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Dementia is a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere

with daily life.


Dementia is not a specific disease. Its an overall term that describe a wide range of
symptoms associated with a decline in memory or other thinking skills severe enough to
reduce a persons ability to perform everyday activities.
Cells of the brain die more quickly than in normal aging which produces loss of memory,
confusion, odd behaviour and personality changes.
Long term and short term memory loss occurs with impairment in judgement, abstract
thinking, problem solving ability, and behaviour.
The most common type of dementia is Alzheimers disease.

TYPES OF DEMENTIA
1. VASCULAR DEMENTIA OR MULTI-INFARCT DEMENTIA
Vascular dementia is also known as multi- infarct
dementia.
Small blockages cause strokes that destroy small
part of the brain. You may not know when they
occur.
V. DEMENTIA
This dementia cannot be cured and will not go away.
Signs can appear suddenly and vary on where the stroke was
in the brain.
New signs may occur with more strokes.
Medicines and lifestyle changes can help keep the damage from getting worse.

2. ALZHEIMERS DISEASE
Alzheimers is the common signs of dementia.
It occurs from changes in the nerve cells of
the brain.
No one knows what causes Alzheimers.
It cannot be cured and will not go away.
Signs include memory loss, confusion, poor
judgement, and changes in language. These
start slowly and worsen overtime.
Medicine can help slow down the disease
or help with signs.
EPIDIMOLOGY:
65 years old dementia = 1%
85 years old dementia = 20%

STAGES OF DEMENTIA
1. MILD DEMENTIA
Forgetfulness- Often forgot things.
Poor concentration
Denial- statement that is not true does
not exist or did not happen.
New things are avoided
Recent events but can still cope.

2. MODERATE DEMENTIA
Memory of recent events that become loss.
Past memory persists.
Disorientation to place and time.


3. SEVERE DEMENTIA
Memory of immediate events that is gone.
Difficulty in performing ADLs or Activities
of Daily Living.
Dont recognize familiar things.
Difficulty in speech and self-expression.

MANIFESTATION AND MANAGEMENT:
A. MEMORY LOSS
Identify and reinforce certain skills.
Placement of large calendar in prominent
places.
Diary, schedules, and pictures.
Monitor activity of daily living.
Provide continuity of care.

B. DISORIENTATION
Remind client how to perform self-care.
Make a day and night board.
Furniture and familiar things in same place
Follow a fixed routine
Be consistent
Re-orient client

C. GETTING LOSS
Sign boards on room and arrows.
Wrist tag for patient in nursing home.
Identify cards (name, address, contact number).
Vicinity map, alarms in doors, windows.

D. LOSS OF SKILLS
Maintain normal routine- ADLs.
Provide exercise such as walking with escort.
Give time for a task to be finished.
Have patient continue hobbies and sports.
Maintain independence.

E. NOT LIVING ON THE PRESENT
Acknowledge the clients feelings.
Activities with families (watching TV, hobbies, games).
Join clubs and community gatherings.

F. FORGET MEDICATION
Assist the client and family to manage memory
deficit and behaviour.
Pill dispenser with alarm.
Check medicine record.

G. COMMUNICATION
Avoid activities that tax the memory
Check hearing / vision
Instruction simple and clear
Non-verbal communication
Encourage the family members to express
feelings about care giving.

H. SUNDOWNING
Aggravation of symptoms in the evening
Exercise in the morning with full stomach
Resting and calm environment in the afternoon

HIPPOCAMPUS- Seahorse curved convoluted
elevation of the floor of the inferior horn of the
lateral ventricle of the brain.


LIMBIC SYSTEM - Houses emotion of person.