned
factors does not make them feel suicidal. An important finding was that most
youngsters think that stress can help improve performance to some extent.
REFERENCES

1. “Introduction to Psychology”, by Benjamin Lahey.


2. Article: "Does Cigarette Smoking Cause Stress?" Andy C. Parrott, Ph.D.
3. Davis et al. (June 2007). Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and
Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament. Journal of the American Academy of
Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, v46 n6 p737.
4. Schore, Allan (2003). Affect Regulation & the Repair of the Self. New York:
W.W. Norton.
5. The Stress of Life, Hans Selye, 1956.
6. www.apa.org
7. www.librarythinkquest.com
APPENDIX A: RESPONSE CHARTS

Chart 1.1: representing the question, “How do you feel when you get
stressed?”

Chart 1.2: representing the question, “Does academic workload cause


stress to you?”

Chart 1.3: representing the question, “Does academic competition


cause stress to you?”
Chart 1.4: representing the question, “The fear that what you are
studying today will be outdated and of less demand in the future
stresses you?”

Chart 1.5: representing the question, “Does failing to get admission in


a desired institution or field of interest stress you?”

Chart 1.6: representing the question, “High expectation of parents &


teachers is a cause of stress, do you agree?”

Chart 1.7: representing the question, “Do you find the generation gap
responsible for growing stress in youth?”

Chart 1.8: representing the question, “Is your public image a cause of
stress to you?”

Chart 1.9: representing the question, “How much influence does


competition in peer group
has on your lifestyle?”
Chart 2.1: representing the question, “Do you think that many
youngsters take up drugs due to
peer & group pressure?”

Chart 2.2: representing the question, “Today’s youth gets involved into
a lot of violent
activities due to peer & group pressure?”

Chart 2.3: representing the question, “From the following, which


stresses you the most, in
terms of societal issues?”
Chart 2.4: representing the question, “How do you feel when stuck in a
traffic jam?”

Chart 2.5: representing the question, “Nowadays, youngsters are very


insecure and stressed
about maintaining their close relationships. How much is it a cause
of stress in your
opinion?”

Chart 2.6: representing the question, “When you feel stressed, do you
go to anyone for help?”
Chart 2.7: representing the question, “Did you ever felt suicidal due to
some extreme stress?”

Chart 2.8: representing the question, “In your opinion, how much does
stress helps to improve
performance?”

Chart 2.9: representing the question, “Rate according to your opinion


as to what is the best
way to release one’s stress?
Chart 3.0: representing the question, “What would you suggest should
be done to reduce
growing stress level in youth?”
APPENDIX B: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
Title of study: Causes of growing stress in youth.
Principal Investigators: Yousuf Jamil Siddiqui, Ahsan Adil, Bilal Ahmed & Mairaj Asim.
Institute: Institute Of Business Management.

Introduction:
We, students of Introduction to Psychology course at the Institute of Business Management are
doing a research on THE CAUSES OF GROWING STRESS IN YOUTH. We would like to invite
you to join this research study.

Background Information:
Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a human or animal
body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism, whether actual or
imagined. In recent years the levels of stress reported as being suffered by teenagers has risen
dramatically in relation to changes in our society, in our schools and in our homes. Where once
perhaps teenagers did not suffer too greatly from stress, the tide has turned and they can suffer as
much from the condition as adults can and, in some instances, more so.

Purpose of this study:


Purpose of this study is to know what youngsters think are the major causes of stress for their
generation, in what way does it affect them, and how can it be best released.

Possible risks or benefits:


There is no risk involved in this study except your valuable time. There is no direct benefit to
you also. However, the results of the study may help us to formulate the major causes of stress in
youth and their possible solutions.

Right of Refusal to participate & withdrawal:


You are free to choose to participate in the study. You may refuse to participate without any loss
of benefit which you are otherwise entitled to. You may also withdraw any time from the study
without any adverse effect. You may also refuse to answer some or all questions if you don’t feel
comfortable with those questions.

Confidentiality:
This information provided by you will remain confidential. Nobody except principal investigator
will have an access to it. Your name and identity will also not be disclosed at any time.

Authorization:
I have read and understand this consent form, and I volunteer to participate in this research study.

Participant’s signature: ___________ Principal Investigator’s signature: ________


Name (optional): ____________ Age: ________ Occupation: _________ Gender: Male Female

Institute: ______________________

Instructions: Please read the following questionnaire carefully, and circle the
best suitable answer that you think.
1) How do you feel when you get stressed?
a) Unable to sleep b)Loss of appetite
c) Not wanting to go out d) If others, please specify___________

2) Does academic workload cause stress to you?


a)Yes, very much b)To some extent
c) Never

3) Does academic competition cause stress to you?


a)Yes, very much b)To some extent
c) Never

4) The fear that what you are studying today will be outdated and of less demand in the
future stresses you?
a)Yes, very much b)To some extent
c) Never

5) Does failing to get admission in a desired institution or field of interest stress you?
a)Yes, very much b)To some extent
c) Never

6) High expectation of parents & teachers is a cause of stress, do you agree?


a)Yes, very much b)To some extent
c) No

7) Do you find the generation gap responsible for growing stress in youth?
a)Yes, very much b)To some extent
c)No

8) Is your public image a cause of stress to you?


a)Yes, very much b)To some extent
c)No

9) How much influence does competition in peer group has on your lifestyle?
a)Yes, very much b)To some extent
c) Not at all
10) Do you think that many youngsters take up drugs due to peer & group pressure?
a)Yes b)May be
c) No
11) Today’s youth gets involved into a lot of violent activities due to peer & group
pressure?
a)Yes b)No, Not at all
c) True, to some extent

12)From the following, which stresses you the most, in terms of societal issues?
a)Terrorism b)Law and Order Of Karachi
c) Who cares about these issues!! d) If others, please specify:_____________

13) How do you feel when stuck in a traffic jam?


a) Extremely irritated b)I remain calm
c) I’m used to it now

14)Nowadays, youngsters are very insecure and stressed about maintaining their close
relationships. How much is it a cause of stress in your opinion?
a)Yes, very much b)To some extent
c) Not at all d)Don’t know

15) When you feel stressed, do you go to anyone for help?


a)Yes b) No
c) No one cares for anyone
Please specify who the person is: _____________.

16) Did you ever felt suicidal due to some extreme stress?
a)Yes, many times b)Never
c) Once

17) In your opinion, how much does stress helps to improve performance?
a) Yes, very much b) No, not at all
c)To some extent

18) Rate according to your opinion as to what is the best way to release one’s stress?
(Rate from 1 to 3; 1 being the highest)

A Smoking & Drugs


B Consult for advice
C Music & entertainment
D If others, please
specify__________________________
19) What would you suggest should be done to reduce growing stress level in youth?
a) Reduce study loads b) Merit based job opportunities
c) Reduce the generation gap d) If others, please specify____________