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General Design Considerations for Marine Wors
Ci!il Engineering Offi"e
Ci!il Engineering De#art$ent
T%e Go!ern$ent of t%e &ong Kong S#e"ial Ad$inistrati!e Region
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
First published, Ma !""!
#repared b $
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T%e Go!ern$ent of t%e &ong Kong S#e"ial Ad$inistrati!e Region
The #ort ;or.s (esign Manual presents recommended standards and methodologies
for the design of marine *or.s in Hong Kong+ 1t consists of five separate volumes, namel,
#art ) to #art 9+ #art ) mainl covers design considerations and re:uirements that are
generall applicable to various tpes of marine *or.s+ #art ! to #art 9 are concerned *ith
specific design aspects of individual tpes of *or.s including piers, dolphins, reclamation,
sea*alls, brea.*aters and beaches+ This Manual supersedes the #ort ;or.s Manual, of *hich
the contents *ere prepared in the <"=s+
This document, #ort ;or.s (esign Manual $ #art ), gives guidance and
recommendations on the general environmental, operational, geotechnical, loading, material,
durabilit, maintenance and aesthetic considerations and criteria related to the design of
marine *or.s+ 1t *as prepared b a * committee comprising staff of the %ivil
&ngineering 'ffice and Special (uties 'ffice *ith reference to the latest international and
local marine *or.s design standards, manuals and research findings in consultation *ith
Government departments, engineering practitioners and professional bodies+ Man
individuals and organi>ations made ver useful comments, *hich have been ta.en into
account in drafting the document+ An independent revie* *as also underta.en b e?perts in
relevant fields before the document *as finali>ed+ All contributions are gratefull*ledged+
#ractitioners are encouraged to comment at an time to the %ivil &ngineering 'ffice
on the contents of this document, so that improvements can be made to future editions+
% % %han
Head, %ivil &ngineering 'ffice
March !""!
Woring Co$$ittee of Port Wors Design Man(al ) Part 1
The preparation of the document *as overseen b %hief &ngineer3Technical Services $
1r ,u. Fu.@man 7before 6 (ecember !"")8
1r Anthon ,oo
The document *as drafted b the follo*ing staff of the %ivil &ngineering 'ffice $
1r ,ee ;ai@ping
1r ,i Kam@sang
1r ;ong %hi@pan
Assistance and advice *ere provided b the follo*ing staff of the %ivil &ngineering 'ffice and Special
(uties 'ffice $
1r %hiu Mau@fat
1r Ko ;ai@.uen
1r ,ai %heu.@ho 7before )! September !"")8
1r ,am %hi@.eung
1r ,a* Man@chin
1r ,i Auen@*ing
The document *as revie*ed b $
#rofessor Aoshimi Goda, Ao.ohama Bational 5niversit
#rofessor ,ee %hac.@fan, the 5niversit of Hong Kong
(r K*an K*o.@hung, the 5niversit of Hong Kong
&?tracts from -ritish Standards are reproduced *ith the permission of -ritish Standards 1nstitution
7-S18 under licence number !"")3SK"6)0+ -ritish Standards can be obtained from -S1 %ustomer
Services, 6<C %his*ic. High Road, ,ondon ;2 2A,, 5nited Kingdom 7Tel D22 !" <CC0 C"")8+
Figures in Appendi? A are reproduced from ERandom Seas and (esign of Maritime StructuresF *ith
the permission of #rofessor Aoshimi Goda+
T1T,& #AG& )
F'R&;'R( 6
%'BT&BTS 9
)+ 1BTR'(5%T1'B C
)+) #urpose and Scope C
)+! (efinitions, Smbols and References )"
!+ &BG1R'BM&BTA, %'BS1(&RAT1'BS ))
!+) General ))
!+! Tide and ;ater ,evels ))
!+!+) (atum ))
!+!+! Tidal %haracteristics in Hong Kong ))
!+!+6 Mean ;ater ,evels )!
!+!+2 &?treme ;ater ,evels )!
!+6 -athmetr )6
!+2 ;ind )6
!+2+) ;ind Stations in and around Hong Kong )6
!+2+! &?treme ;ind Speeds )2
!+2+6 (irectional (istribution of ;ind )9
!+9 ;aves Generated b ;inds )9
!+9+) General )9
!+9+! ;ave %haracteristics )0
!+9+6 ;ave #arameters )<
!+9+2 ;ave %onditions in Hong Kong !)
!+9+9 ;ave (ata and (ata Sources !!
!+9+0 ;ind (ata for ;ave #rediction !2
!+9+H ;ave #rediction from ;ave Measurement !0
!+9+< ;ave #rediction b Mathematical Modelling !0
!+9+C ;ave in Surf Ione !<
!+9+)" 5se of #hsical ;ave Modelling !C
!+9+)) ;ave 'vertopping !C
!+0 Ship ;aves in Harbour !C
!+H %urrents 6"
!+H+) General 6"
!+H+! Field Measurements 6"
!+H+6 %urrent #rediction b Mathematical Modelling 6!
!+H+2 5se of #hsical Flo* Modelling 62
!+< Sediments 69
6+ '#&RAT1'BA, %'BS1(&RAT1'BS 6H
6+) General 6H
6+! (esign ,ife 6H
6+6 Ship (ata 6<
6+2 %urrent %onditions 6<
6+9 -erth %onditions 6C
6+0 Tphoon Shelters 6C
6+H Approach %hannels 6C
6+< Bavigation Aids 2"
2+ G&'T&%HB1%A, %'BS1(&RAT1'BS 26
2+) General 26
2+! Marine Geolog and %haracteristics 26
2+6 (etermination of Soil #roperties 20
2+2 (etermination of Roc. #roperties 2C
9+ ,'A(1BG %'BS1(&RAT1'BS 9)
9+) General 9)
9+! ,oading %onditions and %ombinations 9)
9+!+) Bormal ,oading %onditions 9)
9+!+! &?treme ,oading %onditions 9!
9+!+6 Temporar ,oading %onditions 96
9+!+2 Accident ,oading %onditions 96
9+6 (ead ,oads 92
9+2 Superimposed (ead ,oads 92
9+9 ,ive ,oads 92
9+9+) ,ive ,oads on (ifferent Tpes of Structures 92
9+9+! (etermination of %ontinuous ,ive ,oads 90
9+0 Tides and ;ater ,evel Gariations 9H
9+H Hdrostatic ,oads 9<
9+< Soil #ressure and Ground ;ater #rofiles 9<
9+C ;ind ,oads 9C
9+)" ;ave ,oads 0"
9+)"+) General 0"
9+)"+! ;ave %onditions 0"
9+)"+6 ;ave Forces on Gertical Structures 0!
9+)"+2 ;ave Forces on #iles 06
9+)"+9 ;ave Forces on #ile@supported (ec. Structures 02
9+)"+0 ;ave 5plift 09
9+)"+H ;aves on Rubble Mound Structures 09
9+)) %urrent ,oads 00
9+))+) General 00
9+))+! Stead (rag Forces 00
9+))+6 Flo* 1nduced 'scillations 0H
9+)! -erthing ,oads 0H
9+)!+) General 0H
9+)!+! Assessment of -erthing &nerg 0<
9+)!+6 -erthing Reactions H)
9+)6 Mooring ,oads H)
9+)2 Temperature Gariation H!
9+)9 &, Movements and Gibrations H6
0+ %'BSTR5%T1'B MAT&R1A,S AB( (5RA-1,1TA H9
0+) General H9
0+! Reinforced %oncrete H9
0+6 5nreinforced %oncrete H0
0+2 5nder*ater %oncrete H0
0+9 Steel HH
0+9+) Structural Steel in General HH
0+9+! %orrosion #rotection HH
0+9+6 5se of Stainless Steel HH
0+9+2 General Guidance H<
0+0 Timber H<
0+H Rubber HC
0+< #rotective Measures HC
0+<+) General HC
0+<+! #rotective %oatings for Steel HC
0+<+6 #rotective %oatings for %oncrete <"
0+<+2 %athodic #rotection for Reinforced %oncrete <)
0+<+9 %orrosion #rotection of Steel Tubular #iles <)
0+<+0 %orrosion Monitoring <!
0+<+H 1mportant #oints to be %onsidered <6
0+C Armour Roc. <2
0+)" Fill <2
H+) General <H
H+! (esign %onsiderations <H
H+6 Maintenance Facilities <<
H+2 (esign Memorandum and Maintenance Manual <<
<+ A&STH&T1%S C)
<+) General C)
<+! #rinciples C)
R&F&R&B%&S C6
,ist of Tables )")
Tables )"9
F1G5R&S )!9
,ist of Figures )!H
Figures )!C
A##&B(1J A &ST1MAT1'B 'F ;AG& H&1GHT 1B S5RF I'B& )9)
A##&B(1J - R&%'MM&B(&( S#&%1F1%AT1'B F'R R&1BF'R%&(
%'B%R&T& 1B MAR1B& &BG1R'BM&BT
A##&B(1J % ;'RK&( &JAM#,&S )H6
1*1 P(r#ose and S"o#e
The purpose of the #ort ;or.s (esign Manual 7the Manual8 is to offer guidance on the design
of marine *or.s and structures normall constructed b the Government of the Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region+ Such *or.s and structures include public piers, ferr piers,
dolphins, reclamation, sea*alls, brea.*aters, pumphouses, beaches and associated marine
facilities+ The Manual has been *ritten *ith reference to the local conditions and e?perience+
Therefore, it ma also provide a source of useful data and design reference for other marine
*or.s and structures constructed b other organi>ations or parties in Hong Kong+
The Manual is issued in five separate parts+ The titles of these parts are $

#art ) K General (esign %onsiderations for Marine ;or.s

#art ! K Guide to (esign of #iers and (olphins

#art 6 K Guide to (esign of Reclamation

#art 2 K Guide to (esign of Sea*alls and -rea.*aters

#art 9 K Guide to (esign of -eaches

The recommendations in the Manual are for guidance onl and should not be ta.en as
mandator+ %ompliance *ith these recommendations does not confer immunit from relevant
statutor and legal re:uirements+ -ecause of the variable nature of the marine environment,
the design of marine *or.s and structures relies particularl on the use of sound engineering
Ludgement and e?perience+ #ractitioners should be a*are of the limitations of the assumptions
emploed in a particular theoretical or computational method+ Since the marine environment
is a field *here active research and development are continuing, it is beond the scope of the
Manual to cover all analsis and design methods+ #ractitioners should be prepared to e?plore
other methods to suit a particular problem and should also reali>e that man of the methods
*ill continue to evolve as more data and research findings are available+
This part 7#art )8 of the Manual is arranged on a topical basis+ 1t gives guidance and
recommendations on the general environmental, operational, geotechnical, loading, material,
durabilit, maintenance and aesthetic considerations and criteria relevant to the design of those
marine *or.s and structures mentioned previousl+ ;or.ed e?amples are provided in
Appendi? % to illustrate the application of recommended design methods+ Readers should
refer to other parts of the Manual on particular aspects as necessar+
1*+ Definitions, S-$.ols and Referen"es
The definitions of terms and meanings of smbols for the purpose of this part of the Manual
are given in the Glossar of Terms and Glossar of Smbols at the end of this document+
The titles of publications referred to in this part of the Manual are listed in the reference
section+ Readers should consult these original publications for more detailed coverage of
particular aspects+ For ;or.s -ureau Technical %irculars 7;-T%8 *hich are updated
regularl, reference should be made to their latest issues+
+*1 General
This chapter gives guidance on the investigation and assessment of the environmental data on
sea levels, *inds, *aves and currents relevant to the design of marine *or.s and structures+
Records of these data available for Hong Kong conditions are also given+
The five@da means of meteorological elements for Hong Kong from )C0) to )CC" are given
in Table )+ These have been ta.en from Surface 'bservations in Hong Kong b the Hong
Kong 'bservator+ The period of )C0) to )CC" is the 6"@ear period used for the computation
of climatological standard normals b the ;orld Meteorological 'rgani>ation+
+*+ Tide and Water Le!els
+*+*1 Dat($
All levels for marine *or.s should refer to the Hong Kong #rincipal (atum 7#(8+ The #( is
the vertical or height datum used for land surveing in Hong Kong and is referenced to the
net*or. of bench mar.s established b the Surve and Mapping 'ffice+ 1t is appro?imatel
)+!6 m belo* the mean sea level derived from )C ears 7)C09@)C<68 of tidal observations
ta.en at the automatic tide gauge at Borth #oint+
Another datum commonl used in navigation is the %hart (atum 7%(8+ Formerl .no*n as
the Admiralt (atum, the %( is the datum on *hich all heights belo* mean higher high *ater
mar. on Admiralt %harts are based, and is ver close to the ,o*est Astronomical Tide in the
Hong Kong harbour+ The %( is "+)20 m belo* the #( and can be converted to the #( b this
+*+*+ Tidal C%ara"teristi"s in &ong Kong
Tides are generated b the gravitational attractions bet*een the &arth, Moon and Sun+ Tides
in Hong Kong are mi?ed and mainl semi@diurnalM on most das in a month, there are t*o
high tides and t*o lo* tides+ ,arge tidal range occurs t*ice a month during spring tides *hen
the moon is ne* or full+ 'n das around neap tides *hen the moon is at its first or last
:uarter, ho*ever, tidal ranges become small and sometimes diurnal tides *ith onl one high
tide and one lo* tide are observed+ 1n general, the t*o high tides and the t*o lo* tides *hich
occur each da are une:ual in height+ These tidal characteristics are summari>ed in Figure )+
Tides at various locations in Hong Kong displa a gradual change in tidal range and in the
time of occurrence of high and lo* tides from the southeast to the north*est across the
territor+ 1n a tidal ccle, ;aglan 1sland is tpicall the first to e?perience the high tide and
lo* tide *hile Tsim -ei Tsui is generall the last+ The mean dela is about ) hour and 6"
minutes for high tides and around ! hours 6" minutes for lo* tides+ The tidal range is largest
at Tsim -ei Tsui and smallest at ;aglan 1sland+ The mean tidal range is )+2 m at Tsim -ei
Tsui and about ) m at ;aglan 1sland and the Gictoria Harbour+
The locations of tide stations under the control of the Hong Kong 'bservator are sho*n in
Figure !+ These tide stations provide long term measured *ater level data over ears+ General
*ater level information at the tide stations can be found in the Tide Tables published each ear
b the Hong Kong 'bservator+ 1n the tide tables, onl the times and heights of high and lo*
tides *hich occur each da are sho*n+ For more detailed predictions on hourl tide levels at
these stations, the Hong Kong 'bservator should be consulted+
1t should be noted that the *ater level information given in the Tide Tables of the Hong Kong
'bservator are based on normal meteorological conditions+ The observed *ater levels ma
differ from those given in the Tide Tables due to storm surges during tropical cclones+ The
*ater level information given in Tables ! to C described in Sections !+!+6 and !+!+2 is derived
from observed *ater levels and has account for the effect of storm surges+
+*+*0 Mean Water Le!els
The mean sea level, mean higher high *ater level, mean lo*er lo* *ater level at the eight
tidal stations together *ith the period of data are sho*n in Table !+ The mean higher high
*ater level is the average of the measured higher high levels and the mean lo*er lo* *ater
level is the average of the measured lo*er lo* levels+ The meaning of the higher high *ater
level and lo*er lo* *ater level are sho*n in Figure )+
+*+*1 E2tre$e Water Le!els
5pdated e?treme sea level analses have been carried out b the Hong Kong 'bservator for
Ko ,au ;an, /uarr -a3Borth #oint, Tai #o Kau, Tsim -ei Tsui, ;aglan 1sland, %hi Ma
;an and ,o. 'n #ai+ &?treme sea levels for return periods of !, 9, )", !", 9", )"" and !""
ears for these seven locations are given in Tables 6 to C+ The period of records used in each
case is given in these tables+ At each location, the assessment *as carried out b fitting a
Gumbel distribution to the annual ma?imum sea levels and using the method of moments in
parameter estimation+
Minimum sea levels observed at the < tide stations in Figure ! are sho*n in Table )"+
#robable minimum sea levels at /uarr -a3Borth #oint have been estimated b the Hong
Kong 'bservator using Gumbel=s method and are sho*n in Table ))+
+*0 3at%-$etr-
General information on the bathmetr of Hong Kong *aters can be found in the nautical
charts for the follo*ing areas published b the Hong Kong Hdrographic 'ffice $

Gictoria Harbour K eastern part

Gictoria Harbour K central part

Gictoria Harbour K *estern part

,amma %hannels

Ma ;an and adLacent approaches

5rmston Road

Approaches in south eastern part of Hong Kong *aters

These nautical charts provide the *ater depths belo* the %hart (atum+ 1f other *ater level
data are used to calculate the *ater depth, care should be ta.en to ensure that both the
bathmetr and *ater level data refer to a common datum+
1t should be noted that, apart from the information given in the nautical charts, detailed
bathmetr surves are normall re:uired to determine the latest seabed levels and to
supplement information at and around the site area of a proLect+
+*1 Wind
+*1*1 Wind Stations in and aro(nd &ong Kong
A number of meteorological stations are operated b the Hong Kong 'bservator that
measures *ind data in different areas of Hong Kong+ Four stations in Huangmao Ihou,
Tuoning ,iedao, Beilingding and ;ailingding have also been installed in cooperation *ith the
Guangdong Meteorological -ureau+ Figure 6 sho*s the locations of these stations+ (etails of
the *ind data collected at these stations should be chec.ed *ith the Hong Kong 'bservator+
+*1*+ E2tre$e Wind S#eeds
Mean hourl *ind speeds for return periods of 9, )", !", 9", )"" and !"" ears for three of the
main stations, namel, Kai Ta. Airport Southeast Station, %heung %hau Station and ;aglan
1sland Station are given in Tables )! to )2+ Mean *ind speeds for durations of !, 6, 2, 0 and
)" hours and return periods of 9, )", !", 9", )"" and !"" for Kai Ta. Airport Southeast
Station, %heung %hau Station and ;aglan 1sland Station are also given in Tables )9 to 6"+
The assessment *as carried out b the Hong Kong 'bservator b appling GumbelNs method
to the annual ma?imum mean *ind speeds for each duration and direction+ The period of
records used for each station is also given in the tables+ The follo*ing points about these
stations should be noted *hen appling their mean *ind speed data $

-oth the %heung %hau and ;aglan Stations are better e?posed geographicall
and not directl affected b urbani>ation+ Their *ind data are generall more
representative of the *ind conditions over Hong Kong+

The *ind data at Kai Ta. Airport Southeast Station are subLect to the shelter
effect of the mountains surrounding the harbour+ ;ind data at this station
should not be used for locations outside the inner Gictoria Harbour area+
The mean *ind speeds given in Tables )! to 6" have been corrected to the standard height of
)" m above mean sea level+ Bevertheless, users are advised to consult *ith meteorological
e?perts for the latest information on e?treme *ind speeds+
&?treme *ind speeds for other *ind stations are not sho*n because of the relativel short
period of data collection+
For conversion of the mean hourl *ind speeds to mean speeds *ith durations of less than one
hour, the follo*ing conversion factors ma be cited $
Duration Conversion Factor
) minute )+)C
9 minutes )+))
!" minutes )+"9
) hour )+""
%aution should be ta.en *hen using the above values, as the conversion factors are greatl
affected b the surface roughness and topograph around a site of interest+
+*1*0 Dire"tional Distri.(tion of Wind
#ictorial summaries of the fre:uenc distribution of *ind direction and speed measurements at
Kai Ta. Airport Southeast Station, %heung %hau Station and ;aglan 1sland Station are given
for an annual basis in the form of *ind roses in Figure 2+
+*4 Wa!es Generated .- Winds
+*4*1 General
&stimates of e?treme *ave conditions at a site should ideall be obtained b e?trapolating a
series of *ave measurements made at or close to the site+ Ho*ever, because of the relativel
high cost of setting up a *ave recording sstem, and the need for records covering a suitabl
long period 7more than several ears8 to enable sufficientl reliable e?trapolation, direct *ave
record ma not be available for the design of marine *or.s or structures+
1n Hong Kong *aters, the most severe *ave conditions are usuall associated *ith storm
*aves and, in the absence of *ave records, *ave forecasting from *ind records can be used to
predict such conditions, as outlined in later sections+ 1n some situations, particularl *here
there is direct e?posure to the South %hina Sea and longer period *aves are therefore
considered important, s*ell *aves from distant storms should be ta.en into account during
-ecause of the comple? geographical features in Hong Kong *aters, *aves propagating into
such *aters are li.el to be transformed b processes such as refraction, diffraction, reflection, and seabed friction+ These processes ma have significant influence on the *ave
climate in the area to be studied+ The designer has to assess these factors at an earl stage to
ascertain *hether more sophisticated analsis has to be carried out+ %omputer models are
available for such analsis and are recommended for use in studing the *ave transformation
in comple? areas+ These models have to be calibrated to ma.e sure that the are suitable for
that particular stud area+
+*4*+ Wa!e C%ara"teristi"s
%haracteristics of *aves that should normall be considered in design are given in the
follo*ing paragraphs+
7)8 ;ind ;aves and S*ells
;aves can be broadl classified as *ind *aves and s*ells+ ;ind *aves, also .no*n as seas,
are those under the influence of *ind in a generating area+ 1n general, *ind *aves are highl
irregular in appearance and tend to be short@crested+ S*ells, on the other hand, are *ind@
generated *aves that have travelled out of the region of their generating area+ 'utside the
generating area, no energ is supplied from the *ind, and therefore s*ells graduall deca due
to various energ dissipating and transformation processes, but their periods are elongated
during propagation+ S*ells have regular, long crest appearance, and are less steep than *ind
*aves+ A sea state ma consist of Lust *ind *aves or Lust s*ells or ma be a combination of
;aves can also be broadl classified as deep *ater and shallo* *ater *aves according to the
*ater depth to *avelength ratio as follo*s $

(eep *ater *aves ;ater depth3*avelength ratio greater than "+9

1ntermediate@depth *ater
;ater depth3*avelength ratio bet*een "+"2 and "+9

Shallo* *ater *aves ;ater depth3*avelength ratio less than "+"2

7!8 ;ave #ropagation
For deep *ater *aves, the most important processes in the development of the *ave field are
usuall energ gro*th from the *ind, deep *ater *ave propagation and eventual deca of
*ave energ+ The seabed generall does not have an influence on the *ave field in deep
*ater+ ;hen *aves encounter an island, headland or obstacles during their propagation, the
diffract through these obstructions and such phenomenon should be account for in *ave
;aves entering into *ater areas *ith *ater depth generall less than about one@half of the
*avelength, ho*ever, are subLect to the influence of the seabed+ These *aves undergo
refraction b *hich the *ave height and direction of propagation var according to the
topograph+ The *ave height also changes as a result of the change in the rate of energ flu?
due to the reduction in *ater depth, even if no refraction place+ This is the phenomenon
of *ave shoaling+ ;ave attenuation *ill occur due to bottom friction and should not be
neglected in an area of relativel shallo* *ater that e?tends over a great distance *ith ver
gentle inclination in the sea bottom+ For *ave conditions inside tidal basins or tphoon
shelters, the effect of diffraction through the entrance and reflection inside the boundar of the
basins or tphoon shelters should also be considered+
As *aves approach the shore in shallo* *ater, the *avelength decreases and the *ave height
ma increase, causing the *ave steepness 7*ave height3*avelength8 to increase until a
limiting steepness is reached+ At this limiting steepness, the *aves brea.+ 1n the *ater
shallo*er than ! to 6 times the offshore *ave height, *aves begin to brea. and *ave heights
decrease graduall+ The region *here man *aves brea. is called the surf >one+
*aves e?ert greater loading effects on the structures and it is therefore necessar to chec. in
design if the structures *ill be subLect to *aves+
768 Tpes of ;ave #ropagation
Three classic cases of *ave propagation describe most situations found in coastal
engineering $

%ase ) $ Sea state *ith *ind *aves and s*ells K A storm generates deep*ater
*aves that propagate across shallo*er *ater *hile the *aves continue to gro*
due to *ind+

%ase ! $ Sea state *ith *ind *aves onl K ;ind blo*s over the *ater areas
around the site of interest and generates *aves that propagate to the site+ 1n this
case, there is no propagation of *aves as s*ells from a remote area+

%ase 6 $ Sea state *ith s*ells onl K A storm generates *inds in an area remote
from the site of interest and as *aves cross shallo*er *ater *ith negligible
*ind, the propagate to the site as s*ells+
All cases ma happen at a site, but the first and the second cases are relativel comple? and
re:uire mathematical model for reasonable treatment in particular *hen variable shoreline and
seabed topograph are present+ The use of mathematical model for *ave estimation is given
in Section !+9+<+
The third case ma be handled b appro?imating the s*ell as a monochromatic *ave, and
manual refraction and shoaling calculation methods ma be used to estimate the nearshore
*ave climate+ 1n variable seabed bathmetr, ho*ever, these manual procedures have the
dra*bac.s of ra crossing and bathmetr inade:uac on ra paths that *ill result in
inaccurate *ave estimate, and the use of mathematical model is still recommended+
+*4*0 Wa!e Para$eters
There are t*o approaches to describe the *aves in the natural sea state, namel, the *ave train
method and the spectral method+
7)8 ;ave Train Method
The *ave train analsis determines the *ave properties b finding the average statistical
:uantities of individual *ave components present in a *ave record+ T*o of the most
important parameters necessar for ade:uatel :uantifing a given sea state are the *ave
height and the *ave period+
The most commonl used characteristic *ave height parameter to represent the *ave
condition of a sea state is the significant *ave height+ The significant *ave height has been
found to be ver similar to the estimated visual *ave height b an e?perienced observer+ The
definitions of tpical *ave parameters are given as follo*s $

Significant *ave height K The average of the highest one@third of the *ave
heights in a *ave record is called the significant *ave height 7H
or H
8+ From
one *ave record at a point *ith B measured *ave heights, the significant *ave
height can be estimated b ordering *aves from the largest to the smallest and
assigning to them a number from ) to B+ The average of the first highest B36
*aves is the significant *ave height+

Significant *ave period K 1t is the average of the periods of the highest one@third
of the *ave heights in the *ave record 7T
or T

Mean *ave period K 1t is the average of all the *ave periods in the *ave record+
The mean *ave period obtained b averaging the periods of all the *aves *ith
troughs belo* and crests above the mean *ater level is also called the >ero@
crossing period T
;ave height measurements in deep *ater have been found to closel obe a Raleigh
distribution+ For Raleigh distributed *ave heights, the ma?imum *ave height H
in a *ave
record can range from )+0H
to !H
$ a larger H
tends to appear as the number of *aves in
a record increases+ The relationship of other higher *ave heights *ith H
is sho*n in
Table 6)+ The Raleigh distribution is generall ade:uate e?cept for shallo* *ater *here no
universall accepted distribution for *aves e?ists+ ;ithin the surf >one, larger *aves are
graduall eliminated b the depth@limited process and the *ave height distribution
becomes narro*er than the Raleigh distribution+ Thus, in the surf >one region, the Raleigh
distribution should not be applied and the method described in Section !+9+C ma be used to
estimate the relationship bet*een H
and H
The *ave period does not e?hibit a universal distribution la* but the relationship of the
significant *ave period and the >ero crossing *ave period ma be appro?imatel related in a
general *a as follo*s $
O )+!T
The periods of other larger *ave heights 7see Table 6)8 ma be ta.en as e:ual to the
significant *ave period+
7!8 Spectral Method
5nli.e the *ave train method, the spectral analsis method determines the distribution of
*ave energ *ith respect to the fre:uenc and direction b converting time series of the *ave
record into a form of energ spectral densit function, *hich is called the directional *ave
spectrum+ The directional spectrum is e?pressed as the product of the fre:uenc spectrum and
the directional spreading function+ The *ave fre:uenc spectrum ma be obtained from a
continuous time series of the sea surface elevation *ith the aid of the Fourier analsis b
considering the *aves as a linear superposition of a large number of simple, small@amplitude
*avelets *ith different fre:uencies travelling independentl of one another+ The
representation of the *aves in the form of *ave spectrum is sho*n in Figure 9+ The
directional spreading function e?presses the degree of *ave energ spreading in the a>imuth
from the principal direction of *ave propagation+ ;ind *aves sho*s a large directional
spreading, *hile s*ells have a narro* spreading+
The *ave spectrum gives an estimate of the spectral significant *ave height H
b the
follo*ing relationship $
" m"
m 2 H =
*here m
is >ero@th moment or the total area of the *ave spectrum+
The period parameter that can be obtained from a *ave spectrum is the pea. period, defined as
the period associated *ith the largest *ave energ 7see Figure 98+ An appro?imation of the
>ero crossing *ave period ma be obtained from the *ave spectrum b the follo*ing
relationship $
*here m
is the second moment of the *ave spectrum in fre:uenc time domain as indicated
in Figure 9+
and T
is the >ero crossing period+
The >ero@crossing period from the spectral method is onl an appro?imation and the pea.
period can onl be obtained through the spectral analsis+ For *ind *aves in deep *ater, the
pea. period T
ma be appro?imated b T
P )+)T
in the absence of realistic information+
The fre:uenc spectra for storm *aves ma sometimes be multi@pea.ed+ 'ne pea. ma
correspond to s*ells occurring at lo*er fre:uencies 7longer periods8 and one or sometimes
more pea.s are associated *ith local *ind *aves at comparativel higher fre:uencies 7shorter
periods8+ The direction of s*ells ma also differ from those of *ind *aves+ 1n a multi@pea.ed
spectrum, the effect of different pea. periods and the >ero crossing period calculated from
such a spectrum should be investigated in the design+
768 Relationships of H
and H
The principles of modern *ave forecast mathematical models and *ave recorders are
generall based on the spectral method providing outputs on the above spectral *ave
parameters+ Ho*ever, the significant *ave height H
is commonl used to characteri>e the
*ave condition and therefore, it is necessar to understand the relationships bet*een the *ave
parameters derived from the *ave train and spectral methods+
;hile H
determined from the *ave train method is a direct measure of the significant *ave
height, H
from the spectral method provides an estimate of the significant *ave height+ A
number of field measurements over the *orld have ielded the average relationship of H
"+C9 H
in deep *ater+ As *aves propagate into shallo* *ater, *aves e?hibit nonlinear
characteristics and H
becomes e:ual to or even slightl greater than H
+ ;hen *aves
further travel into ver shallo* *ater and begin to brea., ho*ever, the spectral analsis loses
its effectiveness because *aves cannot be considered as a linear superposition of small@
amplitude *avelets+ Thus, the estimation of H
based on H
should be made in deep to
relativel shallo* *ater onl+ ;hen the *ave information *ithin the surf >one is re:uired, it
is recommended to begin *ith the spectral data in the offshore and to evaluate the *ave
transformation b as given in Section !+9+C+
+*4*1 Wa!e Conditions in &ong Kong
5nder normal *eather conditions, *aves are usuall mild in most parts of Hong Kong *aters+
;hen strong monsoon *ind prevails, higher *aves can be e?perienced at the more e?posed
locations and ma last for a fe* das or even longer in the presence of the monsoon *ind+
According to the Hong Kong 'bservator, northeasterl monsoon occurs from September to
Ma *hile south*esterl monsoon blo*s from Qune to August, and the northeasterl monsoon
is usuall stronger than the south*esterl monsoon+ Hence, *aves due to northeasterl
monsoon are generall higher than those generated b the south*esterl monsoon+
&?treme *ave conditions in Hong Kong are due to tropical cclones+ %clone is an area of
lo* atmospheric pressure surrounded b a circular *ind sstem attaining ma?imum *ind
speed near its center+ ;inds due to tropical cclones are characteri>ed b their high speed and
rapidl changing direction and the *ind field normall covers a large region+ The *ave
climate in Hong Kong *aters changes *hen a tropical cclone encroaches upon Hong Kong,
as described belo* $

;hen the cclone is far a*a, its *ind sstem has little or minor effect on the
*ave climate in Hong Kong+ ,ocal *ind *aves are generall insignificant+
There could be a noticeable increase in the offshore s*ells from the southerl
and southeasterl directions travelling a long distance from the cclone+

As the cclone moves closer to Hong Kong, s*ells in Hong Kong *aters
become stronger and the local *ind speeds also increase at the same time+
(epending on the location of the cclone and its distance from Hong Kong, the
s*ells and the local *ind *aves are not necessaril approaching from the same

;hen the cclone passes over or in the close vicinit of Hong Kong, ver strong
*inds can prevail, resulting in high local *ind *aves+ At the same time,
offshore s*ells continue to contribute to the local *ave climate for areas
e?posed to the southerl or southeasterl direction+
5nder normal *eather condition, the use of a constant uniform *ind field is considered
appropriate for *ave prediction+ 1n e?treme condition during tropical cclones, *ave
prediction using mathematical *ave models capable of handling time varing non@uniform
*ind field is regarded as the most realistic *ave prediction method in principle+ Ho*ever, this
involves significant calibration effort and difficult in getting comprehensive *ind data over
large area coverage throughout the period of tphoon development and propagation+ The use
of constant uniform *ind fields using the e?treme *ind speed data corresponding to various
incoming *ave directions given in Tables )! to 6" ma be considered acceptable as a
pragmatic alternative in *ave prediction for engineering design+
+*4*4 Wa!e Data and Data So(r"es
7)8 Measurement (ata
;ave information can be obtained directl from field measurement+ For general information
on *ave recording and analsis, reference ma be made to Section !0 of -S062C$#art )
7-S1, !"""8+
T*o bed@mounted *ave recorders have been installed near Kau Ai %hau and ;est ,amma
%hannel as sho*n in Figure 0 since )CC2 as part of %ivil &ngineering (epartment=s long term
*ave monitoring programme in Hong Kong *aters+ The follo*ing parameters are provided
from the outputs of the recorders $

Spectral significant *ave height H


Ma?imum recorded *ave height H


#ea. *ave period T


Iero crossing *ave period T


Mean *ave direction+

Average *ater depth+

The average recorded *ater depths at Kau Ai %hau and ;est ,amma %hannel *ave stations
are respectivel about C m and )" m+
A summar of the *ave measurement bet*een )CC2 and !""" is given in Tables 6! and 66,
and *ave roses on annual basis are sho*n in Figure H+ The *ave measurement over these
periods reflect that the prevailing *ave directions in the measurement locations are the south
and southeast, and e?treme *ave heights are generall aligned *ith the presence of tropical
cclone events+ 1t should be noted that the recorded spectral significant *ave height H
these t*o *ave stations ma be ta.en to be appro?imatel the same as the significant *ave
height H
for design purpose+ More details of these data, such as the full set of *ave output
files, can be obtained from %ivil &ngineering (epartment if re:uired+
7!8 ;ave (ata from Storm Hindcasting
Storm hindcasting is based on the estimation of the *ave height at a particular location
associated *ith past storm events+ 1f there is a sufficientl long period of storm records, it is
possible to estimate the e?treme *ave heights based on the hindcast *ave heights of each
storm events b means of e?treme value analsis+
A hindcasting stud had been underta.en to estimate the significant *ave heights at t*o
offshore locations as sho*n in Figure < b means of a mathematical tphoon model *ith
reference to 2H tphoons occurred in Hong Kong bet*een )C2< to )CC2 7HK#5, )CC9 R
!"""8+ For each ear, the tphoon that most probabl generates the annual ma?imum *ave
height in Hong Kong *as chosen and its characteristics, including trac.s and pressure
distribution, *ere input to the model to estimate the significant *ave height+ -ased on the
significant *ave height computed each ear, an e?treme value analsis based on ;eibull
distribution *as performed to determine the significant *ave heights of different return
periods+ The results are sho*n in Table 62+ The estimated significant *ave height for given
return periods ma be considered for design purposes as the offshore *ave condition from
*hich the nearshore *ave conditions in Hong Kong can be calculated after due consideraton
of various *ave transformations, but the users are advised to see. for the latest information on
storm *ave prediction results+
1t should be noted that no specific direction and period information are given in Table 62 due
to data limitation in the hindcasting stud+ ;hen using the *ave information, it ma be
assumed that the *aves are travelling from directions approaching to*ards Hong Kong *aters
and the critical direction relevant to the site of interest should then be adopted in *ave
analsis+ For storm *aves, the *ave steepness, !H
8, is generall in the range of
"+"6 to "+"0+ The range of period of the *aves given in the table ma be estimated b
e:uating the *ave steepness to e:ual "+"6 to "+"0+ The *ave period most critical for the safet
of structure under design should be selected *ithin the above range+
768 Ship 'bservation (ata
Gisual observations of *ave conditions are reported from ships in normal service all over the
*orld, and sometimes these data are used to estimate the *ave conditions *hen *ave
information is absent+ 1n offshore area *here the *ave climate does not var :uic.l *ith
position, observations from a *ide area based on a large number of observations can be
gathered together and give a general indication of the *ave climate of the area+
Records of ship observed *ave data *ithin the area of the South %hina Sea bounded b
longitudes )""S& and )!"S& and b latitudes "SB and 6"SB are .ept b the Hong Kong
'bservator+ The areas covered b these ship observations ma include some relativel
protected inshore region+ 1f information on *aves is re:uired from ship observations for a
particular proLect, an open area should therefore be considered *hen approaching the Hong
Kong 'bservator for details of records held+ Ship observation *ave data of the South %hina
Sea can also be obtained from the Global ;ave Statistics 7Hogben et al, )C<08+ The statistics
provides compiled information on the fre:uenc of Loint occurrence of *ave heights and
periods for different directions in various ocean areas of the *orld+
1t should be noted that these data are ver scattered in time and space, and ship navigation *ill
generall avoid passage through storm locations+ Gisual observations from ships b their
nature are unable to produce a complete and reliable description of *aves+ %aution should be
e?ercised if these data are used+
+*4*5 Wind Data for Wa!e Predi"tion
A common approach to predict the *ave conditions is to use *ind data in *ave prediction if
*ave data are not available+ Actual *ind records from the site of interest are preferred so that
local effects are included+ 1f *ind measurements at the site are not available and cannot be
collected, measurements at a nearb location *ill be useful+
Attention should be paid to the follo*ing aspects before appling the measured *ind speeds in
*ave prediction $

;ind speed at the level of )" m above mean sea level should generall be used
in *ave prediction formulae or mathematical *ave model+ The *ind speeds
given in Tables )! to 6" can be considered to have been corrected to )" m above
mean sea level for this purpose+ Among the three *ind stations given in this
#art of the Manual, correction has been applied to the *ind data measured at
;aglan 1sland and %heung %hau *ind stations *hich have recording heights of
H9 m 7<! m after )CC68 and C! m above mean sea level respectivel+ The
correction *as made using a relationship derived from measured *ind speeds at
;aglan 1sland and the measured *ind speeds close to the standard height of
)" m at Hong Kong 'bservator in the 9"=s 7%hin R ,eong, )CH<8+ Bo
correction *as made for the *ind data at Kai Ta. Airport Southeast Station as
the recording height, *hich is )" to )0 m above mean sea level, is close to the
standard height of )" m+ 1t should be noted that the normal *ind@height
adLustment formulae, including the one@seventh po*er la* and the Hellman
formula, are not recommended for use in Hong Kong conditions+

The *ind speed should be adLusted from the duration of the observation to an
averaging time appropriate for *ave prediction+ 1n general, several different
averaging times should be considered for *ave prediction to ensure that the
critical *ave condition can be identified+ %onversion factors for duration of
*ind speeds less than one hour are given in Section !+2+!+ Ho*ever, the
applicabilit of these conversion factors to a site of interest should be chec.ed
b the users of this Manual because the conversion factors listed there are not
universall applicable+ For duration greater than one hour, the respective *ind
speed information is given in Tables )9 to 6"+

1f the *ind data are collected inland, the measured *ind speeds ma not be able
to represent the *ind speeds over *ater+ Bo simple method can accuratel
represent the comple? relationship of inland and over@*ater *ind speeds+
Ho*ever, if a *ind measurement station on land is adLacent to the *ater bod,
the measured *ind speeds ma be considered e:uivalent to those over *ater+
This applies to the *ind speeds given in this Manual as the *ind stations are
located adLacent to the sea+

An adLustment for the effect of the stabilit of the boundar laer of the
atmosphere on the *ind speeds due to air@sea temperature difference should be
made b means of a stabilit correction factor for fetch length e?ceeding a
certain distance+ 1n the absence of local information, a stabilit correction factor
of )+) ma be assumed for fetch length greater than )0 .m for the purpose of
*ave assessment+
+*4*6 Wa!e Predi"tion fro$ Wa!e Meas(re$ent
&stimates of e?treme *ave conditions b e?trapolation of measured *ave data are onl
reliable if the original data are derived from a large number of ears+ The method of
prediction consists of plotting the initial *ave heights against the cumulative probabilities of
occurrence, using an appropriate probabilit function+ The obLective is to achieve a graph
*hich ma then be e?tended to give an estimate of the e?treme conditions+ An e?ample of
such method can be found in Section !H of -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1, !"""8+
+*4*7 Wa!e Predi"tion .- Mat%e$ati"al Modelling
The use of mathematical models to estimate the *ave conditions is recommended for *ater
areas *ith variable bottom topograph and shoreline configuration and subLect to the effect of
s*ells and *ind *aves+ (etails of the input re:uirements var among various tpes of models
developed b different organi>ations and therefore reference should be made to the user=s
manuals of these models accordingl *hen the models are used+ &?pert advice or input should
be sought *here appropriate as specialist soft*are and e?perience are usuall re:uired in *ave
;here mathematical *ave modelling is applied, a modelling report should be prepared to
describe the *ave spectrum emploed and the modelling approach, procedures and results,
and should include the follo*ing information $
7)8 ;ave Spectrum
;ave transformation analsis should be made for irregular *aves e?cept for special cases such
as long@travelled s*ells approaching a coast *ith nearl parallel, straight depth contours for
*hich monochromatic *ave analsis ma ield reliable results+ -ecause transformations of
irregular *aves depend on the functional shapes of directional *ave spectrum, the fre:uenc
spectrum and directional spreading function emploed should be stated so that a chec. of the
analsis can be made after*ard+
7!8 Tpes of ;ave Models
The tpe of models and their principles, assumptions and limitations should be specified
because each tpe of model has its range of applications reflecting its theoretical basis+ For
e?ample, *ave propagation models ma not be able to give detailed description of the *ave
climate in a tidal basin, harbour or tphoon shelter due to diffraction and reflection and
therefore separate diffraction and reflection models ma be used in combination *ith the *ave
propagation models under such condition+ &?planations should be given on *h the chosen
models are suitable for the proLect and the re:uired accurac of the *ave results+
768 Site Analsis
A general description of the phsical characteristics of the site should be given as the *ould
be important in the selection of the model boundar, applicabilit of the tpe of *ave models
to be used and understanding the problems that ma arise in the analsis+ This should include
the laout of shorelines, seabed irregularit, *ater depth and the e?posures of the site to
different incoming *ind or *ave directions+ Special features such as presence of shoals,
seabed depressions, navigation channels, islands, headlands and structures should be
728 Model Set@up
The report should provide the input information in the *ave models, *hich should include the
follo*ing $

,aout of shoreline, islands and structures+


;ater level+

;ind speed, duration and direction+

;ave height, period and direction+

Model boundar and boundar conditions+

%omputational grid and time steps+

'ther modelling parameters such as bottom friction, *ave inde? or

direction spread of *aves, depending on the tpe of models adopted+
An e?planation of *h the chosen model boundar and boundar conditions are appropriate
for the proLect should also be given+ As an indication, the location of the model boundaries
should be set as far a*a from the areas of interest as possible, but *ithout covering too large
an area that *ill affect the computational efficienc+ ,ocations *here there are sheltering of
*aves or oddness of bathmetr that *ould ma.e the input site inappropriate as model
boundar should be avoided+
798 %alibration
The purpose of the calibration is to ensure that the computed results can realisticall represent
the *ave climate and is achieved b tuning the *ave model to reproduce the .no*n or
measured *ave conditions for a particular situation+ 1n this connection, evidence of
calibration for a particular chosen model, such as comparison of modelled results *ith
measured data, sensitivit tests on variation of input parameters and accurac achieved, should
be presented in the report+
708 %omputation Results
The results should be plotted and e?amined for an signs of computational instabilit or
unreasonable variations in *ave height or direction over short distances+ should
also be made if the values of the computed *ave conditions are consistent and reasonable *ith
respect to the shoreline or bathmetr configuration in the area being e?amined+ A summar
of the computed *ave conditions at the site of interest for various chosen design scenarios
should be given at the end of the report+
+*4*8 Wa!e 3reaing in S(rf 9one
The often :uoted figure of the ma?imum *ave height being e:ual to "+H< times the still *ater
depth can be derived from the theor describing individual *aves+ Ho*ever, sufficient
difference e?ists in models bet*een results *ith random *aves and results *ith individual
*aves to indicate that the above figure is not an ade:uate estimate of the height in all
situations+ A method b Goda in Appendi? A ma be used to estimate the *ave heights in the
surf >one+
A design chart that relates the shoaling coefficient *ith the e:uivalent deep*ater *ave
steepness, the slope of seabed and the relative *ater depth is sho*n in Figure A) of
Appendi? A+ The dotted lines in the figure for the seabed slope demarcate the regions of *ave and ;hen the intersecting point of the relative *ater depth and
e:uivalent deep*ater *ave steepness falls in the region above the dotted lines, *ave
*ill occur+ This procedure ma be used to chec. *hether the structure lies in the
*ave region or not+
The *ave heights in the *ave region or the surf >one do not follo* a Raleigh
distribution as larger *ave heights brea. under the limited *ater depth+ 1f a structure is found
to be inside a surf >one, the Goda formulae or the corresponding design charts in Figure A! in
Appendi? A ma be used to estimate the significant *ave height and the ma?imum *ave
height in the surf >one+ 1n the event that the *ave condition is found to be marginal bet*een and, it is suggested that both the and *ave
conditions be chec.ed in the design to determine *hich condition is more critical to the
+*4*1: Use of P%-si"al Wa!e Modelling
#hsical *ave models can be used as a predictive scale model for the prototpe or as a
verification model for a mathematical one+ As the present state of the art of mathematical
*ave modelling is often sufficient for general design purposes, phsical modelling is mainl
applied *hen a complicated bathmetr in front of a structure causes significant variations in
the near@structure sea state or *hen detailed structural design aspects related to run@up,
overtopping, toe scour or roc. movements have to be clarified+ 1t is mainl due to this
capacit to deal *ith comple? interactions that leads to phsical models being selected to
obtain the necessar design data+ For man of the tpical design problems, ho*ever,
mathematical model ma be the more economical and efficient option+ Therefore, e?pected
accurac must be balanced against the cost of both mathematical and phsical modelling+
+*4*11 Wa!e O!erto##ing
1nformation of the amount of *ave overtopping is needed to determine the crest level of
marine structures+ The methods for assessing the amount of *ave overtopping are given in
#art 2 of the Manual K Guide to (esign of Sea*alls and -rea.*aters+
+*5 S%i# Wa!es in &ar.o(r
The *ave climate in the Gictoria Harbour is dominated b ship *aves due to the movement of
marine traffic+ According to an inner harbour *ave stud 7HK5, )CCH8, it *as concluded that
the *ave climate in the Gictoria Harbour, based on field measurements, has the follo*ing
characteristics $

The *ave climate is dominated b the ship *aves *hich are highl irregular in

The period of the ship *aves so generated tends to be short and is in the range of
about ! to 9 seconds+

;aves in the *estern portion of the harbour area are stronger than those in the
eastern portion+

;aves in the region off the north*est shore of Hong Kong 1sland are generall
the strongest in the harbour area+

;aves in bus navigation area are stronger than those in open areas *ith less
marine activities+

;aves during datime are stronger than those at night+

The distribution of *ave regions and the observed significant *ave height corresponding to
each *ave region are sho*n in Figure C and Table 69+ A tpical dail *ave height variation is
also sho*n in )"+ According to the inner harbour *ave stud, about <"T of the *ave energ
*ithin the Gictoria Harbour in the datime is due to marine traffic and the balance is due to
other sources such as *inds+ A description of the effect of *aves on harbour activities in
various *ave regions is summari>ed in Table 69+
;here ne* reclamation and marine structures are constructed in the Gictoria Harbour, chec.
should be made, for e?ample, b mathematical *ave modelling, to see if the *or.s *ill lead to
deterioration of the e?isting *ave climate+
+*6 C(rrents
+*6*1 General
%urrents are the movement of *ater in the sea and can be generated b the effect of tide, *ind,
*aves, river discharge and densit difference and are described b their velocities 7speed and
direction8+ 1nformation on currents in specific locations ma be obtained from reports
prepared b consultants for various Government departments in the past+ The %ivil
&ngineering (epartment, &nvironmental #rotection (epartment, Territor (evelopment
(epartment and Marine (epartment should be consulted in the first instance for details of
studies carried out in an areas for *hich information on currents is re:uired+
+*6*+ 'ield Meas(re$ents
For locations *here no information on e?isting currents is available, it ma be necessar to
carr out measurements on site+ Field measurements give realistic local and time@specific
information on flo* conditions and can provide surveed data for the calibration of
mathematical flo* models+ Ho*ever, the :ualit of the field data ma be affected b the
variabilit of the forcing conditions such as river flo*, tide, *ind and *aves acting along and
over the *ater area+ Hence, the planning of the field measurement *or. and the period of
measurement should consider the meteorological and tidal characteristics of the area of
interest, and aspects of the stud for *hich the current data are needed, into account the
follo*ing points $

T*o meteorological seasons prevail in the region of the #earl River &stuar $ the
dr season lasts appro?imatel from 'ctober to April in *hich the northeast
monsoon in the South %hina Sea dominates and the *et season lasts from
appro?imatel Qune to August in *hich the south*est monsoon prevails+ These
t*o maLor seasons are separated b a transitional period *hich generall e?tends
over the month of Ma and September+ (epending on the amount of rainfall
received *ithin the drainage basin of the #earl River, the amount of fresh*ater
discharged into the estuar varies significantl in these t*o seasons+ As a result,
the current velocities measured in these t*o seasons *ill also var significantl+

Gariation of tide in the region is characteri>ed b the spring and neap tides
according to the relative positions of astronomical bodies+ Since tidal flo* is
one of the essential forcing conditions to the estuarine behaviour, each seasonal
field measurement should be conducted to cover a spring and neap tide+

The minimum observation period should be a complete tidal ccle, *hich is

about !9 hours for t*o high tides and t*o lo* tides in the semi@diurnal tidal
regime in Hong Kong+

Stratification in some areas ma be significant+ Field measurement should be

made in such a *a as to provide full information on the velocit and salinit
profile at the monitoring point+
The flo* conditions can be determined on site b means of the &ulerian and ,agrangian
methods+ The &ulerian method is a measurement of *ater flo*ing through an instrument *ith
fi?ed spatial coordinates such as a current meter or an acoustic doppler current profiler+ The
resultant current speed and direction at a specific point at different *ater depths can be
obtained b this method+ 1n the ,agrangian method, a number of floats or drogues are usuall
used and are released at pre@determined release point+ The paths of movement of the drogues
are then measured regularl until the are recovered+ This method enables the tracing of the
actual paths of the currents+ 1ts limitation is that onl the surface *ater movement is trac.ed
and heav marine traffic ma ma.e the method not feasible+ A combination of these t*o
methods can be emploed in a current surve for mathematical modelling to provide
measurements for calibration of a hdraulic flo* model and to provide information on the path
of the current for the level of confidence of the modelling results+
+*6*0 C(rrent Predi"tion .- Mat%e$ati"al Models
Mathematical modelling is necessar to provide realistic estimation of the characteristics of
the flo* field in the coastal *aters as the flo* sstems in these *ater areas are usuall ver
comple? due to irregular shoreline, variable bathmetr and a number of interacting tidal,
*ind, pressure and densit gradient forcing conditions+ (etails of model application depend
on the tpes of models to be emploed, and e?pert advice and input are re:uired as these
models are normall not eas to appl+ General principles on mathematical flo* modelling
are given in the follo*ing paragraphs+
7)8 Model %ategor
1n coastal or estuarine situations, t*o@dimensional or three@dimensional models should
normall be used+ T*o@dimensional flo* models for use in coastal or estuarine situations are
generall depth@integrated+ The provide a single velocit vector representing the flo*
condition over the *hole *ater column in each hori>ontal cell of the modelled area+ These
models are generall used in situations *here the currents are appro?imatel uniform
throughout the *ater column or for studies in *hich the surface elevation are the primar
concern+ Three@dimensional models are used *hen the vertical structure of currents is not
uniform+ For Hong Kong *aters *hich is subLect to the effect of monsoon *inds and the
discharge from the #earl River, the use of three@dimensional models is essential *hen the
vertical distribution of currents is an important aspect of the stud+
7!8 Model Set@up
The setting up of a mathematical flo* model involves the establishment of the shoreline,
bathmetr, model boundar and boundar flo* conditions, *ind field, computational grid
and values of other phsical parameters such as river discharges and bottom friction of the
seabed+ (etails of the input re:uirement should be consistent *ith the particular notation and
format adopted b the models+ 1n general, the follo*ing aspects should be noted $

The shoreline in the model should ta.e into account .no*n and foreseeable
reclamation or marine structures constructed along the shore+

The model boundaries should be set as far a*a from the areas of interest as
possible, but *ithout covering too large an area that *ill affect the
computational efficienc as inaccuracies and uncertainties in the boundar
conditions *ill immediatel affect the model performance+ 1f the e?tent is too
small, the phenomena in the modelled area *ill be dominated b the boundar
conditions+ The natural effects of the geometr, depth and friction on the flo*
*ill not be able to be reflected in the computation+

The computational grid should be established in such a *a to reflect the details

of the shoreline configuration, bathmetr and to ield the re:uired resolution of
the current vectors in the area of interest+ As a general rule, small grids should
usuall be used around the harbour, channels and sensitive receivers, and a
relativel coarse grid ma be acceptable in remote areas and the open sea+

The seabed bathmetr should be accuratel schemati>ed in the model as the

*ater depth is an important parameters that determine the global and local
current distribution+ An overall picture should be in mind from a preliminar
stud of bathmetric records before starting the schemati>ation+
728 %alibration
The application of a mathematical flo* model should involve a calibration procedure in *hich
the model is run to compare *ith the hdrodnamic flo* field of a specific period in *hich
field data have been collected+ 1n calibration, model parameters such as seabed bottom
friction or depth resolution are adLusted to optimi>e the comparison of computed data to field
data+ %omparisons are generall made to *ater levels and velocities, and ma include
reproduction of temperature and salinit+ (iscrepancies ma be progressivel minimi>ed
through a number of simulation runs based on sensitivit analsis of the boundar conditions,
phsical and numerical parameters+ 1t is also necessar to chec. the performance of the
calibrated model in an alternate time period *ith another set of field data, *hich are collected
independentl from the set used for calibration, b a verification process+ The verification
procedure ma result in some fine@tuning of the model input parameters+
798 Simulation %onditions
The flo* conditions to be simulated should ta.e into account the variabilit under different
seasons and tidal periods+ 1n general, the follo*ing situations should be considered in a
mathematical flo* modelling for Hong Kong *aters $

Flo* during flood and ebb tides+

Flo* in spring and neap tides+

Flo* in *et and dr seasons+

708 Modelling Report
A mathematical modelling report should be prepared to summari>e the modelling approach,
procedures and the computation results, and should include the follo*ing details $

Tpe of flo* model emploed and the principle, assumptions, limitations and
range of applicabilit+

Model boundar and computational grid+

-athmetr of the modelled area+

1nput data, including boundar conditions, *ind speed and direction, river
discharge and other phsical parameters+

%alibration results and accurac achieved+

%omputation results of various simulation scenarios+

+*6*1 Use of P%-si"al 'lo; Modelling
#hsical modelling is an option for complicated current patterns for *hich, despite their
comple?it, the boundar conditions can be reproduced *ell in the laborator+ &?amples are
structures e?posed to combined current and *ave action, comple? bathmetr and
unconventional structure geometr+ #hsical modelling ma be useful in the follo*ing
situations $

;here interference of currents and *aves is concerned, although mathematical

models have been developed to cover this situation+

;here verification of or comparison *ith a mathematical model is re:uired+

;here the phsical model can be built and operated at a competitive cost in
relation to other options+

;here the influence of vortices generated from the edges of structures or the
sharp corners of topograph needs to be studied+
+*7 Sedi$ents
1n general, the sedimentation rate at estuaries and coastal regions is dependent on river
discharge, land erosion, tidal current as *ell as the prevailing storm and *ave climate+ 1n
Hong Kong *aters, the natural long@term sedimentation rate is governed primaril b the
amount of sediments originating from the river discharges and tidal currents+ Since the
transport and deposition processes of sediments are ver comple?, analtical prediction of the
suspended sediment concentrations and the prevailing sedimentation rate at a given area of
interest is difficult+ Mathematical modelling is therefore used to simulate and assist in
predicting the outcome of such comple? processes+
Sediment models simulate the transport of sediments b advection, *ind, settling,
resuspension and random turbulent processes+ 1n most cases, sediment models use a
hdrodnamic database that is generated b a flo* model similar to that mentioned in
Section !+H+6 as the basic input+ To minimi>e computational effort *ithout compromising on
accurac, the computational grid of a sediment model is normall an optimum aggregation of
the flo* computational grid+ ;ith the hdrodnamic database in the bac.ground, other
phsical and control parameters are used as input to simulate the phsical processes involved+
The results of a sediment model stud are Lust as good as the calibration of these parameters+
Hence, phsical parameters such as settling velocit of the sediments and critical stresses for
resuspension and sedimentation have to be calibrated before the models can be reliabl used in
an sedimentation studies+
To calibrate the above phsical parameters, it is generall agreed that the follo*ing field data
*ill be ver useful in the calibration of a sediment model for sedimentation studies $

(ata on maintenance dredging in the vicinit of the area of interest+

Amount of sediment discharged from river+

,ong@term data on suspended sediment concentration of the area+

Short duration time series of suspended sediment concentration under a .no*n

hdrodnamic condition+
1t should be noted that details of the model application and re:uired input data depend on the
tpes of sediment models to be emploed and e?pert advice should be sought *here necessar+
A sedimentation modelling report, *ith details similar to those described in Section !+H+6,
should be prepared after completion of the modelling *or.+
0*1 General
This chapter gives guidance on general aspects such as the design life of structures, ship data,
re:uirements of approach channel and other operational considerations+
Man of the operational re:uirements of marine *or.s and structures are specific to their
particular functions+ Appropriate advice should be obtained from the client or the operator,
(irector of Marine, %ommissioner of Transport, other concerned government departments and
parties as appropriate on all operational matters+
0*+ Design Life
The design life of a structure is ta.en to be its intended useful life, and *ill depend on the
purpose for *hich it is used+ The choice of design life is a matter to be decided in relation to
each proLect+ 5nless special circumstances appl, the design life should be ta.en to be 9"
ears for all permanent marine structures covered b this Manual+ This does not necessaril
mean that the structure *ill continue to be serviceable for that length of time *ithout ade:uate
inspection and maintenance+ Rather, regular inspection and, *here necessar, repair are
re:uired under competent direction to ensure the stabilit and serviceabilit of the structure+
1n vie* of the variable and often unpredictable character of the forces to *hich marine
structures are subLected, it is fre:uentl unrealistic to e?pect substantial cost savings to result
from attempting to design them for short lives+ Generall, greater overall econom *ill be
achieved b choosing simple robust concepts and appropriate reliable construction procedures+
;here special circumstances appl, the determination of the design life should ta.e into
account the follo*ing aspects $

Bature and purpose of the proLect+

&ffects of factors *hich act against the stabilit and functions of the structure,
including fatigue loading, corrosion, marine gro*th and soil strength reductions,
and the corresponding maintenance effort re:uired to ensure that the stabilit
and functional re:uirements of the structure can still be met+

#robabilit level that particular limit states or e?treme events *ill occur during
the design life+

%ost benefit of the design life being considered, including an assessment of the
capital cost and overall maintenance cost of the structure together *ith an
associated replacement cost re:uired+

1mpact on the design life due to future developments, changes in operational

practices and demands+
The probabilit level that an e?treme event *ill occur is related to the design life and return
period+ (esign life and return period are not the same and should not be confused+ An event
*ith a return period of T
ears or longer is li.el to occur on average once in T
ears+ The
relationship among the probabilit level, design life and return period is given in Figure ))+
Recommended return periods are covered in other sections or parts of this Manual+
0*0 S%i# Data
;here possible, details and dimensions should be obtained from the (irector of Marine, the
client, o*ners and operators of the vessels to be accommodated, and those li.el in the
anticipated lifetime of the structure+ Gessel characteristics *hich should be considered include
tpe, si>e and shape, ship handling re:uirements, cargo or passenger handling re:uirements,
and vessel servicing re:uirements+ A definition s.etch of the tpical dimensions of the vessels
is given in Figure )!+
-asic characteristics of local vessels ta.en from the ,ocal %raft Registr provided b the
(irector of Marine are given in Table 60+ -asic characteristics of the vessels o*ned b maLor
ferr operators are given in Table 6H+ All values should be chec.ed *ith the (irector of
Marine, concerned government departments and the ferr operators as appropriate before
being used for design purposes+ 1nformation on other vessels using Hong Kong as a port of
call should be sought from the appropriate authorities *hen re:uired+
0*1 C(rrent Conditions
Reclamation, dredging *or.s and maLor sea defense such as brea.*aters ma cause changes
in the pattern of tidal flo* and conse:uentl affect navigation, mooring and berthing forces,
siltation and *ater :ualit in the vicinit of these marine *or.s, and possibl some distance
a*a from the site+ (uring planning of the proLect, advice should be sought from the %ivil
&ngineering (epartment and &nvironmental #rotection (epartment on *hether detailed
mathematical modelling studies *ill be necessar, and Marine (epartment on the current
conditions for navigation and other vessel operations such as berthing and mooring+
0*4 3ert% Conditions
Acceptable *ave conditions at berths for ferries and public vessels or *ithin cargo handling
basins and tphoon shelters can onl be determined after consultation *ith the (irector of
Marine and ferr or other vessel operators+ Guidance on acceptable *ave conditions for
moored vessels is given in Sections 6" and 6) of -S 062C$ #art ) 7-S1, !"""8+
0*5 T-#%oon S%elters
Tphoon shelters in Hong Kong are to provide shelter for vessels not e?ceeding 9" m in length
under e?treme *ave conditions in tphoons+ The recommended *ave heights under e?treme
*ave conditions should not e?ceed the follo*ing criteria $
Vessel Length Significant Wave Height
,ess than 6" m ,ess than "+0 m
6" m to 9" m ,ess than "+C m
1t should be noted that the recommended design criteria should be ta.en onl as the target
design values instead of the absolute allo*able values+ ,ocali>ed e?ceedance of the design
values ma be permitted *ith due consideration of the site condition and the laout of the
mooring areas *ithin the tphoon shelter in consultation *ith the Marine (epartment+
0*6 A##roa"% C%annels
The depth and *idth of approach channels should be specified or approved b the (irector of
Marine+ The re:uired depth of channels can be calculated into account the follo*ing
factors $

,oaded draft of design vessel+

Tidal variations+

;ave induced motions of the vessel+

Gessel s:uat and trim+


An empirical factor giving an under@.eel clearance to facilitate manoeuvrabilit,

economic propeller efficienc and a factor of safet+
The *idth of the channel, defined as the *idth at the dredged level, should be determined
according to the follo*ing factors $

-eam, speed and manoeuvrabilit of the design vessel+

;hether the vessel is to pass another vessel+

%hannel depth+

%hannel alignment+

Stabilit of the channel ban.s+

;inds, *aves, currents and cross currents in the channel+

Availabilit of navigational aids+

The above factors are covered in detail b #1AB% 7)CCH8+
;here the bottom of the channel consists of mud, it is usual in international ports to define the
depth for navigation as being that bet*een lo* *ater level and the level at *hich the densit
of the bottom sediment is e:ual to or greater than )!"" .g3m
, since research else*here has
sho*n that the mud laers of lo*er densit do not significantl impede the passage of a ship+
The general practice to determine such a level in local port condition is to use an echo sounder
of !"" .H> to !!" .H> *hich, b e?perience, is able to identif the seabed of densit of
)!"" .g3m
in most cases for safe navigation+
;hen planning the location of approach channels, and approaches or fair*as in general,
account should be ta.en of future siltation and maintenance+ %onsideration ma be given to
dredging to a depth greater than the minimum re:uired navigation depth, *ith the intention of
eliminating the need for maintenance dredging in the first fe* ears after completion of initial
dredging+ &stimation of the amount of siltation *ithin the channel ma be determined from
sedimentation field measurement and mathematical modelling as described in Section !+<+
0*7 Na!igation Aids
Aids to navigation are used to mar. limits of structures such as piers, sea*alls, brea.*aters
and dolphins, channel entrances, boundaries and turns, and hidden dangers such as shoals and
roc. outcrops, to act as a guide for vessels and to assist *ith their safe movement+ The tpe,
si>e, location and details of fittings and fi?tures for navigation aids should be to the
re:uirements of the (irector of Marine+
General information and locations of e?isting navigation aids in Hong Kong *aters *hich
ma be referred to in design can be found on the nautical charts published b the Hong Kong
Hdrographic 'ffice 7see Section !+68+ The definitions of smbols, terms and abbreviations
used on the nautical charts can be found in Hong Kong %hart ) published b the Hong Kong
Hdrographic 'ffice 7HKH', )CCH8+
1*1 General
This chapter gives general comments and guidance on geotechnical investigation during the
planning and design of a marine *or.s proLect+ For details of geotechnical investigation, the
follo*ing documents issued b the Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice should be referred to as
appropriate $

Geoguide ) $ Guide to Retaining ;all (esign 7G&', )CC6a8+

Geoguide ! $ Guide to Site 1nvestigation 7G%', )C<H8+

Geoguide 6 $ Guide to Roc. and Soil (escriptions 7G%', )C<<8+

Geospec 6 $ Model Specification for Soil Testing 7G&', !"")8+

;here necessar, advice from the Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice should be sought+
1*+ Marine Geolog- and C%ara"teristi"s
7)8 Sources of Geological 1nformation
An understanding of the marine geolog is useful in the design of the foundation of marine
*or.s+ 1nformation about site geolog in Hong Kong can be obtained from the follo*ing
documents published b the Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice $

Hong Kong Geological Surve Memoirs Bo+ ) to 0

7G%', )C<0 to )CC"M G&', )CC9 to )CC08

Hong Kong Geological Surve Sheet Reports Bo+ ) to 9

7G&', )CC! to )CC08

The #re@/uaternar Geolog of Hong Kong

7G&', !"""a8

The /uaternar Geolog of Hong Kong

7G&', !"""b8
These documents are accompanied b geological maps varing from Hong Kong@*ide
)$!",""" and )$)"",""" scale to area specific )$9""" scale for selected parts of Hong Kong+
These sources of geological information *ill assist in the planning of the marine ground
investigation and interpretation of the investigation results+
7!8 Tpical 'ffshore Subsoil #rofile
(etails of the offshore subsoil distribution and characteristics in Hong Kong are given in
G&' 7!"""b8 and a summar of the tpical subsoil profile is given in the follo*ing
1n Hong Kong, the tpical offshore subsoil profile consists of a se:uence of soft to ver stiff
transported sediments, *hich ma be up to )"" metres thic., overling in@situ roc. in various
states of *eathering+ The offshore transported sediments have been subdivided into four
geological groups or formations, the Hang Hau Formation, the Sham ;at Formation, the
;aglan Formation, and the %he. ,ap Ko. Formation+ The distribution and sedimentar
characteristics are summari>ed in Table 6< and a schematic diagram sho*ing the general
se:uence of these geological formations is given in Figure )6+
Marine deposits of the Hang Hau Formation form the seabed over most of Hong Kong *aters+
The formation consist of a fairl uniform deposit of ver soft to soft, normall consolidated,
olive gre, clae silts that contain shells and lenses of fine sand+ These deposits are
commonl referred to as marine mud+ Ho*ever, the formation becomes sand to*ards the
base, particularl in eastern *aters *here the lo*est deposits represent the sand infilling of
tidal channels+ At the seabed, in >ones of strong currents such as the tidal channels of
5rmston Road and Kap Shui Mun, the Hang Hau Formation deposits become sand+ 1n the
deepest parts of the channels the deposits ma be absent *ith roc. e?posed at the seabed+
1n central and northeastern *aters, the Hang Hau Formation directl overlies the %he. ,ap
Ko. Formation, a mi?ed succession of clas, silts, sands, gravels and cobbles that ma be
uniform or poorl sorted+ The assorted sediments that ma.e up the %he. ,ap Ko. Formation
are predominantl of alluvial origin, *ith comple? geometrical relationships that reflect their
origin as river channels and floodplains+ &roded channels, ranging in *idth from a fe* metres
to several hundred metres and up to !" metres deep, characteri>e the surface of the %he. ,ap
Ko. Formation+ This irregular topograph is important *hen determining the base of the
Hang Hau Formation for dredging or foundation purposes+
1n *estern and south*estern *aters, the marine Sham ;at Formation occurs bet*een the
Hang Hau Formation and the %he. ,ap Ko. Formation+ The Sham ;at Formation sediments
are tpicall soft to firm, normall to slightl over@consolidated, light gre silt clas *ith thin
sand bands+ The differ in appearance from the Hang Hau Formation being lighter gre in
colour *ith *hite patches of decaed shells and orange ello* o?idised mottles indicating
subaerial e?posure and *eathering of the sediments+ The also have a higher cla content, a
slightl higher shear strength, and a lo*er moisture content than the Hang Hau Formation+
1n southeastern *aters, the Hang Hau Formation directl overlies the ;aglan Formation,
*hich is in turn underlain b the %he. ,ap Ko. Formation+ The ;aglan Formation comprises
a generall firm, normall to slightl over@consolidated, dar. olive gre, clae silt *ith shells
that is similar in appearance to the Hang Hau Formation+ Ho*ever, the ;aglan Formation has
a slightl higher shear strength and lo*er moisture content+ The formation becomes sand at
the base *ith interbedded shell sand and clae silt+ 1n a small area of southeastern *aters, a
restricted occurrence of the Sham ;at Formation underlies the ;aglan Formation+
768 -ehaviour of Marine Mud
The presence of soft marine mud underlain b highl variable alluvial deposits re:uires that
particular attention be paid to the site geolog *hen designing marine *or.s+ The properties
of the marine mud have been studied e?tensivel in recent ears and are sho*n in Table 6C
7Ho R %han, )CC28+ ;hen the soft mud is loaded, the increase in e?ternal shear and vertical
stresses *ill cause deformation leading to stabilit problems and foundation failure if the
deformation becomes e?cessive+ 1n a reclamation *here the soft mud is left in place, mud
*aves ma develop if the loading is uneven or is applied too :uic.l+ %onse:uentl, careful
site control is re:uired to avoid rapid or irregular fill placement that ma result in e?cessive
soil displacement and possibl successive slip failures+ For foundations of marine structures,
the stabilit during and after construction must be chec.ed+ Soil improvement techni:ues,
piled foundations to transfer loads belo* the soft laers, or dredging and filling *ith granular
material can be used to improve the stabilit+ For environmental reasons, non@dredge
solutions should be emploed as far as possible+ The correct choice and effective
implementation of the fill placement and foundation methods, apart from cost, programming
and technical factors, relies heavil on a sound understanding of the strength properties of the
underling sediments *hich can onl be obtained through a comprehensive geotechnical
An increase in vertical stress *ill also induce an e?cess pore *ater pressure in the sediments,
*hich *ill graduall dissipate as the pore *ater drains out+ This process is accompanied b
the consolidation settlement of the soil, *hich place until the e?cess pore *ater pressure
has completel dissipated+ Ho*ever, even after the e?cess pore *ater pressure has dissipated,
settlement ma continue for man ears at a graduall decreasing rate+ This phenomenon is
commonl termed secondar consolidation+ Settlement problems, such as differential
settlement, ma arise in a reclamation or marine structure if significant amount of settlement
occurs after the *or.s are completed+ Hence, it is essential to ascertain the settlement
parameters of the soils in order to ensure that an residual settlement, due either to primar or
secondar consolidation, *ill not affect the future development of the reclamation or the
operation of the marine structures+
(etails of stabilit and settlement analsis for sea*alls, brea.*aters and reclamation are given
in #art 6 and #art 2 of the Manual $

#art 6 K Guide to (esign of Reclamation+

#art 2 K Guide to (esign of Sea*alls and -rea.*aters+

1*0 Deter$ination of Soil Pro#erties
Geotechnical investigations should begin *ith a des. stud in *hich all e?isting site
investigation data and geological information are revie*ed, lead up to a thorough site
reconnaissance, and culminate in one or more stages of ground investigation+ From in@situ and
laborator tests of the sediments, the engineering design parameters can be determined+ The
procedures for carring out geotechnical investigations and laborator soil testing are
described in Geoguide ! 7G%', )C<H8 and Geospec 6 7G&', !"")8+ Recommendations for the
description of Hong Kong roc.s and soils for engineering purposes are given in Geoguide 6
7G%', )C<<8+
7)8 ,aout of 1nvestigation
The e?tent, laout and final depth of the ground investigation should be determined *ith
reference to the nature of the proposed marine *or.s, the geolog of the site, the findings of
the des. stud, and from site reconnaissance observations underta.en at periods of both lo*
and high tides+ ;here *ea. and compressible materials *ill be encountered, the ground
investigation should penetrate to a sufficient depth preferabl into the underling *eathered
roc. to allo* an estimate of the founding depth, the location of an potential shear failure
surface, and the amount and rate of settlement+ For piled structures such as a pile@supported
dec. pier, the investigation should be continued until a suitable pile@bearing stratum has been
reached and is proved to be of ade:uate thic.ness+ The depth of e?ploration should be at least
9m belo* the founding level of the piled foundation or !+9 times the diameter of the piles
proposed 7G%', )C<H8, *hichever is deeper+
Guidance on the determination of the location and spacing of the points of e?ploration is given
in %hapter )" of Geoguide ! 7G%', )C<H8+ The points of e?ploration ma include a
combination of borehole locations and points of in@situ tests such as cone penetration tests 7see
paragraphs belo*8+ General indication on the spacing of the points of e?ploration for different
tpes of marine *or.s are given as follo*s $

#iers or Qetties $ )" m to 6" m

Sea*alls, brea.*aters or reclamation $ 9" m to )9" m

For *or.s *hich are small in plan area, a minimum of three points of e?ploration should be
re:uired if possible+ 1n cases *here the soil stratification is comple?, or *here buried
obstructions are present or suspected, or *here there are uncertainties on the information,
additional boreholes should be sun. as necessar to confirm the soil strata and properties+ 1t
should be noted that the re:uired spacing of points of e?ploration is dependent on factors such
as tpes and functions of proposed marine *or.s, site location and soil comple?it+ Hence,
the above spacing should not be treated as the absolute ma?imum or minimum allo*able
values+ For large offshore proLects re:uiring a staged ground investigation, a marine
geophsical surve carried out during the first stage *ill provide useful information about the
distribution of sediments and serve as a reliable basis for the optimum location and spacing of
boreholes, in addition to identifing those areas that *ill re:uire more detailed investigation
7see Geoguide ! 7G%', )C<H88+ For pile foundation *or.s, reference should also be made to
;-T% !!3!""" 7;-, !"""8+
7!8 Soil Testing
The engineering properties of the soils can be assessed b means of a range of in@situ or
laborator tests+
Methods of in@situ testing commonl used include the Standard #enetration Test, Gane Shear
Test and %one #enetration Test+ The Standard #enetration Test, *hich is carried out during
drilling, records the number of blo*s that are re:uired to drive a standard sampler a distance
of 6"" mm belo* the base of the borehole+ -lo* count provides an indication of the relative
strength of the soils encountered+ The Gane Shear Test measures the tor:ue re:uired to rotate a
calibrated vane in the sediments, from *hich the measured tor:ue value can be related to the
shear strength of the soil+ This test is ver useful for determining the in@situ undrained
strength of the marine mud and clae alluvial deposits+ Ho*ever, if the sediments are sand
or contain shells, the vane shear results should be interpreted *ith caution+ 1n addition, there
e?ists strong evidence that in@situ vane shear tests 7e+g+ %lause 2+2 of -S)6HH$#art C$)CC"8
give values too large for design+ The use of proper reduction factor for the in@situ vane shear
strength as proposed b -Lerrum 7)CH!8, ,add et al 7)CHH8 and Aas et al 7)C<08 should be
noted+ The Static %one #enetration Test generall provides a rapid means of determining the
soil tpe, the soil profile, and the soil strength b measuring the resistance encountered b the
tip of the penetrating cone+ The Static %one #enetration Test uses a 0"
cone and friction
sleeve 7see %lause 6+) of -S)6HH$#art C$)CC"8+ This test is also used as a rapid and
economical means of interpolating bet*een boreholes+ Although it ma be possible to
estimate the tpe of soil through *hich the cone is passing, it is preferable to carr out the test
in conLunction *ith other means of determining the nature of the soil+
(etails of tpical laborator tests are given in Geospec 6 7G&', !"")8+ As a general
re:uirement, soil classification, shear strength and consolidation tests 7such as the tria?ial
compression test and the oedometer test8 are commonl specified for marine ground
investigations+ 5ndisturbed samples for laborator tests, such as the determination of the
strength and settlement characteristics of the sediments, are usuall obtained as piston samples
from soft marine mud and Ma>ier samples from the firmer alluvial deposits+ #iston and
Ma>ier samples ma not necessaril be high@:ualit undisturbed samples+ A sufficient number
of samples should be ta.en to assess the variations in both the characteristics of the sediments
and the associated geotechnical design parameters+ 1n order to cover all possible variations,
the testing schedule should be fle?ible+ The designer should prepare an initial testing schedule
that is continuall modified as observations are made and ne* information is obtained from
the ground investigation+ ;herever possible, additional samples should be specified for
duplicate tests to chec. the consistenc of the test results+
The :ualit of the test results depends on the sample :ualit+ Therefore, close field
supervision is re:uired to ensure that careful drilling and sampling techni:ues are emploed to
ield high :ualit test samples+ Tables < and C in Geoguide ! 7G%', )C<H8 provide guidance
on the sample :ualit that is re:uired for different sampling procedures and soil materials+
1t should be noted that shear strength and consolidation tests normall ta.e a fairl long period
to complete, especiall for soils li.e marine mud *hich has lo* permeabilit+ Ade:uate time
should be allo*ed for the laborator testing programme during proLect planning+
Table 2" lists the in@situ and laborator tests that can be carried out during marine ground
investigations, together *ith the tpe of information provided b the tests+ Additional tests
such as particle si>e distribution, Atterberg limits, moisture contents and soil densit tests are
usuall re:uested to provide information on the general properties of the soils, correlation
bet*een soils in different locations, and further details to support the geotechnical parameters+
For silt or clae soil, information on the undrained shear strength is necessar to assess the
stabilit of marine structures such as gravit or sloping sea*alls+
1t should be emphasi>ed that the specified laborator testing conditions should resemble, as
closel as possible, the field conditions in *hich the *or.s or structures *ill be constructed
and operate under various stages+ The initial state of the samples as *ell as the state of the
soils in the construction and operation conditions should be clearl specified+ Ade:uate
number of samples should also be tested under different stress conditions in order to determine
the shear strength and settlement parameters of the soils at different locations and depths+
1*1 Deter$ination of Ro" Pro#erties
Tpical ranges of values of the unia?ial compressive strength of the most commonl
encountered roc.s in Hong Kong are given in Table )) of Geoguide ) 7G&', )CC6a8+ 5suall,
the strength of the intact bedroc. is not an important consideration in the design of
brea.*aters, gravit sea*alls and reclamations+ For marine structures supported b piles
founded on roc., it is necessar to chec. *hether the roc. strength is ade:uate to resist the
loads transmitted from the piles+ The roc. strength ma be assessed appro?imatel b
identification tests 7G%', )C<<8+ ;here necessar, it can be measured b unia?ial
compression tests on roc. cores or point load inde? tests on roc. specimens+ 1t should be
noted that, depending upon the roc. tpe, the strength of Grade 111 roc. 7moderatel
decomposed roc.8 is ver variable and can be :uite lo*+ 1n such case, the roc. strength
should be selected conservativel in the design+ For further details about the determination of
roc. strength parameters, reference should be made to %hapter 9 of Geoguide ) 7G&', )CC6a8+
4*1 General
This %hapter describes the loading conditions *hich should be considered in the design of
marine structures and includes information on the loads to be ta.en into account+ Guidance is
given on the selection of relevant design parameters and methods of calculation to derive the
resulting direct forces on structures, into account the nature and characteristics of the
1n addition to dead loads, superimposed dead loads, hdrostatic loads and soil pressures, the
other forces *hich ma act on marine structures are environmental loads, arising from such
natural phenomena as *inds, temperature variations, tides, currents, *aves and,
and those imposed loads due to operational activities+ General imposed loads cover live loads
from pedestrians, vehicles, cargo storage and handling+ Gessel imposed loads cover berthing,
mooring and slipping+
5nless stated other*ise, the design loads given in this %hapter are unfactored+
4*+ Loading Conditions and Co$.inations
The structure as a *hole, or an part or section, should be designed and chec.ed for at least
the loading conditions given belo*+ 1f it is e?pected that other loading conditions could be
critical, the should also be investigated+ Garious tpes of load should be combined in a
manner consistent *ith the probabilit of their simultaneous occurrence+
4*+*1 Nor$al Loading Conditions
These loading conditions are those in *hich normal operations continue unaffected b
environmental conditions+ A combination of the follo*ing should be considered $

(ead loads+

Superimposed dead loads+

,ive loads due to normal * operations 7the most severe arrangement
li.el to occur simultaneousl8+

Gessel imposed loads 7berthing and mooring8+

Bormal environmental loads 7*inds, currents and *aves8+


Soil pressures+

Hdrostatic loads+
Guidance on the calculation of environmental loads associated *ith normal *
operations is given later in this %hapter under each tpe of loading condition+ 1t should be
assumed that ma?imum imposed live loads can occur simultaneousl *ith ma?imum vessel
imposed loads from either berthing or mooring, *hichever gives the most severe effect+ 1t is
possible for mooring loads to occur at the same time as berthing for certain si>e and geometr
of the structure such as a Lett allo*ing berthing on one side and mooring on the other side+ 1n
this latter case, the most severe combination of berthing and mooring loads should be
determined b the designer and this combination assumes to occur simultaneousl *ith
ma?imum imposed live loads+
For normal environmental loads, it should be assumed that ma?imum loads from *inds,
currents and *aves can occur simultaneousl+ All directions should be considered *hen
assessing the most severe effects from these loads+
4*+*+ E2tre$e Loading Conditions
These loading conditions are associated *ith the most severe environmental conditions *hich
the structure is designed to *ithstand+ 1t is assumed that under these conditions most normal
operations, such as vessel berthing and mooring, pedestrian and vehicle movements, and cargo
storage and handling, *ill have ceased+ A combination of the follo*ing should be considered $

(ead loads 7same values as for Bormal ,oading %onditions8+

Superimposed dead loads 7these ma be different from Bormal ,oading


Reduced live loads 7if an at all8 due to continuing operations+

Reduced vessel@imposed loads 7if an8 due to continuing operations+

&?treme environmental loads 7*inds, currents, *aves and temperature


Soil pressures 7these ma be different from Bormal ,oading %onditions due to

variation of *ater table8+

Hdrostatic loads 7in some cases, these *ill be different from Bormal ,oading
%onditions, e+g+, due to difference in *ater levels8+
1t should be assumed for e?treme environmental loads that ma?imum effects from *inds,
currents and *aves can occur simultaneousl, but ma?imum effects from temperature
variations should be considered separatel+ Gessel@imposed loads can be ignored under
e?treme environmental conditions from *inds, currents and *aves, as these *ill occur during
tropical cclone conditions *hen normal vessel movements *ill have ceased+ Ho*ever,
vessel@imposed loads should be combined *ith ma?imum effects from temperature variations+
Guidance on live loads to be considered under e?treme environmental conditions from *inds,
currents and *aves is given in later sections of this chapter+ Bormal ma?imum live loads
should be combined *ith ma?imum effects from temperature variations, as these variations
*ill not occur during tropical cclone conditions+
5nless stated other*ise, the e?treme environmental conditions for structures having a design
life of 9" ears should be ta.en as those having return periods of )"" ears+ ;here special
circumstances appl, resulting in a shorter or longer design life, the return period should be
adLusted accordingl+ The relationship of the return period and the design life is sho*n in
Figure ))+
4*+*0 Te$#orar- Loading Conditions
Temporar ,oading %onditions are those *hich arise during construction, to*ing, installation
or the carring out of unusual but foreseeable operations, such as the application of a test load+
For these conditions, a combination of the appropriate dead and ma?imum temporar loads,
together *ith the associated environmental loads, should be considered+ Temporar design
and environmental conditions should be appropriate for the location, and for the time of ear,
*hen the construction or operation *ill be carried out+
4*+*1 A""ident Loading Conditions
Accident ,oading %onditions are those *hich occur during accidental impact b a vessel+ For
these conditions, a combination of dead, superimposed dead and hdrostatic loads, soil
pressures, live loads and normal environmental loads, together *ith the appropriate accident
berthing load, should be considered+ Guidance on accident berthing loads is given later in this
%hapter+ The above combination is to some e?tent artificial, as an accident can occur at a time
of normal or e?treme environmental loading conditions+ Ho*ever, it is not normall
necessar to combine accident berthing loads *ith ma?imum imposed loads and e?treme
environmental loads because of the lo* probabilit of their simultaneous occurrence+ The
need for of accident loading conditions *ill depend on $

1mportance of the structure+

,ocation *ith respect to normal ferr routes and fair*as+


(egree of e?posure to adverse environmental conditions+

&?pected degree of use if the structure is a pier+

Susceptibilit to damage of the tpe of design used+

#ublic and ferr piers should generall be designed or chec.ed for accident loading
conditions+ For such accident loading conditions, damage to minor structural members *hich
can be readil repaired, and to such items as fenders, can be accepted at the discretion of the
designer in consultation *ith the maintenance authorit+
4*0 Dead Loads
The dead load is the *eight of the structural elements of the structure, including an
substructure, piling and superstructure+ The *eight of the structure is its *eight in air+ ;here
parts are *holl, partiall or intermittentl immersed in *ater, upthrust on those parts should
be calculated separatel, as recommended in Section 9+H+
4*1 S(#eri$#osed Dead Loads
The superimposed dead load is the *eight of all materials imposing loads on the structure that
are not structural elements, and should include surfacing, fi?ed e:uipment, fenders, bollards,
handrails, ladders, *al.*as, stair*as, services, fittings and furniture+ For all loading
conditions, the possibilit of an of the superimposed dead loads being removed should be
4*4 Li!e Loads
4*4*1 Li!e Loads on Different T-#es of Str("t(res
The imposed live loads include all loads *hich the structure has to *ithstand e?cept dead,
superimposed dead, hdrostatic, soil, vessel@imposed and environmental loads, and should be
the greatest applied load li.el to arise from the intended use or purpose of the structures+ The
minimum imposed live loads that should be applied in a design are recommended in the
follo*ing paragraphs, and should be adLusted to ta.e into consideration the use of the
structures and the tpes of installations on them+
7)8 #ublic #iers
The live loads for the dec.s of public piers, to include for the movement of pedestrians, hand
luggage, ship provisions and temporar, should be ta.en as )" .#a+ ;here
emergenc vehicular access b an ambulance, police vehicle and3or fire engine as appropriate
is re:uired, the follo*ing additional re:uirements should be satisfied $

%oncentrated load to be applied on plan over an s:uare *ith a 6"" mm side

should be greater than H9 .B+

Total load to be applied on beams, uniforml distributed over span, should be

greater than )9" .B+
;here general access for pedestrians is provided to the roof, the live load should be ta.en as
9 .#a+
7!8 Ferr #iers
The live loads for pedestrian ferr piers should be no less than those given above for public
piers, but should in addition be chec.ed and agreed *ith the prospective ferr operators+ The
live loads for vehicular ferr pier *aiting areas and ramps *ill depend on the tpes of vehicles
allo*ed or e?pected to use the services, and should be agreed *ith the prospective ferr
768 'ther #iers
The live loads for other piers should be determined after consultation *ith the prospective
users, into account the proposed use, possible cargo storage, cargo handling e:uipment
and vehicular access+
728 (olphins
The live loads for dolphins should be ta.en as 9 .#a+
798 Sea*alls
The live load on the area of the land behind the sea*alls should be determined into
account the designated land use, and should be ta.en as follo*s $

Footpaths, ccle trac.s, open pla areas and the li.e $ )" .#a

Roads and carriage*as 7normal traffic8 $ !" .#a

;hen assessing the loading conditions behind sea*alls, the effect of temporar loads, such as
those due to surcharge preloading in a ne* reclamation, should also be investigated in the
708 -rea.*aters
The live load on the crest of the brea.*aters should be no less than those given above for
sea*alls, into account the uses and operations on the brea.*aters+
4*4*+ Deter$ination of Contin(o(s Li!e Loads
Guidance on the determination of the live load due to continuing operations under e?treme
environmental conditions from *inds, currents and *aves, and of the live loads to be used in
accident loading conditions referred to in Section 9+!, is given belo*+
7)8 ,ive ,oads under &?treme &nvironmental %onditions
The live loads due to continuing operations under e?treme environmental conditions from
*inds, currents and *aves ma be ta.en as >ero for piers and dolphins unless there is a
specific need or re:uirement for the pier to be used during tropical cclone conditions, e+g+ for
emergencies or storage+ For sea*alls, the ma?imum live loads on the adLacent land due to
continuing operations under e?treme environmental conditions ma be ta.en as 9"T of the
live loads due to normal * operations under normal environmental conditions, provided
that it can be ensured *ith reasonable certaint that the land behind the sea*all *ill not be
used for the storage or temporar of materials+ For other structures, the live loads due
to continuing operations under e?treme environmental conditions should be assessed b the
designer+ Bormal ma?imum live loads should be considered to appl under e?treme
environmental conditions relating to temperature variations+
7!8 ,ive ,oads under Accident %onditions
The live loads to be used in Accident ,oading %onditions for normal structures can be ta.en as
9"T of the live loads due to normal * operations under normal environmental
conditions+ At the discretion of the designer, this percentage ma be reduced to !9T for
structures e?pected to be loaded infre:uentl, or increased to H9T for structures e?pected to
have particularl heav usage such as ferr piers on maLor routes *ith e?ceptionall fre:uent
4*5 Tides and Water Le!el /ariations
1nformation on tides, the mean and e?treme range of still *ater levels is given in Section !+!+
Such information is re:uired for the evaluation of $


Hdrostatic pressures, including buoanc effects+

Soil pressures+

,evels of action of mooring, berthing and *ave forces+

1n addition, the effect of *aves and *ave run@up should be considered in relation to
overtopping and hdrostatic pressures+
For structures *ith a design life of 9" ears and for the loading conditions referred to in
Section 9+!, the range of *ater levels that should normall be considered are given as follo*s $
Loading Conditions Water Levels
&?treme From mean lo*er lo* *ater level to )""@ear
return period *ater level
Bormal From mean lo*er lo* *ater level to !@ear return
period *ater level
Accident From mean lo*er lo* *ater level to !@ear return
period *ater level
Temporar Range of *ater levels to be assessed b designers
for each individual case
For structures *here a different design life applies, the return period for e?treme loading
conditions should be adLusted accordingl+
Structures should be designed to *ithstand safel the effects of the range of still *ater level
referred to above for each loading condition+ 1t should be noted that for different tpes of
structure, different loading cases, and different conditions, the critical still *ater level ma be
the minimum, ma?imum or some intermediate levelM the full range must be investigated b the
4*6 &-drostati" Loads
;hen considering the effects of buoanc, it is preferable to represent the buoanc and
gravitational loads as separatel applied loading sstems+ 1n this *a, the effect of changes in
*ater level can be seen more clearl, and it is possible in limit state design to appl different
load factors to dead loads and hdrostatic loads as appropriate+ The determination of
hdrostatic loads should ta.e into account *ater level variations and ground *ater profiles
mentioned in Section 9+0 and Section 9+< respectivel+
For calculating the hdrostatic loads, the fresh*ater and sea*ater densities ma be ta.en as
)""" .g3m
and )"!9 .g3m
4*7 Soil Press(re and Gro(nd Water Profiles
Guidance on the calculation of soil pressures is given in Geoguide ) 7G&', )CC6a8+ For the
purposes of calculating soil pressures $

;ater levels should be derived as described in Section 9+0+

Ground pore *ater pressures should be determined *ith reference to tidal

range, soil permeabilit, drainage provisions, and an artesian and sub@artesian
ground *ater conditions+

Allo*ance should be made for reduced passive resistance due to overdredging

or scour+
1n the case of a sea*all adLoining reclaimed land, the *all together *ith the bac.fill up to a
vertical plane above its heel 7i+e+ the virtual bac.8 can be treated as a monolithic bloc. for the
purpose of stabilit Active soil pressures ma be assumed in the calculations and
suggested ma?imum values of mobili>ed angle of *all friction for active pressure calculations
are given in Table )2 of G&' 7)CC6a8+ #assive resistance in front of the toe of the structure
can be neglected for tpical gravit tpe sea*alls such as concrete bloc.*or. sea*alls resting
on a rubble mound+
The ground *ater condition is a critical factor in stabilit analsis+ (esigners should note that
ground *ater profiles are site@dependent+ 1f possible, it is recommended that the design *ater
pressures should be evaluated from field observations and a detailed analsis considering $

Tidal variation at the sea*ard side of the sea*all+

;ater inflo* from land*ard and from sea*ard sides of the sea*all+

Rate of overtopping *ater under severe *ave climate+

#ermeabilit of *ater draining behind, through and under the structure+

Surface and bac. drainage provided to cater for surface and ground *ater+
1n relativel simple conditions, the ground *ater profiles illustrated in Figure )2 ma be used
as a reference+ ;here the land behind the sea*all is paved, the flo* from land*ard sources is
negligible, and ade:uate surface and bac. drainage behind the structure are provided, the
ground *ater profile in the fill behind the sea*all ma be ta.en as almost hori>ontal at a level
higher than the still *ater level+ 5nless there is clear evidence to the contrar, a tidal lag of
not less than "+H m and )+" m above the still *ater level under normal loading conditions and
e?treme loading conditions respectivel ma be used in design+
1n addition to the above *ater level lags, *here the land behind the sea*all is not paved and
the fill is highl variable, the ground*ater profile should ta.e into consideration the *orst
credible ground *ater conditions that *ould arise in e?treme events selected for design+
Guidance on the determination of the *orst credible *ater conditions are given in Geoguide )
7G&', )CC6a8+
;here the flo* from land*ard sources is significant, the effects of the ground *ater profile
should be evaluated b field investigations+
4*8 Wind Loads
For the assessment of *ind loads on marine structures and for the loading conditions referred
to in Section 9+!, the follo*ing design *ind pressures ma be assumed $
Loading Conditions Design Wind Pressures
Bormal )+! .#a
&?treme 6+" .#a
Accident )+! .#a
For Temporar ,oading %onditions, the design *ind pressure should be assessed b the
designer for each individual case, into account the follo*ing points $

The design *ind pressure of )+! .#a for Bormal and Accident ,oading
%onditions corresponds to a gust of about 22 m3s, *hich is the ma?imum gust
e?pected to occur *ith a mean hourl *ind speed of )H m3s 766 .nots8+ This b
definition is the ma?imum mean hourl *ind speed li.el to occur *hile
Tropical %clone Signal Bo+ 6 is hoisted or *ithin the first fe* hours of the
hoisting of Tropical %clone Signal Bo+ <+ The above assumes a gustiness
factor 7ratio bet*een ma?imum gust and mean hourl *ind speed8 of about !+0,
*hich is not normall e?ceeded under Hong Kong conditions+ For details of
gustiness factors, reference ma be made to %hen 7)CH98 and #oon 7)C<!8+

The design *ind pressure of 6+" .#a under e?treme environmental conditions
corresponds to a gust of about H" m3s 7)60 .nots8, *hich is the ma?imum gust
e?pected to occur *ith a return period of about 9" ears in Hong Kong *aters+
;ind forces on structures and elements of structures ma be calculated in accordance *ith
Hong Kong %ode of #ractice on ;ind &ffects 7-((, )C<68+
4*1: Wa!e Loads
4*1:*1 General
;ave loads on a structure are dnamic in nature, but *hen the design *ave period is much
higher than the structureNs fundamental period, as *ill be the case for the vast maLorit of
structures covered b this Manual, these loads ma be ade:uatel represented b their static
e:uivalents+ General guidance on dnamic responses and vibrations are covered in
Section 9+)9+ The crest or trough of an design *ave should be positioned relative to a
structure such that the *ave forces have their ma?imum effect on the structure+ 1t should be
noted that the ma?imum stress in elements of the structure ma occur for *ave positions,
directions and periods other than those causing the ma?imum force on the structure and such
effect should be considered in design+ Allo*ance should also be made in calculations for the
build@up of marine gro*th on the structures+ ;here no other information or site
measurements are available, a uniform effective thic.ness of )"" mm of marine gro*th for all
surfaces belo* mean sea level ma be assumed+
4*1:*+ Wa!e Conditions
The *ave conditions that should be assessed in design should be Lointl described *ith the
*ater levels as these t*o variables are correlated 7HK#5, !"""8+ For marine *or.s *ith a
design life of 9" ears, the follo*ing *ave conditions and *ater levels should normall be
considered $
Loading Conditions Waves and Water Levels


&?treme *ave condition at )""@ear return period
and e?treme *ater level at )"@ear return period+

&?treme *ave condition at )"@ear return period

and e?treme *ater level at )""@ear return period+

&?treme *ave condition at 9"@ear return period

and e?treme *ater level at 9"@ear return period+

&?treme *ave condition at )""@ear return period

and mean lo*er lo* *ater level+


;ave condition at tropical cclone signal no+ 6 or
*ithin the first fe* hours of the hoisting of
tropical cclone signal no+ < and ma?imum *ater
level at !@ear return period+

;ave condition at tropical cclone signal no+ 6 or

*ithin the first fe* hours of the hoisting of
tropical cclone signal no+ < and mean lo*er lo*
*ater level+


Same as normal loading condition+


;ave condition to be assessed b designers for
each individual case+
The e?treme *ave and *ater level conditions given above refers to e?treme environmental
events *ith return periods of about )"" ears+
;hen *ind data are used for determining the *ave heights, the e?treme *ind speeds sho*n in
Tables )! to 6" ma be used to estimate the *ave heights under e?treme loading conditions+
1n this connection, it ma be assumed that the )""@ear *ind *aves are generated b the )""@
ear *inds, the 9"@ear *ind *aves b the 9"@ear *inds, the )"@ear *ind *aves b the )"@
ear *inds and so forth+ For the assessment of *ave heights under normal and accident
loading conditions, a mean hourl *ind speed of )H m3s, or the e:uivalent *ind speed
adLusted for duration, ma generall be used+ The reason for selecting this particular mean
hourl *ind speed is given in Section 9+C+ For temporar loading conditions, the designer
should assess the design *ave parameters for each situation, into account the li.el
*ind speeds and *ater levels to be e?perienced+
1n each loading condition, the effect of s*ells ma be considered *ith reference to Table 62 in
*hich the offshore *ave data of Hong Kong are given+ For assessing the *ave conditions in
normal loading and accident loading conditions, the !@ear *ave data ma be used in the
absence of more realistic *ave information+ Similarl, for assessing the *ave conditions in
e?treme loading condition, the respective *ave data corresponding to the return period of the
e?treme *ave conditions ma be used+
1t should be noted that for different tpes of structure, different loading cases and different
conditions, the critical still *ater level ma be the minimum, ma?imum or some intermediate
level+ For e?ample, smaller *aves at a lo*er sea *ater level ma brea. near the shore *hile
those higher *aves at higher sea *ater level ma not brea.+ The associated *aves of
the smaller *aves ma represent a more critical condition to the structures than the higher *aves+ The full range of *ater levels in addition to the *ater levels mentioned
in the above paragraphs should be investigated b the designer+
4*1:*0 Wa!e 'or"es on /erti"al Str("t(res
;aves incident upon a long vertical surface ma be reflected *ithout and a standing
*ave *ill be formed in front of the *all+ 1n certain depths, relative to the *avelength and
*ave height, *aves ma brea. against the *all producing impulsive loading *hich ma be
ver large over small surface area+ The follo*ing paragraphs recommend methods to estimate
the average *ave pressures on a long structure+
7)8 ;ave #ressure under ;ave %rests
The ma?imum *ave pressure on a long vertical reflective *all ma be estimated b the
method of Goda as referred to in -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1, !"""8+ A summar of the method is
given in Figures )9 and )0+ The method deals *ith both the standing and *ave
forces in a single formula+ The formulae ma.e use of the *ave height parameter H
as the
design *ave height+ The basic concept is to design the structure against the largest single
*ave force e?pected during the design sea state, assuming that the largest force could be
evaluated *ith the highest *ave in a *ave group+ Goda recommended that H
can generall
be ta.en as )+<H
sea*ard of the surf >one, *hereas *ithin the surf >one the height is ta.en
as the highest of the random *aves H
at the location of a distance e:ual to 9H
sea*ard of the structure as given b the e:uations sho*n in Appendi? A+ The *ave period to
be used in the formulae can be ta.en as the significant *ave period T
A trape>oidal shape of pressure distribution is assumed along the face of the vertical *all+ 1t
should be noted that the *ater depth above the rubble foundation is measured from the top of
the rubble laer but the *ave pressure is e?erted do*n to the bottom of the vertical *all+
The method of Goda also calculates the *ave uplift pressure acting on the bottom of the
structure in addition to the buoanc due to displaced *ater belo* the design *ater level+ A
triangular distribution of uplift pressure under the structure is assumed as almost free drainage
is provided b the rubble mound of the foundation+
7!8 ;ave #ressure under ;ave Trough
;hen the trough of an incident *ave contact *ith a vertical *all, the pressure e?erted
on the *all becomes less than the hdrostatic pressure under the still *ater level+ As a result,
the vertical *all e?periences a net pressure sea*ard+ The solution for *ave pressure under a
*ave trough, in particular that of *aves, has not et been full developed+ -ut as far
as the pressure of standing *aves is concerned, the *ave pressure distribution under the
trough ma be determined according to the theor of Sainflou as given in Figure )H+ The
ma?imum *ave height H
should be used as the design *ave height in the calculation of
*ave pressures under *ave troughs+ Such a pressure *ill li.el govern the stabilit of the
structure against sliding and overturning sea*ard+
4*1:*1 Wa!e 'or"es on Piles
;ave force due to *aves on a circular pile *hich does not obstruct *ave
propagation ma be calculated from Morison=s e:uation as the sum of a drag force and an
inertia force+ The method, summari>ed in Figure )<, is applicable for (3, "+!, *here ( is
the pile diameter and , is the *avelength+ %aution is given here, ho*ever, that the use of
linear *ave theor in evaluating the *ave orbital velocit ma lead to an underestimation of
the *ave force *hen the ratio of *ave height to *ater depth or the *ave steepness cannot be
regarded small+ 1t should also be noted that the crest elevation above the mean sea level is
greater than H3! because of the finite amplitude *ave effect, *here H is the *ave height+
Suggested values of the drag coefficient in the Morison=s e:uation are sho*n in Figure )C and
a value of ! is recommended for the inertia coefficient for circular piles+
For *aves, the Morison=s e:uation ma also be applied under the assumption that the
*ave acts as a *ater mass *ith high velocit on the pile *ithout acceleration+ The inertia
coefficient ma be ta.en to be >ero *hereas the drag coefficient ma be increased to )+H9+
This recommendation, ho*ever, is based on limited information+ *ave force
generall occurs in ver shallo* *ater region 7e+g+ surf >one8+ Although the *ave
force ma be greater per unit length of the pile, the pile length subLect to action of
*aves is usuall shorter in ver shallo* *ater area as compared to that in deeper *ater and
this possibl results in a smaller total force+ Hence, pile design ma be governed primaril b
vertical loads acting along the pile under such condition+
The design *ave height ma be ta.en as !H
sea*ard of the surf >one, *hereas *ithin the
surf >one the height is ta.en as the highest of the random *aves H
at the location
of a distance e:ual to 9H
sea*ard of the structure as given b the e:uations sho*n in
Appendi? A+ The *ave period to be used in the formulae can be ta.en as the significant *ave
period T
%are should be ta.en that for piles standing closer than about four pile diameters, the loading
for the front piles standing side b side in ro*s parallel to the *ave crest should be increased
b the follo*ing factors 7&A5, )CC"8 $
Pile Centre-to Centre Distance Factor
! ? #ile (iameter )+9
6 ? #ile (iameter )+!9
2 ? #ile (iameter )+"
For the assessment of *ave forces on piles, the area normal to the flo* or *ave propagation
should include an allo*ance for marine gro*th+ ;here no other information or site
measurements are available, a uniform effective thic.ness of )"" mm of marine gro*th for all
surfaces belo* mean sea level ma be assumed+
4*1:*4 Wa!e 'or"es on Pile<s(##orted De" Str("t(res
For some structures, it *ill be necessar to separate the structure into different elements and
appl different theories to different elements in order to assess the total *ave load on the
structure+ For a pile@supported dec. structure consisting of a relativel open concrete dec.
supported on piles, the dec. should be considered to consist of a solid concrete dec. edge,
*ith effective depth to be assessed b the designer, for *hich reflective conditions mentioned
in Section 9+)"+6 *ill appl if the dec. length is sufficient+ -elo* this solid concrete dec.
edge, *ave loads on the piles should be assessed separatel using MorisonNs e:uation+ 1t
should normall be assumed that ma?imum *ave forces on the dec. edge and piles can occur
simultaneousl+ Ho*ever, it should be noted that ma?imum *ave forces ma not occur
simultaneousl at all piles in a pile bent+
1t is particularl important *hen assessing *ave forces for pile@supported dec. structures,
*here reflective conditions ma appl for one part and MorisonNs e:uation for another part of
the structure, to chec. *ave forces for different still *ater levels+ The critical still *ater level
for *ave loads on different elements of the structure *ill not al*as be the same, and *ill not
al*as correspond to the critical *ater level for *ave loads for the structure as a *hole+
4*1:*5 Wa!e U#lift
For a dec. *hose soffit is Lust above the still *ater level, incoming *aves ma e?ert impulsive
uplift forces as the rising *ater surface hits the dec.=s soffit+ The impulsive uplift is
characteri>ed b the relativel high magnitude but short duration+ There have been some
instances of damage of open@tpe *harves *ith dec.s supported b vertical piles, in *hich the
connecting parts bet*een dec.s and piles *ere destroed and the dec.s *ere uplifted *hile
partiall damaged+ The access bridges bet*een the dec.s and the earth retaining *alls ma be
fallen do*n b the action of impulsive *ave uplift+ The magnitude of uplift intensit is hard
to evaluate+ -ased on a stud on *ave absorbing sea*all for the Gictoria Harbour
7HK5, )CC<8, the average uplift pressure on the dec. soffit Lust above the still *ater level ma
be in the order of )+6 to )+H*
, *here *
is the unit *eight of sea*ater+ Ho*ever, the
instantaneous uplift pressure ma locall rise more than )"*
, but the e:uivalent static
pressure for calculating stresses *ithin the dec. should be less than 2 times the hdrostatic
head of the design *ave height 7'%(1, !""!8+
4*1:*6 Wa!es on R(..le Mo(nd Str("t(res
For rubble mound structures protected b roc. armour or concrete armour units on the slope,
the overall stabilit and the unit stabilit must be fulfilled for the structure to remain stable
under *ave actions+ 1t is reali>ed that damage to an armoured sloping structure is often a
chain process b *hich failure of one element induces a series of failures+ The stabilit of a
single armour unit therefore becomes a prime interest for the stabilit of the entire structure+
1n general, the design of rubble mound structure involves the determination of the si>e of the
armour unit on the slope b means of some stabilit formulae instead of calculating the *ave
force on it+ These stabilit formulae generall e?press the *eight of an armour unit as a
function of a number of factors such as *ave conditions, slope of the structure, the
permeabilit of the structure and the properties of the armour unit+ &?amples of these
formulae include the Hudson formula and the Gan (er Meer formulae+ Guidance on the
application of these formulae are given in #art 2 of the Manual K Guide to (esign of Sea*alls
and -rea.*aters+
4*11 C(rrent Loads
4*11*1 General
;here no detailed information or records are available at a site, the design current velocit for
Bormal, &?treme, Temporar and Accident ,oading %onditions ma be ta.en as ) m3s from
the *ater surface to a depth of )9 metres belo* the *ater surface+ -elo* )9 metres *ater
depth, the current ma be ignored+ For most locations, particularl *ithin the harbour area,
the above *ill be conservative, as current forces are assumed to act simultaneousl *ith *ave
and *ind forces+ For locations near channels such as Kap Shui Mun, 5rmston Road, Tolo
%hannel, Rambler %hannel and ,ei Aue Mun, *here above average currents are encountered,
the figure of ) m3s should not be used *ithout a detailed investigation+ ;here measurements
or mathematical modelling results are available, the designer should assess design current
velocities for the various loading conditions+
The direction of the design current for locations *here no information or records are available
should be determined b the designer+ For locations close to the shore, the direction ma
normall be assumed to be parallel to the shoreline+ For isolated locations remote from the
shore, it should normall be assumed that the design current can occur in all directions+
For the assessment of current forces on piles and other parts of structures, for all loading
conditions other than for temporar conditions during construction, the area normal to flo*
should include an allo*ance for marine gro*th+ ;here no other information or site
measurements are available, a uniform effective thic.ness of )"" mm of marine gro*th for all
surfaces belo* mean sea level ma be assumed+
4*11*+ Stead- Drag 'or"es
,oads imposed b currents on marine structures ma be classified as either drag forces parallel
to the flo* direction, or cross@flo* forces transverse to the flo* direction+ %urrent drag forces
are principall steadM the oscillator component is onl significant *hen its fre:uenc
approaches the natural fre:uenc of the structure+ %ross@flo* forces are entirel oscillator
for bodies smmetricall presented to the flo*+ Stead drag forces on a circular pile in a
uniform current ma be calculated using the formula given as follo*s $
*here f
$ (rag force per unit length+
$ (rag coefficient+
U $ (ensit of *ater+
v $ Gelocit of current normal to pile a?is+
( $ #ile diameter 7including marine gro*th8+
;here the current is not uniform over the *ater column, the total drag force can be
determined b adding the drag force at different depths of the pile+ The drag coefficients for
circular clinders is given in Figure )C+
4*11*0 'lo;<ind("ed Os"illations
A pile in a current e?periences fluctuating forces, both in@line and cross@flo*, due to the
shedding of vortices do*nstream of the pile+ The fre:uencies of the fluctuating forces are
directl related to the fre:uenc of the vorte? shedding and the amplitude of the fluctuating
force increases as its fre:uenc approaches the natural fre:uenc of the pile or of the structure
as a *hole+
#iled structures are particularl vulnerable to this tpe of oscillation during construction+
Hence, restraint should be provided to pile heads immediatel after driving to prevent the
possibilit of oscillation in the cantilever mode+ For completed structures in tpical *ater
depths and *ith the tpes of pile normall used in Hong Kong, it is not usuall necessar to
( Uv %
( (
chec. critical flo* velocities causing the oscillations+ Ho*ever, for structures in particularl
deep *ater *here slender piles are being considered and at locations *here high design
current velocities are encountered, reference should be made to -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1, !"""8 to
chec. *hether flo*@induced oscillations *ill occur+
4*1+ 3ert%ing Loads
4*1+*1 General
1n the course of berthing, loads *ill be generated bet*een the vessel and the berthing structure
from the moment at *hich contact is first made until the vessel is finall brought to rest+ The
magnitude of the loads *ill depend, not onl on the si>e and velocit of the vessel, but also on
the nature of the structure, including an fendering, and the degree of resilience it presents
under impact+
-erthing loads transmitted to a structure comprise berthing reactions normal to the berthing
face and friction loads parallel to the berthing face+ The berthing reactions normal to the
berthing face depends upon the berthing energ and the load3deflection characteristics of the
vessel, structure and fender sstem, and should be determined in accordance *ith
Section 9+)!+! and Section 9+)!+6+ The friction loads parallel to the berthing face ma be
ta.en as the coefficient of friction bet*een the t*o faces in contact multiplied b the berthing
reaction and should be considered in both the hori>ontal and vertical directions+ ;here
necessar, reference on the coefficient of friction should be made to the manufacturers of the
selected fender units+
4*1+*+ Assess$ent of 3ert%ing Energ-
The total amount of energ & 7.Bm8 to be absorbed, either b the fender sstem alone or b a
combination of the fender sstem and the structure itself *ith some fle?ibilit, ma be
calculated from the follo*ing energ formulae $
*here %
is the hdrodnamic coefficient+
is the displacement of the vessel 7t8+
is the velocit of the vessel normal to the berth 7m3s8+
c s e
b v m
% V % V % V G V M V % V
& =
is the eccentricit coefficient+
is the softness coefficient+
is the berth configuration coefficient+
This energ depends on the velocit of the vessel normal to the berth and a number of factors
that modif the vessel=s .inetic energ to be absorbed b the fender sstem and the structure+
7)8 -erthing Gelocit
The berthing velocit of the vessel normal to the berth depends on the vessel si>e and tpe,
fre:uenc of arrival, possible constraints on movement approaching the berth, and *ave,
current and *ind conditions li.el to be encountered at berthing+ ;here no other information
is available, for the normal loading conditions referred to in Section 9+!, the follo*ing
berthing velocities normal to the berth ma be used as a guide $
Vessel Displacement
Berthing Velocity ormal to Berth
5nder )"" "+2"
)"" to !"" "+69
!"" to !,""" "+6"
!,""" to )",""" "+!"
The berthing velocities normal to the berth suggested above relate to structures located at sites
*ith normal e?posure to environmental conditions *ithout e?cessive fre:uenc of use, and
assume that berthing ma continue after the raising of Tropical %clone Signal Bo+ 6, and for
the first fe* hours after the raising of Tropical %clone Signal Bo+ <+ -efore an velocit is
finall adopted for detailed design, advice should be sought from the clients, users or ferr
operators as appropriate+
For Accident ,oading %onditions, general comments are given in Section 9+!+2+ The vessel
displacement and berthing velocit for such conditions should be decided b the designer for
the individual structure being considered, but as a general rule the total energ to be absorbed
for accident loading should be at least 9"T greater than for normal loading+ For particularl
critical structures or for structures *ith e?pected heav use and unfavourable e?posure, this
ma need to be increased to )""T+
;here ade:uate statistical data on berthing velocities for vessels and conditions similar to
those of the berth being designed are available, the velocit should be derived from these data
in preference to the above suggested values+
7!8 Hdrodnamic Mass %oefficient
The hdrodnamic mass coefficient allo*s the movement of *ater around the ship to be ta.en
into account *hen calculating the total energ of the vessel b increasing the mass of the
sstem+ The hdrodnamic mass coefficient %
ma be calculated from the follo*ing
e:uation 7-S1, )CC2b8 $
*here (
is the draft of the vessel 7m8+
is the beam of the vessel 7m8+
768 &ccentricit coefficient
A vessel *ill usuall berth at a certain angle and hence it turns simultaneousl at the time of
first impact+ (uring this process, some of the .inetic energ of the ship is converted to turning
energ and the remaining energ is transferred to the berth+ The eccentricit coefficient
represents the proportion of the remaining energ to the .inetic energ of the vessel at
berthing 7see Figure !"8+ The formula for calculating the coefficient is given as follo*s 7-S1,
)CC2b8 $
8 R 7K
8 W cos R 7K
! !
*here K
is the radius of gration of the ship+
P 7"+)C%
D "+))8 ,
is the length of the hull bet*een perpendiculars 7m8+
is the bloc. coefficient, tpicall in the range of "+9 to "+<9+
P displacement 7.g837,
7m8 ? beam7m8 ? draft7m8 ? densit of *ater7.g3m
is the distance of the point of contact from the centre of mass 7m8+
is the angle bet*een the line Loining the point of contact to the centre of mass and
the velocit vector+
V ! ) % + =
728 Softness %oefficient
The softness coefficient allo*s for the portion of the impact energ that is absorbed b the
vessel=s hull+ Generall, the energ absorbed b the deformation of the ship=s hull is small+ 1n
the absence of more reliable information, the value of the softness coefficient should be ta.en
as )+" 7-S1, )CC2b8+
798 -erth %onfiguration %oefficient
The berth configuration coefficient allo*s for the portion of the vessel energ *hich is
absorbed b the cushioning effect of the *ater trapped bet*een the vessel hull and the
structure+ For solid :ua *alls or sea*alls, the coefficient should be ta.en as bet*een "+< and
)+ For pile@supported dec. structures, a value of )+" should be used 7-S1, )CC2b8+
708 &nerg %apacit of Fenders
The designed energ capacit of each fender should in general be at least 9"T greater than
that calculated for normal loading conditions to allo* for accidental occurrences such as
vessel engine failure, of mooring or to*ing lines, sudden changes of *ind or current
conditions and human error+ -ecause of the non@linear energ3deflection and
reaction3deflection characteristics of most fender sstems, the effects of both normal and
abnormal impacts on the fender sstem and berth structures should be e?amined+
4*1+*0 3ert%ing Rea"tions
-erthing reaction is a function of the berthing energ and the deformation characteristics of
the fender sstem+ After the berthing energ is calculated, berthing reaction to be ta.en b the
structure can be assessed from the manufacturerNs performance curves once the tpe of fender
to be used has been determined+ A performance curve sho*s the relationship of the deflection,
energ absorption and reaction of a fender+
;here the point of impact is not on the straight run of the vessel hull and the vessel is not
parallel to the berth at impact, the fender unit *ill receive an angular loading+ The hull
geometr over the impact area should therefore be considered in both hori>ontal and vertical
planes 7see Figure !)8 to establish the angle of application of load to individual units+
Manufacturers of proprietar rubber fender units usuall provide correction factors to the
performance data of their units under angular berthing conditions+
4*10 Mooring Loads
Mooring loads comprise those loads imposed on a structure b a vessel tied up alongside, both
through contact bet*een the vessel and structure or its fender sstem, and through tension in
mooring ropes+ The also include loads arising from manoeuvres of the vessel at the berth but
e?clude the impact and frictional berthing loads+ These loads are principall caused b *inds,
currents and, in more e?posed locations, b *aves+
Mooring bollard locations and normal ma?imum * loads should be agreed *ith the
(irector of Marine, user departments and the ferr operators as appropriate+ For Bormal
,oading %onditions, mooring loads ma be assumed to be e:ual to the normal ma?imum
bollard * loads+ As a general guidance, the follo*ing bollard loads ma be assumed
*ithout specific calculation on the probable ma?imum mooring loads $
Vessel Displacement
Bollard Loading
5p to !,""" )""
5p to )",""" 6""
;here it is considered necessar to calculate the forces acting on the moored vessels in order
to chec. bollard loads or loads imposed directl b vessels on a structure, reference ma be
made to -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1, !"""8 and #art 2 7-S1, )CC2b8 for further details+
At e?posed locations, *here *ave loading is severe, the dnamic response of the vessel under
restraint of mooring lines and fenders should be determined b model testing, mathematical
analsis or other methods *ith reference to the guidance given in %lause 6) of -S 062C$#art )
7-S1, !"""8+
1n the design calculations of the marine structures, allo*ance should be made for the mooring
lines not being hori>ontal+ 1f no other information is available, a ma?imum angle to the
hori>ontal of 6"S 7up and do*n8 ma be assumed+ The direction of each mooring load should
be ta.en as that having the most adverse effect on the structure, and in general it should be
assumed that all mooring loads on a structure can act simultaneousl+
4*11 Te$#erat(re /ariation
The loads or load effects arising from thermal e?pansion or contraction of the structure and
from temperature gradients in the structure *ill usuall be minor in relation to other loads for
marine structures *ith a ma?imum length bet*een Loints of 9" m, and need not be considered+
The loads arising from thermal e?pansion or contraction of the structure for marine structures
*ith a length bet*een Loints e?ceeding 9" m should be assessed+ This is particularl
important for piers and similar pile@supported dec. structures *here thermal movements of the
dec. induce loads in the supporting piles+ ;here no specific information is available
concerning the temperatures of the structure at the time of construction, and the e?tremes
e?pected during the design life of the structure, for design purposes an effective ma?imum
temperature drop of !9S% and an effective ma?imum temperature rise of !"S% can be assumed
for concrete dec. structures under e?treme environmental conditions+ 5nder normal loading
conditions, the effects of temperature variations ma be ignored+
4*14 Eart%=(aes, Mo!e$ents and /i.rations
For the marine structures covered b this Manual, seismic forces in Hong Kong ma be
assumed to be minor in relation to the combined effects of other imposed loads+ Further
information on seismicit ma be obtained from G%'7)CC)8, G&'7)CC!8 and G&'7)CCH8+
For guidance on movements and vibrations, reference ma be made to Section 2H of
-S 062C$#art ) 7-S1, !"""8+ For the marine structures covered b this Manual and the
relativel shallo* *ater depths normall appling, movement and vibration problems should
not be e?pected and usuall can be effectivel ignored+ Movements bet*een different parts of
structures, and bet*een ne* and e?isting structures, should be assessed in the usual *a in
order to fi? Loint si>es and locations+ ;here vessel berthing occurs, movements of fle?ible
and even relativel infle?ible structures can be important in assisting *ith energ absorption+
5*1 General
This %hapter gives comments and guidance on particular matters related to material selection,
use and specification+ The materials covered are concrete, steel, timber, rubber, armour roc.
and fill materials+ For general information on these materials and an other materials used in
marine structures, reference should be made to the General Specification for %ivil &ngineering
;or.s 7GS8 7Hong Kong Government, )CC!a8+ %omments on aspects related to durabilit are
also given in this %hapter+
5*+ Reinfor"ed Con"rete
The durabilit of reinforced concrete depends fundamentall on the :ualit of the concrete and
the cover to the reinforcement embedded inside the concrete+ Bormall, the al.alinit of the
concrete enables the formation of a protective passivit laer around the reinforcement that
prevents corrosion+ Ho*ever, under intermittent or periodical *etting and dring conditions,
chloride of sea*ater that penetrates into the concrete *ill brea. do*n the passivit laer and
initiate corrosion of the reinforcement+ Therefore, it is important to use a concrete mi? *ith
high densit and the re:uired *or.abilit for ade:uate compaction and to provide a large
concrete cover to the reinforcement bars to dela the time for ingress of chloride to the
reinforcement+ 1n this connection, the recommended specification given in Appendi? -,
designed to address the corrosion of reinforced concrete, should be adopted for marine
The main features of the recommended specification are summari>ed as follo*s $

The minimum characteristic strength of the concrete mi? shall be 29 M#a+

The ma?imum *ater3cementitious ratio shall not e?ceed "+6<+

%ondensed silica fume is to be added to reduce the permeabilit of the


The cementitious content shall be *ithin 6<"@29" .g3m

, of *hich the dr mass
of condensed silica fume shall be *ithin 9@)"T range b mass of the
cementitious content+

The cover to all reinforcement in all e?posure >ones shall be H9 mm+

For fle?ural crac. *idth design and control purpose, the allo*able crac. *idth,
ta.en to be "+) mm for marine structures, ma be increased b a factor of )+!9+
The specification also stipulates other re:uirements on cements, aggregates, chemical
admi?tures, pulverised fuel ash or blast furnace slag and curing compounds to ensure that $

Suitable constituents and mi? compositions are used+

%oncrete mi?es are sufficientl * to ensure effective compaction+

Harmful chemical reactions in the concrete are *ithin acceptable levels+

Ade:uate curing is carried out in order to achieve the desired durabilit+

5*0 Unreinfor"ed Con"rete
For unreinforced concrete in massive sections, such as precast concrete sea*all bloc.s and concrete for granite facing in sea*alls, the use of concrete *ith a minimum
characteristic strength of !" M#a has been sho*n to be successful *ith no significant
maintenance problems+ The continued use of such concrete for massive sections is
recommended, irrespective of *hether the concrete is full immersed or *ithin the tidal or
splash >ones, provided the concrete is actuall cast in the dr+
#artial replacement of cement b pulveri>ed fuel ash in thic. sections *ill reduce effects of
heat of hdration+ Replacement of up to 9"T of the cement ma be considered if earl
strength is not critical+
5*1 Under;ater Con"rete
Guidance on under*ater concrete is given in Section 9<+2+)! of -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1, !"""8+
Reinforced concrete placed under*ater should onl be used *here absolutel necessar,
because of the difficulties of ensuring sound results and the problems of inspection+ 1n
particular, the use of concrete placed b tremie for forming heavil reinforced elements such
as pile caps *ithin the full immersed or tidal >ones should be avoided, and the use of precast
units or the use of *atertight steel shutters, e?tended in height as necessar to avoid being
flooded b sea*ater due to tide level change or *ave action, should be adopted to enable the
concrete to be cast in dr condition+
1t should be noted that concrete placed under *ater should not be designed for a characteristic
strength greater than !9 M#a+ 1t is recommended that this limitation should appl to bored
piles formed b reinforced concrete placed b tremie due to the defects *hich can occur, but a
higher grade of concrete should be specified in order to achieve this condition+
5*4 Steel
5*4*1 Str("t(ral Steel in General
Structural steel in marine structures should normall be *eldable structural steel compling
*ith -S &B )""!9 7-S1, )CC68 for structural sections, -S &B )"!2< 7-S1, )CC0a R b8 for hot
rolled sheet piling, -S &B )"!)" 7-S1, )CC2 R )CCHd8 for tubular piles made of hot formed
sections, and -S &B )"!)C 7-S1, )CCHa R b8 for tubular piles made of cold formed sections as
5*4*+ Corrosion Prote"tion
1n the design of steel structures and steel elements, corrosion protection, allo*ance for metal
losses due to corrosion or both are maLor considerations+ 1t should be noted that the advice in
Table !9 of -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1, !"""8, *hich gives tpical upper rates of corrosion for
structural steels in maritime conditions for temperate climates, is not recommended for use in
Hong Kong+ Hong Kong *aters are relativel *arm, and contain various pollutants *hose
effect on steel is generall*n+ 1n man sites, the presence of anaerobic sulphate@
reducing bacteria, *hich can greatl increase normal steel corrosion rates, is also suspected+
1n the absence of full scale long@term tests covering metal loss from corrosion in Hong Kong
*aters, it is recommended that all structural steel*or. above sea@bed level, *hether full
immersed, *ithin the tidal or splash >ones, or generall above the splash >one, is full
protected against corrosion for the design life of the structure+ -elo* sea@bed level, an
allo*ance for corrosion loss of "+"9 mm per ear on the outside face of steel is considered
reasonable if no corrosion protection is carried out *ithin this >one+ For guidance on
protective measures *hich can be ta.en against corrosion, Section 0+< should be referred to+
5*4*0 Use of Stainless Steel
Section !) of the GS re:uires stainless steel for elements in marine *or.s such as chains,
railings, cat ladders, pumphouse screens and screen guides, mooring ees and other fittings to
be austenitic stainless steel grade 6)0 compling *ith -S CH"$#art ) 7-S1, )CC0c8,
-S )22C$#art ! 7-S1, )C<68, or -S &B )""<< 7-S1, )CC9a, b R c8 as appropriate+ 1t should be
noted that the commonl available grade 6"2 stainless steel is not suitable for use in a marine
environment due to the presence of chlorides+ The selection of the correct grade of stainless
steel at the design stage is most important, as corrosion in stainless steel members and
fasteners ma not be readil evident+ 1n stress corrosion, corrosion occurs along
grain boundaries, and there ma be no corrosion product evident, or onl slight staining+ A
visual e?amination ma not sho* this, even though the member or fastener is about
to fail+
5*4*1 General G(idan"e
General guidance on the use of structural steel and other metals in marine structures is given in
%lause 9C of -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1, !"""8+ 1mportant points to note are as follo*s $

Fabrication details should be .ept as simple as possible and should be designed

to avoid corrosion and facilitate maintenance+

Tolerances for on@site connections should be generous because of the difficulties

associated *ith * in a marine environment+

As much prefabrication as possible should be underta.en, advantage of

mechanised *elding and earl painting under factor@controlled conditions+

Steel embedded in concrete is cathodic relative to the same steel in sea*ater, and
rapid corrosion *ill therefore occur at the interface of a partl embedded
member unless special treatment is carried out, e+g+ use of sacrificial anodes or
impressed currents+

%hemical composition of steels has less influence on corrosion rates in a marine

environment than phsical factors such as the roughness of the surface finish of
the steel and the presence of holes and re@entrant corners, all of *hich tend to
promote the formation of galvanic corrosion cells+
5*5 Ti$.er
Timbers are mainl used in the fendering sstem of marine structures in Hong Kong in the
past+ Ho*ever, such application is considered not environmentall friendl and hence further
use of timber as fenders is not recommended+ ;here the use of timbers in marine structure are
considered necessar, reference should be made to -S 9H90 7-S1, )CCHc8 and -S 9!0<$#art !
7-S1, )CC0d8+
5*6 R(
Section !) of the GS re:uires rubber for fenders to be resistant to aging, *eathering and
*earing, to be homogeneous, free from an defects or impurities, pores or crac.s and to have
certain defined properties as covered b parts of -S C"6 7-S1, several parts, )CC" to )CC<8+
Tpes of rubber fenders available in the can be obtained from manufacturer=s
catalogues+ 1nformation given in maLor manufacturersN catalogues concerning fender reaction,
deformation and energ characteristics ma generall be accepted *ith confidence+ -efore
finalising a rubber fender design, advice should al*as be sought from one or more of the
maLor reputable suppliers regarding suitabilit for the proLect+ ;herever possible, rubber
fenders should be selected or specified to match e?isting fenders, to minimise the different
tpes of fenders re:uired to be .ept in stoc. for future maintenance+
5*7 Prote"ti!e Meas(res
5*7*1 General
1nformation on protective measures *hich can be used to stop or reduce deterioration in
marine structures is given in Section 00 of -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1, !"""8+ %omments on
corrosion losses for steel in local conditions are given in Section 0+9+!
5*7*+ Prote"ti!e Coatings for Steel
-S &B 1S' )!C22 7< parts, )CC<8 gives guidance on the choice, design and specification of
coating sstems available, although it should be noted that the definitions of environment and
recommendations for coatings ma not be straightl applicable to local conditions *hich are
li.el to be more corrosive, due mainl to higher air and sea temperatures and humidit+ For
the use of coating materials under local conditions, the advice of the manufacturers should be
sought and follo*ed+
The period during *hich the protection covered b paint sstems is effective is generall
shorter than the design life of the structure+ (ue consideration should be given at the planning
and design stage to the possibilit of their maintenance and rene*al+ As a general guidance,
structural components *hich are e?posed to corrosion stresses and *hich are no longer
accessible for corrosion protection measures after assembl should be provided *ith corrosion
protection that *ill remain effective for the duration of the design life of the structure+ 1f this
cannot be achieved b means of protective coating sstems, other measures, such as
manufacturing components from corrosion@resistant material, designing components so that
the are replaceable, or the specification of a corrosion allo*ance, should be considered+
The cost@effectiveness of a given corrosion protection sstem is generall in direct proportion
to the length of time for *hich effective protection is maintained, and the amount of
maintenance or replacement *or. re:uired during the design life of the structure should be
reduced to a minimum+ (urabilit has been indicated in -S &B 1S' )!C22 in terms of three
ranges+ These include lo* durabilit$ ! to 9 ears, medium durabilit$ 9 to )9 ears, and high
durabilit$ more than )9 ears+ The life re:uirement of the protective coating should be based
on the time *hich can elapse before maLor or general maintenance of the coating becomes
necessar, and should be agreed b the interested parties+ Such life re:uirement can assist the
client or the maintenance authorit to set up a maintenance programme+ General information
on the e?pected durabilit of various tpes of coatings can be found in -S &B 1S' )!C22+
5*7*0 Prote"ti!e Coatings for Con"rete
%oatings ma be used to provide additional corrosion protection to marine concrete structures
b preventing ingress of e?ternal deleterious agents such as chloride into the concrete+ The
coatings applied to such concrete should normall be resistant to abrasion, salt spras and salt
*ater immersion+ The life of a coating sstem prior to the need of re@coating should be at least
ten ears and should have bridging resistance over crac.s due to fle?ural loading+
Some tpes of concrete coatings for local marine conditions are given in the Model
Specification for #rotective %oatings for %oncrete published b the %ivil &ngineering
(epartment 7%&(, )CC28+ Generall, suitable coating sstems applied in the splash >one
include acrlic and polurethane, but epo? and coal tar epo? ma also be used if protected
from sunlight+ Silane could also be used at limited locations in splash >one *here concrete is
not *holl saturated+ For the tidal >one, coating sstems such as high
performance epo?, coal tar epo? and polurethane are normall effective for immersed
The Model Specification also provides guidance on the choice, application, specification,
testing methods and acceptance criteria of protective coatings for concrete of marine
structures+ Reference should be made to it for further details+ (esigners are also advised to
see. for the latest information on coatings+
5*7*1 Cat%odi" Prote"tion for Reinfor"ed Con"rete
%athodic protection ma be applied to restrain reinforcement corrosion in marine concrete
structures b causing direct current to flo* from the electroltic environment into the
reinforcement+ There are generall t*o sstems of cathodic protection, namel, the impressed
current sstem and the sacrificial anode sstem+ The impressed current sstem operates b
passing an e?ternal direct current through a permanent anode fi?ed in the concrete to the
reinforcement+ The use of this sstem re:uires a permanent po*er suppl at the structures+
An alternate cathodic protection sstem is called sacrificial anode sstem in *hich the
reinforcement is connected to a sacrificial anode *ithout using a po*er suppl+ Metals that
can be used as sacrificial anodes include >inc, aluminum and magnesium+ Bo*adas, allos
of these metals are normall used as sacrificial anodes+ As sacrificial anodes need to be
replaced ever several ears, the should be fi?ed at locations that are relativel eas for
future inspection and replacement+
The design of a cathodic protection sstem re:uires specialist .no*ledge and e?perience and
should be underta.en b a suitabl :ualified corrosion e?pert+
A pre@re:uisite re:uirement for the installation of cathodic protection sstem is to ensure that
the embedded reinforcement is electricall connected+ This should be chec.ed carefull
during the construction stage b electrical continuit measurement over the reinforcing bars or
steel elements+ An discontinuit should be rectified immediatel+
5*7*4 Corrosion Prote"tion of Steel T(.(lar Piles
For the corrosion protection of steel tubular piles, covering the immersed, tidal and splash
>ones, the use of polethlene sheeting for coating steel tubular piles ma be considered, and
in theor such a sstem should be able to offer full corrosion protection for the piles+ The
polethlene sheeting is normall several millimetres thic. and is applied under controlled
factor conditions b on the outside surface of the steel tube, *hich has been
treated *ith undercoat3primer and an adhesive laer+ Ho*ever, this tpe of coating can be
damaged during handling and driving, or b vessel activities during operation stage of the
structure+ Therefore, the condition of the coating should be thoroughl chec.ed after
construction and fre:uentl inspected during the operation stage+
The other corrosion protection method is to appl a spiral *rap of denso tape around the steel
piles+ The sstem normall consists of an inner anti@corrosion tape *rapping *ith an outer
armouring laer+ 1t seals out o?gen and *ater and forms an anti@corrosion barrier b
displacing *ater and forming a moisture resistant bond+ A tough outer cover surrounds this
component to protect against *eathering and mechanical damage+ This sstem can be applied
belo* and above *ater on site *ithout, and is suitable for the repair of e?isting
For all proprietar coatings and *rappings, *here site application is unavoidable, the advice
of the manufacturer, particularl *ith regard to surface preparation, should be strictl follo*ed
and close supervision maintained+
The electrochemical processes leading to corrosion of submerged steel elements in sea*ater
are described in -S H60) 7-S1, )CC)8, *hich also gives details of the *a that cathodic
protection should be applied to combat corrosion+ %athodic protection avoids the problems
usuall encountered in the use of coating or *rapping sstems due to damage b handling,
driving or vessel operations, but this sstem is generall considered to be onl effective up to
about half@tide mar.+ 1t is recommended that the detailed design for an cathodic protection
sstem should be entrusted to a suitabl :ualified specialist compan and an operating and
maintenance manual should be provided+ For monitoring *or. after installation, consideration
should be given to arranging a maintenance contract *ith a suitabl :ualified specialist+
To reduce the possibilit of long term maintenance problems, consideration ma be made for
steel tubular piles to be infilled *ith reinforced concrete to a depth belo* seabed level at least
ade:uate for loading transfer bet*een the concrete and the steel tube, and the steel tube above
seabed level can be considered as sacrificial and ignored for design purposes+ The length of
pile above seabed level in effect becomes a reinforced concrete cast in@situ pile+ Such
reinforced concrete should follo* the recommendations of Section 0+!, *ith the increase in
durabilit provided b the steel Xcasing= as an additional benefit, and should be cast in a dr
condition+ For the latter, it is usuall possible, after e?cavation, to form a plug in the bottom
and pump the inside of the pile dr before concreting+
5*7*5 Corrosion Monitoring
To monitor the conditions of the structures, it is recommended that corrosion monitoring
devices should be installed to provide the necessar information for the maintenance engineers
to ta.e actions against corrosion+ The design of such corrosion monitoring sstem b a
:ualified specialist is re:uired+ 1t should be noted that, no matter ho* sophisticated the
corrosion monitoring sstem is, visual inspection is still re:uired and should be incorporated
in an corrosion monitoring program+
5*7*6 I$#ortant Points to .e Considered
The follo*ing notes, *hich are summari>ed from %lause 00+) of -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1, !"""8,
are particularl important *hen considering protective sstems $

#otential corrosion ha>ards can be eliminated b planned maintenance and

monitoring of the structure or b increasing the allo*ance of the structural

The costs of protective measures are repetitive in that the protective materials
themselves deteriorate, and regular maintenance and rene*al of coatings *ill be
necessar for all structures e?cept those *ith relativel short design lives+

For important, heavil used structures, regular maintenance and rene*al of

coatings should be designed to allo* normal use of the structures+

%orrosion does not proceed at a uniform rate over the *hole structure or
member, and at certain corrosion points, loss of the original material can be
much more rapid than e?pectedM an estimate of a corrosion allo*ance is li.el
to be e?cessive for some parts *hile being inade:uate for others+

The cost of rene*ing a protective sstem is li.el to be much more than the
initial protection due to the need to remove marine gro*th and old paint prior to
rene*al of the sstem, and the fact that access *ill usuall be more difficult than
during construction+

Marine gro*th is prevalent on structures belo* mean high *ater level+

&vidence e?ists that such gro*th can be protective against corrosion and
therefore generall should not be removed, as it ma be more effective and
durable than a paint sstem *hich might replace it+ Bormall the onl e?posure
>ones *hich might usefull be repainted are the splash and atmospheric >ones+
5*8 Ar$o(r Ro"
The properties of armour roc. should compl *ith the re:uirements given in Section !) of the
GS+ For armour design, it is recommended that the specific gravit of the roc., if obtained
locall, should be ta.en as !+0+ This figure corresponds to the minimum re:uirement of
specific gravit given in Section !) of the GS+ A value higher than !+0 should not be used for
design *ithout e?tensive testing, both prior to construction, *here a roc. source has been
identified, and during construction for :ualit control+
The normal ma?imum armour si>e available locall in reasonable :uantities is generall in the
range of 0 to < t, although si>es up to about )" t ma be available in small :uantities+ ;here
re:uired ma?imum roc. armour si>es e?ceed the range given above, the use of precast
concrete armour units *ill normall be necessar, into account the effect on cost and
programming of the proLect+
5*1: 'ill
General re:uirements of the different tpes of fill material for marine *or.s, including their
particle si>e distribution, are given in Section !) of the GS+ Reference should also be made to
the guidance notes for the GS 7Hong Kong Government, )CC!b8 providing further information
on the fill material, *hich is summari>ed in the follo*ing paragraphs $

5nder*ater fill material 7Tpe )8 shall consist of natural material e?tracted

from the seabed or a river bed, and is basicall natural sand similar to coarse
sand free from deleterious material+

5nder*ater fill material 7Tpe !8 shall consist of material *hich has a

coefficient of uniformit e?ceeding 9 and a plasticit inde? not e?ceeding )!+
1t is basicall decomposed granite or similar tpe of roc.+ The restriction on
plasticit inde? is intended to limit the cla content of the material+

Roc. fill material 7Grade H98 shall consist of pieces of hard, durable roc. *hich
are free from crac.s, veins, discolouration and other evidence of
decomposition+ 1t is usuall used as levelling founding laers for marine
structures+ The ma?imum roc. si>e is H9 mm 7for -S test sieve si>e8+

Roc. fill material 7Grade H""8 shall consist of pieces of roc. *hich are free
from crac.s, veins and similar defects, and not more than 6"T b mass shall be
discoloured or sho* other evidence of decomposition+ The ma?imum roc. si>e
is H"" mm 7for -S test sieve si>e8+
;here decomposed granite is used for under*ater foundations, reference can be made to the
G&' report entitled EAn &valuation of the Suitabilit of (ecomposed Granite as Foundation
-ac.fill for Gravit Sea*alls in Hong KongF 7G&', )CC6b8+ The suitabilit of the use of
decomposed granite depends on man factors, such as grading, plasticit inde?, permeabilit,
coefficient of consolidation and construction programme+ 1n order to limit e?cess pore
pressures *ithin the construction period for maintaining the stabilit of the sea*all, the
deposited laer should normall not e?ceed )9 m thic. and should not contain Grade G1
materials as defined in Table 2 of Geoguide 6 7G%', )C<<8+ The suitabilit of decomposed
roc. other than granite is subLect to designer=s evaluation+
General parameters of the above fill materials that ma be adopted for design purpose are
indicated as follo*s $
Bul! Density
Friction "ngle
5nder*ater fill
7Tpe ) and Tpe !8
)C 6" "
Roc. fill material
7Grade H""8
!" 29 "
Galues of fill parameters higher than those given above ma be used for design *hen
supported b evidence such as testing results of the fill material from an identified source both
prior to and during construction+
#ublic fill is the inert portion of construction and demolition materials and can be used as fill
material for reclamation through the provision and operation of public filling facilities+ The
re:uirements of the public fill are given b the conditions of the dumping licence issued under
Section 9 of the ,and 7Miscellaneous #rovisions8 'rdinance 7%ap+!<8 and are restricted to
earth, building debris, bro.en roc. and concrete+ The materials shall be free from marine mud,
household refuse, plastic, metal, industrial and chemical *aste, animal and vegetable matter,
and other material considered unsuitable b the filling supervisor+ Small :uantities of timber
mi?ed *ith other*ise suitable material *ill be permitted+ Since roc. and concrete over !9"
mm *ould impede subse:uent piling *or.s, the should be bro.en do*n belo* this si>e or
deposited in areas *here no building development *ill ta.e place+
The #ublic Fill %ommittee 7#F%8 and Marine Fill %ommittee 7MF%8, under the %hairmanship
of the (irector of %ivil &ngineering, are responsible for the management of the use of fill
materials for government, :uasi@government and maLor private proLects+ The #F% is
responsible for overall management and coordination of the use of public fill and the provision
and operation of public filling, and is also responsible for forecasting the generation of
construction and demolition material and identifing the fill demands for reclamation and site
formation proLects+ The MF% has the responsibilit to identif and manage the suppl and
demand of marine fill resources in Hong Kong+ The #F% and MF% should be consulted for
the use of fill materials as appropriate during the planning of marine *or.s proLects+
1t should be noted that *hen placing fill under *ater, the material and method of placement
should be capable of achieving a relativel high densit fill untreated, as e?ternal compaction
is e?pensive+ %are must be ta.en *ith the choice of bedding and filter materials to prevent
loss of material from *ave or current action and ground*ater movements+ Fill material placed
immediatel behind sea*alls should be free draining to avoid the unnecessar build up of
*ater pressures due to tidal lag and ground *ater flo*+
6*1 General
This chapter outlines the general principles that should be considered *ith respect to
maintenance in the design of a marine structure+
6*+ Design Considerations
Marine structures re:uire regular inspection and maintenance in the course of their life to
ensure satisfactor long@term performance of the structures+ ;ithout proper maintenance, the
life of a structure ma be significantl reduced due to the corrosive marine environment and
*ear and tear of dail operation+ This ma lead to the need for serious remedial *or.s or even
replacement of the structure *ithin an une?pectedl short time+ Hence, it is necessar to ta.e
into consideration future maintenance aspects during the design stage+
#roper choice and specification of materials are important to ensure the durabilit of marine
structures as this *ill affect the re:uired maintenance effort in the future+ 1n this connection,
reference can be made to the guidance on the choice and specification given in %hapter 0 of
this #art of the Manual+ 5se of protective coatings or cathodic protection and implementation
of corrosion monitoring measures ma also be considered to protect the reinforcement or steel
from corrosion+ These aspects should be considered collectivel in the design stage *ith
respect to the particular site and operational conditions in order to optimi>e the maintenance
effort in the future+
%areful detailing of the structure *ill also have a beneficial effect on future maintenance+
Some suggestions are provided as follo*s $

,aouts or shapes of elements that *ill be subLect to fre:uent usage or *ear

and tear should be detailed in such a *a to minimi>e damage and to avoid
malpractice of operations+

Simple structural forms and precast or prefabricated units *ith the minimum of
in@situ connections should be adopted *herever possible, as :ualit control of
in@situ *or.s in the tidal >one is generall more difficult+

Attention should be paid to detailing to avoid congested reinforcement so that

the concrete can be easil placed and subse:uentl compacted+

For pier fenders *hich is fre:uentl subLect to the berthing loads of vessels,
e?tra members ma be added on the fender frame*or. to help redistribution of
the berthing load and to provide additional fi?ing for the fender units+
6*0 Maintenan"e 'a"ilities
%onsideration should be given to the provision of facilities to facilitate inspection and
maintenance+ These facilities should include access holes, ladders, fi?ing or lifting hoo.s,
access *al.*as, guard rails, inspection openings and associated safet measures as
appropriate+ The design of these maintenance facilities should ta.e into account the
appearance and functions of the structure and advice should be sought from the maintenance
authorit before finali>ing these details+ Specific re:uirements on maintenance facilities for
piers, dolphins, sea*alls and brea.*aters *ill be given in the follo*ing parts of the Manual $

#art ! $ Guide to (esign of #iers and (olphins

#art 2 $ Guide to (esign of Sea*alls and -rea.*aters

6*1 Design Me$orand($ and Maintenan"e Man(al
'n completion of the design, the designer should provide the design memorandum containing
all the information relevant to the marine *or.s or structures+ This should be updated at the
end of construction if necessar to include an as@constructed modifications to the original
design+ Such information should form the basis for the maintenance records and, together
*ith the as@constructed dra*ings, should be passed to the maintenance authorit+ ;here
considered appropriate b the maintenance authorit, a maintenance manual, on completion of
the design, should be submitted to the maintenance authorit to recommend the maintenance
*or. re:uired+ The maintenance manual should also be updated as necessar at the end of
construction before handing over the *or.s or structures+ As a general guidance, a
maintenance manual should be prepared for the maintenance authorit under the follo*ing
circumstances $

,arge scale marine *or.s or structures that *ill re:uire significant input of
maintenance resources+

Marine *or.s or structures *ith the use of non@routine design, facilities or


Marine *or.s or structures re:uiring special inspection, monitoring or

maintenance techni:ues+
The maintenance manual should contain a description of the maintenance obLectives, an
inspection programme, the li.el failure modes, monitoring re:uirements, criteria for
maintenance actions and recommended maintenance *or. or procedures+ An items *hich
re:uire specialist input and use of special maintenance e:uipment or monitoring devices
should be identified and brought to the attention of the maintenance authorit+ The
maintenance manual should be prepared b the designer in consultation *ith the maintenance
7*1 General
Marine structures can be ver dominant features in the harbour, seafront and adLacent
landscape and their appearance ma have a significant impact on the visual :ualit of the
surroundings+ Therefore, good appearance is an important element in design, and
consideration should commence in the preliminar design stage as it *ill have a significant
bearing on subse:uent design process+
7*+ Prin"i#les
Garious aspects of a marine structure *ould affect public perception of *hether it is
aestheticall pleasing+ &?amples of these include the form, dimensional proportion, colour,
:ualit of materials and surface te?tures+ Since the introduction of a structure *ill invariabl
modif the setting of a local environment, good appearance should also aim at fitting the
structure *ith the surroundings+ A structure *ith a harmonising appearance *ith the
surroundings means that there should be no discordant features and the structure=s attributes
such as form, te?ture and colour should blend in a positive *a *ith the corresponding
characteristics of the surroundings+ Attention should also be paid to the relationship of the
structure *ith adLacent buildings, landscape features, seafront characteristics and scenic
elements in order to achieve successful integration *ith the environment+
To full appreciate the appearance of a marine structure, a designer should ma.e use of visual
aids including dra*ings, computer graphics, models and photo@montages to assist in the three@
dimensional perception of the laout of the structure throughout the design process+
Alternative forms of the structure should be compared in order to determine an aestheticall
pleasing solution+ 1n addition, careful design of the form and detailing of the structure
together *ith sound appreciation of the site characteristics could ma.e considerable
improvement to the appearance *ithout leading to significant increase in cost+ ;here
appropriate, the advice of architect7s8 or landscape architect7s8 should be sought+
The sustainabilit of the appearance in the long term is also important to ensure that the
structures remain attractive throughout its design life+ 1n this connection, the follo*ing points
should be noted $

5se of durable materials or protective coatings *hich *ill not deteriorate

significantl *ith time+

,ess durable materials, if used, should be confined to components *hich can be

readil replaced+

%areful detailing to reduce chance of damage or spoiling of surfaces or

components due to accident or improper use, and to avoid eas trap of refuse
and floating debris+

#roper provision of facilities in the structure for cleaning and maintenance+

%lose supervision to avoid improper construction practices that ma affect the

durabilit of the structure+

Sstematic inspection and repair programme to maintain the structures in good

Aas, Gl, et al+ 7)C<08+ 5se of 1n@situ Tests For Foundation (esign on %la+ )2th Specialt
%onferences on the 5se of 1n@situ tests in Geotechncial &ngineering+ #roc+ of Soil
Mechanics and Foundation (ivision, AS%&, pp )@6"+
-(( 7)C<68+ %ode of #ractice on ;ind &ffects, Hong Kong+ -uilding (evelopment
(epartment, Hong Kong, )2p+
-Lerrum, ,+ 7)CH!8+ &mban.ments on soft ground+ #roc+ AS%& Specialt %onference on
&arth and &arth@Supported Structures, #urdue 5niversit, Gol+ !+
-S1 7)C<68+ Steel #late, Sheet and Strip+ #art ! K Specification for Stainless and Heat@
resisting Steel #lates, Sheets and Strip 7-S )22C #art !$)C<68+ -ritish Standards
1nstitution, ,ondon, )0p+
-S1 7several parts, )CC" to )CC<8+ #hsical Testing of Rubber 7-S C"68+ -ritish Standards
1nstitution, ,ondon+
-S1 7)CC)8+ %athodic #rotection+ #art ) K %ode of #ractice for ,and and Marine Applications
7-S H60) #art )$)CC)8+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution, ,ondon, ))0p+
-S1 7)CC68+ Hot Rolled #roducts of Bon Allo Structural Steels+ Technical (eliver
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Steels+ Technical (eliver Re:uirements 7-S &B )"!)"@)$)CC28+ -ritish Standards
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Mooring Sstem 7-S 062C@2$)CC28+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution, ,ondon, 2<p+
-S1 7)CC9a8+ Stainless Steels+ #art ) K ,ist of Stainless Steels 7-S &B )""<<@)$)CC98+
-ritish Standards 1nstitution, ,ondon, !2p+
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Strip for General #urposes 7-S &B )""<<@!$)CC98+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution,
,ondon, 2<p+
-S1 7)CC9c8+ Stainless Steels+ #art 6 K Technical (eliver %onditions for Semi@finished
#roducts, -ars, Rods and sections for General #urposes 7-S &B )""<<@6$)CC98+
-ritish Standards 1nstitution, ,ondon, 22p+
-S1 7)CC0a8+ Hot Rolled Sheet #iling of Bon Allo Steel+ Technical (eliver %onditions 7-S
&B)"!2<@)$)CC08+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution, ,ondon, )0p+
-S1 7)CC0b8+ Hot Rolled Sheet #iling of Bon Allo Steel+ Tolerances on Shape and
(imensions 7-S &B)"!2<@!$)CC08+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution, ,ondon, )0p+
-S1 7)CC0c8+ Specification for ;rought Steels for Mechanical and Allied &ngineering
#urposes+ #art ) K General 1nspection and Testing #rocedures and Specific
Re:uirements for %arbon, %arbon Manganese, Allo and Stainless Steels 7-S CH"
#art )$)CC08+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution, ,ondon, 9!p+
-S1 7)CC0d8+ Structural 5se of Timber+ #art ! K %ode of #ractice for #ermissible Stress
(esign, Materials and ;or.manship 7-S 9!0< #art !$)CC08+ -ritish Standards
1nstitution, ,ondon, )0<p+
-S1 7)CCHa8+ %old Formed ;elded Structural Sections of Bon Allo and Fine Grain Steel+
Technical (eliver Re:uirements 7-S &B )"!)C@)$)CCH8+ -ritish Standards
1nstitution, ,ondon, !0p+
-S1 7)CCHb8+ %old Formed ;elded Structural Sections of Bon Allo and Fine Grain Steel+
Tolerances, (imensions, and Sectional #roperties 7-S &B )"!)C@!$)CCH8+ -ritish
Standards 1nstitution, ,ondon, 62p+
-S1 7)CCHc8+ Specification for Gisual Strength Grading of Hard*ood 7-S 9H90$)CCH8+
-ritish Standards 1nstitution, ,ondon, )<p+
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%&( 7)CC28+ Model Specification for #rotective %oatings for %oncrete+ %ivil &ngineering
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