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Table of Contents

REVISION RECORD
PREFACE
SAFETY
Hazard Awareness
Energy Source
Safeguard Devices
Weld Flash
Pneumatics
Hydraulics
Welding Presses/Pinch Points
Laser Class Descriptions
ARC WELDING
Introduction
MIG Weld Details
Application
Silicon Bronze
Support
Troubleshooting
Stud Welding
Barrier Coat
Weld Gun
Quality
Support
BRAZING
Introduction
Application
Torch
Regulator
Torch/Mixer
Tips
Surface Repair
LASER SYSTEMS
Introduction
Operation Detail
Gas Delivery
RESISTANCE WELDING
Introduction
Caps, Shanks
Cables
Shunts
Electrode Backup
Electrode Holders
Transformers
Controls
Densification Unit
AVC and C-REG
Weld Guns
Equalizing and Pinch Type
Integral or Package Guns
Air Over Oil Guns
Portable Guns
Weld Schedules
Stepper Controls
Suggested Weld Schedules
Tooling Applications
Welding Stands
Tabletop
Mechanical Handling System
Portable Gun
Automatic Fixtures
Robots
Hose
Manifolds
Secondary Circuit
Polarity
Programming
Stepper Program
Edge Welds
Weld Nugget Size
Electrode Tip Contact
Contact Resistance
Flashing
Expulsion
Tip Geometry
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Chillers
Beam Delivery System
Shielding Gas
Weld Joints
System Controls
Set-up Variables
Safety Enclosure
Laser Tooling
Evaluation
Calorimeter
Optics Cleaning
Beam Delivery Alignment
Mode Burn
Teach Tool
APPENDIX
A1 Resistance Welding
A2 Arc Welding
A3 Brazing/Soldering
A4 Laser Welding
A5 Electrical
A6 Pneumatics
A7 Hydraulics
A8 General
Support/Quality
Tool Verification
Destructive Testing
Nondestructive Testing
Weld Analysis
Preventive Maintenance
Instrumentation
UTILITY DISTRIBUTION
Introduction
Electrical Safety
Electrical Distribution
Buss Duct
Buss Plugs
Bolted Pressure Switches
Fuses
Isolation Contactors
Application
Fab. Plant Examples
Assembly Plant Examples
Compressed Air Safety
Compressed Air Distribution
Main Shut-off Valve
Air Preparation
Pressure Regulator
Line Lubricator
Piping Examples
Directional Control Valves
Cooling Water Safety
Cooling Water Distribution
System Types
Manifold Examples
Catwalk Piping
Hydraulic Safety
Hydraulic System
HU-56 Troubleshooting

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Revision Record
REV. NO. DATE SHEETS INSERTED
BY/DATE
A 10/15/91 2
B 6/1/92 10
C 8/2/93 12
D 11/15/96 81
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Preface
The GM Automotive Welding Handbook is a revised and
expanded publication of the 1985 General Motors Resistance
Welding Handbook. More than 55 years ago, in 1939, a manual
entitled "Spot Welding with Portable Tools" was published and
distributed within General Motors. It was the first publication with
the purpose of explaining the resistance welding process used
for assembly of automotive sheet metal.
As technology advanced, many other handbooks were written
and distributed within the corporation. In 1955 the first
Resistance Welding Handbook was published. It was updated in
1963. By 1983, with more advancement of solid-state
technology, a second update of the Resistance Welding
Handbook was done by the Manufacturing Development
Department, Production Engineering Activity of the Fisher Body
Division. It was published and distributed in 1985.
By 1983, with more advancement of solid-state technology, a
second update of the Resistance Welding Handbook was done
by the Manufacturing Development Department, Production
Engineering Activity of the Fisher Body Division. It was
published and distributed in 1985.
As would be expected, not long after the distribution of the
"redbook," technology moved again. A new resistance welding
technique known as high frequency/direct current (HFDC) was
introduced. And laser welding was going beyond the
experimental state. In 1989 it was decided that the "redbook"
should have an update.
This book, titled Automotive Welding Handbook (AWH), is the
next step. Since different welding techniques are in common
use within General Motors, it was decided that the new
handbook go beyond resistance welding.
Notice that this is titled "handbook," not "training manual." It
provides reference material written specifically for maintenance
personnel; people who have been trained in areas of automotive
welding. The book has been published as a loose-leaf binder. It
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allows for future updating by section as technology and
applications advance. This could allow for updated sections to
be distributed individually as required. Recordkeeping at each
GM facility would be a necessity for this to be practical. It is the
goal, however.
This "handbook" is a product of the Weld Team at the NAO
Manufacturing Center. It is available for use by all divisions
within the GM Corporation.
Weld Team
NAO Manufacturing Center
480-109-135
(810) 947-0020 8-227-0020
November 1996

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Safety
Automotive welding processes are an important part of the
General Motors Mark of Excellence.
Equally as important as the processes are the safety techniques
applied during operation and maintenance of the systems.
Everyone has a responsibility to work safely.
This handbook's safety section presents only an overview of
safety concerns and approaches. It does not preclude individual
plant safety agreements. It does offer points to be considered by
personnel who may be involved with system operation and
maintenance.
The flowchart which follows presents a thought pattern which
may be used in a situation requiring maintenance involvement.
In some cases a complete system lockout may be the proper
approach. The flowchart can help outline the proper steps to
follow.
The chart is taken from the lockout manual published by:
U.A.W.-G.M. Health and Safety Center
1030 Doris Road
Auburn Hills, Michigan 48326
810-340-7800
Further discussion and/or information regarding the flowchart or
lockout manual may be obtained through each plant's local Joint
Health and Safety Committee or by contacting the address
noted above.

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Safety
Hazard Awareness
The following flowchart is taken from the UAW-GM Lockout
Energy Control manual. It is designed to create a thought
pattern for each machine or system maintenance operation in
which you may be involved. It helps define the hazard
identifiaction process, potential exposure and then hazard
elimination.
The next two pages which follow are also from the Lockout
Energy Control manual. They extend beyond the initial
guidelines. The intent is to state the process in more detail.
For a complete review of the lockout procedure, use the Lockout
Energy Control manual.

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Safety
Energy Source
The flowchart is designed to create a thought pattern before, during and after
any lockout procedure.
Below you will find a brief description or action for each step in the flowchart
lockout of the electrical system.
1. Job Assignment
2. Define Work Area
3. Identify Energy Sources by the Equipment's Components
4. Is Lockout Needed to Secure Job Area?
5. Find All System Components in the Work Area
6. Check to See if Energy Source Can Be Turned Off
7. Get Qualified Personnel to Make the Decision
8. Follow Shutdown Procedures: Turn Off, Lockout, Test
9. Should Be Discharged or Disconnected by Qualified Personnel
10. Attempt Manual Start
11. Look for Action or Movement
12. Attempt Manual Start (Again)
13. Look for Action or Movement (Again)
14. Check for Any Other Energy Sources
15. Do the Indicated Work
16. Remove Lockout Devices From Disconnects
17. Restart Equipment
18. Job Finished

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Safety
Safeguard Devices
A fence with an interlocking gate is a
safeguarding device. To open the gate
the plug must be removed. When the
plug is removed the electrical control
system is opened and machine motion is
stopped.
In some applications, a gate latch pin
cannot be removed unless the control
interlock is pulled out first.
Fig. 1-4a, Interlocking Device

This a later style safety gate. interlock. It
is shown with the key removed. Be
aware that in some cases motion, only,
may be stopped when the key is pulled.
Complete system energy removal may
require additional steps of procedure.
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Fig. 1-4b, Interlocking Device

Fig. 1-5, Robot Emergency Stop Buttons

Automatic welding systems are designed and constructed with emergency


stop buttons.
Located in areas of open access they can be used when the operator or
support personnel observe an unsafe condition, Anyone can hit the red
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mushroom-shaped "E-Stop."
It should be noted that E-Stops are required as the resource for an
absolute emergency stop. It must not be used as a "handy" system
shutdown. E-Stops do not select "convenient" places to stop the system.
An E-Stop improperly employed may cause a very lengthy down-time in
order to clear the system for restart.

Fig. 1-6, Flashing Light

Some systems are constructed with visual awareness flashing light safety
signals. When the red light is flashing it is to make local personnel aware
of a potential hazard.
Audible awareness devices ,Such as horns, bells and buzzers are often
used where flashing lights may not be visible.
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Fig. 1-7a, Photoelectric Cell Fig. 1-7b, Light Curtain
When safety fences and gates are not applicable, a "light" curtain or
photoelectric cell can be used to provide a "safety screen."

A pressure sensitive mat maybe used to sense the presence of an


operator or any other personnel in the area.
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Safety
Weld Flash
A safety concern of resistance spot welding is when the molten metal is ejected
from the weld spot. Weld flash or sag is usually caused by welding too "hot." For
example, when an electrode tip is changed or dressed and the stepper is not
reset, the concentration of weld current at the weld spot will probably result in
molten metal exploding outward from the weld zone. Weld flash can burn skin
and severely damage eyesight. Protective eyeglasses with side shields around
spot welding operations is a requirement.
Long sleeve shirts and long trousers must be worn to protect against weld flash.
Synthetic materials such as nylon or rayon should not be worn. When heated by
weld flash, they can melt onto the skin they are covering.

Fig. 1-8, Spot Weld Station

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Flash curtains, protective screens or barriers protect personnel passing a weld
station. Proper eye protection with side shields should always be worn by
personnel in the weld area.
A full face welding hood is worn to protect the welder's eyes from the arc glare or
radiant energy generated by the arc or oxyfuel process. This protects the
welder's vision. ANSI standard Z87.1 defines lens requirements for specific
welding operation (see page A8-1). Long trousers and long sleeve shirts or
leather protectors must be worn here also.
The floor should be kept clean of hoses and loose parts strewn about. Solvents
should not be used or stored near welding operations.

Fig. 1-9, Arc and Oxyfuel Welding Concerns


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Safety
Pneumatics
Mechanical motions that are air powered take place with the
initiation of compressed air to the machine. Transfer motions will
not stop and hold unless all compressed air sources have been
removed. Emergency stop buttons are provided to interrupt a
sequence in an emergency only. Stored compressed air
pressure and potential motion may not be totally removed
by hitting the E-Stop.
When working on a compressed air activated machine always
turn off the air supply first. Then bleed off the total remaining air
pressure from the system.
Never direct a compressed air stream toward yourself or any
other personnel.
Note also that re-energizing compressed air service must be
done carefully and with no personnel within the machine.
Air-actuated system motions may occur even though the
electrical control has not been turned on.
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Safety
Hydraulics
The cylinders and valves of a hydraulic system are much the
same as those used on air systems. Designed for the higher
pressures of a hydraulic operation, they operate with a pumping
unit which delivers the hydraulic oil to them at much higher
pressure and volume.
The HU-56 hydraulic unit is usually used with press weld
systems to supply the hydraulic oil to the weld guns. Whenever
it becomes necessary to work on the hydraulic system, all
pressure must be removed from the system before starting the
work. The HU-56 unit has a Dump Valve that is used as a
safety valve to remove all pressure from the system before any
maintenance work is started.

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Fig. 1-11, Hydraulic Unit HU-56

When the pump motor is shut off, the dump valve is


de-ener-gized and the pressurized oil is dumped into the tank.
Whenever the pressure is relieved, an indicating rod on the
unit's accumulator will be up. Never work on the hydraulic
system unless the rod is up. Opening a system mounted bypass
valve will also relieve the pressure and provide insurance
should the system be restarted at the wrong time.

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Fig. 1-12, Air Over Oil Accumulator


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Safety
Welding Presses/Pinch Points
Entry into a welding press must never be done without first
following the energy control procedures. Lockout, tagout and
platten support are required. Manual safety swing blocks and
lockout devices that deactivate the welding press motor and
controls are provided for the safety of trained maintenance
personnel when work is required inside the press.
Vise grips or pliers can be used for electrode shank or tip
removal. Avoid putting your fingers between the electrodes
when dressing or replacing them.

Fig. 1-13, Safe Electrode Removal

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Safety
Laser Class Descriptions
CLASS I
These lasers are considered safe by all present measures of
potential hazard. No individual, regardless of exposure time,
would be injured by a Class I laser. Class I lasers have power
levels well below 1.0 milliwatt.
CLASS II
These lasers are limited to visible beams, where exposure
within the normal blinking response of the eye would not be
hazardous. A true Class II laser beam has an upper limit of 1.0
milliwatt total emitted power. This class does not produce
harmful effects to skin, eyes or any other portion of the body.
CLASS III
The power level range of these lasers is between 1.0 milliwatt
and 5.0 millivvatts. Class III includes both visible and non-visible
beams. Class III lasers can produce a hazard if viewed directly.
Prolonged exposure 'on skin can be hazardous. Normally,
reflections from far range viewing will not present any danger.
CLASS IV
Power levels of these lasers range from 5.0 millivvatts to
thousands of watts. This class is extremely hazardous to eyes
and skin. Reflections of a Class IV laser are dangerous for even
far range viewing conditions. Special care must be taken to
ensure that proper safety practices are being followed. These
beams are usually invisible.
Laser systems have conspicuously displayed signs that make
caution or danger statements.
The color of the sign and what is stated on the sign explain the
particular hazard.
"Yellow" for Caution
"Red" for Danger

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Fig. 1-15a

Labels for MEDIUM POWER VISIBLE LASER having a total


power output below 5.0 mW.

Fig. 1-15b


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Arc Welding
Introduction
The term "arc welding" applies to a group of welding processes that use an
electric arc drawn between the metal and the tip of an electrode as the source of
heat to melt and join the metals.
The electrode may or may not provide a filler metal in the process.
Although many arc welding processes are done manually, some may be done
with robots or automatic systems.

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Fig. 3-1, Manual Arc Welding

A manual arc welding process, called Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW),
uses a covered electrode rod. The core of the covered rod conducts the
electrical current to the arc and provides filler metal for the joint. The rod's
covering shields the molten metal, protecting it from the atmosphere during the
process. The protection comes from the gases that form during the melting of
the electrode and the combustion/decomposition of the shield itself.
The electrode and actual parts being welded are part of the welding circuit. The
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electrode is usually the "positive" side of the circuit. The parts being welded are
usually grounded directly to the weld controller which is also building-grounded.
Since the filler metal comes from the electrode, the electrode must be manually
replaced as needed during the welding process.

Fig. 3-2, Typical Metal Arc Welding

Some applications of arc welding use an automatic wire feed where the weld
pool is shielded from atmospheric contamination by a flow of shielding gas.
Three basic shielding gases, argon, helium and carbon dioxide, can be used to
displace the nitrogen, oxygen and water vapors present in the atmosphere while
the weld is being made.
The electrode, or filler metal, is a light-gauge wire which is automatically fed
through a nozzle to the workpiece. The feed rate can be adjusted at the welder
control panel. Officially known as Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), it is also
known as MIG welding. It can be properly applied manually or automatically for
assembly operations.

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Fig. 3-3, Gas Metal Arc Welding

Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) operates on the principle of establishing a pilot arc
between a tungsten electrode and the shielding gas orifice. This pilot arc ionizes
the orifice gas. The ionized gas then ignites the primary arc between the metal
being welded and the nozzle electrode. This process develops higher welding
temperatures than conventional arc welding processes. Welding can also be
done without adding filler metal.

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Fig. 3-4

If filler metal is used, care should be taken to keep it (rod or wire) free from
contamination in storage as well as in use.
The hot end should not be removed from the shielding gas protection during the
welding process.
The plasma arc cutting process uses a high-temperature constricted arc which is
concentrated onto a small area of the metal. The high-temperature arc heats the
gas to a plasma beam.
Melted by the heat of the plasma beam, the metal being cut is removed by the
jet-like gas stream from the torch nozzle.

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Fig. 3-5, Plasma Arc Cutting Nozzle


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Resistance Welding
Introduction
A resistance spot weld is a small localized weld made between overlapping
pieces of metal.

Fig. 2-1a

In making a resistance spot weld, electrical current is passed from one electrode
tip through the metals to be joined and into the other electrode tip. Resistance to
the flow of current at the faying surface, or interface between the metals, heats
them. Based on the amount of current which flows and the length of time it is
allowed to flow, the metals become molten.

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Fig. 2-1b

When they become molten and flow together, the current is stopped. The heat
declines, the nugget cools and the metals become one. A resistance weld has
been made.
There are three basic elements involved in making a resistance spot weld:
HEAT -- PRESSURE -- TIME.
Heat is obtained from the resistance of the metal to the flow of electric current at
the faying surface.
Pressure is obtained from the weld gun cylinders through the electrode tips.
Time is the length of the time the weld current flows.

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Fig. 2-2

Resistance to current flow will generate heat in an electrical conductor.


The amount of heat generated depends on the amount of current flowing, the
length of time the current flows and the resistance of the conductor to the current
flow.
In resistance spot welding the metal being joined is a conductor in the electrical
circuit. During the flow of welding current through the circuit, resistance is
encountered which generates heat. The majority of the heat will be at the weld
interface, or faying surface, because the resistance at that point in the circuit is
the highest. The resistance of the other components in the circuit is lower
because they are made of highly conductive copper alloy.

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Fig. 2-3

Electrode tip pressure brings the metal between the electrodes together and
provides electrical contact to the metal so that a weld can be made.
If the electrode pressure is too low, a poor contact will result. This causes a
larger amount of heat to be developed at the contact points between the
electrode tips and the metal. The excessive heat produces excessive wear on
the electrode tips and "too hot" of a weld. More importantly, it minimizes the
acceptability of the weld nugget itself.

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Fig. 2-4

When correct welding pressure is applied, most of the heat will be developed at
the interface where the weld is to be made. A proper nugget will be formed.
At this point it should be noted that weld cap alignment to the metal being
welded is also very important. The discussions which follow are presented with
the fact that the cap alignment is normal, 90, to the metal. Under "plant floor"
conditions, any misalignment greater than 5 is not acceptable.

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Fig. 2-5

The length of time the weld current is allowed to flow is known as the weld time.
Weld time and weld current flow are complementary portions of the welding
process. Heat transfer is a function of time. Therefore, the development of a
proper weld nugget size requires a minimum length of time regardless of current.
Proper welds may be accomplished with shorter weld times, but the current must
be higher. But very high current may result in expulsion of product metal during
the weld. For weld quality, this is not acceptable. Proper weld time must not be
sacrificed to improve tool cycle time.

Fig. 2-6

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Fig. 2-7

A welding transformer transforms the high voltage, low current primary power
supply to the required lower voltage, higher current secondary weld circuit.
The primary voltage to the welding transformer is turned on and off by a welding
contactor that is controlled by a timer.
The timer controls how long the welding current flows. An initiating switch starts
the operation.
The secondary circuit of a welding system conducts the welding current from the
welding transformer to the panels to be welded.

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Fig. 2-8

The electrode tips, welding cables and welding transformers are the main
components of the secondary circuit.
Most of the maintenance of a welder's electrical system will involve keeping
these components and their connections in good working condition.
There are different methods of making resistance spot welds. Basically, the
methods are related to the way current flows through the parts being welded.
Three of the most common methods used in automotive resistance spot welding
are DIRECT WELDING, SERIES WELDING and PROJECTION WELDING.
Direct welding is the type of welding done by single weld guns. It is also the
principal type of welding used in assembly and fabricating applications.
Series welding is a method of welding which can be used on lighter gauge bare
metals.
Projection welding permits thick metal to be welded to much thinner metal, such
as a weld nut to a body panel. It also permits a group of welds to be made in a
small area at one time.

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Fig. 2-9, Direct Welding

In direct welding, all of the current from the transformer passes directly through
the single weld nugget being formed. No other path exists for the current to
bypass (shunt) the weld nugget. Only one weld is made per transformer
secondary. A high conductivity copper path exists from the transformer to the
weld nugget.
Direct welding is preferred when welding heavier or galvanized metal.

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Fig. 2-10, Series Welding

Series welding refers to the path the welding current takes from the transformer
through the metal and back to the transformer.
Two welds are made per transformer secondary. From this comes the name
"series" welding.
One weld is in series with the other.
In series welding, however, a portion of the secondary current bypasses (shunts)
the weld nuggets being formed. This shunt current passes through the panels
being welded and not through the faying surface. For proper welds, the current
path between the caps must be the path of least current flow resistance.
Caps-to-metal-to-backup must be an excellent alignment. Series welding should
not be used on galvanized metals. The galvanized coating itself can provide a
very low resistance shunt path.

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Fig. 2-11, Projection Welding

A projection is an embossment on one of the workpieces at the location where a


weld is desired. The workpieces are placed between electrodes in the projection
welding machine. Then pressure and current are applied as in spot welding.
However, because the contact area between the work and the electrodes is
much greater than the contact area at the end of the projection, most of the
heating will occur at the projection where the weld is desired.
As the projection becomes molten, welding pressure causes the projection to
collapse and form into the panel as the weld is taking place.
Although direct, series and projection welding are the three basic styles of
resistance welding, there are a number of acceptable modified applications.
One is known as "direct-in-series." Its picture is shown below.

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Fig. 2-12a, Direct-in-Series Welding

Another type of welding is known as "over/under" welding. It is used for


applications where it is not possible, or practical, to make a required direct weld
with a single transformer. The picture below shows the "over/under" technique.
There is further discussion of this technique on pages 2-164 and 2-165.

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Fig. 2-12b, "Over/Under" Welding

Closed-section structural auto body members are becoming an important part of


automotive design and assembly. Since conventional resistance welding
requires two-sided access, another approach has been developed. It is known
as single-sided spot welding (SSSW). The SSSW approach uses conventional
resistance welding equipment with modifications to the gun arms, electrodes and
transformer size/type. The picture below is an example of an SSSW application.

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Fig. 2-13, Single-Sided Spot Welding

Product design and demand changes have regenerated the use of a few
additional styles of assembly weld processes. They are all discussed in detail in
PED 106. A brief overview is presented on the following pages.

BUSS BAR WELDING


This refers to the method of conducting the weld current to the weld guns and
into the metal. As shown in the sketches, the product receives many welds from
one weld control/ transformer system. It's just a matter of placing the parts in the
fixture and allowing the control system to sequence the closing of the weld guns.
Weld current is efficiently carried to the weld gun conductor cables through solid
copper buss runs attached directly to the transformer. A few operation concerns
follow.
Metal combinations in the weld path should be the same. 1.
No more than one gun can fire at a time. 2.
Water cooling of the buss may be required. 3.
Constant current weld control mode is strongly suggested. 4.
Another style of buss bar welding uses the buss bars to feed individual cables
servicing both arms for multiple guns in a single fixture. Again, the guns are
sequenced in firing order.
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Fig. 2-13b, Buss Bar Welding

POGO WELDING
Not too much different than buss bar welding, pogo welding has the robot
moving a single gun. A few big points here are:
Used where there is no access for a pinch type gun 1.
Single phase DC weld power is recommended 2.
Special purpose robots are required 3.
PM of backups and tool cleanliness is very important 4.

Fig. 2-13c, Pogo Welding

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PEDESTAL/ROBOT WELDING
This is just a matter of the robot moving the part through the tool. Concerns here
are:
Robot must be able to handle it's carrying fixture and the part being
welded
1.
This is usually a respot operation 2.

Fig. 2-13c, Pedestal/Robot Welding


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Resistance Welding
Caps, Shanks
Successful execution of any resistance spot welding operation depends on the
electrode tips.
Water-cooled resistance welding electrode tips conduct the welding current,
apply the pressure and dissipate the heat.

Fig. 2-14, A Typical Series Weld Setup Using Straight Guns


With Solid Backups and Backup Buttons

If the application of pressure did not have to be considered, electrode tip


selection could be made entirely on the basis of electrical conductivity.
Because of the mechanical force required for metal contact and electrical
conductivity during the welding operation, an electrode tip must withstand
considerable stress at very high temperature.
Electrodes are manufactured in various sizes and shapes and are made of
different alloys.
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The metal being welded and the design of the body section determine the size
and shape of the electrode to be used.

Fig. 2-15, Electrode Tips, Caps and/or Shanks Are


Available in Many Sizes and Shapes

CLASS II or CLASS III copper alloy electrodes are usually specified for use with
most spot welding operations. They have more strength and better wear
resistance than pure soft copper.
Another factor affecting the selection of electrode tips is "sticking" or "pick-up."
This is caused by too small a contact area or too high a current for the area
available. The result is a tendency for the metal being welded to stick to the
electrode tip.
This is especially true when welding galvanized metal with new electrode tips.
*R,W,M.A, ALLOYS
COPPER BASE ALLOYS
R.W.M.A. CLASS I (Zirconium Copper)
Class I alloy is a good substitute for pure copper as an electrode material. It is
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specifically recommended for welding aluminum.
R.W.M.A. CLASS II (Chromium - Zirconium Copper)
Class II alloy is resistance welding electrode material specifically recommended
for high production seam and spot welding of cold- and hot-rolled steel.
R.W.M.A. CLASS III (Beryllium Copper)
Class III alloy is generally recommended for projection welding because it has
higher strength than Class II.
Any electrode made with Class III copper alloy is assumed to contain beryllium.
All grinding or discing of Class III electrodes should be done in a special booth,
in accordance with the recommendation issued by the General Motors Industrial
Hygiene Department.
* Resistant Welding Manufacture's Association.
Class I weld caps, also labeled as G.M. Style MWZ, are recommended for robot
and fixture welding.
DSC weld caps, labeled as G.M. Style MWP, offer reduced "sticking," good
strength and wear resistance. However, any alloyed electrode tip is
accompanied by some sacrifice in electrical conductivity.
Weld schedules can sometimes be altered to weld "hotter" with DSC alloyed
electrode tips. That is, higher currents and shorter weld times than with Class II,
or G.M. Style MW, can be used.
Most electrode "sticking" may be overcome with some form of pulsation welding.
Refer to weld schedule section, pages 2-100 through 2-109.

Fig. 2-17
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Water freed" and "return" in the electrode holder must be correctly connected so
that the water passes through the deflector tube first. See pages 2-22 and A1-4
& 5 for proper deflector tube clearance.
Electrodes have identifying marks to distinguish their alloy group and
manufacturer.

Fig. 2-18, Typical Marks for Different Alloy Electrodes

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Electrode tips come in various shapes. But generally only three different sizes
are used in GM plants: size #1, #2 or #3.
The #1 size electrode cap and/or shank is 1/2 inch in diameter. If is used for
special applications or after hem welding.
It should never be used with over 670 lbs. of force.
The #2 size electrode cap and/or shank is 5/8 inch in diameter. It is commonly
used for all welding up to 1200 lbs.
The #3 size electrode cap is 3/4 inch in diameter. The #3 size shank or
one-piece electrode is 7/8 inch in diameter. It is used when there is more than
1200 lbs. of welding force.

Fig. 2-19, Commonly Used Electrode Cap Styles

See appendix A1 for pictures and numbers of electrode caps.

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Fig 2-20, Electrode Caps and Shanks

Electrode caps (sometimes referred to as "tips" or "points") eliminate the need to


replace the complete electrode. Available in different sizes and shapes, the cap
fits on the "cap end" of the shank. Weld gun force, part clearance and electrode
angulation are determining factors when selecting the size and shape of the
electrode cap.
Electrode shanks may be seated and retained in the arm or holder by a number
of methods. They include a tapered seat in the arm itself for direct inserting of
the shank, or a locked copper insert, a soldered copper insert, a threaded
copper insert. See Appendix A for details.
Electrode caps and shanks may be inspected for taper and size by using the
proper ring and/or plug gauge.

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Fig. 2-21a

Fig. 2-21b

Proper cooling of the electrode tip is very important. The most common cause of
electrode wear is high temperature resulting from improper water-cooling.
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A 1/2 gallon per minute water flow rate is needed for each electrode tip. This is
particularly important on heavy metal and galvanized welding operations.
Equally important is the water deflector tube length. It should extend to within 1/8
inch from the bottom of the reinforcement lip. The "inlet" water should come out
of the tubing for maximum cooling efficiency.
When electrode shanks are replaced in electrode holders, they should be
brought together under welding force or tapped gently with a hammer to insure
that the electrode is seated properly to seal the water circuit and assure good
electrical conductivity. Water leaks around the seat of the electrode may
sometimes occur. These leaks should never be stopped with insulating material,
such as "teflon" tape, etc.

Fig. 2-22, Proper Water-Cooling (See A1-4 for dimensional detail)

Worn electrode tips may be replaced with new tips or reconditioned on either a
lathe, a drill press or with a portable pneumatically operated electrode dresser.
Mushroomed or worn electrode tips are dressed by removing as little of the
electrode tip as necessary to restore it to its original shape.

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Fig. 2-23

Lightweight and easy-to-operate electrode dressers require no special training


for the operator.
Pneumatically operated and usually with several speed options, most models of
dressers accept a variety of cutters designed to dress specific electrode styles.

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Fig. 2-24

When applying a tip dresser, it should be positioned properly, operated only until
the electrode cutter has bottomed and no further cutting is taking place.
Weld caps can be purchased with a variety of contact faces. They are used for
specific weld applications. But even if the tip contact face is correct for the task,
there are situations which can result in improper welds.

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Fig. 2-25a, Offset Centerlines

Shown in the above illustration are two properly dressed electrode tips with
faces square with their shanks and parallel to each other. But with their
centerlines offset, the result of their misalignment is a reduced effective contact
area and a small weld.

Fig. 2-25b, Welding Surfaces Are Not Parallel

Shown in the above illustration, two properly dressed tips have faces square
with their shanks. But the welding surfaces are not parallel.
The result of this misalignment is indentation and a small weld. Misalignment of
tip surface is not always dependent on the alignment of tips, because often the
centerlines of tips are at an angle with each other in order to get into a close
flange condition. Actual tip faces should be made parallel, regardless of the
angle.

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Fig. 2-26

Correct alignment of the electrocle tips is essential for good tip life and quality
welds. Loss of alignment while operating may indicate that some part of the
welding gun or head is not tightly secured. When it becomes necessary to
remove a worn electrode from the holder, caution should be taken so that the
electrode seat in the holder is not damaged.
Electrode tip shanks are held by the electrode holder in a tapered hole. Check to
see if the shank is held directly by the gun arm or by a tapered insert which is
threaded into the arm.
Before attempting to remove an electrode tip, shut off the feed and return water
supply valves or pinch off the water lines.

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Fig. 2-27a

"Vise grips" may be used to remove the electrode tips directly from the arm by
using a twisting action. But if the arm has a threaded insert, remove the insert
and shank, together. Then set the insert in a vice and tap the shank from the
inside of the insert. Using threaded inserts eliminates shank-change damage to
the expensive gun arm. Shank insert details are in Appendix A1

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Fig. 2-27b

The above "attempted" electrode tip shank removal method may damage the
shank and the electrode holder.
A welding machine contains the electrical, mechanical and control systems. It
then becomes the function of the electrode tips to conduct the welding current
under the required mechanical pressure in order that a proper relationship be
maintained between HEAT -- PRESSURE and TIME.
It might be concluded that electrode tips do all the work. In a sense, this is true.
The need for care in the selection of electrodes does not mean that all
unsatisfactory welds indicate poorly maintained and/or selected electrodes.
Electrode tips cannot produce good welds unless the welding machine and its
control furnish the correct HEAT, PRESSURE and TIME.
Roll and seam spot welding are terms used for a series of resistance welds
made between disc-shaped electrodes. In roll spot welding the spots are spaced
apart. Roll seam welding defines the same process, but one which causes the
spots to overlap. The electrode discs are usually made of Class 2 RWMA alloy
and are between 1/4" and 3/4" thick. Disc diameters can be between 4" and 12".
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The discs are removable to permit dressing. Cooling water flows only through
the disc mounting shaft.
By adjusting the travel speed and the weld cycle time between welds, specific
spot weld spacing can be done.

Fig. 2-28, Roll Spot and Seam Welding


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Resistance Welding
Cables
Flexible connectors, called secondary cables, are needed to complete the
secondary circuit between the transformers and the moving electrode holders.
These secondary cables are either air-cooled or water-cooled and insulated with
an outer cover.

Fig. 2-29, A Typical Series Weld Setup Using Straight Guns


With Solid Backups and Backup Buttons

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When the welding gun is actuated, the electrode holder and tip move with the
welding gun cylinder rod.
The selection of any particular type of welding cable will depend on its specific
application.
From a current-carrying standpoint, the factors used to select the cable are
current and duty cycle, and the length of cable required.

Fig. 2-30, Air-Cooled Cable

Cable size and length are referred to separately. Size denotes the
cross-sectional area of the copper rope, in circular mils. 1000 MCM is
considered to be the "standard" size.
Air-cooled cables offer greater flexibility and faster installation (water hoses and
fittings are not needed) than water-cooled cables. However, experience has
shown that if air-cooled cables are sized very close to, or below, actual weld
cycle current loads, they can get pretty hot. When they get hot, even though they
still conduct, they'll swell and become shorter in overall length. This can prevent
proper gun closing pressure and allow an improper, flashed weld.

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Fig. 2-31a, Water-Cooled Cables

Single-conductor water-cooled cables are usually used as jumpers when the


thermal capability of standard 1000 MCM air cooled cables may be exceeded.
350 MCM is the standard size of water-cooled jumpers. They will heat up rapidly
if the water supply is shut off, or is inadequate. Check the Cooling Water section
of Chapter 6 for further information.

Fig. 2-31b, Kickless Cables

Low reactance (kickless) water-cooled cables are recommended for all portable
gun installations. These two-conductor cables are constructed in such a manner
that the tendency for the cables to "kick" when welding currents are passed
through them is essentially eliminated. Also because of the low reactance, they
are often used for fixture welding where the gun is at a greater than normal
distance from the transformer.

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Resistance Welding
Shunts

Fig. 2-32, Laminated Shunts

Laminated copper shunts are constructed of thin strips of


copper. They are almost always used with integral transformer
guns and allow for at least one arm of the weld gun to be "close
coupled" to the welding transformer. S.A.E. Grade 8 bolts are
recommended for attaching the shunt to its mounting points.

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Resistance Welding
Electrode Backup
To provide a counter force for the welding pressure and to complete the
electrical circuit, a water-cooled electrode backup button is needed for each
electrode tip. The backup button retainer is also insulated from the fixture and,
therefore, potential ground.

Fig. 2-33

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Just as electrode tips wear out, BACKUP BUTTONS BECOME WORN AND
MUST BE REPLACED AS REQUIRED.
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Resistance Welding
Electrode Holders
An electrode holder has two main functions. It transmits force and conducts
current. It is the mechanical link between the cable and the electrode tip. It is
also the electrical junction between the tip and the secondary of the transformer.

Fig. 2-34, Typical Electrode Holders

Holders insulate the welding circuit from the weld gun cylinder. The holders
themselves are water-cooled by the "in" and "out" routing of water to the tips.
The holders are designed to have a large enough mass to carry the secondary
circuit.
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Resistance Welding
Transformers
A welding transformer transforms the primary high voltage/ low current power
supply to low voltage/high current secondary weld service.
A simple transformer contains a primary winding, an iron core and a secondary
winding.
Current flowing through the primary winding creates a magnetic field. This
magnetic field is coupled through the iron core to the secondary windings and
induces secondary voltage.
If there are twice as many turns in a primary coil as there are in the secondary
coil, the secondary voltage will be one-half the primary voltage and the
secondary current will be twice the primary current.

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Fig. 2-35, Cutaway View of a Transformer

A transformer's primary voltage relates to the secondary voltage as the number


of turns in the primary winding to the number of turns in the secondary winding.
This is referred to as the TURNS RATIO.

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Fig. 2-36, Basic Transformer

The transformer in the illustration has 88 turns in the primary and 1 turn in the
secondary. The turns ratio is 88:1.
The product of voltage times current is the same for primary and secondary.

The transformer manufacturer attaches a nameplate to the transformer which


gives the manufacturer's name, the GM transformer number (TR), the GM serial
number and the date the transformer was shipped.

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Fig. 2-37

The following ratings are usually specified for any given transformer:
The PRIMARY VOLTAGE specified for the welding transformer is the normal
voltage for which the transformer has been wound. This specified primary
voltage will be lower than input buss voltage due to voltage drop in the control,
the wiring between the buss and transformer and the resistance voltage drop in
the transformer itself. The transformer's primary voltage is supplied through the
weld control panel. Standard single-phase, resistance welding transformers are
rated at 440V U.S. pdmary and 550V Canadian primary.
NOTE: There is a table in Appendix A1 which lists new model transformer
data. The table lists 480V/575V primary rating instead of the 440V/550V. A
few years ago, based on assembly plant power service and distribution
improvements, along with improved weld control capability, it was decided
to spec new models for the higher primary supply voltage. Older style
transformers are still assembled to meet the 440V/550V primary rating.
FREQUENCY of the alternating current line to which the transformer is to be
connected is specified in the rating. The transformer should not be operated at
other than its rated frequency.
The DUTY CYCLE of a welding transformer is the ratio of the time that the
welding current flows within the sequence of a complete system cycle.
The duty cycle is important because it indicates the relative amount of time
allowed for cooling between operations. Off-time permits excess heat to be
removed trom the transformer by water and air cooling.
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KVA RATING of welding transformers is a thermal rating based on a duty cycle
of 50%. A lower duty cycle allows the transformer to operate at a higher KVA
without overheating.
Because of the amount of heat developed while operating, all welding
transformers are water-cooled. If there is insufficient water flow, the effective
KVA rating will be reduced. Without proper water-cooling, a transformer will
overheat and transformer damage could take place.
SECONDARY VOLTAGE is voltage that is produced across the secondary
terminals with no load on the secondary and with rated voltage applied to the
primary. Secondary voltage can be varied by the tap switch. When a weld
cannot be made because of insufficient secondary current, even with the
transformer set at its maximum secondary voltage, the first thought is to use a
transformer with a higher secondary voltage and possibly a higher KVA capacity.
Other notations are also used for transformer identification.
A The letter "A" as part of the transformer number indicates a tap switch
which can be remounted in five different positions on the transformer itself.
-- Without the letter "A," the tap switch or tap terminals are on the top (primary
connection) of the transformer only.
X The "X" which is part of the transformer number and/or painted on the
housing indicates that it is fully "potted." See the following page.
Y Another transformer option is available just for robotic operations. The
transformer is potted at the secondary end only. The potting covers about
one third of the total transformer internal volume. Secondary end potted
transformers are noted by the letter "Y" as part of the transformer number.
They can be used on robotic operations where it is necessary for the
transformer secondary connection to be turned in the up position.
Secondary end potting is much less expensive than fully potting a
transformer.

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Fig. 2-40, Portable Gun Transformers

A portable gun welding transformer has two secondary lugs where the kickless
cable is connected by using adapter plates.
The adapter plates eliminate some of the stress of the inductive "kick" between
the secondary lugs from being reflected back into the internal structure of the
transformer.
Not using adaptor plates may void the transformer warranty.
The "X" marking on a transformer denotes that the transformer is fully "potted".
A fully "potted" transformer is one that is protected from moisture and
contaminants (water, oil and weld flash) with an epoxy-type resin added
internally to the complete transformer by its manufacturer.
A black "X" appears on transformers that have a primary rating of 440 volts.
A red "X" appears on transformers that have a primary rating of 550 volts.
Removing the cover from the portable/robot gun transformer's primary end
reveals the primary wire and tap link connections. The primary wires are
connected to the L1 and L2 primary terminals. The voltage tap connections are
made by a bolted link arrangement. Be sure the primary service is turned off and
locked out before modifying link arrangements.

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Fig. 2-41a, TR-48 thru TR-70

Below is another arrangement for secondary voltage tap setting. See appendix
A1 for transformer data.

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Fig. 2-41b TR-70AX, 70BX

The high voltage setting is the most common connection. It is used wherever
higher welding currents and required for heavy metal, coated metal, long cables
and/or large throat guns.

Fig. 2-42a, Double Secondary (D.S.T.)


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Fixture Type Transformers

In certain welding transformers, there are two secondary coils of one turn each
consisting of water-cooled copper castings. These transformers are referred to
as double secondary transformers (D.S.T.s). The primary coil is divided into
sections. Various numbers of turns can be selected by means of a tap switch.
The tap switch is used for selection of higher or lower welding voltages.
The transformer's tap switch should never be moved while the transformer is
energized. Any movement of this "heat selector" during the weld cycle could
severely damage the transformer, possibly injure the person doing it, and void
the transformer warranty.

Fig. 2-42b, Single Secondary (S.S.T.)


Fixture Type Transformer

Single secondary transformers (S.S.T.s) are approximately 3/4 the width of the
more commonly used double secondary transformer. They have a set voltage
with no tap switch. The set voltage is approximately the same as tap 3 on the
equivalent D.S.T.

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Fig. 2-43, Welding System Grounding

This shows a robot installation with a remotely mounted AC portable gun


welding transformer.
The ground conductor in the transformer is continuous to the buss ground only.
It does not continue through the weld cable to the gun.

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Fig. 2-44

This shows a portable gun assembly AC welding transformer with its cover
removed.
When used with a robot or manual application the transformer's metal case is
grounded. The transformer has a double turned secondary connected in series
and internally connected at the midpoint of the secondary to the case. By
grounding the case, the transformer's secondary is grounded.
The actual, final connection to ground can be done in two different ways. The
first is connecting the 1/0 service cable ground conductor from the transformer
ground all of the way to the ground conductor provided in the weld distribution
buss.
Some of the older weld buss installations do not carry a ground conductor,
however. For that case, the transformer service cable ground must be attached
with a proper lug to an actual portion of the plant's steel building structure. The
steel structure itself, where the ground connection is made, should be checked
to verify that it does provide a direct path to earth ground.
It should be noted also that only one end of the ground conductor should be.
connected to earth ground. The other end terminates at the last point of contact
on the equipment being grounded.

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Fig. 2-45, Air-Operated Pinch Gun With a Typical
Fab Type Single Secondary Transformer

When a fabricating type ungrounded transformer is used, an isolation contactor


is required.
The isolation contactor is the mechanical switching device used to isolate the
primary circuit (both conductors are opened) from the welding transformer when
welding is not in process. It can be part of the main weld control cabinet as
shown above, or in its own enclosure mounted near the transformer at the
fixture.

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Fig. 2-46, Integral Trans-Guns

Welding transformers used with commercial integral trans-guns are sized and
selected for specific individual robotic or hard automatic applications.
Integral gun transformers are generally smaller and lighter than conventional
transformers. Resistive losses are reduced by the close coupling of the
transformers to the weld gun. With HF/DC welding, inductive losses are also
greatly reduced.
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Resistance Welding
Controls
Present-day resistance welder controls use microprocessor technology to
control the flow of electrical current from the welder service buss to the welding
transformer.
Multiple spot weld, high-volume tooling requires specialized welder controls with
multiple welding SCRs and contactors. They control the simultaneous welding
that is generally done in fabricating plants.
Single spot weld, lower-volume tools use welder controls with a single SCR.
They are applied to sequential welding usually associated with assembly
plants.
Latest style weld control specifications provide advanced methods of weld
control programming, operating and monitoring. Included in the list of new
requirements are things like: weld cycle current data monitoring and recording,
weld monitoring, and weld program upload/download capability through a weld
control network.

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Fig. 2-48

The welder control model number, the manufacturer's name, the CPC/MDS
specification number and the latest revision number appear on the front of the
enclosure door of the main cabinet.
A service manual containing wiring diagrams, replacement information,
photographs, descriptive literature and information regarding installing,
operating, troubleshooting and maintaining the control is provided by the
control's manufacturer.
WELD CONTROL MDS NUMBERS
MDS NUMBER TOOLING APPLICATION
MDS 366
MDS 555
Assembly plant controls used for sequential welding with manual,
robotic or hard automatic applications.
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MDS 526 High frequency' DC control used for sequential welding with
robotic or hard automatic applications.
MDS 599 Previously titled RWC1. Weld control for sequential welding with
manual, robotic or hard automatic applications.
MDS 601 Weld stand control primarily for fabricating plant use where up to
12 contactors are required.
MDS 601A Auxiliary cabinet for MDS 601 containing 3 contactors.
MDS 614 Weld press control used with welding presses requiring up to 36
contactors.
MDS 614S Auxiliary cabinet for MDS 614 containing 6 contactors.
MDS 646 Designed to be used with MDS 601A and/or MDS 614S, this is a
firing and timing control only.
* An extended list appears in Appendix A1.
Assembly style weld controls are single-output systems. Each control has only
one SCR pack. Generally, each control also requires its own data entry panel.
Later-style systems may have DEPs capable of interfacing up to 32 control
panels. Refer to the control manufacturer's specific manual for more detailed
information.

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Fig. 2-50

Manual welding application with a weld station having a single weld control.

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Fig. 2-51, MDS 366

The assembly-style welder control is compatible with manual, robotic or hard


automatic applications.
It is built to operate on a 60-Hz welder buss supply voltage of 480 volts or 575
volts.
Fig. 2-52, MDS 555
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Fig. 2-53

Robotic welding application using a high frequency/direct current (HF/DC) integral trans-gun
with control.
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Fig. 2-54, MDS 526

Fig. 2-55, High Frequency/DC Block Diagram

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High frequency refers to the ability of the control to increase the frequency of the power
supplied by the plant's welder service buss.
The sketch shows how the control system increases the operating frequency to 1200 Hz. The
system rectifies the 3-phase, 60-Hz line frequency input and then feeds it into a bank of
switching transistors which pulse-train generate and modulate the 1200 Hz AC voltage. It is
then directed to the welding transformer primary. The transformer secondary output passes
through a diode bridge to provide the DC welding current.

Fig. 2-56, HF/DC Trans-Gun

Welding transformers used for HF/DC welding are smaller in size and lighter in weight then
conventional AC trans-gun welding transformers.
Because the welding current is DC, the HF/DC welding transformer is not affected by
magnetic fields or metal in the weld gun's throat.
To guard against moisture and contaminants the welding transformers are "potted."
It should be noted that the secondary voltage of an HF/DC transformer is less than standard
AC transformers. This can be a problem on metals of poor fit or very dirty surfaces.
Also a point of concern is the proper attachment of secondary jumpers to the transformer.
Anchor bolts must be of the proper length. If they are too long, and the jumper is not firmly
attached, arcing and damage to the transformer will occur.
The following pages highlight another style of weld control approved for use. It follows
advanced guidelines which began in the original RWC1 specification. The control is now
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identified as MDS-599.
A few major points of description of the MDS-599 are:
can be applied to robotic, automatic or manual welding operation G
operates from 480V or 575V, I ph, 60 Hz supply G
can be applied with either AVC or CC modes G
capable of at least 15 selectable weld schedules G
each schedule has it's own stepper counter G
each function within a weld program has a max. of 99 cycles (wrt 60 Hz) available
within it's adjustment range
G
capable of single, dual or poly pulse welds G
upslope and downslope weld current programming is available G
fault-to-standby and fault-to-alert responses and signal reactions through the control
are available
G
functional ACR coolant failure monitoring G
NEMA Size 5 isolation contactor available G
capable of interfacing to a welder program network or master program work station G

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Fig. 2-56B MDS-599(RWC-1)

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Fig. 2-56C MDS-599 (RWC-1) With I/O Module -
Control Module Swing - Mount Open

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Fig. 2-56D

Fig. 2-57, Weld Stand Control

The MDS 601 has a basic system consisting of the main cabinet, the data entry panel and the
push-button panel.
To add up to 12 SCRs to the basic system, either the MDS 601A and/or the MDS 614S
auxiliary SCR cabinets may be added.
Fig. 2-58, MDS 601 Weld Stand Control
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Fig. 2-59, MDS 601A Auxiliary SCR Cabinet (Three Pack)
Fig. 2-60, MDS 614S Auxiliary SCR Cabinet (Six Pack)

Fig. 2-61, Fab. Data Entry Panel (DEP) and Push-Button Panel

Located remotely from the main cabinet, the fab.-style control data entry panel can program
up to 36 SCRs and display the control machine functions.
Refer to the control manufacturer's service manual for operating and programming
information.

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Fig. 2-62, Weld Press Control

The MDS 614 is a basic system consisting of the main cabinet, the data entry panel and the
MDS 601A auxiliary SCR cabinet.
To add more SCRs to the basic system, the MDS 614S auxiliary SCR cabinet must be added.
Fig. 2-63, MDS 614 Weld Press Control

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Fig. 2-64, Firing and Timing Control

The MDS 646 basic system consists of the main cabinet and the data entry panel.
The firing and timing control is a welder control only, with no SCRs or machine control
capability. It is to be used with the MDS 601A and/or the MDS 614S.

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Fig. 2-65, Multiple SCR Firing and Timing Control

The MDS 646 cabinet contains the main weld processor, the weld initiation and completion
relays and the user terminal strips.
In a resistance welding control, power from the primary service to the welder transformer must
be handled very quickly and accurately. The latest method of control is done through
silicon-controlled rectifiers. They are known as "SCRs." Shown below is a picture of an SCR
package used in later-model, single-phase AC weld controls.
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Fig. 2-66

Often referred to as "an SCR" or the "weld contactor," the package actually contains two
SCRs connected in an inverse-parallel arrangement.
Note that each SCR is signaled, through its own gate, to conduct during the correct half of the
primary current cycle. Signaling of the SCR gates is done by the weld control logic itself. This
is shown in the following set of pictures.

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Fig. 2-67

Prior to SCR applications, but still in use today, the ignitron tube handles the switching and
control of primary current to the welding transformer. Ignitron tubes, like SCRs, will conduct
current in only one direction. Two tubes are connected in reverse order to provide voltage of
the proper polarity to the specific tube. The tubes are then "triggered" to conduct primary
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current at the proper portion of cycle.

Fig. 2-68, Ignitron Tube Connections

Ignitron tubes are constructed differently than SCRs. Each tube has: a. a cathode (pool of
mercury) b. an anode c. the ignitor (same as SCR gate) d. a sleeve (the double-walled jacket
carrying cooling water)
Although ignitron tubes provide the same function as SCRs, they consume about three times
the physical space. They can be purchased at different ratings to handle different levels of
primary current.

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Fig. 2-69

Ignitron tubes have somewhat different failure characteristics than SCRs. When an SCR fails,
it simply will not conduct current. An ignitron tube, however, can:
arc back or 1.
have faulty ignition 2.
Of the two, arc back is the most serious. In an arc back, the tube will carry current
continuously even though the ignitor is off. This can cause the weld gun to stick to the metal
being welded and fail to open. The main line switch will have to be pulled, or primary fuses
blow, to stop the welding current. Portions of the welding equipment may be seriously
damaged. Causes of arc backs can be:
high momentary current overload 1.
excessive duty cycles 2.
inadequate cooling water 3.
Faulty ignition is a result of damage to the ignitor rod itself. The result will be erratic welding:
full heat, partial heat or no heat. Damage to the ignitor rods can come from:
failure of rectifiers in the ignitor circuit 1.
"wetting" of the rod with mercury from the cathode pool 2.
mechanical shock 3.
excessive ignitor current 4.
If the rectifiers in the ignitor circuit fail, reverse current will be allowed to flow through the
ignitor; that is, current will flow from the mercury-pool cathode into the ignitor rod instead of
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from the ignitor rod into the mercury, which is the correct direction. This will cause "pitting" of
the ignitor rod, which will result in a hard-starting tube. Rectifiers should be checked every
time a hard-starting tube is changed. An ohmmeter can be used to check rectifiers: the
resistance in the "reverse" direction should be approximately 4 or 5 times the resistance in the
"forward" direction; if it is much less than this, change the rectifier. If this is not done, the new
tube may be ruined.
All ignitor rods eventually become "wetted" with age. The carbon ignitor rod attracts a film of
mercury to it and eventually it will fail to cause proper ignition. If the tube is correctly handled,
installed and used, its life will be greatly influenced by the length of time it takes the ignitor to
become "wetted." This may, however, take years to occur.
Mechanical shocks and "sloshing" of the mercury can chip the ignitor rod, which will cause
hard starting or complete lack of firing. Ignitors are fragile and should be protected from rough
treatment.
Ignitors are designed to handle the required amount of current for a limited time; allowing the
current to flow through the ignitor for too long a time will damage it. If the ignitron tubes are
fired without the proper load being connected to them, ignitor currents will continue to flow
throughout the whole half cycle. NEVER FIRE IGNITRON TUBES IF THE SECONDARY
WELDING CIRCUIT IS NOT CLOSED. This means that insulating material such as fiber, etc.,
should not be put between the electrode tips to check gun operation. If it is desired to run the
guns. without firing the tubes, pull the main line switch or remove the fuse in the ignitor circuit.
This fuse is designed to prevent excessive ignitor currents and should not be tampered with.

Fig. 2-72


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Resistance Welding
Densification Unit

Fig. 2-73, Densification Unit

The densification unit, often called "the dens pak," provides a proper
package-style mounting of the system service elements. It may include:
cooling water supply/return valves and manifolds 1.
compressed air service valve, regulators and distribution solenoids 2.
electrical control system junction box with receptables, 3.
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switches and indicators 4.
cooling water leak sensor 5.
Although the dens pak function is the same for each application, certain styles
are available to provide specific functions. A table of reference numbers appears
in the appendix.
Usually used with the assembly plant style welder control, the densification unit
(MDS 406 or MDS 558) is designed to mount on the side of a welding
transformer.
It may also be mounted on its own bracket attached to a robot hip or arm.
Position of dens pak components will obviously vary. The primary intent is to
mount the dens pak close to the weld transformer and gun.
The densification unit may contain automatic water shutoff and/or multiple
pressure air regulation as options.

AUTOMATIC WATER SHUTOFF OPTION (MDS 528)


The optional automatic water shutoff will stop the flow of water to the electrode
should a cap come off. More importantly, it will signal the control and stop the
robot from welding without a cap on the electrode shank. (WD 11111B
reference)
For regular operation, water shutoff and a no-weld signal will be generated
whenever water flow is less than .75 gpm. MDS 528 reaction to a weld cap
removal during welding is generated within one second.

MULTIPLE PRESSURE OPTION


The multiple pressure option is an air pressure regulation method that provides
for three separate and adjustable welding pressures with full line pressure for
return. (WD 20410 reference)

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Fig. 2-75


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Resistance Welding
AVC and C-Reg
Later-style resistance weld controls provide two different methods of handling
weld application. One method is known as "automatic voltage compensation"
(AVC) or constant voltage weld control. The second method is called "constant
current control" or C-REG. Both weld output control approaches have specific
applications for which they are required or recommended.

AVC
This particular weld control function delivers a pre-programmed voltage level to
the weld transformer. Within the first few cycles of weld time, the control
monitors the primary voltage input. Based on the reading, the SCR firing angle is
modified by the control to provide a steady primary voltage to the weld
transformer. By maintaining a steady primary voltage, it is assumed that a
steady current, required for the specific weld, is delivered by the transformer.
Most resistance weld controls are designed to use their AVC capability for every
weld unless programmed differently.
AVC weld control is recommended for general resistance weld applications,
such as:
multiple guns and/or transformers firing simultaneously from the same
control
1.
situations where poor part fit-up or weld surface contamination is expected 2.
The AVC control is capable of adjusting for service line voltage variation in the
range of +10% to -20%.

C-REG. (or cc)


This weld control approach is also done by adjusting the SCR firing angle. But
the approach here uses a preprogrammed secondary circuit requirement to
control the SCR output to the transformer primary. The controller can
compensate, within reasonable limits, for variations in both secondary
impedance and service line voltage fluctuations.
Some steady current controls require that a reference point be developed by an
initial firing of the weld gun for making a proper weld. The control then uses that
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current reference as a base line for required compensation. Programmable
limits, typically +15%, define the amount of regulation which will be applied. The
base value must be taught for each welding condition. It must be updated each
time a secondary circuit component is modified.
Another style of C-REG. control is "self-taught" each time a weld is initiated.
They do not have programmable limits on the amount of regulation which is
applied. The only limiting factor is the current capability of the transformer being
controlled. General system fault diagnostics can be more difficult when the level
of regulation cannot be programmed.
Some special applications for constant current control are:
integral transformer guns where transformer secondary voltage is lower
and contact resistance variation must be handled
1.
buss bar-style welding from one transformer during sequential multi-point
processes
2.
It should be noted that any new-style weld controls purchased under the
specifications of MDS 366,526,555 and 599 have both AVC and C-REG.
capability.

HIGHLIGHT
Just about the time this handbook was being published, another type of
resistance weld power application was being tested. Its name is "low
frequency/DC." The basic reason for trying another AC-to-DC weld approach
was to reduce inductive reactance problems and losses, but retain the on-line
style of weld control present'ly used for standard AC welding. Inductive
reactance losses can be a problem when cable length and weld gun arm sizes
have to be very large in order to contact and weld a specific part. Being able to
apply a DC-style welding procedure with a present AC-style, single-phase
control would provide another selection available for making proper resistance
welds.
The system being tested at a couple of assembly plants uses a standard
EQ-5100 weld control to feed a new LF/DC transformer. The line diagrams
which follow indicate the basic differences between the systems. The LF/DC
transformer uses the same style diodes as the present HF/DC transformer.

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Fig. 2-79A, Single-Phase Transformer

Fig. 2-79b, Single-Phase DC Power Supply

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Fig. 2-80, Three-Phase DC Power Supply


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Resistance Welding
Weld Guns

Fig. 2-81, Weld Gun Assembly

The weld gun is a cylinder (air or hydraulic) which is connected to, and always
insulated from, an electrode holder.
The selection of a weld gun is influenced by the electrode force required.
Electrode force is determined by the governing metal thickness (GMT) of the
parts being welded.
Air-operated weld guns are designed to develop their respective electrode force
(500-2000 lbs.) using 85 psi as a normal shop-air operating pressure.
Air and hydraulic guns are essentially the same, except for the cylinders and
their pressure sources. Hydraulic guns receive their operating force from a
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hydraulic oil pressure supply unit. Hydraulic guns are usually used in press
electrode tooling for metal fab applications.
To aid in positioning a manual or robot weld gun, rails, cross rails and spring
balancers are used.
Gun hangers with special adapters are selected to help in positioning the
electrode tips to the weld metal.
Electrode tip orientation to the parts being welded depends on the proper
adjustment of the gun hangers and balancers along with proper handling by the
operator as the welds are being made.
Ideally, the line of force should be as close to perpendicular to the weld metal as
possible (reference, Page 2-5).
Grounding of portable gun transformers is discussed on Page 2-44.
Weld gun force is based on 85 psi air pressure. Guns that follow specific
standards are numbered to reflect their characteristics. PED 948 outlines the
weld gun numbering system, covering portable and automatic weld guns.
"Specific" abbreviations that G.M. uses to identify standard guns, electrodes,
electrode arms and holders are listed below. A much longer list appears in the
appendix.
AR -Electrode Arm Assembly Y - Portable Weld Gun
CBL - Welding Cable (Jumper) YA - Portable Weld Gun (Air)
CLA - Air Cylinder (Weld Gun) SA - Robotic Six Axis Gun
CLH - Hydraulic Cylinder (Weld Gun) HA - Hanger Assembly
CLD - Dual-Piston Cylinder (Weld Gun) HE - Electrode Holder Assembly
*CLP - Pre-Lube Cylinder (Weld Gun)
MGA - Nonportable Weld Gun (Mounted Air)
MGH - Nonportable Weld gun (Mounted Hydraulic)
MW- Electrode Caps
(Pre-lubed cylinders require no air line lubrication.)
The letters that precede the portable weld gun number indicate that:
"Y" means that gun is a portable gun G
"A" means that gun is air-operated G
"D" means that gun is a dual heat unit; requires a dual trigger G


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Resistance Welding
Equalizing and Pinch Type
Equalizing guns and pinch-type guns are often used where standard electrodes
are needed on both sides of the weld and solid copper backup sections are not
allowed. They will have air or hydraulic cylinders and are generally used in
automatic floor-type welding tools.
Pinch-type guns have insulated bushings and washers at the gun's pivot point.
The insulation will prevent current transfer between the arms at the pivot, and/or
into the gun mounting bracket. See the picture on the following page.
Weld guns that are either the equalizing or pinch type usually have their
transformer mounted stationary to the fixture framework. The weld cables do the
moving and flexing with the weld gun action. Cable connections must always be
kept tight to assure proper weld current transfer.
The weld gun's "line of force" should be perpendicular to the weld flange.
Fig. 2-84, Suggestions for Proper Weld Gun Setup

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Fig. 2-85, Typical Pinch Gun Assembly (Air-Operated)

Fig. 2-86, Equalizing Gun (Air-Operated)


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Resistance Welding
Integral or Package Guns
Integral transformer guns are used only with robotic or automatic fixture-type
welding tools.
The integral transformer gun or trans-gun may be either a self-equalizing or
pinch-type design and can be air or hydraulic operated.
Resistive and inductive losses are reduced by close-coupling the weld gun. to
the transformer. The secondary weld cable is usually a laminated shunt.
Close-coupling allows for a smaller transformer. The KVA rating and the
secondary voltage rating along with the transformer's physical size and weight
will probably be reduced from that of a conventional transformer and weld cable
setup.
The welding transformer may be an HF/DC or a conventional AC.

Fig. 2-87, Typical Trans-Gun (Equalizing Type)


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Resistance Welding
Air-Over-Oil Guns
Air-over-oil guns employ both air and oil pressure at the cylinder. The oil is used
to extend the piston rod under low pressure. Compressed air is then sequenced
into the top of the cylinder's intensifying piston, to provide the actual welding
force. Because the electrode tip is brought against the panel under initial low
pressure, air-over-oil guns are sometimes referred to as "soft-touch" guns.
The air-over-oil gun is usually a "trans-gun," and may be either an equalizing or
pinch type.

Fig. 2-89, Air-Over-Oil Cylinders


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PORT 1 is defined as the "fluid port." It can be directed from an external


air-over-oil source which delivers the oil from a remote reservoir. Other styles
maintain the reservoir internal to the cylinder itself, but require the same air
initiation.
PORT 2 is the "intensification port" which takes the 85 psi plant air pressure for
developing proper cap-to-metal force.
PORT 3 is simply the air-actuated "return" which resets the gun to a complete
open position.

Fig. 2-90, Air-Over-Oil Gun


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Resistance Welding
Portable Guns
Portable air-operated welding guns are the tool used for manually applied spot
welds.
Portable weld guns are generally either "Straight Acting" or "Rocker Type." On
the straight-acting gun the movable electrode tip travels in a straight line. The
movable tip travels in an arc about an axis or pivot on the rocker-type gun.
Connected to the portable welding gun is a "kickless" water-cooled welding
cable. One side of the cable conducts current from the transformer through the
jumper cable to the movable electrode holder and tip. The other side of the
kickless cable conducts current from the transformer to the stationary arm and
stationary tip.

Fig. 2-91, Kickless Cables

Water flow through a kickless cable should be two gallons per minute. Water
should enter at the lower end of the cable and flow upward for maximum cooling.
Water lines should be specific for the cable and not connected in series with
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lines that supply other components, particularly transformers.
The jumper cables used with portable weld guns may be air-cooled or
water-cooled.

Fig. 2-92, Straight-Acting Gun

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Fig. 2-93, Rocker-Type Gun

The most commonly used portable gun will have a single trigger. A portable gun
with two triggers is referred to as a dual-heat or dual-trigger gun. Each trigger
initiates a specific sequence in the welder control. Triggers are detailed in the
appendix.
Another type of portable gun has an air-actuated retractable stroke cylinder. It is
also called a "back'up" cylinder. Its purpose is to provide extra opening of the
electrode tips in order to gain access to the weld area. The most commonly used
retractable stroke gun is nothing more than a cylinder inside of another cylinder
where the outer cylinder provides the retractable stroke.

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Fig. 2-94, Three Positions of a Dual-Acting Cylinder

In View "A" Pressure is applied to the return inlet, exhausting the other
two inlets. This position provides extra opening for the
electrode tips.
In View "B" Return air pressure is maintained while applying pressure to
the head of the backup piston. Because of less area on the
return side due to the piston rod, the backup piston and the
weld piston move to the pre-weld gun closed position.
In View "C" While maintaining air pressure on the head of the backup
piston, pressure is released from the return inlet and applied
to the head of the weld piston through porting in the side
walls of the backup piston. This moves the weld piston to the
gun weld position.
After the weld is completed and while still maintaining pressure on the head of
the backup piston, pressure is removed from the head of the weld piston and
applied to the return side. This returns the gun to the pre-weld position "B."
Releasing pressure from the head of the backup piston and applying it to the
return side of the weld piston opens the gun and returns it to position "A."

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Resistance Welding
Weld Schedules
Certain welding procedures have been established to provide welds that are
uniform in quality from one machine to another. These procedures are called
WELDING SCHEDULES.
Welding Schedules are specific values of Heat-Pressure-Time with respect to
electrode tip shape and size required to successfully weld combinations of metal
thickness.
Welds of proper strength and appearance may be obtained over a wide range
of current, pressure and time combinations. However, in order to provide uniform
information used for design, construction and production, certain standards have
been established to be followed wherever possible. With the many variables
involved, it is impractical to attempt to prescribe welding schedules for every
condition and combination. Other than current, pressure and time, consider the
following variables:
human element 1.
machine characteristics 2.
type and condition of machine 3.
condition of dies, fixtures and electrodes 4.
condition and type of material and surfaces of parts being welded 5.
the secondary loop 6.
metal fit-up 7.
weld gun/cap alignment to metal 8.
Recommended weld schedule ranges are shown on pages 2-115 through 2-118
and A1-49 through A1-50A.
Besides the length of time the electrical current is flowing (known as the "weld
time"), other "controlled time cycles" must be considered when making a
resistance weld.

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Fig. 2-97, Basic Resistance Spot Weld Times

Controlled time cycles for squeeze, weld and hold, along with specific welding
current, are values that are entered into the welder control memory through the
Data Entry Panel (DEP).
Summarized below are statements concerning indentifying the (governing Metal
Thickness for resistance welding applications. The GMT determines the
schedule to be used for the weld. GMT is defined as a part of tool design and is
verified during tryout. Abreviated statements listed here come from the WESS
Rules.
For Two Loose Pieces:
when both caps are dressed, the thinner sheet of steel being welded is the
GMT for the operation.
1.
when one of the caps on the weld gun is a "flat cap" and one of the caps is
a dressed cap, the GMT is the metal to be contacted by the dressed cap in
the weld process.
2.

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Fig. 2-98

Fig. 2-98b

For a One Piece to Two-or-More Stackup, or a Three Loose Piece Stackup,


determining the GMT is a bit more difficult. The flow chart below is used to
define the GMT. People from the Weld Specification Group work with the design
groups to define the tool welding capability requirements. The complete
procedure is detailed in PED 101.

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Fig. 2-99a

Fig. 2-99b

How to enter a weld program into the Data Entry Panel is covered in each
Control Manufacturer's Manual.
What to enter for squeeze, weld and hold time values, along with the required
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percent current (%1), is determined by the metal thickness and whether it is
galvanized or bare metal.

Fig. 2-100, Electrode Contact Area

In resistance spot welding the contacting area of the dressed electrode


determines the highest concentration of weld force and current.
WELD TIME is the amount of time welding current flows through the metal.
In a single-pulse spot weld the metal between the electrodes is heated from
room temperature to approximately 2000 F. Weld time begins in the range of 6
cycles of weld current flow, or about 1/10 of a second.
Weld time and weld current are complementary portions of a resistance spot
weld. Total heat is controlled by adjusting either the weld current or weld time.

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Fig. 2-101, Single-Pulse Weld

A single pulse of electrical welding current is usually best for most thin gauge
metal applications; either bare or galvanized/ galvanealed.
MULTIPLE-PULSE welding is a series of pulses of welding current applied
without removing the electrode force. The purpose of pulsing the current is to
build up the heat specifically at the weld interface with minimum heat buildup at
the electrode tips.
A single pulse of high current and long weld time can result in a number of
problem conditions. Welding the electrode tip to the metal without making a
nugget at the interface, burning through the metal interface, and excessive
galvanized flash or spray-out are some of the problem conditions preventable
with multiple-pulse welding.

Fig. 2-102, Dual-Pulse Weld

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Welding galvanized metal, heavy-gauge metal or multiple metal stack-up
conditions are good applications for dual-pulse welding.
SHORT COOL TIME will minimize the heat at the electrode tips, resulting in
longer "tip life." Long cool time will result in heat being taken away from the
interface and possibly reduce nugget growth.
One to three cycles of cool time is usually sufficient.
With multi-pulse welding, the first pulse is always programmed at a lower current
and time magnitude than the second pulse.

Fig. 2-103, Typical Dual-Pulse Schedule

The first pulse, which will have approximately 4-8 cycles of weld time, allows for
the galvanized coating to flow out of the weld zone. This allows additional weld
pulses to weld compatible metal.
Galvanized coated metals may be "hot dip" or "electroplate." Either one may
weld slightly different than the other.
If three or more weld pulses are programmed, the third pulse and any additional
pulses are pulse-two repeated.

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Fig. 2-104, Typical Three-Pulse Schedule

The required WELD TIME of a single-pulse weld will usually equal the total
WELD TIME of a multi-pulse weld.
If twenty cycles of weld time are required for a single-pulse weld, a three-pulse
weld will probably require about six cycles of weld time for the first pulse and
about seven cycles each for the two additional pulses, for a total of about twenty
cycles of weld time (6+7+7--20).
Slope Welding, which is a controlled increase and decrease in welding current,
can reduce excessive expulsion and electrode tip sticking, particularly when
welding galvanized coated metals.

Fig. 2-104, Typical Upslope/Dual/Pulse/Downslope Schedule


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After squeeze time, upslope time allows for a gradual INCREASE of weld
current.
When upslope time is complete, the weld signal is pulsed at whatever value of
current, %1, and time are programmed into the controller.
The above illustration shows two weld pulses with the second pulse, %1, higher
than the first. After completion of the second pulse and cool time, downslope
time allows for a gradual DECREASE of weld current. Hold time completes the
cycle.
Notice that upslope/downslope may generate a longer weld time than a regular
two- or three-pulse program. Using a weld control's upslope/downslope
capability is determined by each specific weld requirement.
Not all welder controls have upslope/multi-pulse/downslope capabilities.
SQUEEZE TIME provides the time for the weld gun to close its stroke and allow
the required weld pressure to develop before the weld current flows (weld time).
The pressure required is not available the instant the electrode tips close.

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Fig. 2-106

SQUEEZE DELAY TIME is only required with backup-style weld guns in the
repeat mode. It is designed to give added time for closing the backup portion of
the welding gun.
If the metal fit is poor, the squeeze time should be increased to provide more
time for the welding gun to pull the metal together before welding.

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Fig. 2-107

The weld gun's stroke, its piston area and the metal fit-up are factors to consider
when determining squeeze time.
Inadequate air supply pressure or volume can require an increase in squeeze
time.
When electrode arcing does not occur, the length of squeeze time entered into
the control is USUALLY adequate.
HOLD TIME is the amount of time the electrode tips are held under force on the
weld AFTER the welding current has stopped flowing.
Time to retain the molten metal nugget for cooling under pressure is the purpose
of hold time. This gives the metal time to resist fracture caused by the "spring
back" of the metal.
Too little hold time or none at all may permit some spot welds to pull apart.

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Fig. 2-108

Good metal fit-up requires less hold time than poor metal fit-up.
High-strength steel may be hold-time sensitive. If the weld nugget is brittle,
reduce the hold time.
A hold time of 5 cycles is usually satisfactory.
OFF TIME applies only to manual welding guns.
It is the time interval between "manual-repeat" welding operations when the
electrode tips are not contacting the work. This time allows for the repositioning
of the weld gun for the next weld.

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Fig. 2-109

If the welder control is not in the repeat mode, off time is ignored.
PERCENT CURRENT, %1, defines the amount of welding current provided
during the weld cycle with respect to the maximum secondary current available
from the welder control.
The development of the proper size weld nugget requires a minimum amount of
weld current.
If you don't have enough weld current you will never make a weld, no matter
how much weld time you program into the welder control.

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Fig. 2-110

Weld current may be measured in amperes with a meter in the secondary circuit
at the electrode tips. If the current reading is too low, the weld current setting
value should be increased. If it is too high, the weld current setting value should
be decreased.
Current readings will differ from one secondary circuit to another. A weld current
percent setting value may result in one reading for one secondary circuit and a
different reading for another secondary circuit because the im-pedances of each
circuit are different.
The required welding force listed on any given weld schedule, graph or chart is
not entered or adjustable at the data entry panel.
The weld gun force required is determined by the governing metal thickness
(GMT). Weld guns are selected by the amount of force they can apply at 85 psi
air pressure to the gun cylinder.
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In resistance spot welding the metal to be welded is part of the electrical circuit.
Pressure brings the electrodes and the metal together in intimate contact,
providing an electrical circuit path through the parts being welded.

Fig. 2-111, Electrode Pressure

Above-normal force is the least objectionable of weld schedule variations. From


a welding and/or metal fit-up viewpoint it is better to use more force than not
enough.

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Resistance Welding
Stepper Controls
Under actual operations, the welding electrodes deform due to the high
temperatures and pressures to which they are subjected. The "mushrooming" of
the tips results in decreases of two values: applied pressure (the force per unit
area) and current density (current per unit area).
The stepper compensates for the decrease in current density by increasing
percent heat settings for a set quantity of welds. The rate at which the electrode
tip wears determines the values that a stepper schedule will contain.
Programmed increases in current are determined by experience with the specific
system.
Welding pressure loss is not compensated for in a stepper program because the
stepper "steps" the weld current only.
Fig. 2-112a
New Electrode
Fig. 2-112b
Deformed or Mushroomed Electrode
When a tip has mushroomed and the stepper has increased the weld current to
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its maximum, the electrode tip should be changed or dressed.
Properly applied, a stepper program can improve weld quality. Data to support
each individual stepper schedule is obtained by observing the rate of electrode
tip wear for that individual application.

Fig. 2-113, Sample Stepper Schedule

The use of the stepper schedule is subject to the following restrictions:


The number of steps must exceed one. 1.
The weld current percentage value, %1, on each subsequent step must
only be greater than, or equal to, those of the previous step. If invalid
percent current settings are entered, an error message will result during
stepper operation.
2.
It can also be noted that different weld control manufacturers have different
styles of stepper programs. They include things like incremental and/or ramp
step-up capabilities. Check the manufacturer's manual to see what is available.
Check Appendix A1 for sample stepper schedules.

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Resistance Welding
Suggested Weld Schedules
The following weld schedule charts for bare-to-bare, bare
to-galvanized and galvanized-to-galvanized show that there is a
rise in current and time required as the metal thickness
increases. Colored fields for thin, medium and heavy show the
coordinate points for suggested current and time values most
likely to produce a proper-sized nugget.
Some weld tables in this book still reference "galvanized" metal.
In many applications, galvanized metal has been replaced by
"galvanneal." Experience has indicated that weld time and
current values for galvanneal metal welding are slightly lower
than those shown for galvanized metal.
Example:
If the Governing Metal Thickness (GMT) is in the thin metal
range (.035 inch), the chart shows suggested values of heat and
time to be 10,000 amps @ 10 cycles. These values may be
adjusted upward or downward, staying within the range, after a
weld check has determined the nugget size. Should the nugget
be small, adjusting the cycle time upward to 11 cycles or the
heat to 11,000 amps, or both, should increase the nugget to its
proper size. If there is a heavy flash and indentation, then the
heat and time values may be adjusted downward to suit the
condition.
The suggested resistance welding schedule listed here is
offered only as a guide in setting up a resistance welder and
must be modified to suit the individual condition.

HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL
For equal thicknesses of high-strength steel and mild steel, weld
current will be lower and weld time longer for high-strength
steel. The lower weld current is due to the higher contact
resistance resulting from the harder surfaces found in
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high-strength steel.
Dual-pulse schedules are recommended to decrease the
thermal load and to help overcome possible poor fit-up
conditions caused by inconsistency encountered with
high-strength steel.
Fig. 2-115
Fig. 2-116
Fig. 2-117
Fig. 2-118
Weld schedules are based on ideal conditions. Any deviation from an ideal
condition may require adjustment of the weld schedule to compensate for
the deviation.
WELD SCHEDULE GUIDELINES FOR "ADJUSTING" CURRENT, TIME
AND FORCE VALUES
Force:
Line pressure may be adjusted upward or downward to raise or lower the
force range to accommodate poor fit-up or coated metal. (Tools are
designed to run @ 85 psi air pressure.)
Current:
Weld current may be adjusted within the suggested range by entering a
higher or lower value. This reset value will cause the actual weld current at
the electrode tips to increase or decrease depending on the new setting.
Time:
Weld power may be adjusted within the control device's available cycle
time range in order to insure proper nugget size.
Pulse:
Pulse quantity may be adjusted to accommodate coated or heavy metal.
Nugget Diameter:
Optimum nugget size may be obtained by adjusting time, heat and force
values within their respective ranges as noted above.

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Resistance Welding
Tooling Applications
Fabrication-style tools allow for a number of spot welds to be made
SIMULTANEOUSLY and use welder controls that have multiple
secondary weld contactors.
Press electrodes, weld stands and tabletops are the three most
common fabricating types of tooling application.
Assembly-style tools typically allow for welds to be made
sequentially and their weld controls will have just one secondary
weld contactor.
Robots, hard automatics and manually operated portable weld guns
are most common to the assembly application.
Fig. 2-120a
The Robot
Fig. 2-120b
Typical Portable
Welding Gun Station
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Fig. 2-120c
Welding Press

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Fig. 2-121, Press Electrodes

One word which can be confusing because of its seemingly dual


meaning is the word "ELECTRODES."
The words "ELECTRODE TIPS" are used when referring to the
copper alloy tips, through which the welding current and pressure
are applied to the work being welded.
The words "PRESS ELECTRODE" are used when referring to the
interchangeable welding fixture used with a welding press.

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Fig. 2-122, Four-Post Welding Press

The welding press has a movable lower platen. This feature


facilitates the loading and unloading of panels. The main functions of
the welding press are to support the electrodes, to bring the panels
into welding position, and to resist forces applied by the pressure
devices during the welding sequence. The size and complexity of a
welding press is required to make many welds at high speeds.
For additional information regarding press operation, maximum
loads, general layout, wiring, piping, anti-repeat, safety block
installation and fixture installation drawings, refer to PED 700,
Section II.

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Resistance Welding
Welding Stands
Weld stands are used extensively for metal fabricating operations. Basically,
they consist of a steel frame upon which the necessary control equipment is
mounted.
To this basic machine, welding fixtures (including welding guns, Iocators,
electrodes, clamps, etc.) are attached. Often, several fixtures are interchanged
in the same stand.

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Fig. 2-123, Welding Stand

Because of loading and unloading clearance requirements, a means is used to


more openly separate the weld gun electrode tips from the lower or backup
electrodes. This additional clearance is obtained by using welding heads with ,5
to 16 inches of stroke. A fixture containing the welding guns is attached to the
welding head.

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Resistance Welding
Tabletop
Tabletop tooling is a catchall name for a fabricating welder that is not used with
a welding press or a weld stand.

Fig. 2-124, Multiple MG Guns Shown on a


Tabletop-Type Welding Fixture

Tabletop-type welding fixtures usually are manually loaded and automatically


unloaded. They are used for small part subassembly which is difficult or
impractical for automatic handling.

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Resistance Welding
Mechanical Handling System
The basic purpose of a mechanical handling system is to increase productivity
by automatically handling an assembly between production operations.
Designed to be as simple and flexible as practical, a mechanical handling
system offers accessibility to all parts of the system for ease of maintenance,
adjustment, replacement and lubrication. High production standards necessitate
that all mechanical motions of a system be fast, smooth and accurate. Special
consideration is given to the controlled acceleration and deceleration of
fast-moving loads.
For a more detailed description of each mechanical handling system, refer to the
Mechanical Handling Standards Manual, PED 105.

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Fig. 2-125, Typical Rail and Locator System

Rails and Iocators are the movable parts of the shuttle system and carry the
panels to their successive stations.

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Resistance Welding
Portable Gun

Fig. 2-126, Typical Portable Welding Gun Station

A typical portable weld gun station consists of the following:


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Portable Welding Gun 1.
Kickless Welding Cable 2.
Welding Transformer with a Densification Unit 3.
Gun Suspension 4.
Transformer Suspension 5.
Catwalk Structure 6.
Welder Buss and Buss Plug 7.
Welder Controls and Data Entry Panel 8.
Cooling Water Supply and Return Outlets 9.
Air Supply Outlet 10.
A typical portable weld gun station will have suspension rails that provide for
in/out and parallel motion of the welding gun with respect to the assembly line.
The welding gun is attached directly to a hanger which is suspended from a
balancer. The balancer allows for up/down travel and counterbalances the
weight of the weld gun.
Located in the overhead on the catwalk are the welder control, the welder buss
and the fused buss plug. Water-and air-supply service lines may also be located
on the catwalk.
The welding transformer usually will have the densification unit mounted on it.
The densification unit, or "dens pak," holds the directional air valves, the air
filtering and lubricating system, the water manifolds and an electrical junction
box.
The Data Entry Panel may be located at the weld station or left on the balcony
with the welder control's main cabinet. Before entering weld schedule data into
the Data Entry Panel, determine that the weld gun, transformer and control are
correctly matched.

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Fig. 2-128, Portable Weld Station Block Diagram

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Fig. 2-129, Typical Portable Gun Welding Transformer (Primary End)

During the initial set-up of a portable gun station, the transformer primary tap
must be set to either the high or low position. High tap is usually where the
manufacturer sets the transformer and where most welding operations are
performed.
With the weld control power disconnect switch off and a check with a voltage
tester between the primary lugs to make sure no voltage is present, the high or
low tap position may be set. Check to be sure that primary wires, ground and
thermostat connections are tight.

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Fig. 2-130

The welding gun service cable or "kickless cable" is connected by the


adapter-plate method to the welding transformer. The other end of the cable is
connected to the weld gun. To assure proper "polarity," the cable has one side
connected to the electrode arm and the other side connected to a jumper cable.
The jumper cable is then connected to the movable arm.
The secondary end of the transformer is where the kickless cable is attached to
the secondary lugs by using copper adapter plates with proper insulation.
In addition to eliminating stress from the inductive kick of the cable between the
secondary lugs being reflected back into the internal structure, the adapter plate
provides a means to simplify cable attachment.
The adapter plates are insulated in such a manner that one plate is connected to
one transformer lug and the other plate is connected to the opposite lug. Also
note that one side of the kickless cable terminal contacts one of the adapter
plates while the other side contacts the other plate.
Adapters also help to prevent damage to the secondaries while changing the
cable or pulling the transformer along the rails by the cable.
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Adapter plate attachment methods may vary from transformer to transformer.
* Insulation is used to assure proper attachment between the positive and
negative transformer terminals, the adapter plates and the welding cable.
The cross section on the following page shows how one adapter plate is
connected to one transformer lug and insulated from the other. The other
adapter plate is opposite. The use of set screws in the heli-coil inserts in the lugs
makes the tightness of each hex nut independent of the other. As the insulation
deteriorates, the tight connection between the plate and the lug will not loosen.
Loose contact surfaces may result in loss of weld quality. It can also allow arc
damage to the lug and/or transformer secondary.
It is worthwhile to check lug nut tightness on a regular basis.

Fig. 2-133, Cross Section Through the Two Lugs


of a TR48 at the Attachment of the
Adapter Plates to the Lugs

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Fig. 2-134, Cross Section Through the Kickless


Cable Terminal, the Adapter Plates
and One Transformer Lug

The kickless cable terminal is inserted between the two adapter plates and
aligned and tightened with a hex head bolt and lock washer. The insulating tube
and washers assure proper attachment between specific cable terminals and
their respective adapter plates.

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Resistance Welding
Automatic Fixtures
Automatic resistance spot welding tools used in the assembly operation are
referred to as Hard Automation.
Hard automation tools will have more than one weld gun and are often designed
to be loaded and/or unloaded automatically.

Fig. 2-135, Hard Automation Block Diagram

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The assembly-type single-SCR welder control that is used with robotic and
manual weld stations is also used with hard automatics. If used with hard
automatics it will have an isolation contactor to isolate the weld service. The
isolation contactor may be part of the weld control itself, or may be remotely
mounted in its own NEMA 12 enclosure.

Fig. 2-136, Assembly-Type Welder Control

Different weld conditions and/or guns are assigned individual and separate weld
sequence numbers.
PALM BUTTONS are used to initiate the operating cycle of an automatic welding
tool.
The operator depresses, and holds, the palm button for the beginning portion of
the tool's operation. This allows the control circuit to interlock and the operation
cycle to continue.
The point at which the buttons interlock is a critical point, determined by the
safety department with respect to the machine motion.
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Releasing the buttons before the point of interlock will stop the tool's operational
cycle.
READY BUTTONS are interlocked through the Control upon depression by the
operator. Ready buttons signal that a particular phase of a tool's operation, such
as loading a part, has been manually completed.

Fig. 2-137, EC-4820 Metal Fab Tool Run Button Assembly


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Resistance Welding
Robots
A robot is a multifunctional, programmable machine that moves material, parts,
tools or specialized devices through specific programmed motions.
"Multifunctional" means that a robot can be made to do many jobs. For example,
robots at different work stations could paint an auto body or weld the frame,
depending upon the instructions they are given and the tools attached to them.
Reprogrammable means that a robot's control program can be changed.

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Fig. 2-138

Each robot installation should be considered as a system of interworking elements


that include:
The robot G
Its end-effectors (the tools and devices which a robot uses) G
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Envelopes (the spaces robots move in) G
Energy sources that power the system G
Controllers that manage the system G
The safeguarding which protects those who work with or around the system,
and
G
Associated machinery and equipment. G

Fig. 2-139, The Robotic System

There are three types of controls that may be found in robot systems: system
control, robot control (with its teach pendant) and the end-effector control, which in
our case is the weld control.
A system control sends electronic control messages to each component in a robot
system.
A robot control handles the motions of only one robot or one robot station. It is
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located in the robot's console, which contains the operating controls and a
keyboard (or pad) by which the controlling microprocessor is "programmed."

Fig. 2-140, Robot Controller

A teach pendant is a device attached to the robot control by a cable. It is portable


and has a cable long enough to reach into the robot's work envelope.
Robots can operate through large spaces, both up-and-down and side-to-side. The
proper term for this space is called the "envelope." There are several types of
envelopes.
G Maximum Envelope
A maximum envelope can be defined as the volume of space (height, width and
depth) enclosing the maximum reach of a robot including the end-effector and the
workpiece.
G Restricted Envelope
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A restricted envelope can be defined as the maximum distance a robot is set up to
travel in all directions after a limiting device stops the robot. This envelope is
normally smaller than a robot's overall work envelope and may include the rear of
the robot.
G Operating Envelope
The operating envelope is defined as the part of the work envelope which is
actually used by a robot (including a workpiece) during its automatic programmed
operation. The operating envelope can be smaller than the restricted envelope and
much smaller than the work envelope.

Fig. 2-141, Operating Envelope

Robots are used extensively for sequential welding applications.


The assembly-style single-SCR weld control used with manual or hard automatic
weld stations is also used for resistance spot welding with robots.

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Fig. 2-142, Robot Installation Using a Conventional AC Transformer

Fig. 2-143, Robot installation Using a Conventional AC


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Potted Transformer "Hip Mounted" to the Robot

Fig. 2-144, Robot System Block Diagram

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Fig. 2-145, Robot Installation Using an HF/DC Integral Trans-Gun

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Fig. 2-146, Robot Installation Schematic Using a


High Frequency Direct Current (HF/DC)
Integral Transformer Weld Gun

For maximum welding efficiency, a robot should be properly dressed. Its air and
water hoses should be assembled in a neat manner and be able to blend and flex
with a minimum amount of strain.
Kickless cables may be secured to a standoff bracket with air-cooled cables used
as flexible secondary jumpers to the weld gun.
Weld cable and air/water hose splice buss on the robot arm is also available. See
Appendix A1.

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Fig. 2-147, Robot Dressing (PED 100)

Robot dressing as outlined in PED 100 offers general guidelines for system setup.

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Fig. 2-148, Robot With Breakaway Safety Clutch

The weld gun is attached to a breakaway device that is mounted to the robot's arm.
The device protects end-of-arm tooling, the robot wrist and the part being welded
by sensing any abnormal contact that occurs in the working envelope.
Noncontact proximity switches are used to sense the clutch breakaway in the event
of a "crash." An output signal to the robot control will shut down the equipment,
reducing potential damage.
Available breakaway devices use springs, or air pressure and springs, or air
pressure alone to adjust the device's breakaway sensitivity.
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Fig. 2-149, Spring Actuated Breakaway Device


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Resistance Welding
Hose
The cover, the reinforcement and the inner lining are a hose's three basic
elements. What the hose is used for determines the material it is made of.
Hose intended for use with welding fixtures and associated systems should meet
minimum specifications for bend radius, abrasion resistance, nominal working
pressures and minimum burst pressure values.
Burst pressure is the pressure at which actual rupture of the hose occurs.
Working pressure rating of a hose is the actual operating pressure.
Hose specification MDS 328 specifies a minimum burst pressure of 1000 psi and
a nominal working pressure of 250 psi.
Hose with a synthetic rubber cover has weld flash and abrasion resistance
properties.
Plastic hose is usually not acceptable because of its weld flash damage
susceptibility.

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Fig. 2-150

To avoid overstressing the hose, particularly on installations where flexing


occurs, the hose's minimum bend radius becomes critical and should be
adhered to. Ample bend radius should be provided to avoid flow restriction.
For a neater installation, easier maintenance and the elimination of excess hose
length, elbows and adapters should be used.

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Fig. 2-151


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Resistance Welding
Manifolds
Resistance welding equipment utilizes various types of manifolds for water, air
and hydraulic fluid. To facilitate quick recognition of these manifolds, a standard
color code identification method has been established for resistance welding
equipment and fixtures.
The following points are considered regarding air, oil and water manifolds to
keep electrodes in top operating condition with a minimum of maintenance:
proper size to deliver required volume, 1.
accessibility for maintenance and installation, 2.
alternate outlets for right-hand and left-hand electrodes, and 3.
air manifold length and size kept to minimum requirements. Extra-length or
larger-size air manifolds will increase air consumption and will not increase
efficiency.
4.

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Fig. 2-152

As a replacement for standard black pipe, nylon polymer or anodized aluminum


manifolds may be used for air and water distribution.
They are often used on densification units to reduce-system weight and extend
life for the even distribution of water to the weld guns and transformers.
Water distribution to the welding transformers, electrode tips and water-cooled
cables is critical, particularly with the new "HIGH-DUTY CYCLE" assembly-style
welding tools.

Fig. 2-153, Air or Water Nylon Manifold

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Check PED 106 for specific component description and approved vendors.

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Resistance Welding
Secondary Circuit
The resistance welding process begins with alternating current as the primary
service. Alternating current is the term applied to current which periodically
reverses its direction. Current supplied by a battery is direct current. It flows in
one direction only. Alternating current is bi-directional. The electrons flow first in
one direction and then in the opposite direction. The time that it takes for the
alternating current to vary in this manner is one cycle. If the polarity of a battery
could be reversed periodically, hi-directional or alternating current would result.
Graphic representations of how voltage and current change in amplitude and
direction over a period of time are called waveforms. Welding alternating current
follows a pattern called a sine wave. Points on a sine wave may be located by
specifying the number of "degrees" they are from the zero point where the wave
starts to rise.
Each complete cycle of alternating current is divided into 360 equal parts called
degrees. Halfway through a cycle is the same as 180 degrees (180). Illustrated
below are some of the main points on a sine wave and the angles which locate
the points. A quarter of a cycle has a 90 o angle. Three-quarters of a cycle has a
270 angle, etc.

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Fig. 2-154, Phase Angles and Reference Points
on a Sine Wave

Whenever an electrical current flows through a conductor, it meets with


opposition. Direct current meets only with opposition defined as resistance.
Alternating current also meets with opposition in the form of resistance, but also
with additional opposition known as inductive reactance.
As current flows through a conductor, a magnetic field is generated around the
conductor.' For DC power, the field does not affect the current flow. But for AC
power, the field can have a very negative effect. As the current "alternates," so
does the magnetic field. The field, however, alternates a little later than the
direction of current flow. Because of this, the current is opposed by the
previously generated field as that field collapses. The opposition follows the sine
wave frequency but, again, a little later in time. This opposition is called inductive
reactance. The total opposing effect of both the resistance and the inductive
reactance in an alternating-current circuit is called impedance.
It is important to understand the effect of inductive reactance (sometimes called
"reactance" for short) on welding conditions. Resistance welding secondary
circuits are characterized by high current and low voltage. These high currents
produce very strong magnetic fields and the inductive reac-tances are high. It is
common in the secondary welding circuit to have an inductive reactance which is
as high or higher than the resistance. The total impedance in the secondary
circuit may be almost double the resistance.
A good conductor offers a minimum of resistance to current flow. Silver, gold,
aluminum and copper are examples of good conductors. A poor conductor with
greater resistance to current flow not only requires more voltagefor the same
current, but will generate more heat. Iron, steel and most steel alloys are poor
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conductors.
Some materials, called insulators, allow practically no current flow. Even
extremely high voltages can cause only a small amount of current to flow
through them and virtually no heat is generated. Common insulators are
porcelain, mica, rubber, fiber and plastic.
When a welding current value (%1) is input to a welder control, it is that
percentage of 60-Hz current that the control delivers to the welding transformer.
This %1 value input will result in the welding circuit being turned on, either right
after the zero crossing point on the sine wave for maximum welding current or
turned on later for less current. All or some of the 60-Hz current is allowed to
flow into the welding transformer.

Fig. 2-156

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Fig. 2-157, Basic Weld Control Unit

Knowledge of "phase shift heat control" is necessary for the best operation of a
resistance welder because it determines when things happen. By controlling
when the welding contactor is turned on, the percentage of welding current can
be varied, This is referred to as the phase shift. The current going into the
primary circuit of a welding transformer is turned on and off with
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welding contactors at a 60-Hz rate, conciding
with the 60-Hz power supply voltage. The welding contactors may be ignitron
tubes or silicon-controlled rectifiers.

Fig. 2-158, Direct-Reading Secondary Current Meter

Weld current may be measured in amperes with a meter in the secondary circuit
at the electrode tips. If the current reading is too low, the weld current setting
value should be increased. If it is too high, the weld current setting value should
be decreased.
Current readings will differ from one secondary circuit to another. A weld current
percent setting value may result in one reading for one secondary circuit and a
different reading for another secondary circuit because the impedances of each
circuit are different.
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Fig. 2-159, Effect of Inductive Reactance

The two secondary circuits are cabled equally. The only difference is that the
right-hand cables are tied close together with a skate strap. The left-hand loop is
left open, and therefore has a larger "loop area." The left-hand side will have
less welding current due to inductive reactance loss.
Impedance to the flow of electric current is made up of two items- resistance and
inductive reactance (see page 2-155).
When welding cables or jumpers are side-by-side and have opposite polarities,
the magnetic fields which are expanding and contracting around one cable
oppose the fields which are expanding and contracting around the other cable.
The cables will "kick" apart.
Strapping the cables together tightly will take advantage of the tendency for
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these opposing magnetic fields to "buck" or cancel each other. It will greatly
reduce the inductive reactance (and therefore the total impedance) permitting
more current to flow. Kickless cables use this principle to good advantage
because two cables are "twisted" together inside a single rubber covering.

Fig. 2-160, Effect of Steel in the Secondary Loop Area


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The two secondary circuits are cabled equally. A piece of steel, probably a part
of the fixture, is enclosed in the loop area of the secondary circuit on the left
side. The steel will act as a "choke," reducing the amount of welding current
available at the electrode tips on the left side.
The presence of steel inside the loop area of the secondary circuit increases the
inductive reactance of that circuit. It permits a stronger magnetic field to develop.
Put the steel outside of this secondary loop area and more weld current will flow.
The inductive teacrance, and consequently the impedance, is reduced.

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Fig. 2-161, Unbalanced Secondary Loop

The secondary circuit on the right has two welding cables (12" and 14") held
closely together.
The secondary circuit on the left is much the same except that the cables are
longer (18" and 20"). The current in this "loop" will be less because of the greater
impedance of the longer cables.
The resistance of a welding cable is proportional to its length and is inversely
proportional to its cross-sectional area. Cross-sectional area and minimum cable
length are equally important.

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Fig. 2-162, Double Cabling for Heavy-Metal Welding

Where physically possible, paralleling cables will decrease resistance and weld
current requirements. Cables will operate cooler also. The contact resistance at
the joints is reduced to one-half of the single cable value.
The amount and the type of joints within a secondary circuit are important
considerations.
All unnecessary joints should be avoided.

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Resistance Welding
Polarity

Fig. 2-163, Polarity Requirements for Series Welding

Cable lengths and loop area should be equal for each secondary loop of a
transformer.
If it is necessary to change one of the welding transformers in a series welding
setup, it is important that the transformer be connected properly to make sure
the correct polarities appear at each weld.
When making multiple welds, the electrode polarity is important. If it is not
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correct the current will shunt between the different circuits and reduce the
current through the weld. Transformer connections made correctly, providing for
correct polarity, will prevent this type of loss.

Fig. 2-164, Polarity Requirements for Direct Welding

If it is necessary to change one of the welding transformers in a multiple direct


welding setup, it is important that the transformer be connected properly to make
sure the correct polarities appear at each weld.
With direct welding in a welding press, all electrode tips on the same side of a
panel should have the same polarity.

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Fig. 2-165, Polarity Requirements for "Over/Under" Welding

The importance of properly connecting welding transformers for "over/under"


spot welding cannot be overemphasized. If the polarities are not correct, the
result will be no welds and damaged equipment.
A number of different methods are used for labeling and connecting components
in an "over/under" welding application. The important point is that each weld gun
must have opposite polarity on each of its electrodes. Double-wound
transformers, if used, must have windings matched with electrode connections,
and it is strongly recommended that "over/under" welding connections be
clearly labeled.

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Resistance Welding
Programming
After the completion of the weld verification procedure, a new welding tool's weld
schedule and/or schedules will be programmed into the data entry panel.
Good, consistent spot welds are repeatably made only when each period of the
welding operation (squeeze, weld, hold, off) is allowed sufficient time (reference:
Weld Schedules, page 2-96 through 2-111).
To accommodate their production requirements, two separate plants may use
two slightly different weld schedules to weld the same part. The weld schedule
itself then becomes a plant variable.

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Fig. 2-166, Data Entry Panel

When welding electrode caps are new and metal fit-up is good, proper welds are
easily programmed. As welding continues, the electrode tips wear.
Even though mushrooming may not be evident, the electrode tip's contact area
will increase. The WELD CURRENT may now be insufficient.
To continue making proper welds with the increases in contact area of the
electrode tip, the stepper will have to increase the weld current to maintain a
sufficient current/time/heat distribution.
With new electrode tips, actual starting current (%1) programmed into the data
entry panel should be below 70%.
If a much higher setting is required, changes may have to be made to the
package. These could include:
-- transformer tap setting
-- transformer replacement with a larger size
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-- cable lengths, sizes or routings redone
-- weld schedule revised.

Fig. 2-167, Electrode Tip Contact Areas

If the WELD TIME IS TOO SHORT, stopping the weld current too soon, the weld
nugget will be too small. If the WELD TIME IS TOO LONG, deformation and
excessive expulsion will occur.
The worst case is a "burn-through" where the metal between the electrodes is
completely molten and the electrodes penetrate through the metal and touch
each other.
Weld nugget growth terminates at expulsion.

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Fig. 2-168

If there is not ample SQUEEZE and HOLD TIME, the welds may pull apart,
particularly if there is poor fit-up. Although the welding gun brings poorly fit metal
together before welding (SQUEEZE TIME), the metal may spring apart after
welding unless there is sufficient HOLD TIME.
Control of the time from when the electrodes contact the body metal to the start
of WELD' TIME is important. When the SQUEEZE TIME is set too low, arcing
and electrode sticking will occur. Arcing will cause rapid electrode wear and
holes through the body metal. Arcing occurs at the electrode/metal interface
when current flows at a contact pressure which is too low or there is still a gap
between the electrode and the metal. Increasing the squeeze time can eliminate
arcing.
Although some hold time is required, an excessive amount may cause electrode
sticking. The major cause of electrode tip sticking is the high temperature at the
interface of the electrode tip to the body metal, particularly with galvanized
coatings. The high temperature allows an alloy to be developed between the
electrode and the metal. Hold time must be short enough so that the alloy is not
allowed to solidify.
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Fig. 2-169


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Resistance Welding
Stepper Program
After the initial weld schedule is programmed, a stepper program
may be set.
Because electrode tips wear at different rates, depending on what is
being welded, setting up a stepper program will take some time and
experience. Electrode tip wear and weld nugget size should be
monitored over a period of time and the stepper program adjusted
accordingly.
Care should be taken to increase the weld current (%1) BEFORE
the weld nugget minimum size is reached.
Fig. 2-170a
New Electrode Tip
Fig. 2-170b
Increased Contact Area of
Worn Tip (Mushrooming)
With NEW electrode tips, the weld resistance changes during the
first group of welds. After about 100 welds, the resistance stabilizes
because the electrode tip face is "conditioned."
New electrode tip conditioning is a factor to be considered when
setting up a stepper program.
See pages 2-112 and 2-113 for further discussion of weld control
stepper schedules.

Automotive Welding Handbook, RESISTANCE WELDING, Stepper Program
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Resistance Welding
Edge Welds
Edge welds occur when the electrode tips are located off the edge of the weld
flange. Weld gun positioning and deviation in the fixture can lead to an electrode
tip positioned off of the weld flange, causing the molten metal to flow out of the
flange's edge.

Fig. 2-171, Edge Weld

To avoid edge welds and have a full-size weld nugget develop, the electrode tip
should be correctly located on the weld flange.

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Fig. 2-172, Correct Electrode Tip Positioning

The electrode tip should not touch the panel's bend radius. A good metal overlap
should be 1/2 of the expected weld nugget diameter.
The fixturing and gauging should be set and adjusted to allow for the proper
location of the weld flange with respect to the weld gun access.

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Resistance Welding
Weld Nugget Size

Fig. 2-173, Weld Nugget Size

The electrode tip contact face diameter will be approximately 1/16th larger than
the weld nugget. The electrode tips contain the molten metal during the weld
cycle.
NEW electrode tips often have SMALL diameters at their contact face. This will
result in SMALL weld nuggets. The current density will be high at the small
contact area, and as a result the %1 setting may have to be adjusted downward
to accommodate the new tips.
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The weld nugget diameter is determined by the metal thicknesses being joined.
To determine desirable weld nugget diameters for various thicknesses of metals,
see pages 2-183 through 2-185.

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Resistance Welding
Weld Nugget Size

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Fig. 2-174

It is important to realize the bad effect of "mushroomed electrodes" on the weld.


Assuming an increase in electrode tip contact area from 1/4 to 5/8 inch, the
current density will decrease from 200,000 amps per square inch to 30,000
amps per square inch.

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Resistance Welding
Electrode Tip Contact

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Fig. 2-174

It is important to realize the bad effect of "mushroomed electrodes" on the weld.


Assuming an increase in electrode tip contact area from 1/4 to 5/8 inch, the
current density will decrease from 200,000 amps per square inch to 30,000
amps per square inch.

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Resistance Welding
Contact Resistance
Weld current resistance is influenced by electrode tip pressure and its effect on
CONTACT RESISTANCE.
The GREATER the pressure, the LESS the contact resistance and contact heat
generated.
The LESS the pressure, the GREATER the contact resistance and contact heat
generated.

Fig. 2-175, Contact Resistance

The electrode tip is softer than the body metal. Electrode force will produce
better contact at the electrode-to-work interface than at the weld interface.
Remember that as LESS pressure is used, there is a tendency toward "flashing"
or "spitting" of molten metal from the weld.
Welding pressure should always be adjusted to the level suggested for the metal
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thickness being welded.

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Resistance Welding
Flashing
When the welding current is applied before sufficient weld pressure develops,
FLASHING will occur at the electrode-to-work interface. The high temperature of
the arc flashing between the electrode and the work burns the contact surface of
the electrode and the work.
A single flash may cause as much electrode wear as several thousand properly
controlled welds.

Fig. 2-176, Flashing

Increased squeeze time will eliminate flashing.


The welding contactor should never fire until the weld gun is at weld force and
there is proper pressure on the work.

Automotive Welding Handbook, RESISTANCE WELDING, FLASHING
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Resistance Welding
Expulsion
When the heat input to the weld is too high, part of the molten nugget is expelled
outward.
This is "SPITTING" or "EXPULSION" and will cause welds of poor quality.
Excessive expulsion is usually eliminated by DECREASING the heat input.
Reducing the weld current to decrease the heat input may require an increase in
WELD TIME to maintain a full-size weld nugget.

Fig. 2-177, Spitting or Expulsion


Automotive Welding Handbook, RESISTANCE WELDING, EXPULSION
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Resistance Welding
Tip Geometry
A good general rule for any multiple metal stack-up is to have a
dressed tip no more than one metal thickness away from any
required weld nugget. Not having a dressed tip close to the desired
weld nugget causes a lack of concentration of force and weld current
density.

Fig. 2-178, Figure A

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Figure A shows two unequal metal thicknesses. Both are contacted
by dressed tips having the same contact area.
The thinner metal becomes the Governing Metal Thickness (GMT),
because the thinner metal has less current resistance.
The weld schedule is selected accordingly.

Fig. 2-179, Figure B

Figure B shows the same two unequal metal thicknesses as Figure


A.
The difference obviously is that instead of the two dressed tips that
contact the metal in Figure A, only one dressed tip --which contacts
the thicker metal- is used in Figure B. The thicker metal becomes the
GMT because of the initial current concentration of the dressed tip.
The weld schedule selected to weld Figure B is different than Figure
A even though the metal stack-up is identical.
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Fig. 2-180a, Figure C Fig. 2-180b, Figure D
In Figure C, the three-piece stack-up is contacted by a dressed tip on
each side. The upper and lower faying surfaces are only one metal
thickness away from the dressed tips which concentrate the weld
current flow. Proper weld program set-up can be done to provide
proper welds.
In Figure D, the difference is the use of a flat tip on the lower metal. It
will not concentrate the weld current like the dressed tip does. After
programming the weld cycle to provide a proper nugget at the upper
laying surface, it is highly unlikely that a proper weld nugget will be
formed at the lower faying surface.
The flat tip, shown in Figure D, has a large contact area. This
prevents the concentration of weld current necessary to make a good
weld at the lower metal.

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Fig. 2-181, Figure E

In Figure E, the upper two sheets have been previously welded. A


nugget is now required to join the bottom sheet. The lower faying
surface is the location of the required weld. Since the dressed cap is
an additional metal thickness away from the required weld, it is highly
unlikely that a proper nugget can be made there without damage to
the upper sheet. The two caps should be swapped. Then a weld
program can be arranged to guarantee a good weld at the lower
faying surface.

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Fig. 2-182, Figure F

In Figure F, there are two previously welded assemblies, each to be


joined together. Because the dressed tips are more than one metal
thickness away, a correct weld at the center faying surface will be
difficult to obtain. This is usually handled by welding the three pieces
together first with dressed tips on both sides (Figure C) and then,
with a dressed tip against the fourth piece, welding it to the assembly
of the other three.
It is important to remember that the only weld nugget which you can
count on as being good is the one closest to the dressed tip.

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Resistance Welding
Support/Quality
The best way to evaluate the quality of a weld is to destructively test it and
examine the fused area or nugget. To determine if the weld is acceptable, it is
necessary to compare the weld with the acceptance criteria defined in GM
Material and Processes Standard GM 4488-M, Automotive Resistance Spot
Welding Specification.
The weld nugget size is the diameter of the fusion zone measured in the plane
of the faying surface (GM 4488-M, Sect. 4.2.1).
Table 1. Minimum Weld Size for Resistance Spot Welds
Metal Thickness
Thinnest Sheet
mm
Diameter of Button
or Fused Area
mm
0.04 - 0.59 3.0
0.60 - 0.79 3.5
0.80 - 1.39 4.0
1.40- 1.99 4.5
2.00 - 2.49 5.0
2.50 - 2.99 5.5
3.00 - 3.49 6.0
3.50 - 3.99 6.5
4.00 - 4.50 7.0
NOTE 1: To determine the minimum weld size for a two metal stackup, use the
metal thickness which is the thinner of the two sheets when referencing Table 1.
When three or more sheets are being welded, the second thinnest metal
thickness in the total stackup will determine the minimum weld size for each pair
of contacting sheets where fusion is required when referencing Table 1. The
minimum metal thickness specified by Product Engineering on the part drawing
or change authorization should be used.
NOTE 2: Equipment setup diameters, which are larger than the values of Table
1, are normally established. They are not provided in the specification.
NOTE 1 from the table on the previous page is printed below. With it are two
pictures to explain the note, also from 4488-M.
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NOTE 1: To determine the minimum weld size for a two metal stackup, use the
metal thickness which is the thinner of the two sheets when referencing Table 1.
When three or more sheets are being welded, the second thinnest metal
thickness in the total stackup wi~l determine the minimum weld size for each
pair of contacting sheets where fusion is required when referencing Table 1. The
minimum metal thickness specified by Product Engineering on the part drawing
or change authorization should be used.

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Fig. 2-184a, Measurement of Fused Area

Fig. 2-184b, Measurement of Weld Button

Now check NOTE 2 from the table.


NOTE 2: Equipment setup diameters, which are larger than the values of Table
1, are normally established. They are not provided in the specification.
A "rule of thumb" for determining proper nugget size for a specific weld during
system setup can be:
All welds are considered to be structural welds unless specifically noted as
processing welds only. Welds where separation of the parts may seriously affect
the function of the vehicle or its integrity must comply with the General Motors
Product Compliance Program (GMPCP). These welds are identified with the S/C
symbol, @, for safety compliance (formerly "D" for documented welds).
Product Engineering is responsible for determining the structural requirements of
the parts and components of a vehicle. It is also Product Engineering's
responsibility to specify pattern, category, tolerances and size of spot welds.
This is based on structural requirements and defines quantity and location of
spot welds.
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The primary drawing which defines weld information is an Approved Weld
Study for MID/LUX and LAD and a Released Weld Layout for Truck and Bus.

Fig. 2-186

This procedure is covered in detail in section B33 of PED 100. It should be noted
that it is in the process of being replaced by the procedure detailed in B36 of
PED 100. The following page is a brief summary of B36.

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Fig. 2-187a

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Fig. 2-187b


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Resistance Welding
Tool Verification
The specifications for a spot welding tool verification provide
guidelines for a formal procedure. Use of the procedure will
verify that the spot welding tool has the capability for making
welds as intended by the manufacturing engineer.
A welding tool specification for verification outlines in detail
exactly what is to be done and recorded. Afterwards, the
approved data information sheets containing the recorded data
are retained at the using plant.
Tool verifications are intended only to supplement existing tool
inspection and tryout procedures.
The following is a sample list of some of the items that a
verification study will address.
Weld guns will have been checked for proper force. G
Weld current balancing within 500 amperes for spot welds
that are made simultaneously -- on the same sequence
and/or -- on the same weld contactor -- for loop area
sizing
G
Transformers will be checked to verify that adequate
capacity exists beyond "starting" current.
G
Electrode tips are aligned. G
Weld guns are checked for interference such as short
cables, shorting, grounding, etc.
G
Tips, backups, transformers and water-cooled cables are
spot-checked for proper water flow.
G
The actual secondary current of each individual weld spot
is compared to its designed current. If the current is not
within specification tolerance, adjustments are made to
bring it within tolerance.
G
Although the using plant must be able to verify that it is possible
to make every weld hold, it is usually possible to complete part
of the verification study in construction or tryout without actual
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part components.
Fig. 2-189, Weld Tool Verification Data Sheet (MD 515)

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Resistance Welding
Destructive Testing
Destructive testing makes possible the physical evaluation of weld size, but at
the same time it makes the welded assembly unfit for use.
The "peel" test is one type of destructive weld test. In a "peel" test, one layer of
the part is "peeled" away from the other to reveal the actual weld nugget.
Smaller parts can be checked in a vise. Larger parts are generally checked with
"weld check" pliers, which peel the outer metal away from the inner metal to
reveal the weld nugget. If the weld is good, the nugget of specified size will pull
out of the thinner of the two pieces of metal.

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Fig. 2-190, The "Peel" Test

Coupon testing is another type of destructive weld test. Coupons are pieces of
sheet metal of approximately 1-1/2 x 5-inch size; the thickness and coating of
the coupon are determined by that of the actual part welded by the particular
weld gun being evaluated. Two coupons are required for a two-thickness metal
combination, three for a three-thickness combination, etc; The actual use of
sealer must be duplicated when appropriate. The test sample must be arranged
and welded in the same orientation as the actual part. The resulting sample is
then placed in a vise and one coupon "peeled" from the other so that the weld
button may be measured. Coupon tests are quicker, easier and more
economical than their alternatives (simulation testing and actual part testing).
However, there are two limitations to this type of test: first, it may not simulate
exactly the fit-up of the actual parts welded on the machine in question; second,
it often does not simulate "throat current losses" associated with the actual parts
due to metal in the machine throat or secondary Iccp.
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Nevertheless, coupon testing is valuable in virtually eliminating the weld fixture
as a source of difficulty. If, for example, an actual application is producing a
small weld and coupon testing shows the weld to be satisfactory by a significant
margin, an assumption can be made that the problem is with the part fit-up and
not with the weld control. Conversely, if coupon testing results in a small weld, it
can be safely assumed that the problem is with the welding process.
The chisel test is most often done as a destructive test to the actual parts which
have been welded. In some cases a nondestructive chisel test can be
performed.
In the destructive chisel test a chisel point is driven between the metals. If the
weld nugget holds and pulls a button of specified size, the weld is good. The
chisel should be placed between the weld nuggets or to the side of a single
nugget; it should not "cut" through the nugget. When checking welds on
galvanized metal, drive the chisel far enough so that a nugget is pulled. This is
to ensure that there is fusion of the metal itself, rather than soldering of the zinc
surfaces.
When the chisel test is used as a nondestructive test, a chisel is placed near a
weld nugget and tapped with a hammer. If the weld holds, it may be judged to be
a good weld. Afterwards the metal can be tapped back into position.

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Fig. 2-192, The Chisel Test


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Resistance Welding
Non-Destructive Testing
Nondestructive testing (NDT) is usually an ultrasonic weld testing method. A
weld may be tested with no damage to the metal assembly.
The enlarged view in the illustration below shows the ultrasonic signal passing
through the weld nugget.
A trained operator will be able to interpret the CRT screen display and determine
the weld nugget size.
Operator instructions are detailed in the specific manufacturers' service and
operating manuals..

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Fig. 2-193, Typical Ultrasonic Weld Tester


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Resistance Welding
Weld Analysis
The search for the cause of a defective weld is a process of
elimination and usually requires some "cut & try" work.
Experience tells us that the secondary circuit of the weld
process is the area where most weld problems occur. Often a
simple adjustment of the pressure to the weld gun or the
replacing or dressing of the electrode cap will correct for a poor
weld. Seldom does the weld schedule itself have to be changed.
By understanding the basic fundamentals of resistance welding
and knowing how equipment operates, the cause of a weld
problem can be reasoned out. If you know what to look for, a
visual inspection will establish the general cause of the defect.
On some types of weld defects, visual inspection will practically
pinpoint the cause of the problem.
Once the cause of a defective weld has been determined, steps
must be taken to remedy the situation. A temporary "fix" to
accommodate production must, sooner or later, be made
permanent or the same temporary fix will have to be done every
day.
Correction of the trouble, not just compensating for it, must
always be the final objective.
The following flow charts are examples of a logical process
approach for finding the solution of a welding problem. They are
not, and should not be considered, a listing of the only things
that can cause a defective weld.
Fig. 2-195, A stuck weld shows evidence of heat but no nugget.
The panels are only stuck together.
Fig. 2-196, There isn't a weld when there isn't any evidence of
heat or electrode tip contact.
Fig. 2-197, A hot weld, or burn-through, will show signs of
heaw flash and deep indentation.
Fig. 2-198, The troubleshooting chart illustrated may also be
used to help determine the cause of the quality
problem.
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Resistance Welding
Preventive Maintenance
Preventive Maintenance (PM) consists of a regular inspection program aimed at
preventing trouble before it starts.
Automotive fabricating and assembly plants will have specific preventive
maintenance routines and recordkeeping procedures that they follow.
Start-up and operating tasks G
Procedures to follow to accomplish the task G
The frequency of the tasks G
The above items are usually listed in each system service, maintenance and PM
manual.
The following pages only highlight some requirements and approaches used in
preventive maintenance.
A working knowledge and understanding of a component's function, particularly
in the welding tool's secondary circuit, is important for proper maintenance of the
system.

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Fig. 2-200

Electrode tips wear, and as a result the current and force density change. These
changes in current and force density produce a changing weld nugget.
Recognizing electrode face wear and developing the frequency for dressing or
changing the electrode tips is very important.
Cautions regarding tip alignment,. water cooling, damage to shank tapers and
the shutting off and turning on of power and water should be understood.

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Fig. 2-201, A Portable Pneumatic Tip Dresser

Tip dressers use specific cutters for specific cap shapes. When applying a tip
dresser, it should be positioned properly and operated only until the cutter has
bottomed and no further cutting is taking place.

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Fig. 2-202, Electrode Tip Maintenance

When it becomes necessary to change a cable, for whatever reason, the same
size and length cable should be used and reinstailed in the same physical
arrangement as before.

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Fig. 2-203, Welding Cable Maintenance

A welding transformer's hookup scheme and its tap switch position are critical
items in maintaining a consistent weld program. After the initial system
installation and weld capability verification, system changes are not usually
required. It is important that the PM routine retain the initial approved weld
conditions.

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Fig. 2-204, Welding Transformer Maintenance

Although air leaks do not usually promote a housekeeping problem as water or


oil do, fixing them is very important. Air leaks waste air and reduce air-tool
performance. A leaky air system will drastically lower air-tool efficiency and
performance. Air leaks lower both the pressure and the air flow force to the tool.
Weld quality can be seriously affected by a leaky air system.

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Fig. 2-205, Hose Connections

Proper lubrication is necessary to reduce friction and increase system life. Most
cylinders and motors require lubrication to decrease friction and prevent scoring.
Frequent and planned lubrication of weld guns, gun slides, and transfer and
lifting units will increase their efficiency and life.

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Fig. 2-206, Lubrication Considerations


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Resistance Welding
Instrumentation
The following instruments are available to help set up,
troubleshoot and maintain a quality weld program.
DESCRIPTION: FUNCTION, FEATURES AND SOURCE:
Weld Current
Analyzer
Measures secondary weld current and time.
Duffers Associates, Inc.
P.O. Box 85 W, Rd. 5
Troy, NY 12180
(peak weld current measurement)
G
Miyachi America Co.
4342 Tuller Road
Dublin, OH 43017
(RMS weld current measurement)
G
Robotron Corporation
21300 Eight Mile Rd. West
Southfield, MI 48086-5090
(peak weld current measurement)
G
Weld Gun
Force Gauge
Measures electrode force.
D.E. Rogers Associates, Inc.
P.O. Box 89
Birmingham, MI 48012
(direct force reading)
G
Sensor Development, Inc.
Cellar Services Group
6380 Emerald Lake Dr.
Troy, MI 48098
(battery-operated with pivot head)
G
Primary Power
Line Analyzer
(Three-Phase)
Monitors line voltage, detecting sags and surges due to
welding loads. Monitors three phases simultaneously to
detect unbalanced conditions.
Dranetz Engineering Laboratories
2385 South Clinton Avenue
South Plainfield, NJ 07080
G
Water Flow
Indicator
For checking water flow to various components of
welding stations.
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Brooks Instrument Division
Emerson Electric Co.
407 W. Vine Street
Hatfield, PA 19440
G
Universal Flow Monitors, Inc.
1755 E. Nine Mile Road
Hazel Park, MI 48030-0249
G
Electrode
Dressers
Aro Corporation
One Aro Center
Bryan, OH 43506
G
Secondary Weld
Circuit Test
For checking cables, jumpers and secondary circuit
connections.
Biddie Meter #247000
Digital Low Resistance Ohmmeter
Biddie Instruments
1 Biddie Road
Blue Bell, PA 19422
G

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Appendix
A1 - Resistance Welding
Bad Welds
Balancer
Buss Bar
Deflector Tubes
Densification Unit (Denspak)
Electrode Caps
Electrode Holders
Electrode Seats
Electrode Shank
Electrode Shank Inserts
Fittings
Gun Numbering
Gun Trigger
Isolation Contactor
MDS Number Reference
Projection Welding
SCR Test
Secondary Cables
Weld Schedules
Weld Steppers
Weld Symbols
Weld Transformers
Press Welders
Programmable Controllers
Transformer Plugs
AC Transformer Tests
HF/DC Transformer Tests
Water Hosing
Water Shutoff

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A1-Resistance Welding, Index
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Appendix A1
Bad Welds
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Bad Welds
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Appendix A1
Balancer
BALANCER CHART
FOR PORTABLE GUNS
BALANCER
CODE
NUMBERS
TO BE USED
WHEN GUN
WEIGHT
IS BETWEEN:
1 1 LBS. -- 10 LBS.
2' 10 LBS. -- 20 LBS.
3 20 LBS. -- 30 LBS.
4 30 LBS. -- 35 LBS.
5 35 LBS. - 45 LBS.
6 45 LBS. -- 60 LBS.
7 60 LBS. - 70 LBS.
8 70 LBS. - 80 LBS.
9 80 LBS. - 100 LBS.
10 100LBS. - 115LBS.
11 115 LBS. - 125LBS.
12 125 LBS. - 135 LBS.
13 135 LBS. - 150 LBS.
14 150 LBS. - 160 LBS.
15 160 LBS. - 175 LBS.
16 175 LBS. -- 190 LBS.
17 190 LBS. -- 210 LBS.
18 210 LBS. -- 235 LBS.
19 235 LBS. -- 250 LBS.
20 250 LBS. - 265 LBS.
21 265 LBS. - 280 LBS.
22 280 LBS. - 290 LBS.
23 290 LBS. - 300 LBS. When the gun weight coincides with the high
limit of a balancer, the next larger size
should be specified.
These code numbers should be used for
balancer callouts on operation description
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sheets. Balancer is plant furnished.
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Balancer
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Appendix A1
Buss Bar
This drawing shows the application of a robot arm mounted with a weld
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Buss Bar
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cable buss bar and an air/water splice manifold. See the following pages
for a detailed print.

From FSD-41003 Rev. L

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Appendix A1
Deflector Tubes

From PED-948

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From PED-948

Because of the extremely high temperatures attained in resistance


welding, cooling is necessary to prolong the shape and life of the
electrode. This is accomplished by a constant circulation of water inside
the electrode shank and electrode holder.
Water is circulated through a flexible tube assembly, which is inserted
through a hole in the electrode holder and into the drilled hole in the
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shank. The water enters through the inside diameter of the tube and
returns over the outside diameter. The flexible tube should stop within
1/8" of the bottom of the drilled hole in an electrode or inside surface of
an electrode cap. If the tube is inserted too deep, it will restrict the flow
of water, which can cause the electrode tip to deform, resulting in
poor-quality welds.
Shanks that are drilled through, allow water circulation in the electrode
cap. Drilled holes will vary in diameter depending on the size and
geometry of the electrode shank. Step drilling may be required for
electrode shanks to ensure water flows to correct depth.
Flexible tubes are available in two diameters: large (HE-705-53) and
small (HE-705-58). All bent shanks with 3/8" drilled hole use .28
diameter tubing (HE-705-53).
All bent shanks with 11/32" drilled hole use .28 tubing (HE-705-53), if
bend angle of electrode is less than 75.
All bent shanks with less than 11/32" drilled hole use .21 diameter tubing
(HE-778), if bend angle of electrode is greater than 75.
All straight shanks with 11/32" diameter or larger drilled hole use .28
diameter tubing (HE-705-53).
All straight shanks with less than 11/32'" diameter drilled hole use .21
diameter tubing (HE-778).
On stepped drill electrodes use the combined .28 diameter and .21
diameter tubing assembly (HE-778).

From PED-948

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Appendix A1
Densification Unit (Denspak)
MDS 406, MDS 558, MDS 587 and MDS 603 are approved
denspaks for use on manual or robotic resistance welding
applications. The 587 and 603 are the latest to be added.
Brief data and model number suffix descriptions for all four
units follows.
Common to all four units:
Capable of being mounted to TR-48D, TR-54, TR-66
and TR-70 transformers
G
Individual supply and return cooling water service
manifolds and connections
G
Individual compressed air service manifolds G
May be purchased with an MDS 528 water saver unit G
Beyond these common items, there are many details specific
to each of the units. They are listed in the following sections.
Basic mounting dimensions:
Overall size for the 406, 558 and 587 is 18"W x 28"H x
18"D
G
The 603 has an overall size of 24"W x 36"H x 18"D. G
MDS 406
Single 120V AC solenoid is required. There are more valves as
options.
G
Uses junction box EC-2828 or EC-3463 depending on system
application. Check MDS 406 for details.
G
Unit selection codes G
-- M manual weld Sample MDS 406 ID
number:
-- R robotic weld MDS 406-M-V2-1
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-- V1 one four-way single
solenoid valve
1) For use on manual weld
guns with EC-2828
junction box
-- V2 two four-way single
solenoid valves
2) Has two four-way single
solenoids
-- V3 one four-way single
and
3) Has single adjustable
weld pressure
one four-way double
solenoid

-- V4 three four-way
solenoid valves

-- 1 single adjustable weld
pressure

-- 2 two adjustable weld
pressures

-- W automatic water
shutoff

MDS 558
Two 120V AC solenoids are required for each dens pak.
However, the second valve must be defined as single or double
action.
G
Uses junction box EC-20785 or EC-20785A depending on
system application. Check MDS 558 for details.
G
Unit selection codes G
--
M
manual weld Sample MDS 558 ID
number:
-- R robotic weld MDS 558-R-P-S-W
-- C exhaust reclassifier 1) For use on robot
-- L recirculating lube 2) Plastic water manifold
-- P plastic water manifold 3) No air silencer
-- S 1" swivel instead of air
silencer
4) Automatic water shut-off
--
W
automatic water shutoff 5) Since it is for a robot
application,
MDS 558 must have an
EC-20785
junction box. If it was for a
manual gun (--M), it would
require theEC-20785A
junction box.
MDS 587
Can be ordered for mounting on transformer or robot arm G
One single and one double 120V solenoid required. G
Can be ordered with 24V solenoids G
Uses junction box EC-2 6080-N D G
Comes with air filter and micro-mist lube G
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Unit selection codes: G
-- L recirculating lube MD-2378 Sample MDS 587
ID number:
-- P plastic water manifold MDS 587-P-S-3W
-- S reclasifier replaced with
1" swivel connector
1) Transformer mount
-- 1W limit switch sensor 2) Air filter and micro
mist lube
-- 2W pressure differential
switch
3) Plastic water
manifold
-- 3W automatic water shut-off 4) Reclassifier
replaced with 1"
swivel connector
-- A arm mounted solenoids 5) Automatic water
shut-off
-- 2V two port 1/4 turn valve
-- G additional solenoid
-- Lean 24V solenoids
-- NW delete water manifolds
-- NL delete lubricator
MDS 603
Transformer or independent bracket mount, only G
24V or 120V solenoids G
Has a multi pressure valve set G
GMF and ABB have two different junction boxes specified G
Comes with air filter and lubricator G
Unit selection codes: G
-- A for ABB robot requiring
24V DC

-- B for ABB robot requiring
120V A C
Sample MDS 603 ID
number
MDS 603-F-C-W
-- F for GMF 420i interface 1) Transformer mount or
floor mount support
-- C adds the reclassifier 2) Interface for GMF 420i
-- L recirculating lube 3) Requires an air
reclassifier
-- Wrequests the water
saver
4) Automatic water shut-off
-- E two position equalizer
valve

-- U air supply regulator
provided


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Appendix A1
Electrode Caps
The #1 electrode tip is generally used for after hem welding or for some
special applications. It should not be used with over 670 lbs. of force.
The #2 electrode tip is commonly used for all welding up to 1200 lbs.
The #3 electrode tip is used when there is 4" or more of "stickout" or
1200 lbs. or more of welding force.
CURRENT AND FORCE DENSITY CHANGES WITH CHANGING
ELECTRODE TIP AREAS:
The information illustrated below was developed using a .25-diameter
electrode tip, 600 lbs. of force and 10,000 amperes.
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It should be noted that a current density in the range of 200,000 amps
per square inch and a force density of 10,000 psi to 15,000 psi are
values around which successful welds are expected. Naturally, each
weld application requires its own tuning.
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Cap Dimensions
From PED-948

CAP SIZE A B C D E F
#1 SHORT .394 .590 .312 .500 - .18
#1 LONG .394 .840 .312 .500 -- .18
#2 SHORT .4946 .630 .379 .625 -- .25
#2 LONG .4946 .880 .379 .625 .487 .25
#3 SHORT .6250 .750 .421 .750 -- .31
#3 LONG .6250 1.000 .421 .750 .625 .31

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Cap To Shank
From PED-948

CAP A B C D E F
#1 SHORT .402 DIA. .348 .067 .590 .657 .309
#1 LONG .402 DIA. .348 .067 .840 .907 .559
#2 SHORT .502 DIA. .380 .064 .630 .694 .314
#2 LONG .502 DIA. .380 .064 .880 .944 .564
#3 SHORT .633 DIA. .457 .067 .750 .817 .360
#3 LONG .633 DIA. .457 .067 1.000 1.067 .610
NOTE: DIMENSIONS C, E, AND F ARE CALCULATED WITH .010 TRAVEL
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NEEDED FOR A PRESS FIT CAP.
THESE DIMENSIONS ARE FOR ALL CAPS REGARDLESS OF SHAPE.

Hold this angle to a minimum


(For angle range see chart)

MAXIMUM ANGLE RANGE * (DEG.)


WELD FORCE MW-6483 MW-6208
480 lbs. 0-30 0-45
670 lbs. 0-15 0-30
NOTE: #1 CAPS ARE NOT TO BE USED ABOVE 670 LBS. WELD FORCE.
CAP TO CAP ALIGNMENT
FROM PED-948
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Electrode Caps
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MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FORCE (LBS.)
DEGREE * MW-6006//2
LONG
MW-6207//2
SHORT
MW-6148//3
LONG
MW-6209//3
SHORT
5 1220 1220 1910 1910
10 1220 1220 1910 1910
15 1220 1220 1910 1910
20 952 1220 1910 1910
25 670 1220 1664 1910
30 670 952 1220 1910
35 480 952 1220 1664
40 480 670 952 1664
45 480 670 952 1220
CAP TO CAP ALIGNMENT
FROM PED-948
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Electrode Caps
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Appendix A1
Electrode Holders
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Electrode Holders
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Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Electrode Holders
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Appendix A1
Electrode Seats
DRILLING AND REAMING ELECTRODE TIP SEATS
When the design of the electrode backup calls for the use of electrode
tips instead of backup buttons, drilling and reaming of the seats for these
electrode tips should meet the specifications shown below. All tapers
should be rough-machined under the finished diameter and reamed to
size with the finishing reamer.
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Electrode Seats
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DRILLING AND REAMING STANDARD TAPERED SPOT AND
PROJECTION WELDING ELECTRODE SEATS
Generally, tapered electrode seats are drilled and reamed in copper,
copper alloy or manganese bronze spot and projection welding
electrodes, or in monel inserts, which are soldered in portable welding
gun electrode arms and holders. Fisher (1-1/4" taper per foot) and
Morse (approximately 5/8" taper per foot) tapers are being used at the
present time, and the chart shown below calls out the drill size, rough
and finish reamers, and the plug gauges to be used for each standard
taper. it should be noted that all tapers shall be rough machine-reamed
to .005 to .010, as indicated in the chart, under the finished diameter and
then hand-reamed to size with a finishing reamer. Monel inserts in all
cases shall be finished-reamed after they have been soldered in the
electrode arm or holder in order that a straight clean seat may be
obtained:
In some cases, Fisher and Morse tapers are used with taper lengths
other than those shown in the above charts. To drill and ream these
tapers, the proper drill size shall be determined in each case, and the
most suitable reamer selected from those listed in the above charts, and
modified as required. Generally, in these cases only, the finish reamer is
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used, unless a large number of holes .are to be reamed.

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Appendix A1
Electrode Shank
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Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Electrode Shank
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Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Electrode Shank
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Appendix A1
Electrode Shank Inserts
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Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Electrode Shank Inserts
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Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Electrode Shank Inserts
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Appendix A1
Fittings
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Fittings
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It can be noted that both NPT and NPSM fittings will be machined with a
slight inner flare at the open end. Both fittings would then accept the
Parker adapter.

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Appendix A1
Gun Numbering
The following list of abbreviations is used on detail drawings
and component numbering.
AR Arm Electrode Assembly
CBA Cable Adapters
CBL Jumpers
CL Cylinder Assemblies-- Straight (Auto/Portable)
CLA Cylinder Assembly--Air-- Rocker (Automatic)
CLD Cylinder Assembly--Dual Piston (Hydraulic or Air)
CLH Cylinder Assembly-- Hydraulic
CLP Cylinder Pre:Lube
CLS Cylinder Assembly--Spring
CTD Cylinder Assembly--Air--Current Transfer
CTH Cylinder Assembly-- Hydraulic-- Current Transfer
FSD Fisher Standard Detail
HA Hanger Assemblies--Welding Gun
HE Holder Electrode Assembly
HF Hose Assembly
HL Handle Assembly
HLA Handle Adapter
HU Air-Hydraulic Booster
MGA Mounted Gun Air (Non-Portable)
MGH Mounted Gun Hydraulic (Non-Portable)
MW Electrode Cap or Shank
MWP Electrode Cap (DSC--Dispersion Strengthened Copper)
MWZ Electrode Cap (Zirconium)
PE Plant Expense (Items)
PN Piston
PR Piston Rod
STD Standard Detail
TR Transformer
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WG Weld Gun Detail Parts
WT Welding Tool
Y Portable Weld Gun
YA Portable Weld Gun (Air)
YD Portable Weld Gun Dual Heat Handle
YAD Portable Weld Gun Dual Heat Handle
SA Six Axis Welding Gun (Robot), SAV--Turnkey Design
SAD Six Axis Dual Welding Gun {Robot), SADV--Turnkey Design
T Ring & Plug Gauges
SAP Transformer Gun, SAPV--Turnkey Design
Drawings classified as assemblies have the
designation of "L" following the number, such as
AR-XXXX-L1.
G
Detail numbers other than wrought arms, holders,
electrode tips, shanks, caps and assemblies are
followed by the designation "51 ," such as
HLA-XXXX-51.
G
The following is the procedure used for numbering
details:
AR-XXXX Arm Electrode (wrought only)
AR-XXXX-L1 Arm Electrode Assembly (casting
only)
HA-XXXX-L1 Hanger Assembly
HLA-XXXX-51 Handle Adapter
HE-XXXX Holder Electrode (wrought only)
HE-XXXX-L1 Holder Electrode Assembly
(casting only).
WG-XXXX-L1 Bracket Assemblies, Guide
Assemblies, etc.
WG-XXXX-51 Brackets, Guides, Bushing, etc.
G
Electrode Numbering System
MW-XXXX Electrode Shank (one-piece)
MW-XXXXA Electrode Shank Using #2 Cap
MW-XXXXB Electrode Shank Using #3 Cap
MW-XXXXC Electrode Shank Using #1 Cap
MW-5XXXA,B or C O-Ring Type Electrode Shank
MW-7XXXA,B or C O-Ring Type Electrode Shank
MW-8XXXA,B or C O-Ring Type Electrode Shank
MW-6XXX Electrode Caps
MW-4XXX Miscellaneous (Rollers, Swivels,
Special Shanks)
MW3-XXXX Electrode Shank made from Class
#3 Copper
G
Notice that MW-5XXX, MW-7XXX and MW-8XXX use the
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same series reference as the three previous units.
PRESSURE TYPE WELD
GUN NO. MEDIUM OF GUN FORCE**
Y2000 Air Rocker 480 lbs.
Y6000 Air Rocker 480 lbs.
Y3000 Air *Straight 480 lbs.
& Rocker
Y4000 Air Straight 480 lbs.
Y7000 Air Straight 480 lbs.
Y8000 Air Straight 670 lbs.
Y8699 Air Straight 670 lbs.
YA81000 Air Straight 670 lbs.
Y8700 Air Rocker 670 lbs.
Y9000 Air Rocker 670 lbs.
Y12000 Spring Push 50 lbs.
Y15000 Air Straight 300 lbs.
Y15700 Air Rocker 300 lbs.
Y16000 Air Special All
Y19000 Air Seam
Welder 480-1220 lbs.
YA110000 Air Straight 952 lbs.
YAl15000 Air Rocker 952 lbs.
YA121000 Air Straight 1220 lbs.
YA122000 Air Rocker 1220 lbs.
YA161000 Air Straight 1664 lbs.
YA162000 Air Rocker 1664 lbs.
YA190000 Air Straight 1910 lbs.
YA191000 Air Rocker 1910 lbs.
YA201000 * * * Air Straight 1664 lbs.
YA202000* * * Air Rocker 1664 lbs.
* Larger-throat guns based on arms or holders having
throat dimensions of 16" or more in any plane.
* * Based on 85 psi air pressure @ 95% efficiency.
* * * Do not use. Old existing gun numbers (1664 lbs.) to be
phased out.
REF. PED-714
GUN NO. PRESSURE
MEDIUM
TYPE OF GUN
WELD
FORCE* *
MGA-100 Air Rocker-(1) Holder All
MGH-100 Hyd. Rocker-(1) Holder All

MGA-200 Air Straight (Floating) All
MGH-200 Hyd. Straight (Floating) All
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MGA-1200 Air Straight (Floating) All
MGH-1200 Hyd. Straight (Floating) All

MGA-300 Air Rocker (Floating) All
MGH-300 Hyd. Rocker (Floating) All

MGA-1300 Air Rocker (Floating) All
MGH-1300 Hyd. Rocker (Floating) All

MGH-400 Hyd. Rocker Throwout All

MGA-5OO Air Rocker-Double Motion All
MGH-500 Hyd. Rocker-Double Motion All

MGA-600 Air Rocker-Floating & Sliding All
MGH-600 Hyd. Rocker-Floating & Sliding All

MGA-700 Air Rocker-Sliding-(I) Holder All
MGH-700 Hyd. Rocker-Sliding-(I) Holder All

MGA-2000 & Up Air Straight or Rocker All
6000 & Up Straight-Floating
MGA-3000 & Up Air Straight or Rocker All

MGA-5000 & Up Air
Straight or Rocker
Backup Cylinder

REF. PED-701 AND PED-866


GUN NO.
PRESSURE
MEDIUM
TYPE
OF GUN
WELD
FORCE
SA-41000 Air Straight 300 lbs.
SA-42000 Air Rocker 300 lbs.

SA-61000 & Up Air Straight 480 lbs.
SA-62000 & Up Air Rocker 480 lbs.

SA-81000 & Up Air Straight 670 lbs.
SA-82000 & Up Air Rocker 670 lbs.

SA-110000 & Up Air Straight 952 lbs.
SA-115000 & Up Air Rocker 952 lbs.

SA-121000 & Up Air Straight 1220 lbs.
SA-122000 & Up Air Rocker 1220 lbs.

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SA-161000 & Up Air Straight 1664 lbs.
SA-165000 & Up Air Rocker 1664 lbs.

SA-190000 & Up Air Straight 1910 lbs.
SA-191000 & Up Air Rocker 1910 lbs.

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Appendix A1
Gun Trigger
Gun Trigger, Illustration #1
Gun Trigger, Illustration #2
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file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/app10028.gif
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file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/app10029.gif
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Appendix A1
Isolation Contactor
Three-pole isolation contactors are required for certain
resistance welding systems. The specifications and
applications are described in a number of written materials.
These include MDS 183, MDS 322, the MDS 400 series for
fab. plant systems, MDS 436, MDS 526, MDS 555 and the
relatively new MDS 600 series for fab. applications.
The intent of the isolation contactor is lfo remove primary
voltage from the weld transformer's primary coil when not
required for actual welding. EHS-308, a control specification
for off-line subassemblies, indicates that the isolation
contactor shall be used for "ungrounded welding
transformers" and "shall be operated
independently--closed just prior to their first weld and
opened just after their last weld." Depending on the
application, one or both service drops to the transformer may
be routed through an isolation contactor.
Isolation contactors can also be used for multiple-sequence
weld applications. In a fixture, a single weld control may cycle
many times, and power different guns through the
sequencing of specific isolation contactors by the primary
system control.
Basic data follows:
Isolation contactors must be NEMA Size 5 unless used
for HFDC welding. They may then be NEMA Size 3.
G
Depending on the application, contactor poles may be
used independently or in parallel. If used in parallel,
input and output copper buss inserts must be used.
G
Each contactor must have 1NO and 1NC auxiliary
contact to be available when the contactor coil is
energized. These are made available for basic control
system interface.
G
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Contactor coil voltage is 120VAC or 480VAC. G
EC-8199 and EC-8200 describe two isolation contactor
packages most often used when contactors are not
integral to the control itself.
G
The pages which follow have pictures of isolation contactor
packages.
Fig. A1-36, EC-8199
Fig. A1-37, EC-8200
Fig. A1-38

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file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/app10032.gif
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Appendix A1
MDS Number Reference
Manufacturing Development Specifications have been written
for systems and components of systems used in our
automotive plants. Name and number references listed below
cover different welding applications.
MDS No. TITLE
48 TR51X, TR51AX, TR52X, TR52AX, TR53X,TR53AX,
TR55X, TR55AX, TR56X, TR56AX,TR57X & TR55AX
WELDING PRESS TRANS.(CLASS F POTTED)
50 TR63A INTEGRAL GUN TRANS. FOR CT WELDING
GUNS (CLASS H POTTED)
188 AIR-COOLED WELDING JUMPERS
215 SEMIAUTOMATIC MIG SPOT WELDING EQUIPMENT
221 LOW-REACTANCE WELDING CABLES
247 DETERMINING THE WELDABILITY OF BODY STEEL
MATERIALS
266 TR66 WELDING TRANSFORMER
366 ASSEMBLY PLANT WELDER CONTROL
391 RESISTANCE WELD GUN CHECK-OUT PROCEDURE
397 SEMIAUTOMATIC PROGRAMMABLE MIG ARC
WELDING FOR FABRICATING AND ASSEMBLY-TYPE
TOOLING FOR .030 THRU .045 DIA. WIRE
398 PROGRAMMABLE MIG ARC SPOT WELDING
EQUIPMENT FOR FABRICATION-TYPE TOOLING FOR
.030 THRU .045 DIA. STEEL, ALUMINUM OR SILICON
BRONZE WIRES
401 WELDER/MACHINE STAND CONTROL WITH 3 SCRs
401A AUXILIARY CABINET WITH UP TO 3 SCRs
406 PORTABLE GUN DENSIFICATION UNIT
414 WELDER/PRESS CONTROL (MDS 414A FOR PRESSES
WITH 30-HP MOTORS) (MDS 414S AUXILIARY CABINET
WITH 6 SCRs
418 ELECTRODE EVALUATION
419 WELDING TRANSFORMER FOR ROBOTIC
APPLICATION
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422 PROJECTION WELDING
436 THREE-POLE WELDING ISOLATION CONTRACTOR
446 WELD CONTROL ONLY; UP TO 12 SCRs
457 MIG CONTROL
459 TR48D WELDING TRANSFORMER FOR PORTABLE
GUNS
460 TR54 WELDING TRANSFORMER FOR PORTABLE
GUNS
487 EVALUATING ELECTRODE CAPS
488 ZIRCONIUM COPPER ELECTRODE CAPS
490 PROCEDURE FOR PROJECTION WELD FASTENER
EVALUATION
515 A WELDING DESIGN VERIFICATION STUDY
516 FISHER BODY DIV., WELDING
SPECIFICATION AND STANDARDS
520 WELDABILITY OF WELD-THROUGH SEALERS AND
ADHESIVES
526 HIGH FREQUENCY WELDING SYSTEM
528 AUTOMATIC WATER SHUT-OFF AT GUN
555 ASSEMBLY PLANT WELDER CONTROL
558 AIR CYLINDER DENSIFICATION PACKAGE
564 60-HZ INTEGRAL TRANSFORMER WELD GUNS FOR
ROBOTIC APPLICATIONS
565 ROBOTIC STUD WELDING EQUIPMENT (TEE)
575 MANUAL STUD WELDING SYSTEM FOR FUR TREE
STUDS
586 AC WELDER CONTROL
587 DENSIFICATION UNIT FOR MDS-599
592 TR70, A, X WELDING TRANSFORMER
595 TR71AX FIXTURE WELDING TRANSFORMER
596 TR72X PEDESTAL WELDING TRANSFORMER
599 ASSEMBLY PLANT WELDER CONTROL (RWC-1)
601 WELDER/MACHINE STAND CONTROL WITH 3 SCRs
601A AUXILIARY CABINET WITH 3 SCRs
614 WELDER/PRESS CONTROL (MDS 614A FOR PRESSES
WITH 30-HP MOTOR) (MDS 614S AUXILIARY CABINET
WITH 6 SCRs
622 PROJECTION WELDING
646 WELD CONTROL ONLY; UP TO 12 SCRs

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Appendix A1
Projection Welding
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Appendix A1
SCR Test
To test SCRs for faulted conditions, remove all connections from one
tang (buss bar) of the SCR including the snubber devices. SCRs may be
checked for shorted and open fault conditions by using a
Volt-Ohm-Milliampere Meter (VOM).
Using a VOM, measure the resistance between cathode (K) and
anode (A) with the negative probe of the VOM on the anode (A).
This resistance value should be approximately one megohm
(million ohms).
1.
Reverse the probes (or change the polarity) and measure the
resistance again. It should again be approximately one megohm.
2.
Without changing the position of the probes in step 2, connect the
gate (G) (white wire) to the anode (A). The resistance should drop
3.
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to less than 1000 ohms. Repeat for the other SCR.
If either SCR in the SCR assembly fails any of these tests, consider the
SCR assembly defective and replace it.

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Appendix A1
Secondary Cables
From a current-carrying standpoint, the factors used to determine cable
selection are current, duty cycle, size and length of cable. Notice that
size and length are referred to separately and that size denotes the
cross-sectional area in circular mils. Air-cooled and water-cooled cables
both have thermal limitations. When they operate above their thermal
limits they overheat, their resistance increases, and they will fail.
Double-cabling is sometimes necessary to increase the secondary
welding current and/or meet thermal requirements. As a result of
increased current, the transformers may have to be operated on a lower
tap setting.
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**Maximum current will vary depending on transformer voltage, gun
throat, metal-in-throat, metal thickness, buss voltage, etc. The above
values are for the TR48 Hi-tap, 22 volts.
KICKLESS CABLE INSTALLATION
Installation
The following points should be observed at the installation of kickless
cables:
A minimum flow of 2 gallons per minute should be provided for
each cable.
1.
Cooling water should always enter at the bottom, or gun end, of
the cable.
2.
Water hoses for the transformer, gun and cable should be in
parallel, so that restrictions in any one water path will not affect the
flow of water through other paths.
3.
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Kickless Cable
Air-cooled J umper
Water-cooled Cable

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Appendix A1
Weld Schedules
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This table comes from MDS 515. It provides a quick reference for weld current and cycle times by
various metals. It refers to direct resistance welding only; for mild or high strength alloy steel. See page
A1-49A for use with Galvanneal.
These are not design values and do not intend to supercede any equipment design requirements
specified in PED-101.
G
Weld currents listed assume size 2 ball nose caps up to 1.79 mm and size 3 ball nose caps
above 1.8 ram. Use of ~'A" nose caps will require weld currents as much as 1000 amps higher
than listed.
G
Welding one tip force range higher than listed is allowed on Robotic and manual operations. This
may also cause higher weld currents than shown.
G
When total stack up of metal exceeds 2.5 x GMT it may be necessary to increase weld time by
as many as 2 ranges, and or increase weld current as much as 1000 amps.
G
When welding with a flat or long radius electrode such as the MWZ-6207 on one side or against
a stationary back-up, weld times may be increased as many as 2 weld time ranges, and currents
by as much as 1000 amps.
G
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From MDS 515
For Galvanneal Weld Process
For series resistance welding the following can be used for setup reference.
Bare-to-Bare for up to 1.08mm GMT -
Series current = 1.2 (Direct current)
Bare-to-Galvanized for after-hem welding with GMT no greater than .85mm - series
current = .86 (Direct current)
MEAN
GOVERNING
METAL
THICKNESS
(ram)
SECONDARY
CURRENT
RANGE
(AMPERES)
WELD
TIME
IN
CYCLES
0.69-0.75
0.76-0.82
0.83-0.90
0.91-0.98
0.99-1.06
1.07-1.13
1.14-1.20
1.21-1.27
1.28-1.35
1.36-1.43
1.44-1.51
1.52-1.59
1.60-1.67
1.68-1.74
1.75-1.82
1.83-1.89
1.90-1.97
1.98-2.05
2.06-2.12
2.13-2.20
2.21-2.28
2.29-2.35
2.36-2.43
2.44-2.50
2.51-2.58
32250
33000
33750
34500
35250
36000
36750
37500
38250
39000
39750
40500
41250
42000
42750
43500
44250
45000
45750
46500
47250
48000
48750
49500
50250
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
10
10
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2.59-2.66
2.67-2.73
2.74-2.81
2.82-2.89
2.90-2.96
2.97 -3.04
3.05-3.11
3.12-3.18
51000
51750
52500
53250
54000
54750
55500
56250
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
13
(From PED-101)
For Aluminum Weld Process
(From PED-101)
Series Welding and After Hem Welding
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(From PED-101)
Pneumatic Weld Gun Force Chart
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Appendix A1
Weld Steppers
The following tables come from PED 803. They are examples
which can be used for stepper count and current increase
during initial step programming. Of course, the values will
most likely change as experience within a specific weld
sequence is gained.
Notice that the schedules are arranged by the metal style
being welded.
A few definitions:
Step Actual stepper count level
Current Amps of current added within the step
Counts Welds within the step
Amps/Weld Current added for next weld within the step
B-B or N-B
Values for 5 step steppers:
Step I 2 3 4 5 Total
Current 100 200 900 900 900 3000
Counts 100 400 1800 1800 1800 5900
Amp/Weld 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Values for 10 step steppers:
Step I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
Current 100 200 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 3500
Counts 100 400 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 6900
Amp/Weld 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Note:
For multiple pulses, increase the second and or additional
pulses the same as the first.
B-G or N-N
Values for 5 step steppers:
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Step I 2 3 4 5 Total
Current 150 400 900 900 900 3250
Counts 100 400 1200 1200 1200 4100
Amp/Weld 1.5 1.0 .75 75 .75
Values for 10 step steppers:
Step I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
Current 150 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 3750
Counts 100 400 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 4500
Amp/Weld 1.5 1.0 .8 .8 .8 .8 .8 .8 .8 .8
Note:
For multiple pulses, increase the second and or additional
pulses the same as the first.
G-G or N-G
Values for 5 step steppers:
Step I 2 3 4 5 Total
Current 200 600 1000 1000 1000 3800
Counts 100 400 1000 1000 1000 3500
Amp/Weld 2.0 1.5 1.0 1.0 1.0
Values for 10 step steppers:
Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
Current 200 600 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 4000
Counts 100 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 3700
Amp/Weld 2.0 1.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 10 10
Note:
For multiple pulses, increase the second and or additional
pulses the same as the first.

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Appendix A1
Weld Symbols
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PED 100
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PED 100
PED 100
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Appendix A1
Weld Transformers
TR-48A PORTABLE
(DARK BLUE)
150 KVA AT 50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE RANGE
15 & 22
TURNS RATIO
29:1 & 20:1
WEIGHT 320 LBS.
TR-488 PORTABLE
(GREEN)
200 KVA AT 50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE 22
TURNS RATIO
20:1
WEIGHT 325 LBS.
TR-48D PORTABLE
(BROWN)
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200 KVA AT 50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE RANGE
15 & 22
TURNS RATIO
29:1 & 20:1
WEIGHT 340 LBS.
TR-66 PORTABLE
(CHARTREUSE)
200 KVA AT 50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE RANGE
17.6 & 26
TURNS RATIO
25:1 & 17:1
WEIGHT 410 LBS.
TR-70
(VIOLET)
300 KVA AT 50%
DUTY CYCLE
30.3V VOLTAGE
OUTPUT ONLY
17.6 & 26
TURNS RATIO
14.5:1 (US)
& 19:1 (CANADA)
WEIGHT 450 LBS.
TR-70BX
(ROYAL BLUE)
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265 KVA AT 50%
DUTY CYCLE
SECONDARY
VOLTAGE
TAPS FOR 22.3,
25.9,
30.26
TURNS RATIOS
21.5, 18.5, 16.0
(US @ 480 Vp)
25.5, 22.0, 19.0
(CANADA @ 575
Vp)
WEIGHT 435 LBS.
TR-54
(IVORY)
400 KVA AT 50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE RANGE
22 & 29
17.6 & 26
TURNS RATIO
21:1 & 15:1
WEIGHT 435 LBS.
Latest Transformer Additions
DOUBLE SECONDARY (DST)
4 LUG (STAGGERED)

TR-55X, TR-55AX FABRICATING
(YELLOW/BLACK "X")
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120 KVA AT
50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE
RANGE
7-9
TURNS
RATIO
61:1, 56:1,
52:1, 48:1
WEIGHT 250
LBS.
PRIMARY
DISCONNECT
PLUG 2185
(1-1/4"
CONDUIT)

TR-57, TR-57AX FABRICATING
(BROWN/BLACK 'X")
170 KVA AT
50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE
RANGE
9 - 11 1/2
TURNS
RATIO
47:1, 44:1,
41:1, 38:1
WEIGHT 294
LBS.
PRIMARY
DISCONNECT
PLUG 2185
(1-1/4"
CONDUIT)

TR-67X, TR-67AX FABRICATING
(MED, BLUE/BLACK "X")
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2OO KVA AT
50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE
RANGE
12-15
TURNS
RATIO
36:1, 33:1,
31:1, 29:1
WEIGHT 370
LBS.
PRIMARY
DISCONNECT
PLUG 2620
(1-1/2"
CONDUIT)

DOUBLE SECONDARY (DST)


4 LUG (IN LINE)

TR-51X, TR-51AX FABRICATING
(GREEN/BLACK "X")
85 KVA AT
50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE
RANGE
5-7
TURNS
RATIO
83:1, 76:1,
69:1, 62:1
WEIGHT 192
LBS
PRIMARY
DISCONNECT
PLUG 2180
(1" CONDUIT)

TR-53X, TR-53AX FABRICATING
(RED/BLACK "X")
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50 KVA AT
50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE
RANGE
3-5
TURNS
RATIO
138:1, 116:1,
100:1, 88:1
WEIGHT 155
LBS
PRIMARY
DISCONNECT
PLUG 2180
(1" CONDUIT)

DOUBLE SECONDARY (DST)


(INTERNALLY PARALLELED)
2 LUGS

TR-52X, TR-52AX FABRICATING
(GREEN/BLACK "X")
85 KVA AT
50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE
RANGE
5-7
TURNS
RATIO
83:1 76:1 69:1
62:1
WEIGHT 192
LBS.
PRIMARY
DISCONNECT
PLUG 2180
(1" CONDUIT)

TR-56X, TR-56AX FABRICATING
(YELLOW/BLACK "X")
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120 KVA AT
50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE
RANGE
7-9
TURNS
RATIO
61:1 56:1 52:1
48:1
WEIGHT 250
LBS.
PRIMARY
DISCONNECT
PLUG 2185
(1-1/4"
CONDUIT)

SINGLE SECONDARY TRANSFORMERS (SST)

TR-151X FABRICATING
(GREEN/BLACK "X")
55 KVA AT
50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE 6.1
TURNS
RATIO
72:1
WEIGHT 137
LBS.
PRIMARY
DISCONNECT
PLUG
E2125-125

TR-155X FABRICATING
(YELLOW/BLACK "X")
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75 KVA AT
50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE 8.1
TURNS
RATIO
54:1
WEIGHT 164
LBS.
PRIMARY
DISCONNECT
PLUG
E2125-125

TR-157X FABRICATING
(BROWN/BLACK "X")
100 KVA AT
50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE
10.5
TURNS
RATIO
42:1
WEIGHT 203
LBS.
PRIMARY
DISCONNECT
PLUG
E2125-125

TR-167X FABRICATING
(MED. BLUE/BLACK "X")
125 KVA AT
50%
DUTY CYCLE
VOLTAGE
13.8
TURNS
RATIO
32:1
WEIGHT 250
LBS.
PRIMARY
DISCONNECT
PLUG
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E2125-125
INTEGRAL SINGLE PHASE AC TRANSFORMERS
(SILVER)
TRANS.
NO.
KVA @ 50%
DUTY CYCLE
V
s
AT
460V
p
TURNS
RATIO

WEIGHT
TR11lX 22 3.43 134:1 50 LB.
TR121X 27 4.25 108:1 60 LB.
TR131X 35 5.11 90:1 70 LB.
TR141X 42 5.89 78:1 80 LB.
TR15IX 55 6.76 68:1 90 LB.
HF/DC TRANSFORMERS
TRANS.
NO.
CURRENT
AVAILABLE
V
s
AT
480V
p
TURNS
RATIO

WEIGHT
TR1HX (GREEN) 18000A* 3.24 73:1 45 LB.
TR2HX (GOLD) 22000A* 5.06 73:1 48 LB.
These are transformer secondary load current capability
ratings based on 10% duty cycle.
G
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Appendix A1
Press Welders
TYPE "C" (CLOVERLEAF)
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TYPE "S" (STRAIGHT SIDE)
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Appendix A1
Programmable Controllers
Programmable Controllers (PC's)
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A programmable controller (PC) is a microprocessor-based device much
like a computer but designed and packaged for the industrial plant
environment. Programmable controllers have all the features of relay
logic combined with the speed and flexibility of computers. They are
programmed in the familiar ladder logic format used for relay logic.
Basically, all PCs contain a "Central Processing Unit" (CPU), a memory
(the established program), a power supply, Input/Output (I/0) modules,
and a means of programming, editing and troubleshooting.
The CPU uses instructions from the memory plus the feedback signals
on the status of the input devices to make decisions and control the
operating sequence of output devices.
Most PCs offered today use one of two memory types, or combinations
thereof: Random Access Memory (RAM) (read and write) and
Read-Only Memory (ROM). With a RAM-type memory the program can
be changed whenever desired. With a ROM-type memory, once it has
been programmed it cannot be changed unless the physical "chip"
containing the program is removed and a new one (with a different
program) is installed.

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Appendix A1
Transformer Plugs
SINGLE SECONDARY TRANSFORMER
(SST) PRIMARY PLUG POSITIONS
This illustration shows four different primary plug positions on the single
secondary transformer (SST).
Normal engagement is "plus +" to "plus +". To reverse the transformer's
polarity, engage "minus -" to "plus +". To shut the transformer off,
engage either "plus +" to "off" or "minus -" to "off".
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Appendix A1
AC Transformer Tests
Disconnect all electrical and cooling service from the welding transformer
before making any tests.
I.
The transformer to be tested must be externally dry. If the transformer and
lugs are wet, a false megger reading could occur. The lugs where megger
connections will be made should be wiped off to eliminate potential external
current paths between the megger clips.
NOTE: Due to potential shock hazard with megger, all tests should be
performed by qualified personnel only. Be sure to follow all operating
instructions and safety precautions specified by the manufacturer of the
megger.
II.
Using a 500-volt megger, such as a Biddie model 21-J or an Associated
Research model 2201, make the following tests:
III.
PRIMARY-TO-SECONDARY CHECK
Check the resistance between each secondary winding and the
primary winding (refer to Figure 1). For single secondary
transformers (i.e., TR151 series, integral gun transformers), there
will only be one measurement. Selecting the proper secondary lug
is not critical. For transformers with dual output secondary, be
careful to check each individual secondary and not both lugs on
one secondary only. Proper resistance readings should be 100
megohms or greater.
.
PRIMARY-TO-FRAME CHECK
Check the resistance between the primary winding and the frame
of the transformer (refer to Figures 2, 3 & 4). The resulting
resistance should be 100 megohms or greater.
B.
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SECONDARY-TO-FRAME CHECK C.
Fixture-Type Transformers
Check the resistance between each secondary and the
frame of the transformer (see Figure 5). For single
secondary transformers, selecting the proper
1.
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secondary lug is not critical. For transformers with dual
output secondary, be careful to check each secondary
and not both lugs on one secondary only. Proper
resistance should be 100 megohms or greater.
Integral Gun Transformers (TR131X, TR141X,...)
These transformers cannot be checked for secon-
dary-to-frame resistance. The secondary of the
transformer is internally connected to the frame of the
transformer and any resistance measure- ments would
show a short circuit--falsely indicating a defective
transformer (see Figure 3).
2.
Portable Gun Transformer (TR48D, TR66, TR54)
These transformers also cannot be checked for
secondary-to-frame resistance. The secondary of the
transformer is internally connected to the frame of the
transformer and any resistance measurements would
show a short circuit--falsely indicating a defective
transformer (see Figure 4).
3.
If any of the tests performed in Section III indicate little or no resistance, then
the transformer is defective and should be replaced.
IV.

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Appendix A1
HF/DC Transformer Tests
The following information was taken from the Square-D EQ-5240
HF/DC welder control manual, publication number SD88002.
Section 8 of the manual addresses troubleshooting. The next few
pages cover transformer and diode testing only. Refer to the
manual for details covering other portions of the system.
8-1.1 Transformer and Rectifier Tests. These tests apply to Size 1
and Size 2 480- or 575-volt transformers.
8-1.1.1 Transformer Insulation. In these tests the DC output pads must
be jumpered to prevent damage to the diodes. Primary cables should be
disconnected from weld control.
Primary-to-secondary insulation: Using a DC megohmmeter,
measure insulation at 2500 VDC from primary to secondary center
tap pin or secondary output pads. Watch for shorts in cable
assembly. Resistance of insulation should be greater than 10
megohms.
1.
Primary-to-case insulation: Using a DC megohm-meter, measure
insulation at 2500 VDC from primary to case of transformer.
Resistance of insulation should be greater than 10 megohms.
2.
Secondary-to-case insulation: Using a DC megohmmeter,
measure insulation at 1000 VDC from secondary output pads to
case. Resistance of insulation should be greater than 10
megohms.
3.
Primary turn-to-turn insulation: If all previous tests are performed
and no failures are indicated, test for primary turn-to-turn failure.
Remove the secondary jumper before performing this test.
4.
When gun tips are open and gun insulation bushings,
washers, etc., are functioning properly, fire weld
control while measuring primary current.
.
If primary amps are less than 5A,
transformer primary turn-to-turn insulation
is good.
i.
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If primary amps are greater than 5A (gun
tips open and no shorts exist in gun),
transformer may have turn-to-turn
insulation failure. Weld control should also
be checked for proper function.
ii.
8-1.1.2 Thermoswitch. Pins A & B should show continuity at room
temperature.
8-1.1.3 ID Resistors. Check the resistance values as follows:
(Transformer Group OHMS/WATTS)
Resistors - XO - X1 - X2 - X3 - X4
RS-1 100/3 301/.75 200/3 402/.75 499/.75
RS-3 604/.5 605/.5 200/3 200/3 100/3
*X = 5, 6 or 7 depending on transformer installed.
If the installed transformer is 30615-376-50 through 54, the ID Cable is
30615-374-50, which provides both ID Resistance and Temperature
Sensing.
If the installed transformer is 30615-376-60 through 64, the ID Cable is
30615-374-60, which provides only Temperature Sensing. The ID
Resistance must be programmed by the user. Refer to the resistance
information above for appropriate values.
If the installed transformer is 30615-376-70 through 74, no ID Cable is
provided. The ID Resistance must be programmed, and the
Temperature Sensing connections must be provided by the user.
8-1.1.4 Visual Inspection. Inspect unit for damage, especially
indentation, since components may be damaged internally.
8-1.2 Component Test Procedures. The following paragraphs contain
procedures for testing the various components of the EQ-5240 Welder
Control.
8-1.2.1 Checking HF/DC Transformer Diodes. To check the diodes on
the secondary side of the transformer, a 3-volt continuity test light should
be used (Newark Electronics #34F721 or equivalent). Do not use a
Fluke digital meter for this test; it may give inaccurate readings and a
false indication that the diodes are shorted.
This test can be done while transformer is in gun tooling. Using the
continuity test light, place the positive tip to the top pad of transformer
and the negative lead to the bottom pad as shown in Figure 8-1. The
test light should not come on, indicating no current flow in that direction.

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Figure 8-1. Checking Diode for Open or Short

Now reverse the leads of the continuity test light and place the positive
tip on the bottom pad or jumper connection of the transformer and the
other lead to the top pad or jumper as shown in Figure 8-2. The test light
should now come on, for the current should only flow in one direction.

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Figure 8-2. Checking Diode for Open or Short

The important thing here is that regardless of the polarity of the


continuity testlight, it should only come on in ONE direction.
If the continuity test light comes on in both directions, this would indicate
a shorted secondary. But before replacing the transformer we must
make sure the short is not caused by shorted jumpers or gun tooling.
Remove one jumper or connector from one of the transformer secondary
pads and repeat the above test. If the continuity test light still comes on
in both directions, the diodes in the transformer are shorted and the
transformer must be replaced. But if the test indicates a good
transformer, look for a short in the gun tooling and repair the problem
area.

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Appendix A1
Water Hosing
Diagram - Water hosing suggested for robotic
application with buss bar
Diagram - Water hosing diagram for connecting pedestal
welder with water cooled jumpers and water saver.
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A1 - Resistance Welding, Water Hosing
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file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/app10086.gif
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file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/app10087.gif
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Appendix A1
Water Shutoff
MDS 528 is the specification for an automatic welder cooling
water shutoff, alert and control unit for robotic applications.
Listed below are highlights of the specification.
It can detect the loss of a weld cap, or less than 1 gpm
flow, and shut off the cooling water within one second.
G
It also provides control system 'input to stop a robot or
pedestal welder cycle and turn on an alarm.
G
Water hose port size is 3/8-inch NPTF. G
All hose ports are identified by specific application. G
The water leak does not require an electrical control
signal to stop the water flow.
G
The unit requires a minimum of 10 psi differential in
water pressure, input to output, in order to operate the
valve and initiate the electrical signal.
G
The unit will have no more than a 2 psi pressure drop
across itself.
G
Inlet pressure to the unit can be between 12 psi and 90
psi.
G
Reset of the leak signal may be done manually or by
remote electrical signal.
G
It is compatible with dens pak numbers MDS-558, 587
or 603.
G

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Arc Welding
Mig Weld Details
Gas metal arc welding is an electric arc welding process referred to as MIG or
GMAW. Originally the process used only inert shielding gas and the term "Metal
Inert Gas" (MIG) was used. Newer applications of the process use a reactive
gas mixture for shielding. Depending on the application, either inert or reactive
gas may be used, and either MIG or GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding)' may
apply.
When the MIG weld cycle begins, the shielding gas first starts to flow (pre-flow).
Next, the electrode wire (steel, aluminum or silicon bronze) is fed to the work.
When the slowly fed electrode touches the work and initiates the "Arc Start," the
weld timer begins the actual electrode wire "Welding Rate" feed.
After the weld is completed, shielding gas is allowed to flow when the wire feed
stops and the electrode is removed from the weld bead.

Fig. 3-6, Portable MIG Welding Equipment

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Fig. 3-7a, Edge-Type Weld

An advantage of MIG welding is the versatility of only requiring accessibility to


one side of the joint.

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Fig. 3-7b, Through-Type Weld

An accessible joint may not be available for a specific welding process, similar to
single-sided resistance welding. By penetrating completely through one piece of
sheet metal and into the other, the two pieces can be fused together. A solid
copper backup is required, however.

Fig. 3-8, Typical MIG Weld Components


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A typical MIG welding station consists of:


A welding torch G
A power supply G
Shielding gas G
Wire drive system G
Welding wire (rod) G
The wire drive system pulls the wire electrode from the spool and pushes it
through the torch. The controls initiate and terminate the gas, operate the
welding contactor and control the wire feed speed. The wire electrode transfers
current from the power source to the arc.

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Fig. 3-9

The MDS 457 MIG control incorporates programmability and diagnostic


feedback between the welding control, the electrode wire drive unit and the
welding power source.
Used for fully automatic MIG weld applications, it can control up to 12 MIG
welds.

Fig. 3-10

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Refer to the control manufacturer's service manuals for wiring diagrams,
installation instructions, replacement parts and programming information.

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Arc Welding
Application
MIG welding may be used as a salvage procedure to substitute for missing spot
welds, to tackweld nuts and bolts or for the repair of split metal.
When MIG welding is applied as a production procedure, a robot designed
specifically for the automatic MIG welding process is often used.
Automatically MIG welding door hinges to thinner metal door inner panels is a
common application.

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Fig. 3-11, Arc Welding Robot


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Arc Welding
Silicon Bronze
Silicon bronze weld joint processing is usually an assembly plant procedure. It is
not used for repair but is part of the normal assembly process for car bodies.
Applied by the MIG welding process, using silicon bronze wire, the assembly
plants use the silicon bronze process to structurally join the roof to the body at
the front pillars and at the quarter panel. The process supplies filler material for
the gap along with providing the necessary joint strength.
Blending the weld bead into the contour of the surrounding metal is critical
because it is in a highly visible area.

Fig. 3-12, Silicon Bronze Roof to Quarter J oint


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Arc Welding
Support
Setting up and maintaining a MIG welding system involves understanding and
controlling the process variables.
Weld quality is influenced by
Metal fit G
Weld current G
Arc voltage G
Wire and nozzle travel speed G
Electrode extension G
Shielding gas flow G
The system settings for these items are best developed by trial and error. The
system must be properly maintained to keep these settings correct.

Fig. 3-13, MIG Welding Terms


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Weld Penetration
System travel speed is an important factor for correct weld penetration.
When the travel speed, which is the rate at which the arc is moved along
the weld joint, is too slow, the weld bead is too wide and weld penetration
is limited. A travel speed which is too fast will cause the base metal to melt
near its top surface only and will decrease the weld bead penetration.
Maintaining optimum travel speed will prevent poor penetration and
incomplete fusion at the weld.
G
Melt-Through
Melt-through severely reduces weld quality. Excessive heat input is the
cause of this condition. Reduce the arc voltage and the wire feed rate if the
heat input is too high.
G
Weld Metal Cracks
Weld metal cracks are often the result of improper settings of either the
weld current or the arc voltage. By increasing the arc voltage or
decreasing the welding current, the weld bead will be widened and this will
decrease the weld penetration. A proper decrease in weld penetration
should alter the depth-to-width ratio and eliminate problems with weld
metal cracks.
G
Wire Selection
The improper selection of welding wire can cause metal-lurgical problems
and result in poor welds. It usually produces seams with weld metal
cracks. If you are welding high-tensile material and are using a wire
designed to weld low-tensile material, you can expect welds with weld
metal cracks.
Wire selection is important. Be sure the wire being used is compatible with
the metal being welded.
G
Porosity in the weld is almost always the result of inadequate protection with the
shielding gas.
Setting and maintaining the correct volume of shielding gas flow is essential in
preventing porosity in the weld seam.

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Fig. 3-15, Some Causes of Inadequate Gas Shielding for MIG Welding

GM 6122-M arc welding specification also outlines repair procedures using MIG
welding. When repair is done it should be done in a manner that is consistent
with established GM guidelines.

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Arc Welding
Troubleshooting
Excessive Porosity
Check for proper shielding gas flow rate 1.
Decrease voltage 2.
Increase stickout 3.
Decrease drag angle 4.
Always be sure the joint is free from moisture, oil, rust, paint or
other contaminants.
To Reduce Spatter
A change in shielding gas mixture 1.
Increase voltage 2.
Increase drag angle 3.
Decrease stickout 4.
Increase WFS (Wire Feed Speed) 5.
To Correct Poor Penetration
A change in shielding gas mixture 1.
Decrease stickout 2.
Increase WFS 3.
Decrease voltage 4.
Increase speed 5.
Decrease drag angle 6.
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Arc Welding
Stud Welding
Drawn arc stud welding is a process used to join a metal stud to a part of the
automobile body.
The welding heat required for stud welding is developed by drawing an arc
between one end of the stud and the body panel.
When the surfaces to be joined are heated by the arc, they are brought together
under pressure.

Fig. 3-17

The welding current required for stud welding is supplied by either the
transformer-rectifier (trans-rect) or capacitor discharge (stored-arc) method.
The capacitor discharge stud welding process produces arc power (DC) by the
rapid discharge of electrical energy stored in capacitors.
When the transformer-rectifier (trans-rect) method for producing arc power is
used, the welding transformer's secondary power is applied to a rectifier circuit.
The power is rectified and controlled to produce weld power output.

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Fig. 3-18, Trans-Rect Schematic

The following are some commonly used stud welding terms and definitions:
Stickout G -- Stickout is the distance that the stud protrudes from the
flash shield.
Stud-on-Work G -- Control system monitors and verifies initial contact of
stud to surface.
Angularity Switch G -- The switch ensures that the stud is perpendicular to the
work before initia- tion of the weld cycle.
Lift G -- Lift is the distance between the stud and work, during
the weld initiation process, when the gun solenoid is
energized and the stud is withdrawn from the work
surface.
Pilot Arc G -- When the stud is withdrawn from the work surface, a
pilot arc is drawn which cleans both the stud and work
surface of contaminants.
Main Arc G -- Main arc is the current which does the actual welding.
Main arc begins to flow at a preset time, after pilot arc.
Total Travel G -- Total travel is the sum of the stickout and lift
dimensions.
Plunge G -- The stud is pressed into the molten metal.
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Complete G -- Cycle complete. Gun withdrawn from stud and a new
stud is loaded.
Weld Time Adjustment G -- The weld time adjustment control is used to control the
amount of rectified AC half cycles used to weld the stud.
Current Adjustment Control G -- The percent of each half cycle used during the main arc
is controlled by the current adjustment control.
Plunge Adjustment G -- The plunge adjustment controls when the solenoid that
has been "energized" to "lift" the stud is to be
"de-energized." De-energizing the solenoid allows the
stud to be plunged into the molten metal.

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Fig. 3-21, The Drawn Arc Stud Welding Process

Fig. 3-22, Type of Studs

A stud welding system typically consists of:


The welder control G
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The weld head or gun G
The automatic stud feeding device > G
The barrier coat or anti-smut module. G

Fig. 3-23, Block Diagram of a Typical Stud Welding System

The four major components of a typical stud welding system are linked together
by the welder control.
The welder control, trans-rect or capacitor discharge, controls the weld current
and timing functions for the welding head or gun. Weld schedule selection, bare
or galvanized metal, is made at the welder control. Function control and
synchronization of the feeder and barrier coat module are controlled through the
welder control.

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Fig. 3-24, Typical Stud Welding System

Adaptable to either manual or automatic applications, a stud feeder's function is


to supply studs upon demand to the weld gun or head.
The plant compressed-air supply is fed directly into the feeder unit.
The air is redirected out of the unit through control valves to the feeder bowl, the
gun escapement mechanism and to the gun's piston assembly.

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Fig. 3-25, Feeder Unit Installation


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Arc Welding
Barrier Coat
Before the actual weld of the stud, an application of barrier coat fluid to the weld
area can prevent "smut"-Iike contaminants from adhering to the body.
A barrier coat system consists of a fluid reservoir, a control module and the
electrical, air and fluid lines.
The compressed-air circuit operates the .pump and the electrical circuit is used
for interface information. The fluid circuit dispenses the fluid to the weld gun or
head.

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Fig. 3-26, Barrier Coat Module

The fluid is conveyed through the fluid hose from the reservoir to the head or
gun.

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Arc Welding
Weld Gun
Before the actual weld of the stud, an application of barrier coat fluid to the weld
area can prevent "smut"-Iike contaminants from adhering to the body.
A barrier coat system consists of a fluid reservoir, a control module and the
electrical, air and fluid lines.
The compressed-air circuit operates the .pump and the electrical circuit is used
for interface information. The fluid circuit dispenses the fluid to the weld gun or
head.

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Fig. 3-26, Barrier Coat Module

The fluid is conveyed through the fluid hose from the reservoir to the head or
gun.
A stud welding gun consists of the gun body, a solenoid-energized stud lifting
mechanism, a flashshield and collet, and the weld and control cables.
The gun is air actuated.
Attached at the gun handle are the air supply hose, the weld cable and the
control cable for the gun solenoid.

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Fig. 3-27, Manual Stud Welding

Manual stud welding applications often require specially designed fixtures to


assist the operator in the accurate positioning of the weld gun. After positioning
the gun, the operator initiates the weld cycle by squeezing the trigger. The gun
receives control information from the welder control and performs the weld. The
gun is then repositioned by the operator for the next weld.
A built-in angularity switch prevents welding at an unacceptable angle.
The stud welding gun can be used with automatic or robotic tools.
Programmed to respond to primary system control, the gun receives a stud from
the feeder and welds it in position as signaled.
Weld cycle monitoring is available for automatic stud weld systems. If a
programmed cycle is not monitored as required, the system can be set for
additional options. Recycle or system hold/alarm are possible monitor outputs.

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Fig. 3-28, Automatic Stud Welding Head

Refer to the service manual for installation instructions and service parts for
either the weld gun or head.

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Fig. 3-29, Trim Stud Feeding Sequence

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Fig. 3-30, Threaded Stud Feeding Sequence


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Arc Welding
Quality
Stud welding may be checked visually and physically.
The peel test is a physical test that involves a peeling, not twisting, motion to
disengage the welded stud from the body metal. When there is sufficient fusion
between the stud and the body metal, the stud will tear a hole in the body metal
when it is peeled away. If the stud peels away without pulling a hole in the body
metal, it is an ineffective weld.
The equipment manufacturer's troubleshooting guide should be referred to if
there is a problem with weld quality. It will provide information regarding the
most likely cause of the weld problem and what to do to correct it.

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Fig. 3-31


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Arc Welding
Support
Preventive maintenance for a stud welding system will focus primarily on the weld gun itself.
The gun's flashshield and collet are directly affected by the welding arc and will therefore require the most
frequent attention.
Before servicing the gun, place the weld/no-weld switch in the no-weld position. Turn off the air supply and
disconnect the gun from the stud feeder.
Refer to the specific manufacturer's service manual for the information regarding:
Flashshield replacement G
Piston and receiver servicing G
Angularity switch servicing G
Trigger switch replacement G
Studs jamming in the escapement mechanism G
Checking and cleaning procedures
Adjusting, replacing and cleaning all of the gun's parts are done based on the production environment

Fig. 3-33a
G
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STICKOUT is the distance that the stud extends beyond the sparkshield to make initial stud-to-metal
contact.

Fig. 3-33b, Setting Plunge and Lift

LIFT is the amount of movement of the stud during the weld cycle to draw the arc.
The weld gun, the control, the barrier coat module and the stud feeder all have certain items that require
preventive maintenance attention either daily, weekly, monthly or at the start of shift.
The manufacturer's service manuals should always be referred to for maintenance and replacement
procedures, part numbers and troubleshooting guides.
Some suggested items to be considered are:
Weld Gun or Head
Check collet for wear, loss of tension in fingers. H
Lift action should be smooth, not binding. H
Check lift dimension and check total travel setting (refer to service manual for dimensions). H
Check flashshield for wear and slag buildup. H
Check weld head to work surface (should be perpendicular to work surface). H
Check angularity switch on manual operations. H
Check "drop-out" time (refer to service manual for dimensions). H
Recycle stud. If no stud arrives at collet, check system for problems. H
Check gun feed tube for burrs and alignment. H
Check piston for excessive wear. Welder Control
Check circuit boards and reseat if necessary. I
Check schedules for proper settings. I
Check and clean relay contacts. Tighten all screens and connectors. I
H
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Blow out the inside of the control with clean, dry air. Barrier Coat Module
Purge system. I
Check fluid level. I
Replace filters. I
Adjust volume. I
Check for leaks. Complete System
Check and tighten all cables, hoses and air lines. I
Check ground at control and at fixture for tightness. Stud Feeder
Check stud quantity. I
Check the load and transfer settings and readjust if necessary. I
Check the stud track for dirt and residue. Blow out dirt from the track, the
feeder escapement and the bowl. Never lubricate the track. Never use
lubricated air for cleaning.
I
Check air pressure and flow controls for proper settings (refer to service
manuals for required psi).
I
Working closely with the manufacturer's service manuals, when welding
T-studs:
-- Check the bowl setting to the back plate gap.
-- Remove and inspect the transfer piston and the O-rings.
-- Open feeder drain cock and blow dirt out of solenoid valve
assembly.
When welding threaded studs:
-- Adjust alignment of the stud groove to the stud track.
-- Adjust flow control for proper rotor movement.
I
Illustrated below are typical timing diagrams for stud welding T-studs to
cold-rolled or galvanized steel.

I
I
I
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Fig. 3-37


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Brazing
Introduction
The brazing process is in the intermediate temperature zone between welding
and soldering. In both the brazing process and the soldering process, the parts
are joined without melting the base metal. For brazing, the filler metal, usually
brass, has a liquidus above 840 F. For soldering, the filler metal melts below
840 F.
The method of heating defines the specific brazing process used. Torch brazing
(TB) is the most commonly used brazing process. Torch brazing uses the
oxyfuel gas torch. This is a very flexible method that allows for a .wide range of
heat control. Since most brazing operations are done manually, the heat control
and location is done by the operator.
Acetylene is the fuel used for most automotive applications.

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Fig. 4-1, Manual Torch Brazing

Process Designation
Arc Brazing AB
Block Brazing BB
Carbon Arc Brazing CAB
Diffusion Brazing DFB
Dip Brazing DB
Electron Beam Brazing EBB
Exothermic Brazing EXB
Flow Brazing FLB
Furnace Brazing FB
Induction Brazing lB
Infrared Brazing IRB
Laser Beam Brazing LBB
Resistance Brazing RB
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Torch Brazing TB
Fig. 4-2, Brazing Process Designation

In the brazing process the surfaces to be joined must be cleaned to remove


contaminants and oxides. The base metal should be preheated, with caution
taken to keep it from melting. The brazing filler material, usually a brass rod
precoated with flux to prevent contamination, is then melted into the surface of
the joint area. If a noncoated brazing rod is used, the rod coating may. be
applied by heating the rod and dipping it into a container of flux. The flux will
stick to the rod. The diameter of the brazing rod is chosen according to the
thickness of the base metal at the joint.
Dirt, grease and oxides can prevent the required uniform flow and proper
bonding of the brazing filler metal. Brazing quality depends both on the care
exercised during the preparation of the base metal surfaces and the brazing
application itself.

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Brazing
Application

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Fig. 4-4, Standard Notations

Oxyacetylene fuel gas brazing is the most popular brazing process used for
production or salvage in automotive assembly. Its flame is produced by burning
acetylene with oxygen. As noted below, care must be taken to provide the
correct flame for the proper brazing process.
Carburizing Flame: This type is produced by
the use Of more acetylene than oxygen. This
flame gives off carbon, which is identified by its
black color when it burns. When you use a
car-burizing flame to weld steel, the carbon
enters the hot steel, making it harder to work
during metal-finishing operations. The
temperature of the carburizing flame is
approximately 5,700F. You can identify a
carburizing flame by the "acetylene feather" in
the envelope and by its extreme brightness.
Neutral Flame: This is the type of flame most
suited for welding steel, since it neither burns
nor hardens the weld or the surrounding metal.
Its temperature is approximately 5,800 F. This
type of flame is produced by using equal
pressures of oxygen and acetylene. You can
identify a neutral flame by the soft, quiet
burning of the gases.
Oxidizing Flame: This type of flame is
produced by the use of more oxygen than
acetylene. Because its temperature ranges as
high as 6,300 F, this type of flame burns steel
in the welding process. You can identify an
oxidizing flame by its small blue cone with little
or no envelope.
Initially used to apply brass to cast iron, brazing applications are now used in the
assembly and repair of automotive sheet metal.
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Applications for the correct brazing process include:
Joining individual metal parts without melting the base metal G
Filling in grooves or slots G
Leveling of mismatched metal G
Repairing offset flanges G
Filling low spots and depressions that cannot be bumped up for metal
finish and repair
G
Making a good transition from one metal part to another G
Whatever application the brazing process is used for, the filler metal will have a
melting point above 840 F but below that of the base metal. The base metal will
not be heated to a molten state.

Fig. 4-7, The Oxyacetylene Process

The oxyacetylene fuel gas process provides oxygen and acetylene gas through
properly set regulators on the supply cylinders. The regulators provide the
proper volumes required for brazing. Hoses, identified by color and fitting
threads, conduct the gas at the proper pressure to the torch. Minor adjustments
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are provided on the torch itself for final flame setting.

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Brazing
Torch
The welding torch is the device used for mixing and controlling the flow of gases
to the tip.
The welding tip is that portion of the torch through which the gases pass just
prior to ignition. Welding tips of different sizes and configurations are available
for specific brazing processes.

Fig. 4-8, Oxyfuel Gas Torch Basic Elements

To avoid accidentally interchanging the acetylene and oxygen hoses, the


connecting nuts have left-hand threads for the red acetylene hose and
right-hand threads for the green oxygen hose.

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Brazing
Regulator
The oxyacetylene process uses two gases, oxygen and acetylene, which, when
combined in the proper proportions at the torch, provide a high-temperature
flame.
Two gauges and a pressure regulator are installed on each gas cylinder. One
gauge shows the tank pressure, the other gauge shows the regulated pressure.
The adjustment handle adjusts the working pressure or flow rate to the torch.
The gas cylinders must be kept in an upright position and properly secured to
meet safety standards.

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Fig. 4-9, Cross Section of a Typical Single-Stage Stem-Type Regulator


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Brazing
Torch/Mixer
Because the operator has control of the equipment used in the oxyacetylene
process, he should be familiar with the equipment's capabilities and limitations.
The mixer is perhaps misnamed, since it doesn't actually mix the gases but
merely meters them into the mixing chamber. Two types of "mixers" are widely
used: the medium-pressure type, to which the gases are usually supplied at
approximately equal pressures, and the injector type, to which the oxygen is
supplied at relatively high pressure (up to 55 psi or more) and the acetylene is
supplied at rather low pressure (down to less than 1 psi). In the injector type, the
oxygen passes through a very small orifice in the injector, and the expansion of
the oxygen as it leaves that orifice pulls the acetylene into the mixing chamber.
An advantage of the injector is that minor fluctuations in oxygen pressure and
flow cause changes in the amount of acetylene drawn into the mixing chamber
and maintain the normal ratio of the gas mixture. This is especially helpful when
oxygen is supplied to the torch from a plant piping system, where changes in
demand placed on the system may cause pressure fluctuations.
As already stated, the mixer, whether medium-pressure or injector type, is
normally a part of the welding head. The reason is this: There must be a
relationship between the sizes of the orifices in the mixer and the size of the
orifice in the welding tip. A single mixer cannot serve a wide range of tip sizes.
Further, all the passages in the welding head must be designed so that if the
flame is forced back into the head, as by momentary contact of the torch tip
against the work, it will not continue to burn just ahead of the mixer, but will be
extinguished without damage to head or torch.

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Fig. 4-11

It is very important when using oxyacetylene that the correct mixture of gases be
used for the specific application. Several different sizes and styles of torch
bodies, mixers and tips are available.
The chief function of the torch is to mix the acetylene and oxygen thoroughly to
assure smooth combustion.
Tips are made of a soft copper alloy, requiring that care be taken to avoid
damaging them.
"Tip cleaners" should be used for keeping the nozzles clean. G
Tip seats or threads must be free and clean from foreign matter to prevent
scoring and provide proper seal when tightening.
G
Tips should never be used to "hold" the work. G
Tips with a "hooded" or "cup shape" are usually used for soldering. A completely
different style of torch is used for flame-cutting of metal.

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Brazing
Tips

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Fig. 4-13, Replaceable Tip-End Lengths and Thread Sizes


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Brazing
Surface Repair
Surface repair usually involves applying a solder to fill depressions in a
damaged metal surface. The filler metal used in soldering will have a liquidus
below 840 F.
Before applying lead-free solder to a metal surface, guidelines regarding
cleaning, tinning and wiping the surface in preparation for the solder should be
followed. CPC's metal-finishing manual, PED-974, outlines the'proper
procedures for solder repair.
The oxyacetylene process is used for preheating the base metal and softening
the solder stick in preparation foe applying it to the repair area. Note that
soldering is distinguished from brazing only by the filler metal melting
temperature. Application techniques are the same.

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Fig. 4-14, Heating the Solder Stick

Exposure to the atmosphere always results in oxidation appearing on the


surface of the base metal. Flux removes harmful oxides and protects the filler
metal puddle from the atmosphere during the soldering/brazing process.
Flux may be a dry powder, a paste or a coating on the rod. It should never be
considered, however, as a substitute for proper cleaning of the base metal.
The heat from the torch first melts the flux and then continues until the filler
metal melts and flows into the joint.
After soldering, any residual flux should be removed.

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Fig. 4-15


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Laser Systems
Introduction
The word laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation. Light and radiation, in this sense, are the same thing: the emission of
electromagnetic waves. The key words are amplification and stimulated emission.
The term "light" refers to electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the normal human
eye.' In a more general sense, "light" can also mean electromagnetic radiation on
both the ultraviolet and infrared sides of visible light. Lasers may or may not be
visible.

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Fig. 5-1, The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The major difference between laser light and light generated by "normal" sources is
that laser light is monochromatic, directional and coherent.
Monochromatic means that all the light produced by a specific laser is of one
wavelength or color.
G
Directional means that the beam from the laser does not expand as quickly as
other light.
G
Coherent means that all the waves of light are gener-ated in phase with each
other. The wave crests and troughs are "locked" together when the light is
produced by a laser.
G

Fig. 5-3a, Coherent Light Waves

The property that makes laser light different from "ordinary" light is the fact that the
light is coherent. This means that all the waves of energy generated by the laser are
in phase with each other and stay in phase over very long distances.

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Fig. 5-3b, Incoherent Light Waves

"Ordinary" light consists of many wavelengths that are neither generated together nor
stay together as they travel. "Ordinary" light is therefore incoherent.
As shown in Fig. 5-1, the energy generated by the laser is in or near the optical
portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is amplified to extremely high intensity by
an atomic process called stimulated emission.
Stimulated emission is the atomic process in which an incident photon stimulates an
excited molecule or atom to emit another photon that is identical to the incident
photon. The incident photon must have a wavelength (i.e., energy) equal to the
amount of energy that the atom will release when it drops from its excited level to a
lower level. If the wavelength of the incident photon does not match the energy that
the atom will release, stimulated emission will not take place.

Fig. 5-4, Amplification Process

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A laser is an energy conversion process in which energy from a primary power
source amplifies light energy to a higher level of intensity. This higher level of
intensity produces a laser beam.
The beam produced by a laser does spread. The light covers a continually larger area
as it travels away from the laser generator. The rate at which the beam spreads is an
angle called the divergence. Because the beam spreads at a fixed and measurable
angle, the diameter of the beam can be determined at any desired distance from the
laser gener-ator. This is one property of laser light that allows it to be focused to a
small spot diameter with high-energy density.
The ability to concentrate a larger amount of energy onto a relatively small area is
very important when welding, cutting or drilling with a laser.

Fig. 5-5

The laser beam that is most often used for welding is generated by a carbon dioxide
(CO2) laser generator. Carbon dioxide, nitrogen and helium are used in the
genera-tor as the source of laser light amplification. The combina-tion of all three
gases is called the lasing medium. The gas molecules provide the medium for the
laser amplification process.
To initiate the amplification, an external excitation power source must be applied. A
totally reflective mirror at one end of the tube and a partially transmissive/reflective
mirror at the other provide the feedback and output properties of the generator. The
mirrors are often referred to as "folding mirrors" because they fold the beam back and
forth, allowing it to amplify or to gain power.

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Fig. 5-6, Basic Gas Laser System

Fig. 5-7, Mode Relates to the Beam's Aiblity to Be Focused

Every laser generator produces a beam having its own characteristic footprint or
mode. The mode represents how the laser beam's energy is distributed over its
diameter. The mode of the laser beam dictates its focusability.
A low-order mode refers to a beam in which nearly all of its energy is concentrated
at, or near, the center of the beam diameter. This enables the beam to be focused to
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a very fine, high-power density spot. Typically, low- to medium-powered generators,
up to 2000 watts, have a low-order mode. They are commonly used for cutting.
A high-order mode refers to a beam whose energy is more evenly distributed across
the beam's diameter. The more uniform power distribution is more suitable for
welding. A wider and stronger weld bead at the metal interface can be formed. Laser
welding is usually powered in excess of 2000 watts.
The high-order mode beam cannot be focused as tightly as a low-order mode, but it
has a laser spot diameter which provides leeway in locating the beam with respect to
the joint to be welded. This larger mode spot diameter has a lower power density than
a low-order mode spot diameter. Because of this lower power density, a generator of
higher total power output is required to pr~vide the necessary energy for welding.
The minimum focused spot diameter of the laser beam is the determining factor
relative to energy density. Parameters which affect the focusing of the laser beam
are:
G raw beam diameter
G focal length
G mode

Fig. 5-8, Parameters Relative to the Focusing of the Laser Beam

The laser beam has a minimum diameter at the focal point, or focused spot. In laser
welding, the optimum welding conditions occur when this spot is located beneath the
top surface, inside the part.
Focal point distances are developed by the final focusing mirror. Specific focusing
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mirrors are used for each individual focal length. The shorter the focal length, the
smaller the spot size. The smaller the spot size, the higher the power density. Focal
distances for present welding applications are either 5", 7-1/2" or 10".
The depth of focus is the location tolerance for positioning the focused spot. It is a
dimensional range in which the spot can be positioned. As the focal length of the
mirror increases so does the depth of focus.

Fig. 5-9, Position of Focus

The width and penetration of the weld are controlled by maintaining the focused spot
within the depth of focus range. If the focal spot position varies relative to the part by
not being within the depth of focus range, less than optimum welding conditions occur
and full weld penetra-tion may not be attained.
It is possible to generate sufficient heat to tack sealing strips and adhesives in place.
This is accomplished by plac-ing the focal point above the metal surface and just
heating the metal adjacent to the strip. Heat from the 'beam conducts through the
metal and melts the strip in place.

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Fig. 5-10, Back Window Inner Support

The laser welding process begins with the impingement of the laser beam upon the
workpiece. The intense energy concentration of the laser beam through correct
positioning of the focal spot establishes deep penetration and produces good quality
laser welds.
With deep-penetration welding, or keyholing, the intense energy concentration at the
metal surface induces a high vapor pressure of the molten metal (vaporization).
A vapor cavity surrounded by molten metal is formed as the beam starts to move
along the weld joint. The cavity is maintained against the forces of the liquid metal
surrounding it by the pressure of the vaporized metal.
The keyhole permits the laser beam to actually penetrate the metal relatively
unimpeded. This penetration enables lasers to produce welds 2mm or deeper with a
narrow bead width of approximately lmm. This depth-to-width ratio is known as the
aspect ratio. The keyhole also results in absorption of the laser light, which
otherwise would be reflected by the metal.

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Fig. 5-11, Keyhole Formation Process

As the laser beam moves, metal is progressively melted at the leading edge of the
moving molten pool. It flows around the cavity to the rear of the pool, where it
solidifies. The keyhole or deep-penetration process may be visualized in terms of a
taut hot wire being drawn through a block of ice.
Due to good laser beam penetration into the surface of the metal, high depth-to-width
or high aspect ratio welds are formed.
Laser welding has certain advantages over conventional resistance spot welding and
arc welding production applications.
Single-sided access
Spot welding requires two-sided access to make a weld. A typical joint design
calls for large flanges and accessi-bility to both sides of the flange. Laser
welding requires access to only one side of the weld flange and allows the size
of the flange to be greatly reduced. This reduction in weld flange size could
result in a sizable reduction in mass on a typical car body.
G
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Fig. 5-12a
Typical Front Body Hinge
Pillar J oint Design
Requiring Two-Sided Access
for Resistance Spot Welding
Fig. 5-12b
Typical FIB HP J oint Design
for Single-Sided Access for
Laser Beam Welding
Distortion
Laser welding has a narrow heat distortion zone compared to spot welding.
Mechanical distortion and wavy flanges that are common after spot welding are
not a problem with laser welding because it is a non-contact process. Being
noncontact also eliminates the consumable, high-maintenance items needed to
spot weld, such as electrode caps, shanks and weld cables.
G
Simplicity and Reliability
Many of the variables associated with manual or robotic spot welding are
eliminated: squeeze, weld and hold time settings, weld control settings and
electrode tip conditioning.
G
Weld Strength and Weld Speed
One major advantage of laser welding is its increased speed. Welding at
speeds of up to 200 inches per minute is possible with very little heat distortion
and no mechanical distortion of adjacent metal. Laser welds of increased
structural capability can be consistently produced.
G

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Fig. 5-14, Laser Welding System

A laser welding system is comprised of the following major components:


The Laser Generator
Typically a high-powered generator, it is the most significant aspect of the
system because it generates the laser light.
G
The Gas Delivery System
A gas mixture is fed to the inside of the generator to produce the beam.
Shielding gas is also supplied to the tip of the laser nozzle for protection of the
laser weld.
G
The Chiller
A chiller is used to remove the heat from the generator and to cool the mirrors
in the beam delivery system. The laser generator's gas mixture requires that all
excess heat be removed in order for a laser beam to be efficiently produced.
G
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The Beam Delivery System
A beam delivery system delivers the beam from the generator to the final
focusing mirror.
G
A Control System
A microprocessor-driven, fully automatic control system is used to control all of
the laser system functions.
G
Tooling
Tooling is required to locate and clamp the metal assemblies.
G
Safety Enclosures
Safety enclosures serve as a protective barrier for the system operators and all
other plant personnel.
G
The Laser Generator
There are two basic types of high-powered carbon dioxide (C0
2
) lasers:
1. Transverse Flow
2. Fast Axial Flow
The basic difference is the way the gas circulates.
Transverse Flow
The transverse flow laser generator is less expensive to purchase and operate.
With a transverse flow type, the gas mixture is continually recirculated
transverse to the direction of the laser beam being generated.
G
DC power excites the gas mixture, initiating the laser process. G
A blower pushes the gas mixture through a heat exchanger, removing all
excess heat.
G
The heat exchanger is connected to an external water chiller with a flow rate
capable of cooling the gas mixture.
G

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Fig. 5-17, Transverse Flow

Fast Axial Flow


In general, a fast axial flow laser generator produces a lower-order mode laser beam
than a transverse flow generator.
The parallel direction of gas flow with the laser beam direction produces the
name "axial flow."
G
Similar to the transverse flow generator, a water chiller and heat exchanger
remove the excess heat from the gas mixture.
G
Radio frequency in the megahertz range, or DC excitation, is used to excite the
gas mixture, causing it to increase its energy level.
G
To maintain the axial flow parallel to the laser beam, the circulating gas mixture
in the generator is contained within a glass tube.
G

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Fig. 5-18, Fast Axial Flow


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Laser Systems
Operation Details
When a carbon dioxide (CO
2
) molecule is excited to a state of high energy level,
a photon, the simplest form of radiation, can be released.
In the high-energy state, the molecules are very unstable and will tend to return
to their low-energy state.
To accomplish this return to the low-energy state, they release energy, in the
form of a photon.
Once released, the photon can be joined with many other photons producing the
laser beam.
All of this is initiated inside the optical resonator of the laser generator. It
consists primarily of two precisely aligned axial mirrors. One mirror is totally
reflective and the other mirror is partially reflective and partially transmissive.
It is through the transmissive/reflective mirror that only an amplified beam of the
correct wavelength passes--becoming a "laser beam."
A water-cooled shutter, when opened, allows the high-energy laser light beam to
pass through the generator's output window. It is then directed by a beam
delivery system to the workplace, where it is focused onto the work.

Fig. 5-20, The Laser Medium in the Unexcited State

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In their unexcited or ground state, C0
2
molecules are shown as black dots in the
resonator cavity.
Mirror 1 is fully reflective while mirror 2 is partially reflective and partially
transmissive. After the molecules have been sufficiently amplified, portions of
the laser beam, developed as a result of the amplification process, will be
passed through mirror 2.
This will continue as long as the amplification process within the laser medium
persists.

Fig. 5-21, The C0


2
Molecules Are Energized to an Excited Level

The unexcited, or ground state, CO


2
molecules are electrically excited by the
high-voltage DC from the laser's primary power source. The inward-pointing
arrows represent the energy required for excitation. This energy can be
elec-trical, chemical, optical or thermal in nature as long as it provides energy
that can be transmitted into the gas molecules and excite them.
In the illustration above, the open circles represent the excited CO
2
molecules.
At this time a phenomenon known as population inversion occurs. Population
inversion occurs when all or most of the CO
2
molecules' energy level is inverted
from low to high energy.
This is the critical state from which photons are released as the excited CO
2
molecule returns to its normal low-energy or ground state.
The release of these high-energy photons creates the laser beam.

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Fig. 5-22, Light Amplification Begins

The excited molecules emit photons spontaneously in all directions. Some of the
photons are lost through the side of the laser cavity. However, the photons
traveling parallel with the axis of the resonator will be directed to the mirrors.
Photons traveling perpendicularly are called "initiator photons."
These initiator photons initiate stimulated emission by striking other highly
energized C02 molecules, causing them to emit another identical photon.

Fig. 5-23, The Stimulated Emission Process Is Initiated

As photons initiate the stimulated emission, they release identical photons.


These photons are monochromatic, or of the same wavelength.
The release of identical photons increases the population of coherent photons,
or photons that are in phase. These coherent photons will travel back and forth
between the mirrors.
The stimulated emission process continues until all photons are traveling
together in phase and raising their intensity level.
This higher intensity level is required to maintain the amplification process.

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Fig. 5-24, The Amplification Process Continues

The amplification process continues as long as a population inversion continues


and available energized photons are in the laser medium.

Fig. 5-25, The Laser Beam Is Formed

The partially transmissive output mirror allows some of the energized photons to
escape and form the high-power laser beam.
Because the output mirror is partially reflective, some of the photons in the laser
cavity are kept inside the cavity to continue the amplification process. This is the
reflective property of the output mirror that contributes to the continuous output
of the laser beam.

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Laser Systems
Gas Delivery
The carbon dioxide laser generator requires a gas mixture of CO2, nitrogen,
oxygen and helium or argon to produce the laser beam. The gas delivery system
feeds the gas mixture into the laser cavity from three separate bottles located on
the exterior wall of the laser system enclosure. During operation of the system, a
gas controller and vacuum pump maintain the correct gas mixture and pressure.
Shielding or cover gas flows directly onto the weld area to displace air and
thereby minimize oxidation. Its tank is also mounted externally with the other
three laser gas tanks. The shielding gas, again helium or argon, is delivered to
the tip of the robot through a copper tube at a rate of approxi-mately 20 cfh
(cubic feet per hour).

Fig. 5-26, Rofin-Sinar 825 Laser Generator--Transverse Flow

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Laser Systems
Chillers
Heat buildup is removed from the laser generator and the mirrors in the beam
delivery system by a steady flow of cooled water. The chiller provides this
cooling water flow at the rate of approximately 10 gpm.

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Fig. 5-27, Chiller Assembly

Temperature range is extremely critical and must be maintained within a


tolerance of -+1C or -+2F.
Efficiency is greatest when this tolerance is adhered to.
Dew point must always be considered when cooling the mirrors in the beam
delivery system. If a mirror is chilled below the dew point of the air, condensation
will form on the mirror. This can cause the mirror to absorb a higher percentage
of the laser beam's power. To minimize absorption, present laser welding
applications have clean, dry air pumped into the beam delivery
system..Absorption of 1%-2% with a clean, properly chilled mirror is normal.
This, however, is due to the natural absorption/reflective characteristics of a
mirror's copper surface.
Condensation on the mirror's surface will alter the focusing characteristics of the
beam. Also, the percentage of absorption of some of the beam's power on each
individual mirror accumulates and weakens the output beam. The weakened
output beam can have an adverse effect on weld penetration.

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Laser Systems
Beam Delivery System
Focusing of the laser beam occurs only at the final point in the optical chain, the
focusing mirror or focusing lens. The beam delivery system (BDS) accepts the
laser beam from the generator and directs it to the final focusing object, where it
is focused onto the workpiece.
Within the BDS are several flat copper reflective mirrors which bend the beam
and direct. it to the final focusing mirror. The final focusing mirror is a parabolic
molybdenum-coated copper mirror. Increased durability makes moly-coated
mirrors the preferred application for automotive production.

Fig. 5-29a, Focusing Laser Light With a Transmissive Optic, or Lens

Fig. 5-29b, Focusing Laser Light With Reflective Optics, or Mirrors

Beam delivery systems may be stationary or robotic. A station-ary system


requires that the workpiece be manipulated beneath the focused beam. Robotic
systems move the focused beam over and around the work. Robotic systems
are more flexible and can accommodate larger, complex body panels more
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readily than a stationary system.

Fig. 5-30, GMF L-100 Robotic Beam Delivery System


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Laser Systems
Shielding Gas
Plasma or weld plume produced during laser welding at the workpiece will cause
scattering and absorption of the laser beam. This reduces its power density and
detrimentally affects weld penetration. Shielding gas removes the plasma and
decreases oxidation on the metal. The absence of the weld plume results in a
more efficiently utilized laser beam.
The shielding gas, usually helium (He), is delivered through a 1/8" ID delivery
tube. The tube is placed in front of the beam at an angle from the horizontal of
approximately 50 degrees. A standoff dimension of 3/4" from the work-piece
ensures that the laser beam does not "clip" the gas tube. The "clip" by the laser
beam could have a devastating effect on weld quality by reducing the shield
coverage of the weld area.

Fig. 5-31, Gas Tube Position


Automotive Welding Handbook, LASER SYSTEMS, Shielding Gas
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh00705.htm [6/29/1999 1:53:35 PM]

Laser Systems
Weld Joints
The manner in which the metal body section is set up and clamped, preparing it
for laser beam welding, is very critical. Controlling the gap between the two
metal surfaces deter-mines the outcome of the laser beam weld. Clamping must
be very effective. All of the laser weld's strength comes from the metal being
welded; no filler metal is added.
In order to ensure a complete penetrating weld, the gap between the metal
surfaces should be no more than 15% of the thinnest metal gauge. If the gap is
greater than 15%, an improper bond will occur, degrading the structural integrity
of the laser weld. This tolerance also applies to multiple metal stack-ups of three
or more pieces.

Fig. 5-32

Butt-joints require a tighter tolerance than the lap-joint. A laser weld butt-joint
tolerance must be less than .004".

Automotive Welding Handbook, LASER SYSTEMS, Weld Joints
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh00706.htm [6/29/1999 1:46:42 PM]

Laser Systems
System Controls
All of the laser welding system's functions are controlled by a main
microprocessor. It interfaces all system devices and coordinates their proper
operation. This would include:
safety enclosure doors G
system operation safety signals G
fixture clamping G
robot initiation and monitoring G
laser shutter operation G
cooling water monitoring G
interface to other devices G

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Fig. 5-33, Layout of Laser Welding System


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Laser Systems
Setup Variables
Variables are influential in establishing the proper setup for successful laser
welding quality. No clear-cut rule exists for fine-tuning all of the variables
simultaneously.
Weld schedules will differ and setup conditions will vary from one laser welding
application to another. As in other welding processes, "on-the-job" setup is
necessary for guaranteeing proper welds. Factors included could be:
laser generator power output setting G
output beam size and mode G
laser focal point positioning G
metal fit G
fixture clamping G
metal thickness G
bare vs. coated metal G
robot path and travel speed G
shield gas flow and/or purity G
cooling water temperature G
Lasers are rated by their power output. Class 1 and Class 2 are low power
output lasers. Class 3 and Class 4 are medium-to-high power output lasers.
Power develops the limit of weld penetration and determines the speed at which
welding can be done. Automotive sheet metal requires the energy capability of
ANSI Standard Class 4 laser generators. The appendix has a description of
each laser class.
Power is the first primary control for weld penetration. Travel speed is second.
The laser's travel speed is measured in inches per minute or millimeters per
second. A sample graph for a certain weld application is shown below.

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Fig. 5-35

Tight metal fit-up is required for proper penetration of laser beam welding.
Minimum gaps are acceptable, depending upon the thickness of metal to be
welded.

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Fig. 5-36a, Metal Gaps

It is important to maintain a constant focal point position in the metal within the
depth of focus of the beam. This controls the width and penetration of the laser
weld.

Fig. 5-36b, Comparison of Varying Focal Length Lenses


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The following weld schedule sample is developed for welding .030" bare metal
(low carbon). The values listed will require modifications to weld thicker metal,
coated metal or multiple stack-ups.
G POWER 4.6 KW @ THE WORKPIECE
G SPEED 210 INCHES PER MINUTE
G FOCAL POSITION 0.040"
G COVER GAS HELIUM @ 35 CFH
G STANDOFF 0.50"
G TUBE ANGLE 50 DEGREES
The values for power, speed, focal position, standoff and the tube angle may
vary slightly for each individual, specific laser welding application.

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Laser Systems
Safety Enclosure
Laser light beam radiation, ultraviolet weld flash and robot
movement are safeguarded by the use of a double-thickness,
insulated, all-metal safety enclosure. The safety enclosure serves
as a protective barrier for the system operator and any other plant
personnel.
Each enclosure is custom-designed to suit a specific laser welding
system. Safety features designed into the enclosure meet the
safety criteria of:
Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) G
American National Safety Institute (ANSI) G
Organization for Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) G
The following items are necessary to comply with both CPC and
Federal requirements.
To reduce radiation effects or stray beam penetration of the
wall, the enclosure's interior is completely lined with
embossed aluminum.
G
To prevent radiation escape, the enclosure's doors and
windows are sealed.
G
Door limit switches detect anyone accessing the system.
When the door is opened, the limit switches either prevent
the initial beam shutter from opening or close the shut-ter
instantly.
G
Pressure-sensitive floor mats can be used to detect the
presence of any personnel inside the enclosure.
G
Emergency stop buttons are located inside and outside of
the enclosure.
G

Automotive Welding Handbook, LASER SYSTEMS, Safety Enclosure
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Laser Systems
Laser Tooling
Laser weld system tooling is d~signed to locate and clamp the parts and hold
them within tolerance while the laser beam makes a full-strength weld. Clamping
has to be especially effective to ensure optimum metal fit-up.
Tools are usually mounted on a turntable which indexes to the inside of the
safety enclosure, presenting the workpiece to the laser beam. The operator is
working outside of the enclosure, loading and/or unloading the turntable.

Fig. 5-39, Typical Robot Workstation


Automotive Welding Handbook, LASER SYSTEMS, Laser Tooling
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Laser Systems
Evaluation
The size of a laser weld bead is determined by measuring its width and length
at the fusion zone in the plane of the faying surface.

Fig. 5-40, Laser Weld Bead Size

A typical laser weld has a bead length of 25mm. It is structurally equivalent to a


single resistance spot weld onto the same metal.
Just like resistance welds, imperfections such as edge welds, holes,
undercutting and surface porosity may denote an improper weld.
G Edge Welds A weld not contained completely within the faying surface area of the
metals.
G Holes A hole extending through the entire metal stack-up within the weld bead.
G Undercutting The final welded surface is below the surface of the parent metal.
G Surface Porosity Pits and voids within the weld head as observed on the welded metal
surface.
G Discontinuities Gaps at the faying surface.
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Laser welds can be repaired using procedures such as gas metal arc welding
(GMAW), resistance spot welding (RSW) or rivets.

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Laser Systems
Calorimeter
A device known as a calorimeter is used to measure power output of the laser
generator. Readings can also determine if the laser beam is being properly
transmitted through the delivery path. The calorimeter can be placed at any point
beyond the output of the laser generator. Calorimeter location readings are then
compared.
To measure laser power loss between the generator output and the nozzle
output, the calorimeter is placed directly in the beam path. The beam is allowed
to impinge on the calorimeter surface for about 10 seconds. Calorimeter
read-ings taken beyond the focusing nozzle must be done by positioning the
calorimeter 2 to 2-1/2 times the final mirror's focal length away from the nozzle.
Calorimeter readings taken at different locations are compared. Based on the
number of mirrors between the generator and the read point, the percent of
energy drop between the two will determine if the system mirrors require
cleaning. The present approach uses differences of 1-1/2% per mirror between
the generator output and final read point as reason to clean the system mirrors.
For L-100 robot applications, the maximum difference between generator and
nozzle readings has been defined as 8%.
It should be noted that the laser control panel digital readout is initially tuned
based on the calorimeter reading taken at the generator output.

Automotive Welding Handbook, LASER SYSTEMS, Calorimeter


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Fig. 5-43, Digital Power Probe


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Laser Systems
Optics Cleaning
Proper care of the laser system optics is necessary to achieve and maintain
proper weld performance. All laser system mirrors require specific cleaning.
Because of their close proximity to the actual welding, the mirrors in the beam
delivery system (BDS), or robot arm, usually need more frequent preventive
maintenance than the mirrors in the generator. The frequency of the'
maintenance is deter-mined by the nature of the weld application and the
operat-ing environment.
For the mirrors within the laser generator, refer to the manufacturer's
recommended maintenance program. Calorimeter readings can determine laser
path mirror cleaning needs.
Plant air must never be used to blow off mirrors because it is lubricated. The oily
air will only further contaminate the mirror's surface.
Optics cleaning kits contain a pressurized canister of clean, dry air and an air
bulb. Also included in the kit are a bottle of acetone and a box of special
lens-cleaning tissue.

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Fig. 5-44, Optics Cleaning Kit

The air bulb can be used to blow fine-grade contaminants off the lenses. The
pressurized air canister can remove more stubborn contaminants.
A piece of lens-cleaning tissue can then be placed onto the mirror's surface and
flooded with acetone. Under its own weight, the tissue is then pulled slowly and
gently across the mirror's surface, removing any remaining film or dust particles.
The step can be repeated, if necessary, to ensure complete lens surface
cleanliness.

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Laser Systems
Beam Delivery Alignment
A camera alignment kit, specifically for mirrors within a GMF
L-100 robot, must be used for the actual alignment of the
mirrors. It must be used when the robot is initially installed in the
plant or when replacement mirrors are inserted. The camera is
mounted at the end effector in place of the nozzle. The HE-NE
laser is then turned on. The alignment monitor will display the
position of the out-put beam. Mirror adjustments must then be
made. The final result will center the output beam with the
output nozzle when the nozzle is replaced. Movement is done
by using adjustment screws on the mirror mountings. Special
training is provided for the mirror alignment procedure.
Obviously, an important part of the laser beam alignment
procedure is the use of the helium-neon (HE-NE) laser. It is a
Class II laser beam generator which is mounted external to and
independent from the CO
2
laser generator used for welding.
The HE-NE laser generator emits a visible red beam. At initial
system installation the HE-NE beam is aligned with the invisible
CO
2
laser beam so it can provide a visual guide for the tasks of
future mirror alignment and robot path programming. It provides
a safe and visual method of simulating the actual CO
2
laser
beam path. A procedure for aligning the HE-NE and CO
2
beams
with the mirrors and each other is available.

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Fig. 5-47, Camera Alignment Kit


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Laser Systems
Mode Burn
The footprint, or mode, of the laser beam can be checked by
allowing the beam to make a burn into a piece of plastic.
The 3/4"-thick piece is placed in a direct line with the laser beam
about 10 feet from the output coupler. Firing at the plastic for
about 2 seconds, a mode burn that extends about 50% of the
way through the plastic is made. The shape of the burned area
is used by trained personnel to observe the actual mode of the
laser beam generator. From this, the laser beam condition can
be evaluated.
Mode burn is also used for initial system installation alignment.
Caution must be taken to prevent complete burn-through of the
plastic. Proper ventilation is also required to exhaust hazardous
vapors associated with the burn.

Automotive Welding Handbook, LASER SYSTEMS, Mode Burn


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Fig. 5-48, Mode Burn Plastic


Automotive Welding Handbook, LASER SYSTEMS, Mode Burn
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Laser Systems
Teach Tool
To assist with programming the robot weld path, a recently
developed "teach tool" can be attached to the robot's end
effector and used to position a focused laser beam. The
noncontact device has a small battery-powered diode laser. This
laser produces a focusable light beam which simulates the
welding laser beam and allows visual location of the weld path.
Accurate positioning of the focal point is indicated on the "teach
tool" by three lighted rings. The center ring lights up green when
the nozzle is in its optimum focal position for a proper weld. The
upper and lower rings light up red when the position of the focal
point is too high or too low.
Refer to the AES manual titled "Operations Manual for Laser
Welder Teach Tool" for detailed instructions.

Automotive Welding Handbook, LASER SYSTEMS, Teach Tool


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Fig. 5-49, Teach Tool


Automotive Welding Handbook, LASER SYSTEMS, Teach Tool
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Appendix
A2 - Arc Welding
GMAW Power
GMAW Shield Gas
MIG Troubleshooting
Stud Weld
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A2 - Arc Welding, Index
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Utility Distribution
Introduction
The operation of welding equipment is dependent upon various supply
systems. These include electrical service, compressed-air service,
cooling-water distribution and hydraulic systems.

Fig. 6-1

The sections which follow provide brief explanations of these systems,


their distribution methods and level of final application.
Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, Introduction
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Utility Distribution
Electrical Safety
The purpose of this section of the Handbook is to provide an
overview of plant electrical distribution, primarily for welding
applications. The pages which follow are not necessarily
uniform to all plants. They are examples only of present
approaches. The intent is to point out and detail to a degree,
certain areas of application.
Plant maintenance people who are involved in the installation,
operation, PM and repair of welding systems must be familiar
with the requirements for safely handling the various portions of
the electrical systems. Although each plant has its own special
safety procedure, there are some guidelines which cover all
applications.
Note that the subject at this point is the electrical distribution
system itself within the plant. It covers substations, primary and
secondary, and distribution methods from them. This includes
substation transformers, substation distribution, distribution
cables, buss ducts, buss plugs, cable drops to welder and
system controls, and the initial service to all weld systems.
A few safety guidelines follow:
Never start internal work on any electrical circuit unit
unless it is determined that all power has been removed.
Safety locks with personal tags must be properly applied
to all circuit connecting devices which are opened for the
purpose of system service.
NOTE: Latest-style HF/DC wel'd controls have a control
panel-to-transformer service drop in the range of 680V,
14, 1200 Hz. Be sure the main panel disconnect is open
and locked when working on the cable or transformer.
G
All circuits considered de-energized, or "dead," must be
properly checked and safely disconnected from the
services before repair, replacements or adjustments are
G
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made. Various electrical test instruments are available
and must be used for checking circuit voltage.
When working near electricity of any voltage, do not use
noninsulating metal tools or wear finger rings,
wrist-watches or any other object having exposed
conductive material.
G
Do not lay tools down on the equipment while working on
it. It's all too common to forget a tool when closing an
enclosure or re-energizing a system.
G
Conducting components of energized or "live" circuits
with protective devices must not be approached closer
than the following distances:
750 to 3,500 volts I foot
3,501 to 10,000 volts 2 feet
10,001 to 50,000 volts 3 feet
50,001 to 100,000 volts 5 feet
G
When opening a primary circuit feed and after verifying its
lack of power, service fuses or drawout breakers should
be removed before work on the circuit is done.
G
Circuit breakers are rated at maximum capacity and must
not be used beyond this limit.
G
Primary voltage transformer taps must not be changed
while the transformer is on or under load.
G
All wiring and/or repairs must be inspected before making
final connection to the power service.
G
Before closing a circuit's main breaker, be sure all
down-line loads have their service breakers or switches
open. Once the main breaker is closed, system loads may
be applied.
G

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Utility Distribution
Electrical Distribution
The pages which follow are one-line diagrams and pictures of a typical
automotive plant's electrical distribution system. Specific portions of the
system are noted below with circled capital letters and briefly described
as their function in the system.
A plant receives its primary electrical service from the local utility
company.
.
The service is then distributed through the plant's own primary
distribution substation.
B.
A plant's primary substation distributes the utility service through
its own primary service breakers.
C.
The primary service breakers distribute through cable to the plant's
secondary substations.
D.
Secondary substations receive the primary high-voltage service,
transform it to the required 480V service and feed specific circuit
breakers which are part of the substation distribution panel.
E.
Individual circuit breakers then feed to specific plant floor systems. F.
In most cases, the service to the plant floor leaves a specific
substation breaker through electrical power cable.
G.
The cable can feed directly to a specific system. H.
The cable may also feed an electrical service buss above the plant
floor.
I.

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Fig. 6-6

Fig. 6-7, Plant Primary Distribution


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Fig. 6-8, Secondary Substation

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Utility Distribution
Buss Duct
The following picture shows a typical electrical service buss.

Fig. 6-9, Electrical Service Buss

Buss is rated with respect to its ability to conduct current. For welding
distribution, buss with a rating of 1600 amps or 2000 amps is usually used. Of
course, the service breakers in the substations feeding the buss must be sized
to properly protect the buss within its rating.
Buss duct has specific hanger and tab bolt connecting requirements. Refer to
the manufacturer's specification.
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Automotive plants will usually color-code or label distribution buss so it can be
identified as welding service or "power and light" service.

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Utility Distribution
Buss Plugs

Fig. 6-10, Buss Plugs

Buss plugs are rated for their capability of conducting a continuous


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current load. They are also constructed to withstand certain short-circuit
loads before the fuse opens the circuit. Common buss plug sizing goes
in intervals from 30 amps to 800 amps. In all cases, including welding
service, buss plugs are fused and handle three-phase, four-wire load
connections.
Depending on the manufacturer's specification, buss plugs above
200-amp sizes may require additional external support.
Buss plugs used for service to resistance welding devices must be
properly sized and have the ability to handle special weld limiter fuses.
Assembly plants usually use one buss plug per weld control. Based on
the style of weld control, buss plug sizes range from 100 amp to 400
amp.

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Utility Distribution
Bolted Pressure Switches

Fig. 6-11, Bolted Pressure Switch

For specific applications, the bolted pressure switch is used for distribution from
the welder buss. These applications are usually fab. plant oriented. They use a
pressure switch rated at about twice the capability of an 800-amp buss plug.
The pressure switch can handle many 4/0 single-conductor cables. The cables
go from the pressure switch to the primary weld control panel, which is usually
an MDS 601A or MDS 614A.
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Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, Bolted Pressure Switches
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Utility Distribution
Fuses
Class J weld limiters must be used in buss plugs for resistance
welding applications. They are a specific style of insert fuse
capable of conducting the intermittent, short-time current
overloading experienced with resistance welding. However, they
are also designed and rated to provide complete short-circuit
protection to the weld power distribution system.
Because they are designed with the capability of safe
high-current interruption for resistance welding purposes, Class
J fuses have a special physical size. Buss plugs for resistance
welding service must have fuse retainers properly installed to
handle the shorter-dimensional Class J device.

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Fig. 6-12, Follow the Manufacturer's Instructions With Buss Plugs

It should be noted that buss plugs and/or their fuses may be


inserted or removed from an energized buss. It is very
important, therefore, to review the various manufacturers'
installation instructions and follow them. If not properly followed,
electrical grounding and arcing may occur, which may cause
personal injury to the installer and damage to the devices.

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Utility Distribution
Isolation Contactors

Fig. 6-13

In general, all automatic and robotic welding applications must


use isolation contactors. The Size-5 contactor is wired in series,
in the circuit between the weld control output and'the specific
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welding transformer. This is done to provide a completely open
circuit between the weld control and the weld transformer when
welding is not being done. The isolation contactor can also
provide a method of safely switching a weld control output to
different transformer-gun units within the welding system.
MDS 436, published in October 1988, is the latest specification
for a welding isolation contactor.

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Utility Distribution
Application
There are three typical methods of distributing electrical service
to plant floor welding systems. Figure 6-15 is a diagram
indicating each method. Brief descriptions follow.
Case I
A dedicated branch circuit from the 480-volt welding buss
network is provided for welding power only. A service from a
completely separate buss, not welding'oriented, provides power
to the system control, usually a PLC. Case II
A dedicated branch circuit from the 480-volt welding buss
network is provided for all machine weld and control
requirements. Case III
A dedicated branch circuit from the welding buss network is
directed to a readily accessible, on-floor distribution panel. As
shown on the drawing, portions of the total system receive their
service from the distribution panel.
For any of the cases noted above, buss and/or buss plugs are
usually labeled to indicate their source of service. They can be
noted by substation and breaker numbers.
Example: WB1 --S1B4/S2B1
"Weld buss 1 fed by substation 1 breaker 4 and
substation 2 breaker 1."
The same code may appear at the control panel service
entrance.
NOTE: Electrical power supply companies have been known to
charge the automotive plant a special rate based on the power
factor rating of the load served. Lower ratings may generate
higher bills. Typical dividing points for the billing may be power
factor ratings of .94, .89, .83, etc. Along with balancing weld
system loads between substations, and branch circuits from
substations, it is also useful to balance loads on each buss, by
phase. This is particularly important in plants where service
drops to weld controls are single-phase only. Three-phase
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Dranetz meter readings of a specific buss often help in
determining weld load balance. Buss plug cable connections
can be changed to redistribute the loads.
Fig. 6-15

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Utility Distribution
Fab. Plant Examples
The following pages have reference numbers which correspond
to the following list.
2-1/2" conduit with 3 single-conductor //4/0, 600-volt
welding cables or cables with RHH/RHW insulation.
1.
3" conduit with 3 single-conductor 500MCM, 600-volt
welding cables or cables with RHH/RHW insulation.
2.
NOTE:
When more than one conduit is required for
three phase service, each conduit must contain
all three phases.
A multi-conductor, interconnecting control cable with
connectors and Kellum strain relief.
3.
Conduit, duct or cable tray with single-conductor //4/0,
600-volt welding cable. Tie-wrapping of cable pairs to
individual transformers is recommended to reduce
reactanoe.
4.
Welding cable of suitable size, rated at 600 volt, 90 C, to
transformer. PED 702 details cable sizes and connections
for specific applications.
5.
A multi-conductor electrical service and control. Cable with
connectors and Kellum strain reliefs. EHS-218 and
EHS-385 detail various cables available.
6.
A multi-conductor electrical control cable to the system's
master control panel.
7.
A 400-amp buss plug with proper-sized current-limiting
fuses.
8.
A 200-amp buss plug for service to the system main
control panel.
9.
An 800-amp buss plug with proper-sized current-limiting
fuses.
10.
A multi-conductor electrical control cable with connectors
and Kellum strain reliefs.
11.
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A multi-conductor electrical control cable with connectors
and Kellum strain reliefs.
12.
A multi-conductor electrical control cable with connectors
and Kellum strain reliefs.
13.
A 1600-amp bolted pressure switch with current-limiting
fuses.
14.
Direct hard-wired cables, if required. Normally, cables with
connectors and strain reliefs are used.
15.
Typical Press Welder Power Distribution
and Control Wiring - Fab Plant
Fig. 6-18
Fig. 6-19
Fig. 6-20
Fig. 6-21
Fig. 6-22

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Utility Distribution
Assembly Plant Examples
Welder buss plug: 100 amp, 200 amp or 400 amp with
proper-size Class J fuses.
1.
Weld control service cable: 2C-#4/0 W/G or 3C-#2 W/G. 2.
Weld control: MDS 366, MDS 526, MDS 555 or "others." 3.
Transformer primary cable: 2C-#4/0 W/G or 3C-#2 W/G. 4.
Welding transformer: usually TR-48D, TR-66 or TR-54 for
AC and Size 1 or Size 2 for HF/DC.
5.
Weld control-to-densification package interface or weld
control-to-central system control panel.
6.
Densification package for electrical interface and weld gun
air and water control/distribution.
7.
Cable from transformer to weld gun. Can be
single-conductor air cooled for each leg or two-conductor
air or water cooled. Cable sizes depend on actual weld
required.
8.
Transformer temperature switch cable to densification
package or hard automation main control panel.
9.
Weld gun initiation switch on manual guns or weld gun
clutch cable on robot guns.
10.
Hard automation weld control isolation contactor control
cable.
11.
Weld control to robot "top hat" interface cable. 12.
Robot "top hat" to densification package interface cable. 13.
Multi-conductor electrical service and control cable with
connectors and Kellum strain reliefs as required. EHS-218
and EHS-385 detail various cables available.
14.
Primary system control panel. Usually a PLC of size
capable of controlling fixture and/or system function or
interface from primary system to robot control.
15.
System control buss plug with proper size Class R fuses. 16.
Primary service to disconnect/breaker in main system 17.
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control panel.
Hard automation requires the use of an isolation
con-tactor in series with the weld control to the welding
transformer. MDS 436 details the contactor.
18.
Press welders used in assembly plants follow the weld
control/distribution format shown here. One weld control
can cover more than one weld gun, however. Weld
control/weld gun application is handled in the primary PLC
control by closing guns in specific sequence with respect
to their assigned weld control.
19.
Fig. 6-25, Standard Manual Weld Gun
Fig. 6-26, Hard Automation
Fig. 6-27, Robot with AC Welder
Fig. 6-28, Robot with HF/DC Welding

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Utility Distribution
Compressed Air Safety
Compressed air is an important part of weld system operation in
both fab. and assembly plants. A basic understanding of
pneumatic systems as applied to welding operations is
important. The intent of this section is to highlight
compressed-air applications.
As with all other sources of system energy, compressed air
must be approached with safety' in mind. Compressed air can
be dangerous. Air-operated weld guns and system mechanisms
are designed based on an air-service pressure of 85 psi at the
inlet to the unit. To minimize air pressure drop during operation,
and guarantee cycle capabilities, compressed-air storage tanks
are often installed as part of the complete system.
A few guidelines follow:
Never start repair work on any compressed air-operated
system unless it is determined that all air pressure has
been removed.
G
Air-supply piping must be installed with a "bleeder" valve
at the final point of connection to the machine. When this
service valve is closed to eliminate supply air, the
machine air pressure is automatically exhausted.
G
Compressed-air condensation traps should be drained on
a regular basis. Automatic drain valves are'available.
G
Depending on the style of solenoid valves operating the
pneumatic devices, "trapped" air may exist in certain
portions of the system even after the main service valve is
closed.
G
Once the primary service valve is closed and branch
piping has exhausted, it is recommended that the system
be cycled with the electrical control to eliminate "trapped"
air.
G
Safety locks with personal tags must be properly applied
to keep the main service valve closed during PM/repair.
G
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Do not lay tools on the equipment while working on it. It's
all too common to forget a tool when re-energizing and
initially recycling the air-operated system.
G
Before opening the main service valve after PM/repair is
completed, be sure all system components are in their
"normal" position. Re-energized air service could cause
portions of the systems to "slam" back to normal position.
This in itself could cause injury or damage.
G

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Utility Distribution
Compressed Air Distribution
It is important that all pipes, tubes and hoses which conduct air be as large as is
practical, with a minimum of restrictions and bends to minimize friction or
resistance to flow.
There are two principal sources of pressure drop in a compressed-air distribution
system: friction and leaks. Pressure losses depend on the diameter, length, size
and configuration of the lines, bends,' turns, fittings and valves in the system as
well as the velocity of flow and the density and viscosity of the air. Leaks are one
of the principal causes of pressure drop in the distribution system. Unlike
hydraulic lines, where leaks are very apparent, air lines may leak undetected.
The detection and stopping of leaks is an important factor in the efficient
operation of a compressed-air system.
Air drop lines should be piped from the top of the main header, to decrease the
amount of liquids which might run down into the valves and cylinders.

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Fig. 6-31


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Utility Distribution
Main Shutoff Valve

Fig. 6-32

Note that this valve can be locked in the closed or "off" position.
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Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, Main Shutoff Valve
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Utility Distribution
Air Preparation
An air preparation system consists of a filter, a lubricator and a
regulator.

Fig. 6-33

AIR LINE FILTER


An air line filter is a device which is placed in the air line at the
workstation to be protected. Its purpose is to remove particulate matter
from all of the air that operates the specific system.
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An air line filter basically consists of a housing with inlet and outlet ports,
a deflector, a shroud, a filter element, a baffle plate, a filter bowl and a
drain.
An air line filter requires periodic removal of trapped water and other
foreign particles by opening the petcock at the bottom of the bowl.
Occasionally, the filter may have to be replaced or disassembled and
cleaned.

Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, Air Preparation
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Utility Distribution
Pressure Regulator
An air pressure regulator is used to control or stabilize air supply line pressure
at a specific level.
The regulator's control surface (usually a piston), through an internal passage
at the underside of the piston, senses a rise in downstream air pressure. When
this pressure is high enough to overcome the control force (usually a spring),
the piston moves upward, causing the p'oppet to close. Once the poppet
seats, it shuts off flow and does not allow downstream pressure to continue
building. In this way, a relatively constant pressure is made available to an air
cylinder downstream from the regulator.
Fig. 6-34a
Pressure Regulator
Fig. 6-34b
Regulator Controlling Flow

Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, Pressure Regulator
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Utility Distribution
Line Lubricator
Lubrication is provided by the introduction of oil into the air
supply by air line lubricators. The air line lubricator should
always contain oil within the specified levels. Most air systems
will require oil. The exact amount of oil cannot always be
specified, but generally one drop of oil for each three strokes of
the most-frequently operated air cylinder is a good "rule of
thumb" measurement. Too much lubrication in an air system is
usually indicated by oily air "fogging" from the exhaust port. The
oil feed rate on the lubricator should be adjusted when this
condition exists.
It should be noted that certain systems are assembled with
"pre-lube" cylinders. These cylinders do not require automatic
air-supplied lubrication. They can usually be identified by a
painted gold marking on the cylinder. If they are installed in a
system which has an external lubricating device, the cylinder
treatment will be affected by the oil and will require continual
air-supplied lubrication.
Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, Line Lubricator
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh00816.htm [6/29/1999 1:54:28 PM]

Utility Distribution
Piping Examples
Filters, lubricators and regulators should be installed as close as
possible to the point of use, avoiding any radical turns in the piping that
will cause unnecessary pressure drop in the system.

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Fig. 6-36

Air should be kept clean and moisture-free. Feeder lines should be of


adequate size and hose lengths should be kept as short as possible.

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Utility Distribution
Directional Control Valves
Directional control air valves direct and control the air in a pneumatic
circuit.
A directional control valve consists of a body with ports directed to
internal flow.passages by one or more movable parts.
Perhaps the most common directional valve in simple pneumatic
systems consists. of a pressure port, two actuator ports, and one or
more exhaust ports. These valves are known as four-way valves, since
they have four distinct flow paths (or "ways") within the valve body. The
four-way valve's most common use is to control the motion of
double-acting cylinders.

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Fig. 6-37

One of the common ways of operating a directional valve is with a


solenoid. A solenoid is an electrical device which consists basically of a
plunger and a wire coil. The coil is wound on a bobbin which is then
installed in a magnetic frame. The plunger is free to move inside the coil.
When electric current passes through the coil of wire, a magnetic field is
generated. The magnetic field attracts the plunger and pulls it into the
coil. As the plunger moves in, it can either cause a valve spool to move
or it seals off a surface, changing the flow direction.

Fig. 6-38

Some special-purpose valves are speed- or flow-control valves,


sequence valves, deceleration valves, and time-delay valves. Regular
maintenance of air valves will ensure good performance and long life.
The speed at which air cylinders move is regulated by flow-control
valves. These valves regulate the speed at which the air can move, but
do not restrict the air pressure. In this way, the force produced by the
cylinder is not affected by the speed regulation. To help protect against
excessive shock, a cylinder is equipped with cushions which slow down
a cylinder's piston movement just before reaching the end of the stroke.
Cushions can be applied at either end or at both ends of cylinder travel.

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Fig. 6-39


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Utility Distribution
Cooling Water Safety
Welding cooling water is an important portion of automotive
assembly quality and system capability. It is used to remove
waste heat generated during the welding process. In that
process, high weld current and a large number of welds per
system cycle create high heat levels in the parts being welded.
High heat levels are also generated in the devices doing the
welding. Welding system temperature levels which are not
properly controlled create high wear, and low weld quality
results. It is important that welding systems be retained at
proper functional temperatures.
Although welding capability has improved greatly, cooling
requirements and methods have changed very little. It is still just
a basic specification that the proper volume of water, at the
proper temperature, be directed to and circulated through the
welding equipment. Improper volume can be a result, or cause,
of poor cooling-water supply flow rate, worn weld caps, worn
hoses and more. The bottom line is that proper cooling-water
volume is a necessity.
It should be noted that, in certain cases, special treatment of
cooling water is required. Based on chemical tests, usually
made by independent firms, chemical treatment is specified for
the purpose of extending the life of the devices in the system.
This includes protection for the system pumps, piping, fittings
and the actual welding equipment itself.
Cooling-water systems also require safety considerations.
Water leaks must be stopped as soon as possible. It is very
important to keep equipment dry in areas where welding is done
and high-power electrical service is distributed.
A few guidelines follow:
Never start repair work on cooling-water systems, or
distribution branches, unless it is determined that the
routes, supply and return, closest to the work being done
G
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are closed.
Before opening a cooling-water line, the line should be
drained and waste water collected in a manner which will
eliminate the wetting of other devices.
G
Safety locks with personal tags must be properly applied
to keep the necessary valve closed during PM/repair/
rework.
G
Do not lay tools on the equipment while working on it. It's
all too common to forget a tool when re-energizing the
cooling-water branch.
G
All piping and/or repairs must be inspected before making
final connection to the main service branch.
G
Although not usually considered a safety hazard, water
leaks can provide unsafe conditions: slippery floors,
ground paths for electrical devices, lubrication failure for
mechanical devices. Water leaks must be eliminated as
soon as possible.
G
The pages which follow provide examples and criteria for
cooling-water applications. They cover both the main overhead
distribution systems and individual machine/area details.

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Utility Distribution
Cooling Water Distribution
The following page is a basic layout showing the proper primary
distribution concept for a cooling-water system. It indicates the
recommended piping route approach which achieves the
greatest system flow efficiency. It highlights the techniques of
equal supply/return pipe distances, circuit valving, pressure or
flow gauge installation, maximum water temperature
specification and the location of air eliminator valves on
closed-loop systems.
It should be noted that the valves shown at the various locations
on the supply/return headers are required. These are shown on
other drawings which follow. Plant experience indicates that
these valves are required for future system back-flush/clean-out
and possible system balance to provide supply/return header
pressure variation.
The second page simply lists data which can be used in
developing cooling-water distribution design. Note that the
maximum capacity is in reference to 55/60 psi water supply at
the first point of use.
Fig. 6-44, Welder Water Primary Distribution
Fig. 6-45, Specifications
Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, COOLING WATER DISTRIBUTION
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Utility Distribution
System Types
The next two pages show schematics of two types of systems
for handling cooling water. The first is an "open type," which
circulates cooling water through the storage tank and out to the
shop distribution piping. Although older-style cooling-water
systems were built this way, it is not recommended at this time.
It has been found that an open system can minimize cooling
capability. It can allow major contaminants to enter the water
from the cooling tower and actually plug the required flow in the
welding equipment.
The "closed type" system, which separates the cooling system
from the cooling tower, greatly reduces the contamination
problem. This system requires a specific heat exchanger which
transfers the heat from the closed welder system to the
independent cooling-tower system. This kind of system is now
recommended for all welder water applications. It greatly
minimizes the failure of cooling-water flow in the welding
equipment.
It should also be noted that most cooling-water systems require
specific chemical treatment for the closed-loop portion. Plants
usually contract with a chemical treatment company. The
company will test the closed-loop water and recommend proper
chemical treatment. The plant, on a regular basis, will then test
and treat the water on their own.
Fig. 6-47, Open Type Cooling Water System
Fig. 6-48, Closed Type Cooling Water System
Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, System Types
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Utility Distribution
Manifold Examples
The following four pages indicate correct and incorrect primary
manifold piping arrangements. The notes on each page explain
the reasons for "correct" and "incorrect" pipe routing. Notice that
the distribution piping is identified as "machine headers." This
implies specific circuits being distributed from the primary
system. These drawings highlight the logic for proper water flow
at machine distribution.
Fig. 6-50, Single Manifold Supply/Return
Fig. 6-51, Multiple Manifold Supply/Return
Fig. 6-52, Multiple Manifold Supply/Return
Fig. 6-53, Multiple Manifold Supply/Return
Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, Manifold Examples
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Utility Distribution
Catwalk Piping
These are samples of typical catwalk or overhead manifold
piping. Pipe sizing may change based on cooling-water volume
needs. Notice that individual welder cooling-water circuit supply
valves are all located on the top side of the service piping. Drain
valves, only, are located on the underside of the pipe.
A recent addition to welder water piping has been the
installation of "full vision" flow indicators. They are located on
both the supply and return, main drops, to the specific system
headers. They are not an absolute requirement, but are
recommended for services to headers feeding very complex
welding systems.
Fig. 6-55, Catwalk Piping Example - Section
Fig. 6-56, Catwalk Piping Example - Plan View
Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, Catwalk Piping
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Utility Distribution
Hydraulic Safety
This portion of the Handbook briefly reviews hydraulic systems
as applied to welding operations. Although used in welding
systems for both fab. and assembly plants, the primary area of
application is in the fab. plant. Liquids, like air, can transfer
pressure in any direction. But hydraulics can do it without losing
volume as a result of the pressure generated. It is a more
efficient method of pressure transfer for systems requiring many
weld guns in small areas.
Like any other energy transfer system, hydraulic systems have
specific safety concerns.
A few guidelines follow:
Before opening a hydraulic fluid pressure system, be sure
all internal pressure has been eliminated.
G
Hydraulic systems usually have a particular style of
indicator which signals whether the system's accumulator
is retaining pressure after the hydraulic pump has stopped
running. Manual pressure relief valves are provided and
should be used to eliminate stored pressure.
G
Safety locks with personal tags must be properly applied
to prevent the system from being started during
repair/PM/rework.
G
All piping, fittings and hoses must be inspected before
re-energizing the hydraulic pump.
G
Do not lay tools on the equipment while working on it. It's
all too common to forget a tool when re-energizing the
system.
G
Hydraulic leaks must be eliminated. Not all hydraulic fluids
used in automotive plants are water-based fluids.
G
If leaks occur, they must be cleaned up immediately. G
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Utility Distribution
Hydraulic System
The following pages provide an overview of a hydraulic system.
Naturally the pictures are taken from a specific manufacturer's system.
The approach, however, is basically the same among manufacturers.
The intent here is to present the concept of hydraulic weld gun
applications. Before getting too involved in system setup, PM or repair,
the specific manufacturer's information .must be reviewed and directions
followed.

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Fig. 6-59

NO. SYM. NAME NO. SYM. NAME


1 PF PUMP 15 AIR SAFETY VALVE
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2 MOTOR 16 QUICK
DISC.-GAUGE
CONNECTION
3 RELIEF-VENT
VALVE-SOLENOID
CONTROLLED
17 CHECK VALVE--1/2"
4 CHECK VALVE--3/4" 18 LS LIMIT SWITCH
5 ELASTAMER PADS 19 TERMINAL
STRIP--WITH
ENCL.-- EC-720 4ND
* * 6 ACCUMULATOR--l-I/2 GAL.
CAP.
20 VALVE-SUB PLATE
7 SURGE TANK--AIR--7.07
CU.FT.
21 DRAIN VALVE
8 RESERVOIR 22 STRAINER
(EXTERNAL)
9 BLOCK MANIFOLD 23 COUPLING
10 SV2 VALVE--SOL.
OPER.--4-WAY--3/8 NPT
24 END COVER FOR
RESERVOIR
11 SV1
SV4
VALVE-- SOL. OPER.-- 4-WAY--
1-1/4 NPT
25 FILLER &
BREATHER UNIT
12 NAMEPLATE 26 MOUNTING
BASE--PUMP &
MOTOR
13 PS2
PS3
PRESSURE SWITCH 27 HOSE-- 1-1/2" ID
14 AIR PRESSURE REGULATOR 28 DRAIN VALVE
29 HOSE-- 1-1/4" ID
Fig. 6-61
The pages which follow briefly describe the sequence of operation for a hydraulic
weld gun system. They reference the drawing on page 6-61. Portions of that drawing
are highlighted and are part of the description.
With the system on and under normal operation, a pneumatic surge tank (7) is under
continual pre-charge to a given pressure. It is piped to an air-over-oil accumulator
(6). The accumulator multiplies the input air pressure to the required hydraulic
system pressure. This is done at a ratio relative to the areas of the driving and driven
pistons. Standard ratios are 5:1, 5.8:1 and 6.5:1.
Fig. 6-62
The purpose of the surge tank/air-over-oil portion of the system is to provide initial
hydraulic pressure and volume when the weld gun solenoids are energized. It also
"cushions" the hydraulic system when the solenoids close.
Upon initiation of the weld cycle, the weld gun directional solenoids (11) are
energized. The accumulator handles instantaneous hydraulic pressure/volume
requirements. But the hydraulic pump (1), through the relief valve (3) and the check
valve (4), provides total pressure/volume needs until the guns are in position. The
Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, Hydraulic System
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relief valve (3) then bypasses fluid back to the hydraulic tank. The relief valve is
usually set around 600 psi.
Fig. 6-63
When the weld cycle is completed, the electrical control releases the directional
solenoids (11). The guns retract, using hydraulic pressure. When the guns are open
and the system hydraulic pressure equalizes, the air-over-oil cylinder returns to its
normal balance. The relief valve routes hydraulic fluid back to the tank.
Fig. 6-64
While all of this is taking place, the dump valve (10) is energized and held closed. In
fact, as long as the hydraulic pump is running, the dump valve is held closed. It
opens only when the pump is turned off. When that happens, the dump valve is also
turned off (opened) and all hydraulic fluid pressure is released to the tank.
Fig. 6-65
When all of the hydraulic pressure is released, the accumulator moves to the full
extended position because of the air pressure on the surge tank. Once fully
extended, all hydraulic pressure has been removed.

Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, Hydraulic System
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh00825.htm (4 of 4) [6/29/1999 1:54:37 PM]

Utility Distribution
HU-56 Troubleshooting
Push "Start" Button
Check motor operation. 1.
Listen for excessive pump noise or vibration. 2.
Observe if intensifier is recharging. 3.
Test system pressure with gauge. 4.
Check dump valve, manual override.' 5.
Check relief valve. 6.
Push "Stop" Button
Accumulator discharge; rod fully up. 1.
Bleed air from surge tank drain valve; observe if regular. 2.
Actuate manual overrides on valves to determine free
operation.
3.
Inspect filter condition and clean if necessary. 4.
Inspect for leaks around pump intak 5.
Leaks could indicate air greeting into the pump. 6.
Fill reservoir to proper level. 7.
Inspect hose and tubing for leaks in the entire system. 8.
If the weld guns will not move, then check the:
Accumulator and surge tank for:
a. air pressure,
b. intensifier charge,
c. directional valve shift, and
d. weld gun seizure.
1.
Pump motor recharge for:
a. motor and pump running,
b. fluid level in reservoir,
c. suction filter/strainer clean, and
d. relief valve blocking vent to tank.
2.
Safety dump valve (manual override). 3.
Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, HU-56 Troubleshooting
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh00826.htm (1 of 2) [6/29/1999 1:54:38 PM]
A more detailed list of troubleshooting items appears in the
appendix for hydraulics.

Automotive Welding Handbook, UTILITY DISTRIBUTION, HU-56 Troubleshooting
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh00826.htm (2 of 2) [6/29/1999 1:54:38 PM]
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Appendix A2
GMAW Power
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, GMAW Power
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01001.htm (1 of 2) [6/29/1999 1:55:24 PM]
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, GMAW Power
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01001.htm (2 of 2) [6/29/1999 1:55:24 PM]

Appendix A2
GMAW Shield Gas
Shielding gases and gas mixtures for gas metal arc welding
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, GMAW Shield Gas
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01004.htm (1 of 2) [6/29/1999 1:55:26 PM]
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, GMAW Shield Gas
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01004.htm (2 of 2) [6/29/1999 1:55:26 PM]

Appendix A2
MIG Troubleshooting
When troubleshooting gas metal arc welding process and equipment problems, it
is well to isolate and classify them as soon as possible into one of the following
categories:
1. Electrical
2. Mechanical
3. Process
This eliminates much needless lost time and effort. The data collected here for
your benefit discusses some of the common problems of gas metal arc welding
processes. A little thought will probably enable you to solve your particular
problem through the information provided.
The assumption of this data is that a proper welding condition has been achieved
and has been used until trouble developed. In all cases of equipment
malfunction, the manufacturer's recommendations should be strictly adhered to
and followed.
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, MIG Troubleshooting
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01002.htm (1 of 8) [6/29/1999 1:55:34 PM]
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, MIG Troubleshooting
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01002.htm (2 of 8) [6/29/1999 1:55:34 PM]
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, MIG Troubleshooting
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01002.htm (3 of 8) [6/29/1999 1:55:34 PM]
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, MIG Troubleshooting
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01002.htm (4 of 8) [6/29/1999 1:55:34 PM]
Component Problem
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, MIG Troubleshooting
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01002.htm (5 of 8) [6/29/1999 1:55:34 PM]
Wire electrode coil Wire electrode jumps off the coil; wire feed
interrupted.
Overloading of wire feed motor. Wire feed
roller slipping: wire feed uneven, unruly arc,
wire electrode freezes in current contact tube.
Cause
Braking too weak.
Braking too strong.
Component Problem
Wire feed roller profile Wire feed roller slipping: wire feed uneven.
Wire electrode deformed: wire feed
obstructed.
Cause
Wrong size of profile selected (too large) or
enlarged through wear.
Roller profile too small.
Component Problem
Wire feed roller pressure Wire feed roller slipping: wire feed uneven.
Wire electrode deformed: wire feed
obstructed, increased wear on contact tube.
Cause
Contact pressure too light.
Contact pressure too heavy.
Component Problem
Wire guide Kinks in wire electrode: wire feed obstructed.
Increased friction: wire feed obstructed.
Cause
Missing, distance from wire feed roller too
large or bore too large.
Bore too small.
Component Problem
Spirally wound wire electrode guide Kinks in wire electrode: wire feed obstructed.
Increased friction: wire feed obstructed.
Kinks in wire electrode: wire feed obstructed.
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, MIG Troubleshooting
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01002.htm (6 of 8) [6/29/1999 1:55:34 PM]
Guide becomes wave-shaped, increasing
friction on electrode: wire feed obstructed.
Cause
Missing, or too large.
Too small, or partially blocked by dirt or
rubbed-off electrode material.
Too short.
Too long.
Component Problem
Contact tube Changing points of contact: unruly arc.
Increased friction: wire feed obstructed.
Increased contact resistance, additional heat
and wear: unruly arc.
Cause
Wrong bore selected (too large) or enlarged
by wear.
Point of contact.
Bore too small.
Loose.
Component Problem
Hose assembly Increased friction on wire electrode in the
guide hose.

Cause
Bent too sharply, kinked.


Component Problem
Gas nozzle Gas exit partially blocked, turbulence in gas
flow: pores in seam. Current bridge to gas
nozzle: irregular arc.
Air drawn in, inadequate protection for weld
pool as a result of eccentric protective gas
flow: pores in seam.
Cause
Partially blocked by spattering.
Loose.

Component Problem
Current supply (workpiece) High contact resistance, also irregular:
unruly arc.
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, MIG Troubleshooting
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Cause
No proper clean connection, loose
connection.

Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, MIG Troubleshooting
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01002.htm (8 of 8) [6/29/1999 1:55:34 PM]

Appendix A2
Stud Weld
RANGE OF WELDING CURRENT VS. TIME RELATIONSHIPS FOR VARIOUS MILD
STEEL STUD SIZES AND THE CURVE OF AVERAGE VALUES.
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, Stud Weld
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01003.htm (1 of 2) [6/29/1999 1:55:36 PM]
Automotive Welding Handbook, APPENDIX, A2 - Arc Welding, Stud Weld
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01003.htm (2 of 2) [6/29/1999 1:55:36 PM]

Appendix
A3 - Brazing/Soldering
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A3 - Brazing/Soldering
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01100.htm (1 of 4) [6/29/1999 1:55:41 PM]
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A3 - Brazing/Soldering
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01100.htm (2 of 4) [6/29/1999 1:55:41 PM]
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A3 - Brazing/Soldering
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01100.htm (3 of 4) [6/29/1999 1:55:41 PM]

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A3 - Brazing/Soldering
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01100.htm (4 of 4) [6/29/1999 1:55:41 PM]

Appendix
A4 - Laser Welding
Class Definition
Glossary
Photometric Unit
Sample System PM
Style Characteristics
Types
Wavelengths
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Index
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01200.htm [6/29/1999 1:55:42 PM]

Appendix A4
Class Definition
The approach of laser safety standards has been to classify lasers by
their potential hazard based on their optical emission. Control
measures are specified which are commensurate with the relative
hazard of the classification.
This has developed a number of classifications employed by the
American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
The ANSI standard has four hazard classifications. The higher the
classification number, the greater the potential hazard. Brief
descriptions of each class follow:
Class I denotes lasers or laser systems that cannot, under normal
operating conditions, produce a hazard.
Class 2 denotes low-power visible lasers or laser systems which,
because of the normal human aversion responses, do not normally
present a hazard, but may present some potential for hazard if viewed
directly for extended periods of time (like many conventional light
sources).
Class 2a denotes low-power visible lasers or laser systems that are not
intended for prolonged viewing, and under normal operating conditions
will not produce a hazard if viewed directly for periods not exceeding
1,000 seconds.
Class 3 denotes lasers or laser systems that can produce a hazard if
viewed directly. This includes intrabeam viewing of specular reflections.
Except for the higher-power Class 3b lasers, this class laser will not
produce a hazardous diffused reflection.
Class 4 denotes lasers or laser systems that can produce a hazard not
only from direct or specular reflections, but also from a diffused
reflection. In addition, such lasers may produce fire hazards and skin
hazards.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Class Definition
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01201.htm [6/29/1999 1:55:42 PM]

Appendix A4
Glossary
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A
Absorb To transform radiant energy into a
different form, usually with a
resultant rise in temperature.

Absorption Transformation of radiant energy to
a different form of energy by the
interaction of matter, depending on
temperature and wavelength. Factor
describing light's ability to be
absorbed per unit of path length.

Coefficient Optical properties of different tissue
alter the absorption.

Accessible Emission Limit
(AEL)
The maximum output power or
energy (or in the case of pulsed
visible and near infrared Class 3
lasers) radiant exposure acceptable
for a given class.

Active Medium Collection of atoms or molecules
capable of undergoing stimulated
emission rather than absorption at a
given wavelength.

Afocal Literally, "without a focal length"; an
optical system with its object and
image point at infinity.

Aiming Beam A HeNe laser (or other light source)
used as a guide light. Used
coaxially with infrared or other
invisible light.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Glossary
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Amplification The growth of the radiation field in
the laser resonator cavity. As the
light wave bounces back and forth
between the cavity mirrors, it is
amplified by stimulated emission on
each pass through the active
medium.

Amplitude The maximum value of the
electromagnetic wave, measured
from the mean to the extreme; put
simply, the height of the wave.

Angle of Incidence See Incident Ray,

Angstrom A unit of measure of wavelength
equal to 10
-10
meter 0.1 nanometer
or 10
-4
micrometer, no longer widely
used nor recognized in the SI
system of units.

Anode An electrical element in laser
excitation which attracts electrons
from a cathode.

Aperture An opening through which radiation
can pass.

Apparent Visual Angle The angular subtense of the source
as calculated from the source size
and distance from the eye. It is not
the beam divergence of the source.

AR Coatings Antireflection coatings used on
optical components to suppress
unwanted reflections, which reduce
power.

Argon The gas used as a laser medium. It
emits blue/green light primarily at
448 and 515 nm.

Articulated Arm C0
2
laser beam delivery device
consisting of a series of hollow
tubes and mirrors interconnected in
such a manner as to maintain
alignment of the laser beam along
the path of the arm.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Glossary
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Attenuation The decrease in energy (or power)
as a beam passes through an
absorbing or scattering medium.

Autocollimator A single instrument combining the
functions of a telescope and a
collimator to detect small angular
displacements of a mirror by means
of its own collimated light.

Average Power The total energy imparted during
exposure divided by the exposure
duration.

Aversion Response Movement of the eyelid or the head
to avoid an exposure to a noxious
stimulant, bright light. It can occur
within 0.25 seconds, and it includes
the blink reflex time.

Axial-Flow Laser A laser in which an axial flow of gas
is maintained through the tube to
replace those gas molecules
depleted by the electrical discharge
used to excite the gas molecules to
the lasing state. See gas discharge
laser.

Axicon Lens A conical lens which, when followed
by a conventional lens, can focus
laser light to a ring shape.

Axis, Optical Axis The optical centerline for a lens
system; the line passing through the
centers of curvature of the optical
surfaces of a lens.

B
Beam A collection of rays that may be
parallel, convergent or divergent.

Beam Bender A hardware assembly containing an
optical device, such as a mirror,
capable of changing the direction of
a laser beam; used to repoint the
beam and in "folded," compact
delivery systems.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Glossary
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Beam Diameter The distance between diametrically
opposed points in the cross section
of a circular beam where the
power-per-unit-area is 1/e or 34% of
the peak for safety standards or is
1/e2 for manufacturing specification.

Beam Divergence Angle of beam spread measured in
radians or milliradians (1 milliradian
= 3.4 minutes-of-arc or
approximately 1 mil). For small
angles where the cord is
approximately equal to the arc, the
increase in the diameter of the
beam is numerically equal to
1,000th of the range in meters
multiplied by the number of
milliradians of beam divergence.

Beam Expander An optical device that increases
beam diameter and reduces
divegency. In its simplest form
consists of two lenses, the first to
diverge the beam and the second to
recollimate it. Also called an
upcollimator.

Beam Splitter An optical device using controlled
reflection to produce two beams
from a single incident beam.

Blink Reflex See aversion response.

Brewster Windows The transmissive end (or both ends)
of the laser tube, made of
transparent optical material and set
at Brewster's angle in gas lasers to
achieve zero reflective loss of
vertically polarized light. They are
nonstandard on industrial lasers, but
a must if polarization is desired.

Brightness The visual sensation of the
luminous intensity of a light beam.
The brightness of a laser beam is
most closely associated with the
radiometric measurement of
radiance.
C
C.I.E. Abbreviation for Commission
International de UEclairage, the
French translation for International
Commission on Illumination

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Glossary
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Calorimeter An instrument which measures the
heat generated by absorption of the
laser beam.

Carbon Dioxide Molecule used as a laser medium.
Emits far infrared light at 10,600 nm
(10.6).

Cathode A negatively charged electrical
element providing electrons for the
electrical discharge.

Closed Installation Any location where lasers are used
which will be closed to unprotected
personnel during laser operation.

C0
2
Laser A widely used laser in which the
primary las-ing medium is carbon
dioxide gas. The output wavelength
is. 10,600 nm in the far infrared
spectrum. It can be operated in
either CW or pulsed.

Coaxial Gas A shield of inert gas flowing over the
target material to prevent plasma
oxidation and absorption, to blow
away debris, and to control heat
reaction. The gas jet has the same
axis as the beam, so the two can be
aimed together.

Coherence A term describing light as waves
which are in phase in both time and
space. Monochromacity and low
divergence are two properties of
coherent light.

Collimated Light Divergent light rays rendered
parallel by means of a lens or other
device, allowing a sharp image of
the object to be focused at the focal
plane of the lens.

Collimation Ability of the laser beam to not
spread significantly (low divergence)
with distance.

Combiner Mirror The mirror is a laser which
combines two or more wavelengths
into a coaxial beam.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Glossary
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Continuous Mode The duration of laser exposure is
controlled by the user (by foot or
hand switch); exposure is
maintained as long as switch is
depressed.

Continuous Wave (CW)
Controlled Area
Constant, steady-state delivery of
laser power. An area where the
occupancy and activity of those
within are subject to control and
supervision for the purpose of
protection from optical radiation
hazards.

Convergence The bending of light rays toward
each other, as by a positive
(convex) lens.

Corrected Lens A compound lens that is made
measurably free of aberrations
through the careful selection of its
dimensions.

Crystal A solid with a regular array of
atoms. Ruby and YAG are
crystalline materials used as laser
sources.

Current Regulation Laser system regulation in which
discharge current is kept constant.

Current Saturation The maximum flow of electric
current in a conductor; in a laser,
the point at which further electrical
charge will not increase lasing
action.

CW Abbreviation for continuous wave;
the continuous-emission mode of a
laser as opposed to pulsed
operation.

D
Depth of Field The working range of the beam in or
near the focal plane of a lens; a
function of wavelength, diameter of
the unfocused beam, and focal
length of the lens.

Depth of Focus The distance over which the
focused laser spot has a constant
diameter and thus constant
irradiance.
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Dichroic Filter Filter that allows selective
transmission of colors of desired
wavelengths.

Diffraction Deviation of part of a beam,
determined by the wave nature of
radiation and occurring when the
radiation passes the edge of an
opaque obstacle.

Diffuse Reflection Takes place when different parts of
a beam incident on a surface are
reflected over a wide range of
angles in accordance with Lambert's
Law (or the Cosine Law) of
reflection.

Diffuser An optical device or material that
homogenizes the output of light,
causing a very smooth, scattered,
even distribution over the area
affected.

Divergence The increase in the diameter of the
laser beam with distance from the
exit aperture. (The value gives the
full angle at the point where the
laser radiant exposure or irradiance
is 1/e or 1/e
2
of the maximum
value.)

Dosimetry Measuring the power, energy,
irradiance or radiant exposure of
light delivered to tissue.

Drift, Angular Drift All undesirable variations in output
(either amplitude or frequency);
angular drift of the beam before,
during and after warm-up;
measured in milliradians.

Duty Cycle Ratio of "on" duration to total
exposure duration for a repetitively
pulsed laser.

E
Electric Vector The electric field associated with a
light wave which has bo.th direction
and amplitude.

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Electromagnetic Radiation The propagation of varying electric
and magnetic fields through space
at the velocity of light.

Electromagnetic Spectrum The range of frequencies and
wavelengths emitted by atomic
systems. The total spectrum
includes long-wave radio waves as
well as very short cosmic rays.

Electromagnetic Wave A disturbance which propagates
outward from an electric charge that
oscillates or is accelerated. Includes
radio waves; X-rays; gamma rays;
and infrared, ultraviolet and visible
light.

Electron Negatively charged particle of an
atom.

Embedded Laser A laser with an assigned class
number higher than the inherent
capability of the laser system in
which it is incorporated, where the
system's lower classification is
appropriate to the engineering
features limiting accessible
emission.

Emergent Beam Diameter Diameter of the laser beam at the
exit aperture of the system in
centimeters (cm) defined at 1/e or
1/e
2
irradiance points.

Emission Act of giving off radiant energy by
an atom or molecule.

Emissivity, Emittance The rate at which emission takes
place; the ratio of the radiant energy
emitted by a source or surface to
that emitted by a blackbody at the
same temperature.

Enclosed Laser Device Any laser or laser system located
within an enclosure which does not
permit hazardous optical radiation
emission from the enclosure. The
laser inside is termed an
"embedded laser."

Energy The product of power (watts) and
duration (seconds). One watt
second = one joule.
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Energy (Q) The capacity for doing work. Energy
is commonly used to characterize
the output from pulsed lasers and it
is generally measured in joules (J).
The product of power (watts) and
duration (seconds). One watt
second -- one joule.

Energy Source High-voltage electricity, radio
waves, flashes of light, or another
laser used to excite the laser
medium.

Enhanced Pulsing Electronic modulation of a laser
beam to produce high peak power
at the initial stage of the pulse. This
allows rapid vaporization of the
material without heating the
surrounding area. Such pulses are
many times the peak power of the
CW mode (also called "Super
Pulse").

Excimer "Excited dimer." A gas mixture used
as the active medium in a family of
lasers emitting ultraviolet light.

Excitation Energizing a material into a state of
population inversion.

Excited State Atom with an electron in a higher
energy level.

Exempted Laser Product In the U.S., a laser device exempted
by the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration from all or some of
the requirements of 21 CFR 1040.

Extended Source An extended source of radiation can
be resolved into a geometrical
image in contact with a point source
of radiation, which cannot be
resolved into a geometrical image.
A light source whose diameter
subtends a relatively large angle at
the target's surface

F
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F-Number The focal length of a lens divided by
its usable diameter. In the case of a
laser, the usable diameter is the
diameter of the laser beam or an
aperture which restricts a laser
beam.

Failsafe Interlock An interlock where the failure of a
single mechanical or electrical
component of the interlock will
cause the system to go into, or
remain in, a safe mode.

Femtoseconds
10
-15
seconds.

Fiber Optics A system of flexible quartz or glass
fibers with internal reflective
surfaces that pass light through
thousands of glancing reflections.

Flashlamp A tube typically filled with krypton or
xenon. Produces a high-intensity
white light in short-duration pulses.

Fluorescence The emission of light of a particular
wavelength resulting from
absorption of energy typically from
light of shorter wavelengths.

Flux The radiant, or luminous, power of a
light beam; the time rate of the flow
of radiant energy across a given
surface.

Focal Length Distance between the center of a
lens and the point on the optical
axis to which parallel rays of light
are converged by the laser.

Focal Point That distance from the focusing lens
where the laser beam has the
smallest diameter.

Focus As a noun, the point where rays of
light meet which have been
reflected by a mirror or refracted by
a lens, giving rise to an image of the
source. As a verb, to adjust focal
length for the clearest image and
smallest spot size.

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Folded Resonator Construction in which the interior
optical path is bent by mirrors;
permits compact packaging of a
long laser cavity.

Frequency The number of light waves passing
a fixed point in a given unit of time,
or the number of complete
vibrations in that period of time.

G
Gain Another term for amplification,
usually referring to the ability of a
lasing medium in attaining a
population inversion.

Gas Discharge Laser A laser containing a gaseous lasing
medium in a glass tube in which a
constant flow of gas replenishes the
molecules depleted by the electricity
or chemicals used for excitation.

Gas Laser A type of laser in which the laser
action takes place in a gas medium.

Gated Pulse A discontinuous burst of laser light,
made by timing (gating) a
continuous wave output--usually in
fractions of a second.

Gaussian Curve Normal Statistical curve showing a peak
with even distribution on either side.
May either be a sharp peak with
steep sides or a blunt peak with
shallower sides. Used to show
power distribution in a beam. The
concept is important in controlling
the geometry of the

Ground State Lowest energy level of an atom.

H
Half-Power Point The value on either the leading or
trailing edge of a laser pulse at
which the power is one-half of its
maximum value.

Heat Sink A substance or device used to
dissipate or absorb unwanted heat.

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Helium*Neon Laser A laser in which the active medium
is a mixture of helium and neon. Its
wavelength is in the visible range.
Used widely for alignment,
recording, printing and measuring.

HeNe Laser Hertz See Helium-Neon Laser.

Hologram Unit of frequency in the International
System of Units (SI), abbreviated
Hz; replaces cps for cycles per
second.

I
Image A three-dimensional picture made
by interference patterns created by
the coherence of laser light. Created
as transmission, reflection or
integral holograms.

Incident Light The optical reproduction of an
object, produced by a lens or mirror.
A typical positive lens converges
rays to form a "real" image which
can be photographed. A negative
lens spreads rays to form a "virtual"
image which can't be projected.

Infrared Radiation (IR) A ray of light that falls on the
surface of a lens or any other
object. The "angle of incidence" is
the angle made by the ray with a
perpendicular to the surface.

Integrated Radiance Electromagnetic radiation with
wavelengths which lie within the
range of 0.76 to 1000 um. This
region is often broken up into IR-A,
IR-B and IR-C.

Intensity Product of the exposure duration
times the radiance. Also known as
pulsed radiance. The magnitude of
radiant energy.

Intrabeam Viewing The viewing condition whereby the
eye is exposed to all or part of a
direct laser beam or a specular
reflection.

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Ion Laser A type of laser employing a very
high discharge current, passing
down a small bore to ionize a noble
gas such as argon or krypton.

Ionizing Radiation Radiation commonly associated
with X-ray or other high-energy
electromagnetic radiation which will
cause DNA damage with no direct,
immediate thermal effect. Contrasts
with non-ionizing radiation of lasers.

Irradiance (E) Radiant flux (radiant power) per unit
area incident upon a given surface.
Units-watts per square centimeter.
Also called power density.

Irradiation Exposure to radiant energy, such as
heat, X-rays or light.

Joule (J) A unit of energy (1 watt-second)
used to describe the rate of energy
delivery. It is equal to one
watt-second or 0.239 calorie.

J
Joule/cm
2
A unit of radiant exposure used in
measuring the amount of energy per
unit area.

K
KTP Potassium Titanyl Phosphate. A
crystal used to change the
wavelength of a Nd:YAG laser from
1060 nm (infrared) to 532 nm
(green).

L
Lambertian Surface An ideal diffuse surface whose
emitted or reflected radiance
(brightness) is dependent on the
viewing angle.

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Laser An acronym for Light Amplification
by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation. A laser is a cavity, with
mirrors at the ends, filled with
material such as crystal, glass,
liquid, gas or dye. A device which
produces an intense beam of light
with the unique properties of
coherency, collimation and
monochromaticity.

Laser Accessories The hardware and options available
for lasers, such as secondary
gases, Brewster windows,
Q-switches and electronic shutters.

Laser Controlled Area See Controlled Area.

Laser Device Either a laser or a laser system.

Laser Medium (Active Medium) material used to
emit the laser light and for which the
laser is named.

Laser Oscillation The buildup of the coherent wave
between laser cavity end mirrors
producing standing waves.

Laser Product A lecjal term in the U.S. See 21
CFR 1040.10.

Laser Rod A solid-state, rod-shaped lasing
medium in which ion excitation is
caused by a source of intense light,
such as a flashlamp. Various
materials are used for the rod, the
earliest of which was synthetic ruby
crystal.

Laser Safety Officer (LSO) One who has authority to monitor
and enforce the control of laser
hazards and effect the
knowledgeable evaluation and
control of laser hazards.

Laser System An assembly of electrical,
mechanical and optical components
which includes a laser.

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Leading Edge Spike The initial pulse in a series of pulsed
laser emissions, often useful in
starting a reaction at the target
surface. The trailing edge of the
laser power is used to maintain the
reaction after the initial burst of
energy.

Lens A curved piece of optically
transparent material which,
depending on its shape, is used to
either converge or diverge light.

Light The range of electromagnetic
radiation frequencies detected by
the eye, or the wavelength range
from about 400 to 760 nanometers.
It is sometimes extended to include
radiation beyond visible limits.

Light Regulation A form of power regulation in which
output power is maintained at a
constant level by controlling
discharge current.

Limiting Angular Subtense The apparent visual angle which
divides intra-beam viewing from
extended-source viewing.

Limiting Aperture The maximum circular area over
which radiance and radiant
exposure can be averaged when
determining safety hazards.

Limiting Exposure Duration An exposure duration which is
specifically limited by the design or
intended use(s).

Longitudinal or Axial Mode Determines the wavelength
bandwidth produced by a given
laser system controlled by the
distance between the two mirrors of
the laser cavity. Individual
longitudinal modes are produced by
standing waves within a laser cavity.

Lossy Medium A medium which absorbs or scatters
radiation passing through it.

M
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Maintenance Performance of those adjustments
or procedures specified in user
information provided by the
manufacturer with the laser or laser
system, which are to be performed
by the user to ensure the intended
performance of the product. It does
not include operation or service as
defined in this glossary.

Maximum Permissible
Exposure (MPE)
The level of laser radiation to which
a person may be exposed without
hazardous effect or adverse
biological changes in the eye or
skin.

Meniscus Lens A lens which has one side convex,
the other concave.

Metastable State The state of an atom, just below a
higher excited state, which an
electron occupies momentarily,
before destabilizing and emitting
light. The upper of the two lasing
levels.

Micrometer A unit of length in the International
System of Units (SI) equal to
one-millionth of a meter. Once
called a micron.

Micron A unit of length equal to 1-millionth
of a meter. See micrometer.

Microprocessor A digital chip (computer) that
operates, controls and monitors
some lasers.

Mode A term used to describe how the
power of a laser beam is distributed
within the geometry of the beam.
Also used to describe the operating
mode of a laser, such as continuous
or pulsed.

Mode Locked A method of producing laser pulses
in which short pulses (approximately
10
-12
second) are produced and
emitted in bursts or continuously.

Modulation The ability to superimpose an
external signal on the output beam
of the laser as a control.
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Monochromatic Light Theoretically, light consisting of just
one wavelength. Since no light is
completely monochromatic, it
usually consists of a very narrow
band of wavelengths. Lasers
provide the narrowest bands.

Multi-mode Laser emission at several closely
spaced frequencies.

N
Nanometer (nm) A unit of length in the International
System of Units (SI) equal to
one-billionth of a meter. Abbreviated
nm--a measure of length. One nm
equals 10
-9
meter, and is the usual
measure of light wavelength. Visible
light ranges from about 400 nm in
the purple to about 760 nm in the
deep red.

Nanosecond
10
-9
(one-billionth) of a second.
Longer than a picosecond or
femtosecond, but shorter than a
microsecond. Associated with
Q-switched ophthalmic Nd:YAG
lasers.

Nd:Glass Laser A solid-state laser of
neodymium-glass offering high
power in short pulses.

Nd:YAG Laser Neodymium:Yttrium Aluminum
Garnet. A mineral crystal used as a
laser.medium to produce 1060 nm
light.

Near Field Imaging A solid-state laser imaging
technique offering control of spot
size and hole geometry, adjustable
working distance, uniform energy
distribution, and a wide range of
spot sizes.

NEMA Abbreviation for National Electrical
Manufacturers Association, a group
which defines and recommends
safety standards for electrical
equipment.

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Neodymium The rare earth element that is the
active element in Nd:YAG lasers
and Nd:Glass lasers.

Noise Unwanted minor currents or
voltages in an electrical system.

Nominal Hazard Zone (NHZ) The nominal hazard zone describes
the space within which the level of
the direct, reflected or scattered
radiation during normal operation
exceeds the applicable MPE.
Exposure levels beyond the
boundary of the NHZ are below the
appropriate MPE level.

Nominal Ocular Hazard
Distance (NOHD)
The axial beam distance from the
laser where the radiant exposure or
irradiance falls below the applicable
exposure limit.

O
Object The subject matter or figure imaged
by, or seen through, an optical
system.

Opacity The condition of being
nontransparent.

Open Installation Any location where lasers are used
which will be open to operating
personnel during laser operation
and may or may not specifically
restrict entry to observers.

Operation The performance of the laser or
laser system over the full range of
its intended functions (normal
operation). It does not include
maintenance or services as defined
in this glossary.

Optic Disc The portion of the optic nerve within
the eye which is formed by the
meeting of all the retinal nerve fibers
at the level of the retina.

Optical Cavity (Resonator) Space between the
laser mirrors where lasing action
occurs.

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Optical Density A logarithmic expression for the
attenuation produced by an
attenuating medium, such as an eye
protec.tion filter.

Optical Fiber A filament of quartz or other optical
material capable of transmitting light
along its length by multiple internal
reflection and emitting it at the end.

Optical Pumping The excitation of the lasing medium
by the application of light rather than
electrical discharge.

Optical Radiation UV, visible and IR radiation (10
rim--1 mm). See Resonator.

Optical Resonator A type of laser that derives energy
from another light source such as a
xenon or krypton flashlamp or other
laser source.

Optically Pumped Lasers Partially reflective mirror in laser
cavity which allows emission of
laser light.

Output Coupler The energy per second measured in
watts emitted from the laser in the
form of coherent light.

Output Power Waves are in phase with each other
when all the troughs and peaks
coincide and are "locked" together.
The result is a reinforced wave in
increased amplitude (brightness).

P
Phase Use of the laser beam to heat tissue
below vaporization temperatures
with the principal objective being to
stop bleeding and coagulate tissue.

Photocoagulation An instrument which measures
luminous intensity.

Photometer Photon In quantum theory, the elemental
unit of light, having both wave and
particle behavior. It has motion, but
no mass or charge.

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Photosensitizers Chemical substances which
increase the sensitivity of the skin or
eye to irradiation by optical
radiation, usually to UV.

Picosecond
10
-12
seconds.

Pigment Epithelium A layer of cells at the back of the
retina containing pigment granules.

Plasma Shield The ability of plasma to stop
transmission of laser light. An
electro-optical crystal used as a
Q-switch.

Pockel's Cell Point Source Ideally, a source with infinitesimal
dimensions. Practically, a source
of'radiation whose dimensions are
small compared with the viewing
distance.

Pointing Errors Beam movement and divergence,
due to instability within the laser or
other optical distortion.

Polarization Restriction of the vibrations of the
electromagnetic field to a single
plane, rather than the innumerable
planes rotating about the vector
axis. Various forms of polarization
include random, linear, vertical,
horizontal, elliptical and circular.

Population Inversion A state in which a substance has
been energized, or excited, so that
more atoms or molecules are in a
higher given excited state than in a
lower resting state. This is a
necessary prerequisite for laser
action.

Power The rate of energy delivery
expressed in watts (joules per
second).

Power Density (Irradiance) The amount of optical
power concentrated into a spot of
particular size. It is expressed in
watts per square centimeter.

Power Meter An accessory used to measure
laser beam power.

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PRF Pulse Repetition Frequency. The
number of pulses produced per
second by a laser.

Protective Housing A protective housing is a device
designed to prevent access to
radiant power or energy at levels
higher than the intended
classification limits.

Pulse A discontinuous burst of laser as
opposed to a continuous beam. A
true pulse achieves higher peak
powers than that attainable in a
continuous wave output.

Pulse Duration The "on" time of a pulsed laser, it
may be measured in terms of
milliseconds, microsecond, or
nanosecond as defined by
half-peak-power points on the
leading and trailing edges of the
pulse.

Pulse Mode Operation of a laser when the beam
is intermittently on in fractions of a
second.

Pulsed Laser Laser which d. elivers energy in the
form of a single or train of pulses.

Pump To excite the lasing medium. See
Optical Pumping or Pumping.

Pumped Medium Energized laser medium.

Pumping Addition of energy (thermal,
electrical, or optical) into the atomic
population of the laser medium,
necessary to produce a state of
population inversion.

Q
Q-Switch A device that has the effect of a
shutter moving rapidly in and out of
the beam to "spoil" the resonator's
normal Q, keeping it low to prevent
lasing action until a high level of
energy is stored. The result is a
giant pulse when normal Q is
restored.

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Q-Switched Laser A laser which stores energy in the
laser media to produce extremely
short, extremely high-intensity
bursts of energy.

R
Radian A unit of angular measure equal to
the angle subtended at the center of
a circle by a chord whose length is
equal to the radius of the circle.

Radiance Brightness; the radiant power per
unit solid angle and per unit
projected area of a radiating
surface.

Radiant Energy (Q) Energy in the form of
electromagnetic waves usually
expressed in units of joules
(watt-seconds).

Radiant Exposure (H) The total energy per unit area
incident upon a given surface. It is
used to express exposure to pulsed
laser radiation and is commonly
expressed in J/cm
-2
.

Radiant Flux Radiant Power--The time rate of
flow of radiant energy. Units-watts.
(One [1] watt -- 1 joule-per-second.)
The rate of emission or transmission
of radiant energy.

Radiant Intensity The radiant power expressed per
unit solid angle about the direction
of the light.

Radiant Power See Radiant Flux.

Radiation The emission of energy in the form
of electromagnetic waves; the
process of releasing
electromagnetic energy.

Radiometry A branch of science which deals
with the measurement of radiation.

Rayleigh Scattering Scattering of radiation in the course
of its passage through a medium
containing particles, the sizes of
which are small compared with the
wavelength of the radiation.
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Reflectance or Reflectivity The ratio of the reflected radiant
power to the incident radiant power.

Reflection The return of radiant energy
(incident light) by a surface, with no
change in wavelength.

Refraction The change of direction of
propagation of any wave, such as
an electromagnetic wave, when it
passes from one medium to another
in which the wave velocity is
different. The bending of incident
rays as they pass from one medium
to another, such as from air to
glass.

Repetitively Pulsed Laser A pulsed laser with recurring pulsed
output.

Resolution Resolving power or the quantitative
measure of the ability of an optical
instrument to produce separable
images of different points on an
object.

Resonator The mirrors (or reflectors) making
up the laser cavity including the
laser rod or tube. The mirrors reflect
light back and forth to build up
amplification.

RMS Averaged electronic signal, the
letters stand for root-mean-square.

Rotating Lens A beam delivery lens designed to
move in a circle and thus rotate the
laser beam around a circle.

Ruby The first laser type; a crystal of
aluminum oxide containing trace
amounts of chromium oxide.

S
Scanning Laser A laser having a time-varying
direction, origin or pattern of
propagation with respect to a
stationary frame of reference.

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Scintillation This term is used to describe the
rapid changes in irradiance levels in
a cross section of a laser beam
produced by atmospheric
turbulence.

Secured Enclosure An enclosure to which casual
access is impeded by an
appropriate means (e.g., door
secured by lock, magnetically or
electrically operated, latch, or by
screws).

Semiconductor or Injection
Laser
A type of laser which produces
relatively low power outputs from
semiconductor materials such as
GaAs.

Service Performance of adjustments, repair
or procedures on a nonroutine
basis, required to return the
equipment to its intended state.

Solid Angle The ratio of the area on the surface
of a sphere to the square of the
radius of that sphere. It is expressed
in steradians (sr).

Source The term source means either laser
or laser-illuminated reflecting
surface.

Spectral Response The response of a device or
material to monochromatic light as a
function of wavelength.

Specular Reflection A mirror-like reflection.

Spontaneous Emission Decay of an excited atom to a
ground or resting state, causing the
emission of one photon. The decay
is determined by the lifetime of the
excited state.

Spot Size The mathematical measurement of
the diameter of the laser beam.

Stability The ability of a laser system to
resist changes in its operating
characteristics. Temperature,
electrical, dimensional and power
stability are included.

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Steradian (sr) The unit of measure for a solid
angle.

Stimulated Emission When an atom, ion or molecule
capable of lasing is excited to a
higher energy level by an electric
charge or other means, it will
spontaneously emit a photon as it
decays to the normal ground state.
If that photon passes near another
atom of the same frequency, the
second atom will be stimulated to
emit a photon.

Superpulse Electronic pulsing on the CO
2
laser
producing a pulsed output
(250-1000 times per second), with
peak powers per pulse higher than
the maximum attainable in the
continuous wave mode. Average
powers of superpulse are always
lower than the maximum in
continuous wave.

T
TEM Abbreviation for transverse
electromagnetic mode, the
cross-sectional shape of the
working laser beam.

TEM
oo
The lowest order mode possible
with a bell-shaped (or Gaussian)
distribution of light across the laser
beam.

Thermal Relaxation Time The time to dissipate the heat
absorbed during a laser pulse.

Threshold The point where lasing begins
during excitation of the laser
medium.

Transmission Passage of electromagnetic
radiation through a medium.

Transmittance The ratio of transmitted radiant
energy to incident radiant energy, or
the fraction of light that passes
through a medium.

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Transverse Electromagnetic
Mode
The radial distribution of intensity
across a beam as it exits the optical
cavity. See TEM.

Tunable Laser A laser system that can be "tuned"
to emit laser light over a continuous
range of wavelengths or
frequencies.

Tunable Dye Laser A laser whose active medium is a
liquid dye, pumped by another laser
or flashlamps, to produce various
colors of light. The color of light may
be tuned by adjusting optical tuning
elements and/or changing the dye
used.

U
Ultraviolet Radiation (UV) Electromagnetic radiation with
wavelengths between soft X-rays
and visible violet light, often broken
down into UV-A (315-400 nm),
UV-B (280-315 nm), and UV-C
(100-280 nm)..

V
Vaporization Conversion of a solid or liquid into a
vapor

Vignetting The loss of light through an optical
element when the entire bundle of
light rays does not pass through; an
image or picture that shades off
gradually into the background.

Visible Radiation (light) Electromagnetic radiation which can
be detected by the human eye. It is
commonly used to describe
wavelengths which lie in the range
between 400 nm and 700-780 nm.

W
Watt A unit of power (equivalent to one
joule per second) used to express
laser power.

Watt/cm
2
A unit of irradiance used in
measuring the amount of power per
area of absorbing surface, or per
area of CW laser beam.

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Wave An undulation or vibration; a form of
movement by which all radiant
electromagnetic energy travels.

Wavelength The length of the light wave, usually
measured from crest to crest, which
determines its color. Common units
of measurement are the micrometer
(micron), the nanometer, and
(earlier) the angstom.

Window A piece of glass with plane parallel
sides which admits light into or
through an optical system and
excludes dirt and moisture.

Y
YAG Yttrium aluminum garnet; the most
widely used crystalline laser,
composed of yttrium oxide and
aluminum oxide with a small amount
of neodymium.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Glossary
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Appendix A4
Photometric Unit
METRIC SYSTEM/EQUIVALENT UNITS.
Length.
1 m = 100cm = 1,000mm = 39.37 inches
1 cm = 0.3938 inches; 1 inch = 2.54 cm
1 m = 10
-6
meters = 10
-4
cm
Time.
1 msec = 1/1,000 second = 1 x 10
-3
second
1 sec = 1/1,000,000 second = 1 x 10
-6
second
1 nsec = 1 x 10
-9
second
Angle.
1 milliradian = 10
-3
radian = .057 degree = 3.4 arc- minutes = 1
mil
Solid Angle.
1 sr = one steradian = 1/4 sr in one sphere
1 hertz = 1 cycle/second
1 kilohertz = 1,000 hertz = 1 x 10
3
hertz 1 megahertz =
1,000,000 hertz = 1 x 10
6
hertz
1 gigahertz = 1,000,000,000 hertz = 10
9
hertz
EXPONENTIAL SYSTEM. For convenience in writing and
manipulation, unwieldly numbers are written as factors of
appropriate powers of 10. The following examples will illustrate:
2,380,000,000 = 2.38 x 10
9
238 = 2.38 x 10
2
0.238 = 2.38 x 10
-1
0.000000238 = 2.38 x 10
-7
1.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Photometric Unit
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01203.htm [6/29/1999 1:56:06 PM]

Appendix A4
Sample System PM
RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE
DAILY
GMF L-100 ROBOT
check focusing mirror and clean if necessary
EVERY 40 HOURS
LASER GENERATOR
clean air filters
CHILLER
check air filters and clean if necessary
check condensers
EVERY 500 HOURS
LASER GENERATOR
change the vacuum-pump oil and filter
clean the cathode (change molecular sieve at same time, Transverse
Flow Only)
EVERY 1000 HOURS
LASER GENERATOR
clean output window
clean front mirror
CHILLER
grease all fan motors
grease all pump motors
GMF L-100 ROBOT
clean beam delivery folding mirrors
lubricate pinion gears
lubricate ball screws
grease bearings
EVERY 2000 HOURS
LASER GENERATOR
change output window
change front mirror
EVERY SIX MONTHS
LASER GENERATOR
clean the water strainer
calibrate the power monitor
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Sample System PM
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change the deionized water and filter
change the gas filters
purge the water system
ANNUALLY
LASER GENERATOR
change fold mirrors
change air filters
change rear mirror
oil the blower-fan motor in the power supply
CHILLER
change air filter
GMF L-100 ROBOT
replace RAM backup batteries
replace absolute pulse coder backup batteries
EVERY TWO YEARS
replace timing belt on GMF L-100 ROBOT

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Sample System PM
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01204.htm (2 of 2) [6/29/1999 1:56:07 PM]

Appendix A4
Style Characteristics
View chart of style characteristics
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Style Characteristics
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01205.htm [6/29/1999 1:56:07 PM]
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/app40004.gif
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/app40004.gif [6/29/1999 1:56:09 PM]

Appendix A4
Types
LASER TYPES FOR PRESENT APPLICATIONS
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Types
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Types
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Appendix A4
Wavelengths
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Wavelengths
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A4 - Laser Welding, Wavelengths
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01207.htm (2 of 2) [6/29/1999 1:56:13 PM]

Appendix A5
Electrical
Device Designation
Electrical Symbols
Electrical Units
Glossary
OHM's Law
Wire Color Code
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Index
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01300.htm [6/29/1999 1:56:13 PM]

Appendix A5
Device Designation
DESIGNATION DEVICE
ABE Alarm or Annunciator Bell
ABU Alarm or Annunciator Buzzer
AH Alarm or Annunciator Horn
AM Ammeter
AMP Amplifier
AT Autotransformer
CAP Capacitor
CB Circuit Breaker
CI Circuit Interrupter
CNC Computerized Numerical Controller
CON Contactor
COS Cable Operated (Emergency) Switch
CPU Central Processing Unit
CR Control Relay
CRA Control Relay, Automatic
CRH Control Relay, Manual
CRL Control Relay, Latch
CRM Control Relay, Master
CRT Cathode Ray Tube, Monitor or Video
Display Unit
CRU Control Relay, Unlatch
CS Cam Switch
CT Current Transformer
CTR Counter
D Diode
DISC Disconnect Switch
DISP Display
DR Drive
ENC Encoder
FLD Field
FLS Flow Switch
FS Float Switch
FTS Foot Switch
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Device Designation
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FU Fuse
GEN Generator
GRD, GND Ground
H Hydraulic
HM Hour Meter
HTR Heating Element
IC Integrated Circuit
INST Instrument
IOL Instantaneous Overload
I/O Input-Output
L Inductor
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LED Light Emitting diode
LS Limit Switch
LT Pilot Light
LVDT Linear Variable Differential Transform
M Motor Starter
MD Motion Detector
MF Motor Starter -- Forward
MG Motor- Generator
MOV Metal Oxide Varistor
MR Motor Starter- Reverse
MTR Motor
OL Overload Relay
OSC Oscillator
P Pneumatic
PB Pushbutton
PBL Pushbutton, Illuminated
PC Personal Computer
PCB Printer Circuit Board
PE, PEC Photoelectric Device
PL Plug
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
PLS Programmable Limit Switch
POT Potentiometer
PRX, PRS Proximity Switch
PS Pressure Switch
PWS Power Supply
O Transistor
QTM Thermistor
REC Rectifier
RECP Receptacle
R, RES Resistor
RH Rheostat
S Switch
SCR Silicon Controlled Rectifier
SOL Solenoid
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Device Designation
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SS Selector Switch
SSR Solid State Relay
ST Saturable Transformer
SUP Suppressor
SYN Synchro or Resolver
T Transformer
TACH Tachometer Generator
TB Terminal Block
T/C Thermocouple
TD Time Delay
THERM Thermistor
TP Test Point
TR Timer Relay
TS Temperature Switch
TWS Thumbwheel Switch
V Electronic Tube
VAR Varistor
VM Voltmeter
VR Voltage Regulator
VS Vacuum Switch
WLT Worklight
WM Wattmeter
X Reactor
ZD Zener Diode
ZSS Zero Speed Switch

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Device Designation
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Appendix A5
Electrical Symbols
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Electrical Symbols
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Appendix A5
Electrical Units
FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL UNITS
OHM The unit of resistance to the flow of an elec-
tric current.
AMPERE The unit of the rate of flow of an electric
current. An ampere is equal to the flow of a
quantity of electricity of one coulomb per
second.
VOLT The unit of electromotive force. An electro-
motive force of one volt, when steadily
applied to a conductor the resistance of
which is one ohm, will produce a current
of one ampere.
COULOMBThe unit of quantity. A coulomb is the quan-
tity of electricity transmitted by a current of
one ampere in one second.
FARAD The unit of capacity. A farad is the capacity
of a condenser charged to a potential of one
volt by one coulomb of electricity.
HENRY The unit of inductance. A henry is the induc-
tance of a coil in which a current varying at
the rate of one ampere per second will
induce one volt.
WATT The unit of electric power. A watt is
equivalent to the work done at the rate of
one joule per second. It is also equal to the
power expended by an electric current of
one ampere flowing through a resistance
of one ohm. One kilowatt is equal to one
thousand watts.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Electrical Units
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Electrical Units
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Appendix A5
Glossary
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A
Accessible (As applied to wiring methods)
Capable of being removed or
exposed without damaging the
building structure or finish, or not
permanently closed in by the
structure or finish of the building
(see "Concealed" and "Exposed").

Accessible (As applied to equipment)
Admitting close approach; not
guarded by locked doors,
elevation, or other effective means.

Accessible, Readily (Readily Accessible) Capable of
being reached quickly for
operation, renewal, or inspections,
without requiring those to whom
ready access is requisite to climb
over or remove obstacles or to
resort to portable ladders, chairs,
etc.

Actuator The cam, arm or similar
mechanical device used to actuate
a position sensor.

Alphanumeric Pertains to a character set that
contains both letters and digits but
usually some other characters,
such as punctuation marks.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Glossary
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Ambient Conditions The condition of the atmosphere
surrounding (outside) the electrical
enclosure. The specific reference
may apply to temperature,
contamination, humidity, etc.

Ambient Temperature The temperature of the
atmosphere surrounding electrical
equipment or the electrical
enclosure.

Ampacity The current in amperes a
conductor can carry continuously
under the conditions of use without
exceeding its temperature rating.

Anti-Plugging Protection The effect of a control function or
device which operates to prevent
application of counter-torque by the
motor until the motor speed has
been reduced to an acceptable
level.

Approved for the Purpose Approved for a specific purpose,
environment, or application
described in a particular Code
requirement. Suitability of
equipment or materials for a
specific purpose, environment, or
application may be determined by
a qualified testing laboratory,
inspection agency, or other
organization concerned with
product evaluation as part of its
listing and labeling program.

Auxiliary Contacts Auxiliary contacts of a switching
device are contacts in addition to
the main circuit contacts and
function with the movement of the
latter.

Attachment Plug A device which, by insertion into a
receptacle, establishes connection
between the conductors of the
attached flexible cord and the
conductors connected permanently
to the receptacle.

B
Block Diagram A diagram showing the relationship
of separate sub-units (blocks) in
the control system.
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Bonding The permanent joining of metallic
parts to form an electrically
conductive path which will assure
electrical continuity and the
capacity to conduct safely any
current likely to be imposed.

Branch Circuit That portion of a wiring system
extending beyond the final
overcurrent device protecting the
circuit. (A device not approved for
branch circuit protection, such as a
thermal cutout or motor overload
protective device, is not considered
as the overcurrent device
protecting the circuit.)

C
Captive Screw A screw-type fastener that is
retained in some manner when
unscrewed and cannot easily be
separated from the part it secures.

Chassis A sheet metal box, frame or simple
plate on which electronic
components and their associated
circuitry can be mounted.

Circuit Breaker A device designed to open and
close a current-carrying circuit by
non-automatic means, and to open
the circuit automatically on a
predetermined overload of current,
without injury to itself when
properly applied with its rating.

Circuit Interrupter A non-automatic circuit breaker
designed to open and close a
current-carrying circuit without
injury to itself when properly
applied within its rating.

Coil, Common The control circuit wire(s) used to
connect the same side of coils,
pilot lights, etc. (refer to Appendix
drawing D3 for example).

Combination Starter A magnetic starter having a
manually operated disconnecting
means built into the same
enclosure with the magnetic
contactor.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Glossary
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Common Control The control circuit wire(s) used to
connect the same side of input
devices, switches, contacts, etc.
(refer to Appendix drawing D3 for
example).

Compartment A space within the base, frame or
column of the machine or
equipment.

Conduit, Flexible Metal A flexible raceway of circular
cross-section specially constructed
for the purpose of the pulling in or
the withdrawing of wires or cables
after the conduit and its fittings are
in place.

Conduit, Flexible Non-Metallic A flexible raceway of circular
cross-section specially constructed
for the purpose of the pulling in or
the withdrawing of wires or cables
after the conduit and its fittings are
in place.

Conduit, Rigid Metal A raceway specially constructed for
the purpose of the pulling in or the
withdrawing of wires or cables
afte the conduit is in place and
made of metal pipes of standard
weight and thickness permitting the
cutting of standard threads.

Contactor A device for repeatedly
establishing and interrupting an
electric power circuit.

Continuous Rating The rating which defines the
substantially constant load which
can be carried for an indefinitely
long time.

Control Circuit A circuit which carries the electric
signals directing the performance
of the controller, but does not carry
the main power circuit.

Control Circuit Transformer A voltage transformer utilized to
supply a voltage suitable for the
operation of control devices.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Glossary
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Control Circuit Voltage The voltage provided for the
operation of magnetic and pilot
devices.

Control Panel See "Electrical Enclosure."

Control Station See "Operator's Control Station."

Controller, Electric A device, or group of devices,
which serves to govern, in some
predetermined manner, the electric
power delivered to the equipment
to which it is connected.

D
Device An individual component used to
execute a control function.

Disconnecting Means A device whereby the
current-carrying conductors of a
circuit can be disconnected from
their source of supply.

Drain Wire An uninsulated wire, usually placed
directly beneath and in electrical
contact with a shield. It is used for
making shield connections through
terminal strips and to ground.

E
Effectively Grounded An expression that means
grounded througha grounding
connection of sufficiently low
impedance (inherent or
intentionally added or both) that
fault grounds that may occur
cannot build up voltage in excess
of limits established for equipment,
circuits or systems so grounded

Electrical Enclosure Applies to all electrical enclosures
and compartments enclosing
electrical devices including control
panels, operator stations, terminal
boxes and junction boxes.

Electromechanical The term applied to any device in
which electrical energy is used to
magnetically cause mechanical
movement.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Glossary
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Emergency Return Returns or stops all motion such
that the machine comes to rest in
the safest position; takes machine
out of automatic mode, but does
not remove control power from
machine.

Emergency Stop Stops all motion, takes machine
out of manual or automatic mode,
and usually removes all control
power from machine.

Equipment Ground A ground connection to
non-current-carrying metal parts of
a wiring installation or of electrical
equipment. Equipment grounding
depends upon permanent
connection of all equipment
grounding conductors of adequate
ampacity.

Executive Source Code A human readable program listing
which when compiled into object
code can be directly understood by
the programmable device.

Exposed (As applied to live
parts)
Capable of being inadvertently
touched or approached nearer than
a safe distance by a person. It is
applied to parts not suitably g

Exposed (As applied to wiring
methods)
On or attached to the surface or
behind panels designed to allow
access (see "Accessible [As
applied to wiring methods]").

F
Fail-Safe Operation An electrical system so designed
that the failure of any component in
the system will prevent unsafe
operation of the controlled
equipment.

Feeder The circuit conductors between the
service equipment, or the
generator switchboard of an
isolated plant, and the branch
circuit overcurrent device.

G
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Gateway A device to connect different
network architectures using
different protocols.

Ground A conducting connection, whether
intentional or accidental, between
an electrical circuit or equipment
and the earth, or to some
conducting body that serves in
place of the earth.

Grounded Connected to earth or to some
conducting body that serves in
place of the earth.

Grounded Circuit A circuit in which one conductor or
point (usually the neutral or neutral
point of transformer or generator
windings) is intentionally grounded
(earthed), either solidly or through
a grounding device.

Grounded Conductor A system or circuit conductor that
is intentionally grounded.

Grounding Conductor A conductor used to connect
equipment or the grounded circuit
of a wiring system to a grounding
electrode or electrodes.

Grounding Conductor,
Equipment
Used to connect the
non-current-carrying metal parts of
equipment, raceways, and other
enclosures to the system grounded
conductor and/or the grounding
electrode conductor at the service
equipment or at the source of a
separately derived system.

I
Inching See "Jogging."

Inrush Current The inrush current of a solenoid or
coil is the steady-state current
taken from the line with the
armature blocked in the rated
maximum open position.

Interconnection Diagram A diagram showing all terminal
blocks in the complete system with
each terminal identified.

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Interlock A device actuated by the operation
of some other device with which it
is directly associated to govern
succeeding operations of the same
or allied device. NOTE: Interlocks
may be either electrical or
mechanical.

Intermittent Duty A requirement of service that
demands operation for alternate
intervals of (1) Icad and no Icad; or
(2) Icad and rest; or (3) Icad, no
Icad and rest; such alternate
intervals being definitely specified.

Interrupting Capacity The highest current at rated
voltage that the device can
interrupt.

J
Jogging (Inching) The quickly repeated closure of the
circuit to start a motor from rest for
the purpose of accomplishing small
movements of the driven machine.

L
Ladder Diagram An elementary (schematic) wiring
diagram using symbols and a plan
of connections to illustrate in
simple form the scheme of control.

Locked-Rotor Current The steady-state current taken
from the line with the rotor locked
and with rated voltage (and rated
frequency in the case of
alternating-current motors) applied
to the motor.

M
Master Stop Stops all motion and removes all
control power from the equipment.

Master Terminal Box The main enclosure on the
equipment containing terminal
blocks for the purpose of
terminating conductors from the
control enclosure. (Normally
associated with equipment
requiring a separately mounted
control enclosure.)

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Motor-Circuit Switch A switch rated for use in a motor
branch circuit in horsepower
capable of interrupting the
maximum operating overload
current of a motor of the same
horsepower rating as the switch at
rated voltage. NOTE: It is rated in
horsepower and capable of
interrupting the maximum
operating overload current of a
motor of the same rating at rated
voltage.

Motor Junction Box An enclosure on a motor for the
purpose of terminating a conduit
run and joining motor to power
conductors.

N
Node A point of interconnection to a
network.

Noise Isolation Transformer
(Power Conditioning)
Serves the purpose of filtering
unwanted high-frequency signals
(spikes), increases the noise
immunity of the system.

O
Operator's Control Station A unit assembly of one or more
externally operable pushbutton
switches, sometimes including
other pilot devices such as
indicating lights and graphic
displays in a suitable enclosure.

Overcurrent Any current in excess of the rated
current of the equipment or the
rated ampacity of the conductor. It
may result from overload, short
circuit, or ground fault.

0vercurrent Protective Device A device operative on excessive
current which causes and
maintains the interruption of power
in the circuit.

Overlapping Contacts A combination of two sets of
contacts, actuated by a common
means, each set closing in one of
two positions, and so arranged that
the contacts of one set open after
the contacts of the other set have
been closed.
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Overload The operation of equipment in
excess of normal full load rating, or
a conductor in excess of rated
ampacity which, when it persists
for a sufficient length of time, would
cause damage or overheating. A
fault such as short circuit or a
ground fault is not an overload.

Overload Relay A device that provides overload
protection for electrical equipment.

P
Panel See "Subplate."

Pendant (Station) A pushbutton station suspended
from overhead and connected by
means of flexible cord or conduit,
but supported by a separate cable.

Plugging A control function which provides
braking by reversing the motor line
voltage polarity or phase sequence
so that the motor develops a
counter-torque which exerts a
retarding force.

Plug-In Device A component or group of
components and their circuitry
which can be easily installed or
removed from the equipment.
Electrical connections are made by
mating contacts.

Polarized Plug A plug so arranged that it may be
inserted in its receptacle only in a
predetermined position.

Potting A method of securing or insulating
a component or group of
components by encapsulation.

Power Circuits The circuit used for supplying
power from the supply network to
equipment or components used for
the productive operation.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Glossary
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Programmable Device A programmable device is a
solid-state control device that can
be programmed to execute
instructions that control machines
and process operation, by
implementing specific function
such as control logic, sequencing,
timing, counting, arithmetic
operations and data manipulation.
A programmable device consists of
a central processing unit, memory,
input/ output interface, power
supply and a programming device.
Examples of programmable
devices include CNCs, Robot
Controllers, motion controllers, cell
controllers, mini/micro computers,
personal computers,
programmable controllers, and
similar devices.

Programmable Logic Controller
(PLC)
A PLC is a programmable device
that is intended to replace relay
logic used in sequencing, timing
and counting of discrete events.
The control logic typically uses
relay equipment symbols and is
purposely designed as an industrial
control system that can perform
functions equivalent to a relay
panel or a wired solid-state logic
control system.

-Proof (used as a suffix) Equipment designated as
splashproof, dustproof, etc., when
so constructed, protected or
treated that its successful
operation is not interfered with
when subjected to the specified
material or condition.

Protocol A set rule for exchanging
messages between two
communicating processes.

Pushbutton Station See "Operator's Control Station."

R
Raceway An enclosed channel expressly for
holding wires, cables, or buss bars.

Receptacle A contact device installed at the
electrical outlet for the connection
of a single attachment plug.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Glossary
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Receptacles,
Equipment
Convenience
Duplex receptacles used to power
portable, cord-connected
equipment such as power tools,
fans, etc. Because of the electrical
noise that can be present on the
circuits supplying these
receptacles, they should not be
used as a power source for
electronic devices, test equipment,
or peripheral equipment.

Receptacles, Electronic
Equipment
DDuplex receptacles used only to
power peripheral equipment, test
equipment, and other electronic
equipment. Peripheral equipment
includes such items as tape
loaders, programming panels, etc.
Test equipment includes items
such as oscilloscopes, chart
recorders, etc.

S
Sequence of Operation A written detailed description of the
order in which electrical devices
and other parts of the equipment
should function.

Shielded Cable A single or multiple conductor
cable surrounded by a separate
conductor (the "shield") intended to
minimize the effects of adjacent
electrical circuits.

Short-Time Rating The rating that defines the load
which can be carried for a short
and definitely specified time; the
machine, apparatus, or device
being at approximately room
temperature at the time the load is
applied.

Subpanel An assembly of electrical devices
connected together which forms a
simple unit in itself.

Subplate A rigid metal panel on which
control devices can be mounted
and wired.

Subplate Layout The physical position or
arrangement of the components on
a subplate or chassis.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Glossary
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Swingout Panel A panel which is hinge-mounted in
such a manner that the back of the
panel may be made accessible
from the front of the enclosure.

T
Terminal Block A terminal block is an insulating
base or slab equipped with one or
more terminal connectors for the
purposes of making electrical
connections thereto.

Transformer Disconnect An electrical assembly contained
within a single enclosure consisting
of a disconnect switch, primary
fusing, and a transformer.
Secondary fusing may be installed
as part of the assembly or
separately. A duplex receptacle
may be installed on the door of the
assembly.

Transformer, Isolating A transformer inserted in a system
to separate one section of the
system from undesired influences
of the other sections. Example: A
transformer having electrical
insulation and electrostatic
shielding between its windings
such that it can provide isolation
between parts of the system in
which it is used.

U
Undervoltage Protection The effect of a device, operative on
the reduction or failure' of voltage,
to cause and maintain the
interruption of power. NOTE: The
principal objective of this device is
to prevent. automatic restarting of
the equipment.

V
Vault-Type Hardware Door hardware which latches
simultaneously at the top, center
and bottom.

Ventilated Provided with a means to permit
circulation of air sufficient to
remove excess heat, fumes, or
vapors.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Glossary
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Voltage, Nominal A nominal value assigned to a
circuit or system for the purpose of
conveniently designating its
voltage class (as 120/240,
480Y/277, 600, etc.). The actual
voltage can vary from the nominal
within a range that permits
satisfactory operation of the
equipment. See "Voltage Ratings
for Electrical Power Systems and
Equipment (60 Hz), ANSI
C84.1-1977."

W
Wire-Wrapping A technique used to terminate
conductors.

Wireway A sheet metal trough with hinged
or removable covers for housing
and protection of electric wires and
cables, and in which conductors
are laid in place after the wireway
has been installed as a complete
system.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Glossary
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Appendix A5
OHM's Law
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, OHM's Law
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, OHM's Law
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01304.htm (2 of 2) [6/29/1999 1:56:33 PM]

Appendix A5
Wire Color Code
All 480-volt alternating current conductors.

All current-carrying ground conductors.

All non-current-carrying equipment grounding
conductors.

All direct current control circuit conductors.

Interlock control circuit conductors wired from an
external power source.

All alternating current control circuit conductors
connected to multi-pin receptacles and those running
from door-mounted devices to components or
terminals within the enclosure with the exception of
conductors listed above.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Wire Color Code
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01305.htm (1 of 2) [6/29/1999 1:56:34 PM]
All alternating current control circuit conductors with
the exception of conductors listed above.

Conductors running between two different terminal
numbers (i.e., jumper wires).

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A5 - Electrical, Wire Color Code
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Appendix A6
Pneumatics
Glossary
ID Code
Manifold Sizing
Pneumatic Symbols
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Index
file:///D|/Data/crw_web/welding/awh01400.htm [6/29/1999 1:56:35 PM]

Appendix A6
Glossary
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A
Accumulator A container in which fluid is stored
under pressure.
Air Breather A device permitting air movement
between atmosphere and the
component in which it is installed.
Air, Compressed Air at any pressure greater than
atmospheric pressure.
Air, Free Air at ambient temperature,
pressure, relative humidity and
density.
Air Motor A device which converts
compressed gas into mechanical
force and motion. It usually provides
rotary mechanical motion.
Air, Standard Air at a temperature of 68 F, a
pressure of 14.70 pounds per
square inch absolute, and a relative
humidity of 36% (0.0750 pounds per
cubic foot). In gas industries, the
temperature of "STANDARD AIR" is
usually given at 60F.
Analog Of or pertaining to the general class
of devices whose output varies as a
continuous function of its input.
'AND' Device A control device which has its output
in the logical "1" state if and only if
all the control signals assume the
logical "1" state.
Assurance Level The minimum percentage of
pressure containing devices of a
verified design that will sustain 10
million applications of its Rated
Fatigue Pressure.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Glossary
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B
Back Connected Where connections are made to
normally unexposed surfaces of
components.
Backup Ring (Anti-Extrusion
Ring) (Junket Ring) (Bull Ring)
A ring which bridges a clearance to
minimize seal extrusion.
Baffle A device to prevent direct fluid flow
or impingement on a surface.
Bar A unit of pressure based on
Newtons per square meter,
approximately equal to 14.5 psig.
This unit is not preferred in Sl
metrics.
Beta Ratio A number that expresses the ratio of
upstream particles to downstream
particles of a particular size or
larger.
Bernoulli's Theory If no work is done on or by a flowing,
friction-less liquid, its energy, due to
pressure and velocity, remains
constant at all points along the
streamline.
Bistable Of or pertaining to the general class
of devices which maintain either of
two position operating states in the
presence or absence of the setting
input.
Bleed Off To pass by or circumvent.
Boyle's Law The absolute pressure of a fixed
mass of gas varies inversely as the
volume, provided the temperature
remains constant.
Bridging A condition of filter element loading
in which contaminant spans the
space between adjacent sections of
a filter element, thus blocking a
portion of the useful filtration area.
Bulk Modulus The measure of resistance to
compressibility of a fluid. The
reciprocal of the compressibility of
this fluid.
Burst Pressure The pressure which causes rupture.
Also, the inside-out differential
pressure that causes outward
structural failure.
C
Celsius A temperature scale. 0 Celsius (or
0 Centigrade) is the freezing point
of water (32 F).
Channel A fluid passage, the length of which
is large with respect to its
cross-sectional area.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Glossary
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Charles' Law The volume of a fixed mass of gas
varies directly with absolute
temperature, provided the pressure
remains constant.
Circuit An arrangement of interconnected
component parts.
Circuit, Sequence A circuit which establishes the order
in which two or more functions of a
circuit occur.
Circuit, Servo A closed loop circuit which is
controlled by some type of feedback,
i,e., the output of the system is
sensed or measured and is
compared with the input. The actual
output and the input controls the
circuit. The system output may be
position, velocity, force, pressure,
level, flow rate, or temperature, etc.
Cleanliness Level The analogue of contamination
level.
Clevis (Hinge) (Pendulum) A "U" shaped mounting device
which contains a common pin hole
at right angle to the axis of
symmetry through each arm of the
"U." A clevis usually connects with
an eye.
Collapse Pressure The outside-in differential pressure
that causes structural failure.
Compressibility The change in volume of a unit
volume of a fluid when subjected to
a unit change of pressure.
Compressor A device which converts mechanical
force and motion into pneumatic
fluid power.
Conductor A component whose primary
function is to contain and direct fluid.
Conduit A raceway to protect pneumatic
conductors.
Contamination Level A quantitative term specifying the
degree of contamination.
Contaminant Any material or substance which is
unwanted or adversely affects the
fluid power system or components,
or both.
Control A device used to regulate the
function of a component or system.
Control, Servo A control actuated by a feedback
system which compares the output
with the reference signal and makes
corrections to reduce the difference.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Glossary
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Corrosion The chemical change in the
mechanical elements caused by the
interaction of fluid or contaminants,
or both. More specifically related to
chemical changes in metals. The
products of change may be
introduced into the system as
generated particulate contamination.
Cushion A device which provides controlled
resistance to motion by use of a
gradually reduced flow area.
Cushion, Cylinder A cushion built into a cylinder to
restrict flow at the outlet port,
thereby arresting the motion of the
piston rod.
Cycle A single complete operation
consisting of progressive functions
starting and ending at the neutral
position.
Cylinder A device which converts fluid
pressure, and flow into linear
mechanical force and motion. It
usually consists of a movable
plunger or ram, operating within a
cylindrical bore.
D
Damping Parameter A measure of the response time as
a function of the maximum pressure
of the power supply output to attain
steady state operation after an
abrupt disturbance. Specifically, it is
the transient recovery time divided
by the maximum surge.
Decay A failing pressure.
Decay Rate The ratio of pressure decay to time.
Decomposition Separation by chemical change into
constituent parts, elements, or
different compounds. More
specifically related to fluid and seal
chemical changes. The materials
affected are primarily organic in
nature. The products of change may
be introduced into the system as
contamination.
Dew Point (at line pressure) The dew point value of the air at line
pressure of the compressed air
system (usually measured at the
outlet of the dryer system, or at any
instrument air supply source, prior to
pressure reduction). When
presenting or referencing dew point,
the value should be given in terms of
the line pressure; e.g., -40 degrees
C(-40 degrees F) dew point at 100
psig.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Glossary
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Dew Point Temperature The temperature, referred to a
specific pressure, at which water
vapors condense.
Digital Of or pertaining to the general class
of devices or circuits whose output
varies in discrete steps (i.e., pulses
or "on-off" characteristics).
Diagram A drawing which illustrates pertinent
characteristics, component
positions, sizes, interconnection,
controls and actuation of
components and fluid power circuits.
Diagram (Schematic) A drawing or drawings showing each
piece of apparatus including all
interconnecting lines by means of
approved symbols listed in Appendix
A of this standard.
Dirt Capacity (Dust Capacity)
(Contaminant Capacity)
The weight of a specified artificial
contaminant which must be added to
the fluid to produce a given
differential pressure across a filter at
specified conditions. Used as an
indication of relative service life.
Displacement, Volumetric The volume for one revolution or
stroke.
Drift The percentage above and below
the operating pressure at a constant
flow rate over a specified length of
time.
E
Efficiency The ratio of the useful energy
delivered by a dynamic system to
the energy supplied to it.
Element (Cartridge) The porous device which performs
the actual process of filtration,
Equipment Supplier The company that builds and/or
assembles the equipment and is
responsible for its performance and
compliance to this standard.
F
Fitting, Bushing A short externally threaded
connector with a smaller size
internal thread.
Flapper Action A valve design in which output
control pressure is regulated by a
pivoted flapper in relation to one or
two orifices.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Glossary
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Flip-Flop A digital component or circuit with
two stable states and sufficient
hystereses so that it has "memory."
The state is changed with a control
pulse; a continuous control signal is
not necessary for it to remain in that
state.
Flow Coefficient (C
v
) A dimensionless number expressing
the conductance of a pneumatic
device. Every fixed orifice has a (C
v
)
value. It is the reciprocal of
resistance and analogous to
electrical conductance. The system
(C
v
) or (C
v
)s serves as an excellent
vehicle for determining cylinder
speed as it is linearly inversely
proportional to it. The larger the
(C
v
)s the faster the cylinder will
move; however, the greater the
system volume, the slower it will
move. It is therefore vital that the
(C
v
) of each component be so sized
that the combination of it and its
volume renders the optimum result.
Fluidics Engineering science pertaining to
the use of fluid dynamic
phenomenon to sense, control,
process information, and/or actuate.
Fluid Power Energy transmitted and controlled
through use of a pressurized fluid
within an enclosed circuit.
H
Head The height of a column or body of
fluid above a given point expressed
in linear units. Head is often used to
indicate gauge pressure. Pressure is
equal to the height times the density
of the fluid.
I
Incompatible Fluids Fluids which, when mixed in a
system, will have a deleterious effect
on that system, its components, or
its operation.
Indicator A device which provides external
visual evidence of sensed
phenomena.
Indicator, Bypass An indicator which signals that an
alternate flow path is being used.
Indicator, Differential Pressure An indicator which sighals the
difference in pressure between two
points.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Glossary
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Intensifier A device which converts low
pressure fluid power to higher
pressure fluid power.
J
Junction Block A multi-ported device designed to
connect individual flow paths in a
common circuit.
L
Lantern Ring (Seal Cage) A ring in line with a port in a gland to
introduce a lubricant or a coolant to
the packing or stuffing box.
Line A tube, pipe, or hole for conducting
fluid.
Logic Devices The general category of components
which perform logic functions; for
example, AND, NAND, OR and
NOR. They can permit or inhibit
signal transmission with certain
combinations of control signals.
Logic State Signal levels in logic devices are
characterized by two stable states,
the logical 1 (one) state and the
logical 0 (zero) state. The
designation of the two states is
chosen arbitrarily. Commonly, the
logical 1 state represents "and"
signal and the 0 state represents an
"off" signal.
Lubricator A device which adds controlled or
metered amounts of lubricant into a
pneumatic system.
M
Manifold A conductor which provides multiple
connection ports.
Maximum Inlet Pressure The maximum rated pressure
applied to the inlet port of a device.
Mean Filtration Rating A measurement of the average size
of the pores of a filter medium.
Micrometer (Micron) Unit of measurement one millionth of
a meter long, or approximately
0.00003937 inch expressed in
English Units.
Manufacturer The company that builds and/or
assembles the original pneumatic
components.
N
Noise, Fluidic RMS of random pressure variations
with respect to the operating
pressure defined in terms of a signal
to noise ratio.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Glossary
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Nominal Filtration Rating An arbitrary micrometer value
indicated by the filter manufacturer.
Due to lack of reproducibility, this
rating is depreciated.
O
Operating Band The range of pressures above and
below the operating pressure within
which it is desired to keep the supply
output.
P
Packing A sealing device consisting of bulk
deformable material or one or more
mating deformable elements,
reshaped by manually adjustable
compression to obtain and maintain
effectiveness. It usually uses axial
compression to obtain radial sealing.
Particle Size Distribution The tabular or graphical listing of the
number particles according to
particle size ranges.
Pressure Vessel A container which holds fluid under
pressure.
Pressure, Working The pressure which overcomes the
resistance of the working device.
Abbreviations for pressures used
are:
PSI (kPa): pounds per square
inch, kilopascal (1 kPA =
0.145 PSI).
.
PSIA (kPaA): PSI absolute,
kPa absolute.
b.
PSlD (kPaD): PSI differential,
kPa differential.
c.
Proportional Valve,
Electropneumatic
A valve which is capable of
continuously controlling pneumatic
output as a function of an electrical
input. It provides fairly accurate
control with a moderate response
time and is usually used in open
loop systems.
Q
Quick Disconnect A coupling which can quickly join or
separate a fluid line without the use
of tools or special devices.
R
Rated Flow The maximum flow that the power
supply system is capable of
maintaining at a specific operating
pressure.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Glossary
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Receiver A compressed air storage tank, most
generally located close to the
compressor in the system.
Receivers are used in the pneumatic
system to provide standby,
temporary shutdown or emergency
power, darepen pulsations, absorb
shock and reduce fluid velocity.
Regulator, Air Line Pressure A regulator which transforms a
fluctuating air pressure supply to
provide a constant lower pressure
output.
Relative Humidity The ratio of the amount of water
vapor contained in the air at a given
temperature and pressure to the
maximum amount it could contain at
the same temperature and pressure
under saturated conditions.
Residual Dirt Capacity The dirt capacity remaining in a
service loaded filter element after
use but before cleaning, measured
under the same conditions as the
dirt capacity of a new filter element.
Response Time Restrictor The time required for effective
transition.
Restrictor, Orifice A device which reduces the
cross-sectional flow area.
Ring, "O" A restrictor, the length of which is
relatively small with respect to its
cross-sectional area. The orifice
may be fixed or variable. Variable
types are non-compensated,
pressure compensated, or pressure
and temperature compensated.
S
SAE Port A ring which has a round
cross-section usually used for
sealing.
SAE 4-Bolt Flange A straight thread port used to attach
tube and hose fittings. It employs an
"0" ring compressed in a
wedge-shaped cavity. A standard of
the Society of Automotive Engineers
J514g and ANSI/B116.1.
Scoring A flanged port connection in which a
metal flange is welded or brazed to
the conductor and bolted to the
component with 4 bolts. An O-ring is
used to seal the flange to the
component interface. Refer to the
Society of Automotive Engineers
SAE Standard J518c.
Separator Scratches in the direction of motion
of mechanical parts caused by
abrasive contaminants.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Glossary
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Separator, Absorbent A device whose primary function is
to isolate contaminants by physical
properties other than size.
A separator that retains certain
soluble and insoluble contaminants
by molecular adhesion.
Separator, Coalescing A separator that divides a mixture or
emulsion of two nonmiscible liquids
using the interfacial tension between
the two liquids and the difference in
wetting of the liquids on a particular
porous medium.
Servovalve, Electropneumatic A valve which is capable of
continuously controlling pneumatic
output as a function of an electrical
input. It provides extremely accurate
control with a fast response time and
is usually used in closed loop
systems with feedback control.
Snubbing Device A restrictor which dampens pressure
pulses.
Stuffing Box A cavity and closure for a sealing
device.
Surge Tank A compressed air storage tank, most
generally located in the system at
the farthest point from the
compressor. Surge tanks are used
to dampen pulsations, absorb shock,
reduce fluid velocity and
compensate for system imbalance
or leakage.
T
Threshold Limit Value- Time
Weighted Average (TLV-TWA)
The time-weighted average
concentration for a normal 8-hour
workday and a 40-hour workweek,
to which nearly all workers may be
repeatedly exposed, day after day,
without adverse effect.
V
Valve, Flow Control,
Deceleration
A flow control valve which gradually
reduces flow rate to provide
deceleration.
Valve, Flow Control (Flow
Metering)
A valve whose primary function is to
control flow rate.
Valve Mounting The mounting characteristics of a
valve.
Valve, Pneumatic A valve for controlling gas flow or
pressure.
Valve, Pressure Control,
Pressure Reducing
A pressure control valve whose
primary function is to limit outlet
pressure.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Glossary
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Valve, Pressure Control, Relief A pressure control valve whose
primary function is to limit system
pressure.
Valve, Pressure Control,
Unloading
A pressure control valve whose
primary function is to permit a pump
or compressor to operate at
minimum load.
Valve, Pressure Sensing A device similar to an electrical
pressure switch, in which a signal to
be sensed enters a control point and
actuates a mechanism which, at the
proper pressure level, causes one or
more flow passages to change
condition. Removal of the signal
allows the pressure sensing valve to
reset.
Valve Sequence A valve whose primary function is to
direct flow in a predetermined
sequence.
Viscosity A measure of the internal friction or
the resistance of a fluid to flow.
Viscosity, SUS Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS),
which is the time in seconds for 60
milliliters of oil to flow through a
standard orifice at a given
temperature (ASTM Designation
D88-56). Often abbreviated SSU.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Glossary
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Appendix A6
ID Code
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, ID Code
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, ID Code
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NOTE: The RIGHT SIDE of the cylinder is on YOUR RIGHT when the cylinder is viewed from the ROD
END.
The following are samples of identification numbers using the GM ID Code. The (Y) is used wherever a
variable or number is not to be used or as indicated by the code. Remember also that the (.) or period
is a number or character. The BORE (BBB. BB) and the 'STROKE (SSSS.SS) are to be replaced by the
sizes you need; extra B's and X's should be replaced by zeros (0). The BORE and STROKE precede
the actual code, and the Xl DIMENSION (for those cylinders requiring it) follows the code. The use of
the character (Y) is for two reasons: (1) to make sure that the code is always the same length (number
of "KEY STROKES"), and (2) to eliminate the computer confusion (computers do not recognize spaces
and tend to shorten "Coding" using "SPACES").
Using the needs of the job, we can generate a code by which a cylinder can be purchased.
Box/
Block
No. What's Needed
Code
Letter

This cylinder is to have a 1-1/2" BORE and


a 28.5" STROKE...= 001.50 x 0028.50

1 A standard ANSI cylinder is required. A


2 The cylinder is to be rated for 250 PSI MAX. and used
in an air lubricated system.

3+4 A CAP MOUNT, RECTANGULAR FLANGE TYPE is


required (NFPA MF2).

5 A SINGLE ROD, STANDARD SIZE is required. A


6 An INTERMEDIATE MALE THREAD is required. 2
7 LIP SEALS are needed. L
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8 BUNA N SEALS are required. B
9 ADJUSTABLE CUSHIONS are required on BOTH ENDS,
ROD END on LEFT, CAP END on RIGHT.

10 1/2" NPT PORTS are required. B


11 The PORT LOCATION is to be on TOP for BOTH ENDS. A
12 PROXIMITY SWITCHES are not required. Y
13 NO proximity switches = NO LOCATION. Y
The result, using the General Motors Fluid Cylinder Identification Code, should be the following:
BORE
001.50

x
STROKE
0028.50
GM IDENTIFICATION CODE
A1F2A2LBVBAYY

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Appendix A6
Manifold Sizing
*ID of connecting 150 lb. nipple (Schedule 40)
All data listed is for a gun "squeeze time" of 1/2 second.
When more than one (1) manifold for the same PSI is required, divide air consumption
between manifolds as equally as practical design permits.
NOTE: Use standard black pipe for all general piping of U/B welders, WU setups & MM
stands on all air, oil and water lines. Galvanized pipe is not to be used. The extra-strong
3/8 wall pipe is used where tapping into wall is required.

Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Manifold Sizing
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Appendix A6
Pneumatic Symbols
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A6 - Pneumatics, Pneumatic Symbols
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Appendix A7
Hydraulics
Glossary
Hydraulic Symbols
ID Code
Manifold Sizing
Troubleshooting
Valves
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A7 - Hydraulics, Index
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Appendix A7
Glossary
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A
Accumulator A container in which fluid is stored
under pressure. Most commonly
with a gaseous space above the
fluid.

Air Bleeder A device for removal of air from a
hydraulic fluid line.

Air Breather A device permitting air movement
between atmosphere and the
component in which it is installed.

Analog Of or pertaining to the general
class of devices whose output
varies as a continuous function of
its input.

B
Back Connected Where connections are made to
normally unexposed surfaces of
components.

Backup Ring (Anti-Extrusion
Ring) (Junket Ring) (Bull Ring)
A ring which bridges a clearance
to minimize seal extrusion.

Baffle A device to prevent direct fluid
flow or impingement on a surface.

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Beta Ratio A number that expresses the ratio
of upstream particles to
downstream particles of a
particular size or larger.

Bemoulli's Theory If no work is done on or by a
flowing, friction less liquid, its
energy, due to pressure and
velocity, remains constant at all
points along the streamline.

Bleed Off To pass by or circumvent.

Boyle's Law The absolute pressure of a fixed
mass of gas varies inversely as
the volume, provided the
temperature remains constant.

Bulkhead A panel or partition separating
portions of the hydraulic circuit
which fluid conductors pass
through.

Bulk Modulus The measure of resistance to
compressibility of a fluid. The
reciprocal of the compressibility of
this fluid.

Burst Pressure The pressure which causes
rupture. Also, the inside-out
differential pressure that causes
outward structural failure.

C
Case Drain Line A line conducting fluid from a
component housing to the
reservoir.

Cavitation A localized gaseous condition
within a liquid stream causing the
rapid implosion of a gaseous
bubble.

Celsius A temperature scale. O Celsius
(or "0" Centigrade) is the freezing
point of water (GOOF).

Centipoise A unit of absolute (dynamic)
viscosity.

Centistoke A unit of kinematic viscosity.

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Central Fluid Power System Any hydraulic system where a
common fluid power source
supplies more than one fluid
power load since more than one
load requires isolations.

Charles' Law The volume of a fixed mass of gas
varies directly with absolute
temperature, provided the
pressure remains constant.

Circuit An arrangement of interconnected
component parts.

Circuit, Regenerative A circuit in which pressurized fluid
discharged from a component is
returned to the system to reduce
power input requirements. On
single rod end cylinders the
discharge from the rod end is
often directed to the bore end to
increase rod extension speed.

Circuit, Sequence A circuit which establishes the
order in which two or more
functions of a circuit occur.

Circuit, Servo A closed loop circuit which is
controlled by some type of
feedback, i.e., the output of the
system is sensed or measured
and is compared with the input.
The actual output and the input
controls the circuit. The system
output may be position, velocity,
force, pressure, level, flow rate, or
temperature, etc.

Cleanliness Level The analogue of contamination
level.

Clevis (Hinge) (Pendulum) A "U" shaped mounting device
which contains a common pin hole
at right angle to the axis of
symmetry through each arm of the
"U." A clevis usually connects with
an eye.

Collapse Pressure The outside-in differential
pressure that causes structural
failure.

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Compressibility The change in volume of a unit
volume of a fluid when subjected
to a unit change of pressure.

Conductor A component whose primary
function is to contain and direct
fluid.

Contamination Level A quantitative term specifying the
degree of contamination.

Contaminant Any material or substance which
is unwanted or adversely affects
the fluid power system or
components, or both.

Continuity Equation The mass rate of fluid flow into a
fixed space is equal to the mass
flow rate out. Hence, the mass
flow rate of fluid past all
cross-sections of a conduit is
equal.

Control A device used to regulate the
function of a component or
system.

Control, Servo A control actuated by a feedback
system which compares the
output with the reference signal
and makes corrections to reduce
the difference.

Cooler A heat exchanger which removes
heat from a fluid.

Cushion A device which provides
controlled resistance to motion by
use of a gradually reduced flow
area.

Cushion, Cylinder A cushion built into a cylinder to
restrict flow at the outlet port
thereby arresting the motion of the
piston rod.

Cylinder A device which converts fluid
pressure and flow into linear
mechanical force and motion. It
usually consists of a movable
plunger or ram, operating within a
cylindrical bore.

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D
Damping Parameter A measure of the response time
as a function of the maximum
pressure of the power supply
output to attain steady state
operation after an abrupt
disturbance. Specifically, it is the
transient recovery time divided by
the maximum surge.

Dead-Man A dead-man device is where a
blind hole is drilled straddling
mating components into which a
solid or rolled pin is pressed or
driven (i.e., piston at the piston
rod parallel to the thread
centerline).

Decay A falling pressure.

Decay Rate The ratio of pressure decay to
time.

Decomposition Separation by chemical change
into constituent parts, elements, or
different compounds. More
specifically related to fluid and
seal chemical changes. The
materials affected are primarily
organic in nature. The products of
change may be introduced into
the system as contamination.

Digital Of or pertaining to the general
class of devices or circuits whose
output varies in discrete steps
(i.e., pulses or "on-off"
characteristics).

Diagram A drawing which illustrates
pertinent characteristics,
component positions, sizes,
interconnection, controls and
actuation of components and fluid
power circuits.

Diagram (Schematic) A drawing or drawings showing
each piece of apparatus including
all interconnecting lines by means
of approved symbols.

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Dirt Capacity (Dust Capacity)
(Contaminant Capacity)
The weight of a specified artificial
contaminant which must be added
to the fluid to produce a given
differential pressure across a filter
at specified conditions. Used as
an indication of relative service
life.

Displacement, Volumetric The volume for one revolution or
stroke.

Drain Line A gravity return conductor
terminating above fluid level.

Drift The percentage above and below
the operating pressure at a
constant flow rate over a specified
length of time.

E
Efficiency The ratio of the useful energy
delivered by a dynamic system to
the energy supplied to it.

Element (Cartridge) The porous device which performs
the actual process of filtration.

Emulsion A stabilized mixture of two
immiscible components, such as
water and oil. It may contain
additives.

Equipment Supplier The company that builds and/or
assembles the equipment and is
responsible for its performance
and compliance to this standard.

F
Fitting, Bushing A short externally threaded
connector with a smaller size
internal thread.

Flapper Action A valve design in which output
control pressure is regulated by a
pivoted flapper in relation to one
or two orifices.

Fluid A liquid used as a power
transmitting medium in a hydraulic
system.

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Fluid, Fire Resistant
(Non-Flammable)*
A fluid difficult to ignite and which
shows little tendency to propagate
flame. *Depreciated.

Fluid Power Energy transmitted and controlled
through use of a pressurized fluid
within an enclosed circuit.

H
Head The height of a column or body of
fluid above a given point
expressed in linear units. Head is
often used to indicate gauge
pressure. Pressure is equal to the
height times the density of the
fluid.

Header A fluid conductor into or from
which smaller conductors are
connected.

Hydraulic Pump, Positive
Displacement
A pump that, for each cycle or
revolution, positively displaces
(usually by mechanical means) a
specific amount (volume) of fluid.

Incompatible Fluids Fluids which, when mixed in a
system, will have a deleterious
effect on that system, its
components, or its operation.

I
Indicator A device which provides external
visual evidence of sensed
phenomena.

Indicator, Bypass An indicator which signals that an
alternate flow path is being used.

Indicator, Differential Pressure An indicator which signals the
difference in pressure between
two points.

Intensifier A device which converts low
pressure fluid power to higher
pressure fluid power.

L
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Lantern Ring (Seal Cage) A ring in line with a port in a gland
to introduce a lubricant or a
coolant to the packing or stuffing
box.

Line A tube, pipe, or hole for
conducting fluid.

M
Manifold A conductor which provides
multiple connection ports.

Manifold, Vented A manifold which is open to the
atmosphere and returns fluid to
the reservoir.

Maximum Inlet Pressure The maximum rated pressure
applied to the inlet port of a
device.

Mean Filtration Rating A measurement of the average
size of the pores of a filter
medium.

Micrometer (Micron) Unit of measurement one millionth
of a meter long, or approximately
0.00003937-inch expressed in
English Units.

Manufacturer The company that builds and/or
assembles the original hydraulic
components.

N
Nominal Filtration Rating An arbitrary micrometer value
indicated by the filter
manufacturer. Due to lack of
reproducibility, this rating is
depreciated.

O
Operating Band The range of pressures above and
below the operating pressure
within which it is desired to keep
the supply output.

P
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Packing A sealing device consisting of bulk
deformable material or one or
more mating deformable
elements, reshaped by manually
adjustable compression to obtain
and maintain effective ness. It
usually uses axial compression to
obtain radial sealing.

Particle Size Distribution The tabular or graphical listing of
the number particles according to
particle size ranges.

Petroleum Fluid A fluid composed of petroleum oil.
It may contain additives.

Power Unit, Hydraulic A combination of componentry to
facilitate fluid storage and
conditioning, and delivery of the
fluid under conditions of controlled
pressure and flow to the discharge
port of the pump, including
maximum pressure controls and
sensing devices when applicable.
Circuitry components, although
sometimes mounted on the
reservoir, are not considered part
of the power unit.

Pressure Line A conductor routing high pressure
fluid between the source and the
load.

Pressure Vessel A container which holds fluid
under pressure.

Pressure, Working The pressure which overcomes
the resistance of the working
device. Abbreviations for
pressures used are:
PSI (kPa): pounds per
square inch, kilopascal (1
kPA = 0.145 Psi).
.
PSIA (kPaA): PSI absolute,
kPa absolute.
b.
PSID (kPaD): PSI
differential, kPa differential.
c.

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Proportional Valve,
Electrohydraulic
A valve which is capable of
continuously controlling hydraulic
output as a function of an
electrical input. It provides fairly
accurate control with a moderate
response time and is usually used
in open loop systems.

Pump A device which converts
mechanical force and motion into
hydraulic fluid power. It produces
flow.

Pump, Fixed Displacement A pump in which the displacement
per cycle cannot be varied.

Pump, Variable Displacement A pump in which the displacement
per cycle can be varied.

Q
Quick Disconnect A coupling which can quickly join
or separate a fluid line without the
use of tools or special devices.

R
Rated Flow The maximum flow that the power
supply system is capable of
maintaining at a specific operating
pressure.

Residual Dirt Capacity The dirt capacity remaining in a
service loaded filter element after
use, but before cleaning,
measured under the same
conditions as the dirt capacity of a
new filter element.

Response Time The time required for effective
transition.

Restrictor A device which reduces the
cross-sectional flow area.

Restrictor, Orifice A restrictor, the length of which is
relatively small with respect to its
cross-sectional area. The orifice
may be fixed or variable. Variable
types are non-compensated,
pressure compensated, or
pressure and temperature
compensated.

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Return Line A working line that returns oil to
the reservoir below fluid level.

Ring, "O" A ring which has a round
cross-section usually used for
sealing.

S
SAE Port A straight thread port used to
attach tube and hose fittings. It
employs an "O" ring compressed
in a wedge-shaped cavity. A
standard of the Society of
Automotive Engineers J514g and
ANSI/B116.1.

SAE 4-Bolt Flange A flanged port connection in which
a metal flange is welded or brazed
to the conductor and bolted to the
component with 4 bolts. An O-ring
is used to seal the flange to the
component interface. Refer to the
Society of Automotive Engineers
SAE Standard J518c.

Scoring Scratches in the direction of
motion of mechanical parts
caused by abrasive contaminants.

Servovalve, Electrohydraulic A valve which is capable of
continuously con trolling hydraulic
output as a function of an
electrical input. It provides
extremely accurate control with a
fast response time and is usually
used in closed loop systems with
feedback control.

Snubbing Device A restrictor which dampens
pressure pulses.

Stuffing Box A cavity and closure for a sealing
device.

Synthetic Fluid Fluid which has been artificially
compounded for use in a fluid
power system.

V
Valve, Hydraulic A valve for controlling liquid flow
or pressure.

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Valve Mounting The mounting characteristics of a
valve.

Valve, Pressure Control, Load
Dividing
A pressure control valve used to
proportion pressure between two
pumps in series.

Valve, Pressure Control,
Pressure Reducing
A pressure control valve whose
primary function is to limit outlet
pressure.

Valve, Pressure Control, Relief A pressure control valve whose
primary function is to limit system
pressure.

Valve, Pressure Control,
Unloading
A pressure control valve whose
primary function is to permit a
pump or compressor to operate at
minimum load.

Valve, Pressure Sensing A device similar to an electrical
pressure switch, in which a signal
to be sensed enters a control
point and actuates a mechanism
which, at the proper pressure
level, causes one or more flow
passages to change condition.
Removal of the signal allows the
pressure sensing valve to reset.

Valve Sequence A valve whose primary function is
to direct flow in a predetermined
sequence.

Viscosity A measure of the internal friction
or the resistance of a fluid to flow.

Viscosity, SUS Saybolt Universal Seconds (sus),
which is the time in seconds for 60
milliliters of oil to flow through a
standard orifice at a given
temperature (ASTM Designation
D88-56). Often abbreviated SSU.

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Appendix A7
Hydraulic Symbols
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Appendix A7
ID Code
ID Codes 1 - 3
ID Codes 4 - 6
ID Codes 7 - 16
Rod Size Reference Chart
NOTE: The right side of the cylinder is on the right when
the cylinder is viewed from the rod end.
The following are samples of identification numbers using the
GM ID Code. The (/) is used wherever a variable or number
is not to be used or as indicated by the code. Remember also
that the dot (.) or period is a number. The BORE (BBB. BB)
and the STROKE (SSSS.XX) letters are to be replaced by
the sizes you need; extra B's and S's should be replaced by
zeros (0). The use of the (/) symbol is for two reasons: (1) to
make sure the code is always the same length (number of
"key strokes"), and (2) to eliminate computer confusion
(computers do not recognize spaces and tend to shorten
coding using spaces).
Using the needs of the job, we can generate a code number
by which a cylinder can be purchased.
Sample:
*The cylinder is to have a 4" bore and a 12-5/8"
stroke.
004.00 x 0012.62
*A standard NFPA style cylinder is required. N
*A rating of 3000// PSlG MAX. HYD. PRESSURE is
required.
H
*A HEAD TRUNNION MOUNT (MT1) is required. S
*A CYLINDER ROD, 1 size over the standard (as
shown in

the ROD SIZE REF. CHART) is required. B


*A PORT SIZE, -12 (1-1/16") is required. L
*The PORTS are required ON TOP of the cylinder. /
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*CUSHIONS are required in both end caps and are
required

on the RIGHT SIDE. M


*Buna N seals are to be used. B
*METAL PISTON RINGS are required in this
cylinder.
R
*The HYDRAULIC OIL will provide the
LUBRICATION for this

cylinder. L
*A STANDARD ROD END is required. /
*A PROXIMITY switch is not required. /
*An ENCODER is not required. /
*//14 is not used at present, but we need a (/) to fill in
the space. /
*//15 is not used at present, but we need a (/) to fill in
the space. /
*The CONSTRUCTION of this cylinder is to be
STANDARD.
/
The result, using the General Motors Fluid Cylinder
Identification Code, should be the following:
BORE STROKE GM IDENTIFICATION
CODE
004.00 x x 0012.62 N H S B L / M B R L / / / / / /

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Appendix A7
Manifold Sizing
All data listed is for a gun "squeeze time" of 1/2 second.
When more than one manifold for the same PSI and time sequence is required, divide the oil
consumption between manifolds as equally as practical design permits.
The MGH-600 series weld gun cylinder and the slide cylinder must be connected to separate
manifolds.
NOTE: Use standard black pipe for all general piping of U/B welders, WU setups and MM stands
for all air, oil and water lines. Galvanized pipe is not to be used. Extra strong 3/8" wall pipe is
used where tapping into wall is required.
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A7 - Hydraulics, Manifold Sizing
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Appendix A7
Troubleshooting
HU-56 & HU-16 HYD. UNITS
Accumulator Won't Fill (Rod up, PSI less than 200)
Bad Vent Valve (Spool not blocking off vent line)
Coil burned out .
Loose connection in wiring b.
Broken internal pieces c.
1.
Defective Accumulator Limit Switch
(Contacts not closing to energize vent valve)
Arm improperly positioned .
Mechanically jammed or broken b.
Defective wiring c.
2.
Bleeder Valve on Fixture All The Way Open 3.
Air Pressure Too High on Accumulator
Defective air pressure gauge .
Improperly adjusted regulator b.
Defective regulator c.
4.
Pin Hole in Relief Valve Spool Plugged 5.
Low Oil in Reservoir 6.
Pressure Relief Valve Set Too Low
(Preset to 500 PSI--Do Not Set Higher)
This Valve Does Not Control System Pressure--It is Only
a Safety Device to Limit Maximum PSI
7.
Pump Won't Prime
Bad shaft seals .
Excessive wear b.
8.
Pump Turning in Reverse
Improper wiring in electric motor circuit .
9.
.
Accumulator Full-Pressure at Relief Valve Setting
Defective Vent Valve--Spool Stuck in Closed Position
Broken internal pieces .
Foreign matter jamming spool b.
Broken return spring c.
1.
B.
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Defective Limit Switch
(Contacts not opening, keeping vent valve energized)
Arm improperly positioned .
Mechanically jammed or broken b.
2.
Plugged Vent Line Between Pressure Relief Valve and
Vent Valve
3.
Defective Pressure Relief Valve
Spool jammed in down position .
4.
Accumulator Cycles Rapidly All The Time
Fixture Bleeder Valve(s) Partially Open 1.
Defective Dump Valve
Coil burned out .
Defective wiring b.
Broken internal parts c.
Foreign matter jamming spool d.
2.
Bypass Through Gun Slave Valve
(Especially on valve not being used)
Worn spool .
3.
Defective Vent Valve
Spool not shifting completely .
4.
Defective Check Valve
Worn poppet/seat .
Foreign matter holding poppet off seat b.
5.
Weld Guns Have Bad Piston Seals 6.
Bypass Through Accumulator Seals 7.
C.
Pump Noisy
Cavitating
Low oil .
Dirty inlet filter b.
Aeration of oil--return line above fluid level c.
Air leak in inlet plumbing (Loose fitting, bad filter
gasket, cracked flexible metal line)
d.
Plugged breather in filler cap e.
Worn or broken internal parts g) Pump coupling
scraping guard/bad coupling
f.
1.
System Pressure Too High (Vent System Failure) 2.
Defective Coupling
a) Coupling scraping against guard .
3.
Pump RPM Higher Than Rated 4.
D.
Unit Overheating
Continuous Operation at High Pressure
Vent system failure .
Relief valve set too high b.
1.
E.
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Low Fluid Level in Reservoir 2.
Hydraulic Oil Too Thin
Too much water/decomposed .
3.
Insufficient Air Circulation Around Reservoir 4.
Water Shut Off on Oil Cooler if One Has Been Installed 5.
Pump Motor Starter Overloads Kick Out
System Pressure Too High (Yet not high enough to stall
motor)
(Vent system failure)
1.
Electric Motor Stalled/Pump Seized-Up 2.
Wrong Size Overloads (Select according to pump size,
system pressure, and electric motor size)
3.
F.
Electric Motor Stalls When Accumulator Gets Full
Pressure Relief Valve Set Too High & Vent System Fails
(Be sure to repair vent system)
1.
Defective Pressure Relief Valve 2.
G.
Guns Do Not Shift
Gun Pilot Valve Not Energized 1.
Defective Gun Pilot Valve
Burned-out coil .
Broken internal parts (especially offset spring) b.
Foreign matter jamming spool c.
2.
Manifold Shutoffs on Press are Closed 3.
Fixture Disconnects or Thread-on Fittings Not
Connected
4.
Improper Pilot Pressure & Drain Connections
In slave valve this only applies to a new installation
or when slave valve is replaced
.
5.
Defective Slave Valve 6.
H.
Guns Shift Slowly
Fixture Bleeder Partially Open 1.
Accumulator Not Full Before Gun Valve is Energized--
See Symptom "A"
2.
Manifold Shutoff Valve on Press Partially Closed 3.
Disconnects on Hose Fittings Not Fully Seated 4.
Defective Gun Pilot/Slave Valve 5.
I.
Gun Operates the Opposite of Normal
Hydraulic Hoses Connected Backwards 1.
Red Pilot Valve ("A" Solenoid) Used in Place of Standard
"B" Solenoid--or Vice Versa
2.
Slave Valve Replaced with a Different Brand 3.
J.
Guns Strike Panel With Excessive Force--MG Gun Arms
Cracking
Defective Desurger (Hole in bladder) 1.
K.
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No Charge or improper Charge in Desurger 2.
Desurger Not Installed 3.
Welds Cold--Cable Burning Up
Accumulator Air Pressure Too High (65 PSI Maximum) 1.
Weld Heat, Weld Time, Transformer Tap Set Too Low 2.
Improper Phasing of Over-and-Under Transformers 3.
L.
Welds Too Hot, Tips Stick to Panel--Excessive Weld Flash
Accumulator Air Pressure Too Low (40 PSI Minimum) 1.
Accumulator Empty Before Electrodes Contact Panel
(Press switch & sq. timer set too low)
2.
PS-2 Set Too Low 3.
Weld Time Starts Before Tips Contact Panel 4.
Weld Heat, Weld Time, Transformer Tap Set Too High 5.
M.
Too Much Delay From Time Tips Contact Panel Till The
Welding Starts
PS-2 Defective or Set Too High in Relation to
Accumulator Air Pressure
1.
Squeeze Timer Set Too High 2.
N.
Guns Do Not Retract After Weld
CR-9 Not Energized 1.
Defect in Gun Pilot/Slave Valve 2.
O.
Press Doesn't Drop After Guns Retract
PS-3 Defective or Set Too High 1.
Aux. Electrical Contacts Not Closed in CR-9 Circuit 2.
Defect in Press Control Circuits 3.
P.
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Appendix A7
Valves
HU-56 INTERCHANGEABILITY GUIDE
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A7 - Hydraulics, Valves
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Appendix A8
General
Eye Protection
General Glossary
Helpful Information
PED Manuals
Measurements
Taps, Threads, Screws
Pipes, Threads
Metric Conversion
Pipe Color Code
Sheet Metal Gauge
Steel Types
Weld Process Chart
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Index
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Appendix A8
Eye Protection
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Eye Protection
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Eye Protection
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Appendix A8
General Glossary
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A
Alphanumeric An alphabetical and numerical
display of data and diagnostic
messages.

Alternating Current (AC) An electrical current that
reverses direction at regular
intervals.

B
Balanced Secondary A term applied to identical
welding circuits connected to the
same welding transformer.

Body-in-White An unpainted automobile body.

Body Steel The steel used in the
manufacture of automobile
bodies.

Button The fused area of a completed
resistance spot weld observed as
a result of a destructive peel test.

B
Cables Flexible current carrying
conductors. Can refer to single or
multiconductor units used for
power or control distribution.

Circuit Breaker A switching device for
interrupting an electrical circuit.
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Coalescence The state of being united or
combined.

Contactor An electrical device used for
repeatedly establishing and
interrupting an electrical circuit.

Contact Resistance(Resistance
Welding)
Resistance to the flow of electric
current between two workpieces
or an electrode and a workpiece.

Cool Time The time interval between
successive weld times.

Current Regulator An electrical control device used
for maintaining a constant
current in the primary of the
welding transformer.

Cycle An electrical term used in
describing alternating current.
One cycle is 1/60th of a second.

D
Data Entry Panel A control panel which allows for
welder maintenance personnel to
enter, update, and obtain data.

Diagnostics Determining the nature of a
problem or situation and
reporting it through some means.

Direct Welding In direct welding, all of the
current from the transformer
passes directly through the weld
nugget being formed. No other
path exists through either of the
panels being welded for the
current to bypass (or shunt) the
weld nugget. This is the type of
welding done by nearly all
portable welding guns.

Dummy Guns Used to complete the secondary
welding circuit in multiple direct
welding.

Duty Cycle The ratio of the time the welding
current flows to the total time of
one minute.

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E
Electrode Force The force between the
electrodes in making spot, seam
or projection welds by resistance
welding.

Electrode Tip A copper alloy through which the
welding current and pressure are
applied directly to the work.

Embossment A term used interchangeably with
"projection" to describe a raised
spot (or dimple) formed in a
sheet of metal which serves to
localize the welding current in
projection welding.

F
Faying Surface That mating surface of a member
that is in contact with or in close
proximity to another member to
which it is to be joined.

Ferrous Metal containing iron.

Fit-Up A term used to describe how
panels fit together.

Flash Expulsion of molten metal during
a weld.

Follow-Up A term used to describe the
ability of a welding gun or head
to maintain a force on the metal
being welded when the welded
zone becomes plastic and
collapses.

Force The push or pull exerted by a
cylinder. Force is not to be
confused with pressure. In the
welding schedules, the welding
force is given; the welding
pressure depends on the area of
the electrode tip face.

Fusion The melting together of filler
metal and base metal which
results in coalescence.

G
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Governing Metal Thickness (GMT) That metal in the stackup which
determines the proper weld
schedule to use.

Ground A conducting path between an
electrical circuit and the earth.

H
Heat Marking Discoloration of metal caused by
the heat developed during
welding.

Heat Setting A term used to describe the
transformer tap switch position
and/or the phase shift setting.

Hold Time Hold time is the amount of time
the electrode tips are held under
forde on the weld after the weld
current has stopped flowing.

I
Ignitron Tube An electronic tube used to
control the flow of welding
current.

Impedance The total opposition to alternating
current by an electrical circuit.

Indentation The depression left on metal due
to the force of the electrode tips.

Isolation Contactor A switching device used in the
primary circuit to remove all
voltage to the welding
transformer except during the
weld cycle.

K
Kilo Volt Ampere (KVA) An electrical unit equal to 1,000
volt-amperes.

L
Lap Joint A joint between two overlapping
members in parallel planes.

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Loop Area An area in the secondary circuit
that is determined by the position
and length of the secondary
conductors. The larger the loop
area the higher the impedance.

M
Microprocessor A decision-making device similar
to a computer.

MIG Welding MIG is the abbreviation for the
metal inert gas welding process
by which an arc is established
between the wire and the work.

Mushroom The enlarging of an electrode
tip's contact area caused by the
heat and pressure of welding.

N
Normal-to-Metal Perpendicular to the metal
surface.

Nugget Actual portion of two or more
pieces of spot-welded metal
where the molten material of the
metals flow together.

O
Off Time The time interval that allows for
the reposi-tioning of the weld
gun. Off time applies only to
manually operated portable
guns.

Overlap (Resistance Seam
Welding)
The portion of the preceding
weld nugget remelted by the
succeeding weld.

P
Penetration The depth of the weld spot into
the metal.

Phase Shift (Power) The phase angle difference
between voltage and current, as
applied at the point of use, is
expressed in degrees of lead or
lag with voltage as the reference.

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Phase Shift (Welding) By controlling when the welding
contactor is turned on, the
percentage of welding current
can be varied: This is commonly
referred to as the phase shift.

Pitting Cavities that occur on the
welding surface of electrode tips.

Platen A flat surface to which fixtures
are attached.

Polarity An electrical term used to
describe the direction of current
flow.

Poly Pulse A series of pulses of welding
current applied in relatively short
impulses without removing the
electrode force.

Potted Transformer (fully) A transformer which is
completely sealed internally with
an insulating compound. It is
noted with an "X" painted on the
housing.

Potted Transformer (secondary
end)
A transformer which has only the
secondary portion of the
"winding" internally sealed with
an insulating compound.' The
transformer ID on the nametag
will include the letter "Y".

Pressure In welding, pressure usually
applies to hydraulic or air
pressure.

Pressweld A spot weld made in a welding
press.

Primary Side The electrical circuit comprising
the primary windings of a welding
transformer. The primary side is
connected to the welding buss.

Programmable Control (PC) A programmable control is a
microprocessor-based device
much like a computer.

R
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Random Access Memory (RAM) A "read and write" printed circuit
type of memory.

Read Only Memory (ROM) A "read only" printed circuit type
of memory.

Resistance Welding A welding process where
coalescence is produced by the
heat obtained from resistance of
the metal to be welded to the
flow of electrical current.

Robot A machine which operates
automatically with human-like
skill.

Robot Operating Envelope The area covered by a robot in
its operating activities.

S
Schematic A diagram or drawing of an
arrangement or plan.

Secondary Circuit That portion of a welding
machine which conducts the
welding current between the
welding transformer and the
electrodes.

Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR) Replacing ignitron tubes, they
are used to switch the primary
voltage line to the primary of the
welding transformer.

Solenoid An electrical device. One of the
common ways of operating a
directional valve is with a
solenoid.

Spot Welding A resistance welding process.

Stepper A stepper compensates for the
decrease in current density by
increasing percent heat settings
for a set quantity of welds.

Squeeze Delay Time Used on the first welding
operation of a manually operated
portable gun, squeeze delay time
allows for the full stroke of the
gun.

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Squeeze Time Squeeze time allows for the
electrode tips to close and
pressure to develop before the
weld current starts to flow.

T
Tack Weld A weld made to hold parts
together and in proper alignment
until the final welds are made.

Tap Switch A switch on the welding
transformer for controlling
welding voltage.

W
Weld A localized coalescence of metal
produced by heat with or without
the application of pressure.

Weld Cycle The complete series of events
involved in the making of a weld.

Weld Nugget The weld metal joining the parts
in spot or projection welding. The
nugget diameter is a measure of
the weld size.

Weld Time Weld time is the amount of time
welding current flows through the
metal.

Weld Timer A device which controls only the
weld time.

Welder Controls Resistance welder controls start
and stop the flow of current to
the welding transformer, control
the magnitude of the welding
current, and provide signals to
control machine actions.

Welding Current (%1) The current flowing through the
welding circuit during weld time.

Welding Transformer A welding transformer transforms
the primary high voltage, low
current power supply to usable
low voltage, high current
secondary weld power.

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Whiskers Metallic projections around a
spot weld caused by an
excessive expulsion of molten
metal.
Definition of Abbreviated Terms
ANSI American National Standards Institute

BCD Binary Coded Decimal

CNC Computerized Numerical Control

COE Chain On Edge

CPU Central Processing Unit

CRT Cathode Ray Tube

DPTV Defects Per Thousand Vehicles

EOA End Of Arm

FSD Fisher Standard Design

GFI Ground Fault Interruptor

LCD Liquid Crystal Display

LED Light Emitting Diode

MICC Maintenance Interval Counter/Compensator

MIPS Million Instructions Per Second

MPE Maximum Permissible Exposure (LASER)

NDT Nondestructive Testing

NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association

NHZ Nominal Hazard Zone (LASER)

PID Proportional, Integral, Derivative

PWM Pulse Width Modulator

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RTD Resistance Temperature Detector

TCU Temperature Control Unit


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Appendix A8
Helpful Information
PASCAL'S LAW: Pressure exerted on a confined fluid is transmitted
undiminished in all directions, and acts with equal force on equal areas, and
at right angles to them.
1.
Hydraulics is a means of power transmission. 2.
Oil is the most-commonly used medium, because it serves as a lubricant, and
is practically noncompressible. (It will compress approximately 1/2 of 1% per
1,000 psi.)
3.
The weight of oil varies, to a degree, with change in viscosity; however, 55 to
58 lbs. per cubic foot covers the viscosity range, from 150 ssu to 900 ssu @
100F.
4.
Pressure at the bottom of a one-foot column of oil will be approximately 0.4
psi. To find the approximate pressure at the bottom of any column of oil,
multiply the height in feet by 0.4.
5.
There must be a pressure drop (pressure difference) across an orifice, or
restriction, to cause flow through it. Conversely, if there is no flow, there will
be no pressure drop.
6.
A liquid is pushed, not drawn, into a pump. (Atmospheric pressure equals
14.7 psi, at sea level.)
7.
A pump does not pump pressure; its purpose is to create flow. (Pumps used
to transmit power are usually positive-displacement-type.)
8.
Pressure is caused by resistance to flow. 9.
Oil takes the course of least resistance. 10.
A pressure gauge indicates the work load, at any given moment. Gauge
readings do not include atmospheric pressure, unless marked PSlA.
11.
Force exerted by a cylinder is dependent upon pressure applied and piston
area. (To find the area, square the diameter, and multiply by .7854.)
12.
Speed of a cylinder is dependent upon its size (piston area) and the rate of oil
flow into it.
13.
Flow velocity through a pipe varies inversely with the square of the inside
diameter. Doubling the inside diameter increases the area four times.
14.
Friction of a liquid in a pipe varies as the square of its velocity. 15.
To find the actual area of a pipe needed to handle a given flow, use the
formula:
Area = GPM x .3208 or Velocity (Ft./Sec.) = GPM
Velocity {Ft./Sec.) 3.117 x Area
16.
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In standard pipe, the actual inside diameter is larger than the nominal size
quoted. A standard conversion chart should be consulted when selecting
pipe.
17.
Steel and copper tubing size indicates the outside diameter. To find the actual
inside diameter, subtract two times the wall thickness from the tube size
quoted.
18.
Single-wire braid hose corresponds to tubing in nominal size, i.e.,--3/4" tube
--- #12 hose.
Double-wire braid hose has the same ID as the OD of the tube, i.e., --3/4"
tube has an OD of 3/4".
#12 double-wire braid hose has an ID of 3/4".
19.
To find the HP required to move a given volume at a known pressure, use the
formula:
HP = GPM x Pressure x .000583 or HP = GPM x psi
1714
20.
One HP = 33000 ft./lbs. per minute, or 33000 lbs. raised one foot, in one
minute.
One HP = 746 watts.
One HP = 42.2 BTU per minute.
21.
The relationship between Torque and HP is:
Torque (in. lb.) = 63025 x HP or HP = Torque (in. lb.} x rpm
rpm 63025
22.
To find the amount of oil required to move a piston through a given distance,
multiply the piston area (in inches) by the stroke length (in inches). Product is
cylinder capacity, in cubic inches. Divide this product by 231, to determine
capacity in gallons.
Note: Volume displaced by the rod must be deducted, if a piston is being
retracted.
23.
POWER AND HEAT EOUIVALENTS
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Appendix A8
PED Manuals
REFERENCES
The following standards manuals are available for reference:
PED NO. TITLE

100 MFG. ENGINEERING PROCESSING

101 WELDING PRINCIPLES MANUALS

102 WELDING APPLICATION & COMPONENTS

103 TOOLING APPLICATION & COMPONENTS

104
MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS BODY TRANSFER
EQUIPMENT

105 MECHANICAL HANDLING

106
MANUFACTURING SYSTEM LEAN TOOL PROCESS
CONSIDERATIONS & DESIGN STANDARDS

701 PARTS AVAILABLE LIST

714 PORTABLE WELD GUN REDUCED SIZE

714A NON-PORTABLE WELD GUN REDUCED SIZE

8O3 TOOL CONSTRUCTION MANUAL

941 VEHICLE MATCH CHECK MANUAL
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, PED Manuals
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, PED Manuals
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Appendix A8
Measurements
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Measurements
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Measurements
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Measurements
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Measurements
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Measurements
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Appendix A8
Taps, Threads, Screws
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Taps, Threads, Screws
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Taps, Threads, Screws
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Taps, Threads, Screws
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Appendix A8
Pipes, Threads
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Pipes, Threads
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Pipes, Threads
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Appendix A8
Metric Conversion
METRIC SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENTS
In the metric system of measurements, the principal unit for length is
the meter; the principal unit for capacity, the liter; and the principal unit
for weight, the gram.
METRIC AND ENGLISH CONVERSION TABLE
LINEAR MEASURE
1 kilometer = 0.6214 mile. 1 mile = 1.609 kilometer.
39.37 inches. 1 yard = 0.9144 meter.
1 meter = 3.2808 feet. 1 foot -- 0.3048 meter.
1.0936 yard. 1 foot = 304.8 millimeters.
1 centimeter = 0.3937 inch. 1 inch = 2.54 centimeters.
1 millimeter = 0.03937 inch. 1 inch = 25.4 millimeters.
MEASURES OF LENGTH
10 millimeters (mm.) = 1 centimeter (cm.).
10 centimeters = 1 decimeter (rim.).
10 decimeters = 1 meter (m.).
1000 meters - 1 kilometer (Km.).
SOUARE MEASURE
100 square millimeters (mm.
2
) = 1 square centimeter (cm.
2
).
100 square centimeters = 1 square decimeter (dm.
2
).
100 square decimeters = 1 square meter (m.
2
).
1 square kilometer = 0.3861 square mile = 247.1 acres.
1 hectare = 2.471 acre = 107,640 square feet.
1 are = 0.0247 acre = 1076.4 square feet.
1 square meter = 10.764 square feet = 1.196 square yard.
1 square centimeter = 0.155 square inch.
1 square millimeter = 0.00155 square inch.
1 square mile = 2.5899 square kilometers.
1 acre = 0.4047 hectare = 40.47 ares.
1 square yard = 0.836 square meter.
1 square foot = 0.0929 square meter = 929 square centimeters.
1 square inch = 6.452 sq. cm. = 645.2 sq. millimeters.
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CUBIC MEASURE
1 cubic meter = 35.314 cubic feet = 1.308 cubic yard.
1 cubic meter = 264.2 U.S. gallons.
1 cubic centimeter = 0.061 cubic inch.
1 liter (cubic decimeter) -- 0.0353 cubic ft. = 61.023 cubic in.
1 liter = 0.2642 U.S. gallon -- 1.0567 U.S. quart.
1 cubic yard = 0.7645 cubic meter.
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 cubic meter = 28.317 liters.
1 cubic inch = 16.38716 cubic centimeters.
1 U.S. gallon = 3.785 liters. 1 U.S. quart = 0.946 liter.
MEASURES OF WEIGHT
10 milligrams (mg.) = 1 centigram (cg.).
10 centigrams =1 decigram (dg.).
10 decigrams =1 gram (g.).
10 grams =1 decagram (Dg.).
10 decagrams =1 hectogram (Hg.).
10 hectograms =1 kilogram (Kg.).
1000 kilograms =1 (metric) ton (T.).
1 metric ton = 0.9842 ton (of 2240 pounds) = 2204.6 pounds.
1 kilogram - 2.2046 pounds = 35.274 ounces avoirdupois.
1 gram = 0.03215 ounce troy - 0.03527 ounce avoirdupois.
1 gram = 15.432 grains.
1 ton (of 2240 pounds) = 1.016 metric ton = 1016 kilograms.
1 pound = 0.4536 kilogram = 453.6 grams.
1 ounce avoirdupois = 28.35 grams.
1 ounce troy = 31.103 grams.
1 grain = 0.0648 gram.
1 kilogram per square millimeter = 1422.32 pounds per sq. in.
1 kilogram per square centimeter = 14.223 pounds per sq. in.
1 kilogram-meter = 7.233 foot-pounds.
1 pound per square inch = 0.0703 kilogram per square cenUmeter.
1 calode (kilogram calorie) -- 3.968 B.T.U. (British thermal unit).

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Appendix A8
Pipe Color Code
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Pipe Color Code
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Pipe Color Code
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Appendix A8
Sheet Metal Gauge
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Sheet Metal Gauge
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Sheet Metal Gauge
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Appendix A8
Steel Types
Type
CRS--Cold Rolled Steel
HRS--Hot Rolled Steel (1.80mm and heavier)
Quality (Base Metal)
CQ--Commercial Quality
DQ--Drawing Quality
AKDQ--Aluminum--Killed Drawing Quality
Rimmed--Base metal is a rimmed steel
Killed--Base metal is a killed nonaging steel
Coating Description
All coatings are zinc unless denoted otherwise.
Hot Dip Denotes coating process. The steel is processed through
a molten zinc pot and the coating thickness is controlled
as the sheet exits the pot.

Electro Denotes coating process. In this case, the steel is
processed through a solution in which the coating is
electrically plated onto the sheet. Coating thickness is a
function of time and current.

Pre-Prime Denotes coating process. The coating on these materials
is essentially (prepainted) a zinc-rich primer which is
roll-coat applied in a continuous manner (Zincrometal).
The primer is then oven-cured and the steel is recoiled.

G-90 A steel industry designation for a hot dip galvanized
coating with a minimum total combined coating weight
on two sides of a 0.90 ounce per square foot.

The minimum and typical coating thickness for these
materials are 0.54 and 0.68 mil per side, respectively.
For one-side G-90 materials, the thickness requirements
on the surface coated are the same as per side require-
ments for two-side coated G-90 materials.

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G-60 A hot dip galvanize designation for a minimum total
combined coating weight on two sides of 0.60 ounce
per square foot. The minimum and typical coating thick-
nesses are 0.42 and 0.50 rail per side, respectively.

A-40 A steel industry designation of a hot dip zinc-iron alloy
coated galvanize with a minimum coating combined
weight on two sides of 0.40 ounce per square foot.

The minimum and typical coating thickness for these
materials are 0.25 and 0.39 mil per side, respectively.

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Appendix A8
Weld Process Chart
Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Weld Process Chart
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Weld Process Chart
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Automotive Welding Handbook, Appendix, A8 - General, Weld Process Chart
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