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FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE & FINE ARTS

T O K Y O M E T R O P O L I T A N G Y M N A S I U M
CASE STUDY






PREPARED BY:
LATADE, LARRYSA
REYES, SHAIRA
VENTURINA, NINO RAMON


DESIGN 741 AR1142

FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE & FINE ARTS
T O K Y O M E T R O P O L I T A N G Y M N A S I U M
CASE STUDY

ARCH. ANTONIO DE VERA


NAME: Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium
ARCHITECT: Fumihiko Maki
LOCATION: Tokyo, Japan
COMPLETED: 1990

BACKGROUND:
Despite the fact that one of the most renowned characteristics of the Japanese
people is their dedication to work over the last few years they seem to have
found a new balance between work and leisure. As a consequence of this
change in mentality, it has become necessary to create a new infrastructure so
that leisure activities can take place under optimum conditions. The construction
of new facilities is part of this phenomenon which has transformed the lives of
thousands of Japanese people
Sport has become one of the favourite leisure activities in japan and many sports
complexes have been constructed to replace the old municipal gymnasiums
often housed in buildings dating back to the 1950s. One of the most interesting
buildings constructed in recent years is the Tokyo metropolitan gymnasium,
which forms part of a sports complex located in the Sendagaya area in the city
centre.



FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE & FINE ARTS
T O K Y O M E T R O P O L I T A N G Y M N A S I U M
CASE STUDY


CAPACITY:
In addition to its main area with a
capacity of 10,000 which is used for the
majority of national and international
indoor sporting events, this complex also
includes a smaller sub-arena with a
seating capacity of 2,300 spectators.
This area is used primarily as a practice
gym.


CONCEPT:
This architects idea was to create three different spaces conceived in terms of
size, shape and form as independent part of an overall architectural complex.
These included a main area which can accommodate many different sports, a
smaller sub-arena which houses the gymnasium, and a third building which
houses the Olympic swimming pool.
Fumihiko Maki has searched for a formal contrast between these three spaces,
and while the main arena is characterized by its curvilinear profile, the other two
buildings are composed of completely straight lines. This diversity evidences the
mastery of the architect in integrating any geometrical motif into his work.


The insertion of a line of windows above the seating area only interrupted by the
slender pillars, emphasises the uncanny separation between the walls and the
roof, and enhances the sensation of light, floating roof. The four supporting piers,
North/South section of the indoor swimming pool

FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE & FINE ARTS
T O K Y O M E T R O P O L I T A N G Y M N A S I U M
CASE STUDY

although heavy, are dissimulated in the vastness of the arena. Finally, a console
has been used to support the seats, visually lightening the base of the building.
The whole construction system was designed so that the curve roof would
appear to hover over Japanese soil, replacing the heaviness of a large
construction with a sensation of ethereal lightness.


Fumihiko Maki decided to use elongated and curvilinear forms which, perfectly
combined, produced the ethereal and ambiguous result the architect desired; a
symbiosis between immensity and lightness which has been achieved by very
few constructions. The architects decision to reduce the size of structural
elements was a great challenge in Japan where these elements are normally
much larger and heavier than in other countries not affected by earthquakes. It
was this decision, however, which created the appearance of visual lightness
sought by the architect

Detail of the exterior of the swimming pool
building

FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE & FINE ARTS
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The indoor pool is housed in a building at the southwest corner of the site. This
building is the most conventional looking of the three structures, being a
rectangular form capped by a gently curving arch-shaped roof. Its most notable
feature is a teflon roof perched atop walls that are concrete below and glass
block above, allowing generous amounts of sunlight to flood the interior. In
contrast to the two arenas, where heavy roofs block the entrance of natural light
and close-off the interiors from the sky above, the translucent roof of the pool
structure seems to open its interior to the heavens above.

Plan of the west faade. The original structure of the construction increases lightness
of the whole
Interior
of
indoor
swimmi
ng pool
Interior of
the gym in
the
secondary
building

FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE & FINE ARTS
T O K Y O M E T R O P O L I T A N G Y M N A S I U M
CASE STUDY



In the design and construction of these buildings a great deal of attention was
paid to the conditions of the location. Due to frequency of earth tremors in
Japan the height of the buildings is limited by a strict law in order to lessen the
likelihood and danger of collapse. The city is therefore characterized by its low
skyline which obliged the architects to use all their imagination and knowledge
to create a horizontal design.
The large arena is the dominant structure in the complex as well as the dominant
structure in the immediate neighbourhood. The building appears to be almost all
roof since the walls of the structure rise only a few stories above the height of the
plaza. When viewed from above, the roof turns out to be composed of two
symmetrical leaf-like shapes leaning against each other within a circle. From the
ground, however, such a simple explanation of the roof seems unlikely since the
intersecting curving surfaces seem to form a surface of unfathomable geometric
complexities.


View of the
main arena
seen from
the
swimming
View of the
swimming
pool seen
from the
main arena

FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE & FINE ARTS
T O K Y O M E T R O P O L I T A N G Y M N A S I U M
CASE STUDY







The
predominance
of circular forms
characterises
many of the
works of
Fumihiko Maki

FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE & FINE ARTS
T O K Y O M E T R O P O L I T A N G Y M N A S I U M
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The spectacularly original design and the difficulties inherent in the construction
of the main arena make it the focal point of this project. The most striking aspect
of the building is the shell-like roof which has a futuristic appearance and
resembles the form of a space ship. Inside this hermetic structure there are two
levels of seats which encircle the arena. The visibility is equally good from all
seats.

The entire surface of the 120-meter-diameter roof is covered with narrow
aluminum strips which ensures that some part of the roof will be reflecting the
sun's rays at almost any time during a sunny day.


The unusual roof of the building is the key element in this
design by Maki

FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE & FINE ARTS
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CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS:
Reinforced Concrete, Steel Reinforced Concrete, Steel Frame
STRUCTURAL CONCEPT:
The result is a compact roof resembling a shell, formed by two symmetrical parts.
In order to enclose the gymnasium (which has a diameter of 120m), a pair of
leaf-like girders, each comprised of three trusses, are supported on piers at four
points. This main structure carries one hundred percent of the seismic forces and
more than two-thirds of the vertical loads. Twenty-eight columnar supports
topped with pin-joint connections and spaced along the periphery of the arena
seating resolve the remaining one-third of the vertical load. The horizontal forces
exerted by the roof structures pair of the outward-leaning leaf girders are taken
by a tension ring along the edge of the circular roof line. The span of the roof
vault reaches 100m with a height of only 7m, exceptional dimensions in a
country where most buildings larger than a private residence require a
supporting structure of steel posts, which in this case have been replaced by a
different system.


FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE & FINE ARTS
T O K Y O M E T R O P O L I T A N G Y M N A S I U M
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TECHNOLOGIES USED:
The choice of the material used in the roof was crucial in the achievement of the
desired effect, and Maki chose a Swedish procedure using sheets of stainless
steel: 0.4mm thick, tremendously resistant, weighing only 4kg per square meter.
Although this was a costly material and was difficult to install, the cost of
maintenance is practically zero, and this compensates for the expense and initial
installation problems. As in the Fujisawa gymnasium the roof is sheathed with this
stainless steel sheeting. However, in Tokyo Gym a composite double-packing
roof surface with a sandwiched polyethylene sheet between two 0.2mm stainless
steel sheets was developed to provide for a higher quality sound insulation.
Sophisticated Japanese technology has also played a major role in this
construction. In order to determine with exactitude the surface of the different
planes of the roof, state-of-the-art computer system were used.


FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE & FINE ARTS
T O K Y O M E T R O P O L I T A N G Y M N A S I U M
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TIMELINE:
October 1953 Construction starts on the Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium

FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE & FINE ARTS
T O K Y O M E T R O P O L I T A N G Y M N A S I U M
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REFERENCES:
ATRIUM, NEW ARCHITECTURE: SPORTS FACILITIES, PAGE 180-189.
August 1956
Construction of the Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium is completed
(opens in October)
March 1958 Indoor swimming pool and athletic field are completed
May 1958
Site for the 3rd Asian Games (Basketball, swimming, diving, and
water polo)
September-
October 1959
Site for the 14th National Sports Festival (gymnastics, diving, water
polo)
October 1964
Site for the 18th Summer Olympics in Tokyo (gymnastics, water
polo)
August 1967 Site for the 5th Summer Universiade in Tokyo (gymnastics)
December 1986 Construction begins on a complete renovation
February 1990 Renovations are completed (renovated buildings open in April)
January 2002
The number of users since the 1990 re-opening passes 15 million
users
May 2006 New multi-purpose courts(futsal) are built within the athletic field
June 2006
Renovation of the pool and training room
New studios are built, and studio lessons begin
June 2008
Studio B is converted into Training Room B, a training room primarily
based around free weights
April 2009
A garden is cultivated in the sub arena entrance courtyard
Opening of the Fureai Patio as a space for relaxation
March 2010 Solar panels are fixed to the sub arena

FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE & FINE ARTS
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TOKYO METROPOLITAN GYMNASIUM 1990,
HTTP://ARCHITECTURE.ABOUT.COM/OD/COUNTRIESCULTURES/SS/FUMIHIKO-MAKI-
ARCHITECTURE_9.HTM
TOKYO METROPOLITAN GYMNASIUM,
HTTPS://WWW.TEF.OR.JP/TMG/EN_HISTORY.JSP
COOPER, GRAHAM, PROJECT JAPAN: ARCHITECTURE AND ART MEDIA EDO TO
NOW, PAGE 166
TOKYO METROPOLITAN GYMNASIUM, HTTP://WWW.BENTO.COM/ARCH/TMG.HTML