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Germayne A.

Heart Disease: Heart Disease is the leading cause of death and disability for people in the US. People who
are overweight are twice as likely to have high blood pressure and cholesterol, two of the major risk
factors causing heart disease. Those who have heart disease may suffer a heart attack, congestive heart
failure, sudden cardiac death or abnormal heart rhythm.
Cancer: Cancer is defined by an abnormal or out of control growth of cells within a part of your body,
which can then spread to surrounding tissues. Being overweight increases the risk of several types of
cancers including: colon, esophagus, and kidney. Also, obesity has been linked with uterine and
postmenopausal breast cancer in women.
Stroke: Similar to heart disease, a stroke prevents blood and oxygen to the brain possibly causing
paralysis and death. Major risk factors that contribute to stroke susceptibility are: high blood pressure,
high cholesterol, diabetes, tobacco and alcohol use, obesity and genetic predisposition. Stroke is the
third leading cause of death in the US.
Type 2 Diabetes: Type 2 diabetes reduces your bodys ability to control blood sugar. Diabetes is a major
cause of early death, heart disease, and blindness. Diabetes and obesity have strong ties. Those who are
overweight are more than twice as likely to develop diabetes, while 80 percent of those who have
diabetes are overweight.
High Blood Pressure: The most recent estimates note that nearly one third of all adult Americans have
high blood pressure. It often times goes undetected and, when is uncontrolled, contributes to heart
attacks, strokes, heart and kidney failures.
How to Reduce Your Risk: Diet and Exercise: You can reduce your risk of developing these medical
conditions by changing your lifestyle to include a well-rounded diet and regular, moderate physical
activity. In most cases, the loss of 5 to 15 percent of your body weight significantly reduces your risks of
developing these medical conditions. Becoming more active and eating healthy could be the best
prevention of Americas leading causes of death.

1) Smooth muscle - controlled by the autonomic nervous system; may either be generally inactive and
then respond to neural stimulation or hormones or may be rhythmic.
2) Cardiac muscle - found in the heart, acts like rhythmic smooth muscle, modulated by neural activity
and hormones.
3) Skeletal muscle - move us around and responsible for most of our behavior; most attached to bones at
each end via tendons.

1. Contractility, which is the ability to shorten forcefully
2. Excitability, which is the capacity of muscle to repsond to stimulus.
3. Extensibility, which is the ability to stretch muscle tissue beyond normal resting length and still be able
to contract.
4. Elasticity, which is the ability of muslce to recoil to ist original resting length post stretching. This is
why patients develop rigor mortis, after they die, because the muscle naturally want to recoil back to
their original lengths.

Dynamic isotonic (concentric)
Negative (eccentric)
Isometric (static)
Isotonic Contractions
Isotonic contractions are those which cause the muscle to change length as it contracts causing
concentric contraction is a type of muscle contraction in which the muscles shorten while generating
Eccentric contractions, the muscle develops tension whilst lengthening, to overcome a resistance, i.e. the
attachments move further apart. This movement is the opposite of concentric and occurs when the
muscle lengthens as it contracts.
Isometric contractions occur when the muscle develops tension to overcome a resistance but without any
change in length, i.e. the muscle attachments remain the same distance apart.

Benefits of Muscular Strength
Although it takes a lot of hard-work, dedication, commitment and consistency to achieve an appealing
physique and powerful muscles, but once you have achieved muscular strength, you can get these
1. Increase in Energy Levels
Persistent and targeted workout leads to muscles hypertrophy by replacement of excess fat pads. This
helps in improving basal metabolic rate and enhanced metabolism of dietary nutrients. The result is
higher energy levels and long-lasting stamina. People who have higher muscle mass tend to have higher
athletic endurance and physical stability. You tend to have better sleep cycles and improved mental
2. Physical Strength
With higher muscle mass and optimal muscular strength, you tend to function for longer periods of time
without getting tired. The feeling of fatigue is delayed after any mental or physical exercise.
3. Better Health
Latest research studies indicate that muscular strength and regular physical activity is required to
maintain overall health and well-being. Additionally, it is also suggested that a variety of medical
diseases like cancer, cardiovascular issues; metabolic disorders like hypertension, diabetes,
hypercholesterolemia and endocrinological/ hormonal disorders can also be prevented with physical
activity and resistance training/ exercises.
4. Enhanced Posture
It is noteworthy that regular physical activity is helpful in promoting conditioning and strengthening of
muscles. In this regard, besides the development of larger group of muscles (like biceps, triceps and
hamstring muscles) the smaller group of muscles and connective tissue also get stronger and more
capable of handling the stress and strain caused by environment and surrounding. With higher muscular
strength, you can enhance your posture and alignment of connective tissue.

5. Decrease of Injury
Strong muscles are better able to adapt to the physical as well as environmental stressors. This also
helps in decreasing the risk of injury in sudden or repetitive movements. This is especially helpful if you
are an athlete, since you may be at a higher risk of developing trauma due to excessive stressful
muscular and joint motion.
6. Healthier when Old
Strong muscles also contribute to the strong bones and joints by promoting healthy remodeling of bones
with advancing age. In this regard, it is noteworthy that individuals who have strong muscles and those
who continue to work-out to maintain muscular strength tend to age slowly and are at lesser risk of
developing fractures, osteoporosis or other defects of bone mineral density.
7. Prevention of Diseases
If you have certain medical conditions, promoting muscle mass may decrease the progression of illness
(or in certain cases may reverse the disease). For example, those who have diabetes may get
significantly benefitted from exercise and enhanced muscular strength.

1. Increases energy
Additional muscle mass leads to an enhanced energy level and muscular people do not usually get tired
very quickly.
2. Provides useful strength
When you have more muscles, then you should be capable of doing more. You will be definitely
surprised by the actions that will suddenly get simpler when you attain muscular strength.
3. Improves health
New research shows that muscular strength can improve your overall health through preventing various
disorders. Performing resistance training regularly so as to attain significant muscular strength has a
positive impact on risk factors such as insulin resistance, metabolic rate, glucose metabolism and blood
4. Enhances posture
Muscular strength, especially in your shoulders, core and back, will assist to enhance your posture. You
will be capable of sitting more comfortably and straighter with stronger back muscles.