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1

Chapter 11
Balanced Three-Phase
Circuits
11.1-2 Three-Phase Systems
11.3 Analysis of the Y-Y Circuit
11.4 Analysis of the Y-A

Circuit
11.5 Power Calculations in Balanced
Three-Phase Circuits
11.6 Measuring Average Power in Three-
Phase Circuits
2
Overview


An electric power distribution system looks like:
where the power transmission uses balanced
three-phase configuration.
3
Why three-phase?


Three-phase generators can be driven by
constant force or torque (to be discussed).


Industrial applications, such as high-power
motors, welding equipments, have constant
power output if they are three-phase systems
(to be discussed).
4
Key points


What is a three-phase circuit (source, line, load)?


Why a balanced three-phase circuit can be
analyzed by an equivalent one-phase circuit?


How to get all the unknowns (e.g. line voltage of
the load) by the result of one-phase circuit
analysis?


Why the total instantaneous power of a
balanced three-phase circuit is a constant?
5
Section 11.1, 11.2
Three-Phase Systems
1. Three-phase sources
2. Three-phase systems
6
One-phase voltage sources


One-phase ac generator: static magnets, one
rotating coil, single output voltage v(t)=V
m
coset.
(www.ac-motors.us)
7
Three-phase voltage sources


Three static coils,
rotating magnets,
three output voltages
v
a
(t), v
b
(t), v
c
(t).
8
Ideal Y- and A-connected voltage sources
Neutral
9
Real Y- and A-connected voltage sources


Internal impedance of a generator is usually
inductive (due to the use of coils).
10
Balanced three-phase voltages


Three sinusoidal voltages of the same
amplitude, frequency, but differing by 120

phase difference with one another.


There are two possible sequences:
1. abc (positive) sequence: v
b
(t) lags v
a
(t) by 120.
2. acb (negative) sequence: v
b
(t) leads v
a
(t) by
120.
11
abc sequence


v
b
(t) lags v
a
(t) by 120

or T/3.
. 120 , 120 , 0

+ Z = Z = Z =
m c m b m a
V V V V V V

12
Three-phase systems


Source-load can be connected in four
configurations: Y-Y, Y-A, A-Y, A-A.


Its sufficient to analyze Y-Y, while the others
can be treated by A-Y and Y-A

transformations.
(Y or A)
(Y or A)
13
Section 11.3
Analysis of the Y-Y Circuit
1. Equivalent one-phase circuit for
balanced Y-Y circuit
2. Line currents, phase and line voltages
14
General Y-Y circuit model
Ref.
The only
essential
node.
15
Unknowns to be solved
Phase voltage


Line (line-to-line)
voltage: voltage
across any pair of
lines.
Line current
Phase
current


Phase (line-to-
neutral) voltage:
voltage across a
single phase.


For Y-connected load, line current equals phase
current.
Line voltage
16
Solution to general three-phase circuit


No matter its balanced or imbalanced three-
phase circuit, KCL leads to one equation:
Impedance
of neutral
line.
Total
impedance
along line aA.
Total
impedance
along line bB.
Total
impedance
along line cC.
), 1 (
,
1 1 1 0
0

C c gc
N n c
B b gb
N n b
A a ga
N n a N
cC bB aA
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z + +

+
+ +

+
+ +

=
+ + =
' ' '
V V V V V V V
I I I I
which is sufficient to solve V
N
(thus the entire
circuit).
17
. 0 , 0
3 1
0
= =
+ +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
' ' '
N
n c n b n a
N
Z Z Z
V
V V V
V
| |
Solution to balanced three-phase circuit


For balanced three-phase circuits,
1. {V
a'n
, V
b'n
, V
c'n
} have equal magnitude and 120

relative phases;
2. {Z
ga
= Z
gb
= Z
gc
}, {Z
1a
= Z
1b
= Z
1c
}, {Z
A
= Z
B
= Z
C
};
total impedance along any line is the same
Z
ga
+ Z
1a
+ Z
A
= = Z
|

.
,
0 | | |
Z Z Z Z
N n c N n b N n a N
V V V V V V V
+

=
' ' '


Eq. (1) becomes:
18
Meaning of the solution


V
N
= 0 means no voltage difference between
nodes n and N in the presence of Z
0
. Neutral
line is both short (v = 0) and open (i = 0).


The three-phase circuit can be separated into 3
one-phase circuits (open), while each of them
has a short between nodes n and N.
19
Equivalent one-phase circuit


Directly giving the line current & phase voltages:


Unknowns of phases b, c can be determined by
the fixed (abc or acb) sequence relation.
I
nn
=0=I
aA
Line current
Phase
voltage
of load
( )
,
1 |
Z Z Z Z
A a ga
N n a
aA
= + +

=
'
V V
I
Phase
voltage
of source
,
A aA AN
Z I V = ( ).
1 A a aA an
Z Z + = I V
20
, 120

Z = =
'
aA
n b
bB
Z
I
V
I
|
The 3 line and phase currents in abc sequence
aA
I
bB
I
cC
I


Given the other 2 line currents are: ,
|
Z
n a aA '
= V I
which still
follow the abc
sequence
relation.
, 120

Z = =
'
aA
n c
cC
Z
I
V
I
|
21
The phase & line voltages of the load in abc seq.
Phase
voltage
Line
voltage
( )
, 30 3
120

+ Z =
Z =
=
AN
AN AN
BN AN AB
V
V V
V V V
. 120 , 120 ,

Z = Z = = =
' ' AN CN AN
B
n b BN
A
n a AN
Z
Z
Z
Z
V V V V V V V
| |
(abc sequence)
( ) ( )
( )
. 150 3
120
, 90 3
120 120


+ Z =
+ Z =
Z =
+ Z Z =
AN
AN AN CA
AN
AN AN BC
V
V V V
V
V V V
22
The phase & line voltages of the load in acb seq.
Phase
voltage
Line
voltage
( )
( ) ( )
( )
. 150 3
120
, 90 3
120 120
, 30 3
120

Z =
Z =
+ Z =
Z + Z =
Z =
+ Z =
=
AN
AN AN CA
AN
AN AN BC
AN
AN AN
BN AN AB
V
V V V
V
V V V
V
V V
V V V


Line voltages are \3 times bigger, leading (abc)
or lagging (acb) the phase voltages by 30.
(acb
sequence)
23
Example 11.1 (1)
Phase voltages
Z
ga
Z
1a
Z
A


Q: What are the line currents, phase and line
voltages of the load and source, respectively?
Z
|

= Z
ga
+ Z
1a
+ Z
A
=40 + j30 O.
(abc sequence)
24
Example 11.1 (2)


The 3 line currents (of both load & source) are:


The 3 phase voltages of the load are:
( )
( )
( ) . A 13 . 83 4 . 2 120
, A 87 . 156 4 . 2 120
, A 87 . 36 4 . 2
30 40
0 120
1

+ Z = + Z =
Z = Z =
Z =
+
Z
=
+ +
=
'
aA cC
aA bB
A a ga
n a
aA
j Z Z Z
I I
I I
V
I
( )( ) ( )
( )
( ) . V 81 . 118 22 . 115 120
, V 19 . 121 22 . 115 120
. V 19 . 1 22 . 115 28 39 87 . 36 4 . 2



+ Z = + Z =
Z = Z =
Z = + Z = =
AN CN
AN BN
A aA AN
j Z
V V
V V
I V
25
Example 11.1 (3)


The 3 line voltages of the load are:
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( ) . V 81 . 148 58 . 199
120
, V 19 . 91 58 . 199
120
, V 81 . 28 58 . 199
19 . 1 22 . 115 30 3
30 3

+ Z =
+ Z =
Z =
Z =
+ Z =
Z Z =
Z =
AB CA
AB BC
AN AB
V V
V V
V V
26
Example 11.1 (4)


The three line voltages of the source are:


The 3 phase voltages of the source are:
( )( )
( )
( )
( ) . V 68 . 119 9 . 118 120
, V 32 . 120 9 . 118 120
, V 32 . 0 9 . 118
5 0 2 0 87 . 36 4 . 2 120

+ Z = + Z =
Z = Z =
Z =
+ Z = =
'
an cn
an bn
ga aA n a an
. j . Z
V V
V V
I V V
( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
( ) . V 68 . 149 94 . 205 120
, V 32 . 90 94 . 205 120
, V 68 . 29 94 . 205
32 . 0 9 . 118 30 3 30 3


+ Z = + Z =
Z = Z =
+ Z =
Z Z = Z =
ab ca
ab bc
an ab
V V
V V
V V
27
Section 11.4
Analysis of the Y-A

Circuit
28
Load in A

configuration
Phase current
Line current
Line voltage =
Phase voltage
29
A-Y transformation for balanced 3-phase load


The impedance of each leg in Y-configuration
(Z
Y
) is one-third of that in A-configuration (Z
A

):
.
,
,
3
2
1
c b a
b a
c b a
a c
c b a
c b
Z Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z Z Z
Z Z
Z
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
.
3 3
A
A
A A
= =
Z
Z
Z Z
Z
Y
30
Equivalent one-phase circuit


The 1-phase equivalent circuit in Y-Y config.
continues to work if Z
A
is replaced by Z
A

/3:
Line current
directly giving the line current: ,
1 A a ga
n a
aA
Z Z Z + +
=
'
V
I
and line-to-neutral voltage:
.
A aA AN
Z I V =
Line-to-neutral
voltage =

Phase voltage
=

Line voltage
31
The 3 phase currents of the load in abc seq.


Can be solved by 3 node equations once the 3
line currents I
aA
, I
bB
, I
cC
are known:
Line current
Phase
current
. , ,
BC CA cC AB BC bB CA AB aA
I I I I I I I I I = = =
Line current
Phase
current
(abc
sequence)
32
Section 11.5
Power Calculations in
Balanced Three-Phase
Circuits
1. Complex powers of one-phase and
the entire Y-Load
2. The total instantaneous power
33

Z = Z Z
=
=
=
.
,
, 3
, cos
A
L aA
L AN
A
Z I V
I I
V V
I V P
| | |
|
|
| | |
u
u
I
V
Average power of balanced Y-Load


The average power delivered to Z
A
is:
(rms value)


The total power delivered to the Y-Load is:
. cos 3 cos 3 3
| | | |
u u
L L A tot
I V I V P P = = =
34
Complex power of a balanced Y-Load


The reactive powers of one phase and the
entire Y-Load are:

= =
=
. sin 3 sin 3
, sin
| | | |
| | | |
u u
u
L L tot
I V I V Q
I V Q


The complex powers of one phase and the
entire Y-Load are:

= = =
= = + =
. 3 3 3
;
*
| |
|
u u
| | |
| |
u
| | | | |
j
L L
j
tot
j
e I V e I V S S
e I V jQ P S I V
35
One-phase instantaneous powers


The instantaneous power of load Z
A
is:
). cos( cos ) ( ) ( ) (
|
u e e = = t t I V t i t v t p
m m aA AN A


The instantaneous
powers of Z
A
, Z
C
are:
( )
( )
( )
( ). 120 cos
120 cos ) (
, 120 cos
120 cos
) ( ) ( ) (

+
+ =

=
=
|
|
u e
e
u e
e
t
t I V t p
t
t I V
t i t v t p
m m C
m m
bB BN B
(abc sequence)
36
Total instantaneous power
( )( ) . cos 3 cos 2 2 5 . 1
cos 5 . 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
| | | | | |
|
u u
u
I V I V
I V t p t p t p t p
m m C B A tot
= =
= + + =


The instantaneous power of the entire Y-Load
is a constant independent of time!


The torque developed at the shaft of a 3-phase
motor is constant, less vibration in
machinery powered by 3-phase motors.


The torque required to empower a 3-phase
generator is constant, need steady input.
37
Example 11.5 (1)


Q: What are the complex powers provided by
the source and dissipated by the line of a-phase?


The equivalent one-phase circuit in Y-Y
configuration is:
Z
1a
S
|
(rms value)
38
Example 11.5 (2)


The line current of a-phase can be calculated by
the complex power is:
( )
( )A. 87 . 36 35 . 577
,
3
600
10 120 160 ,
* 3 *

Z =
= + =
aA
aA
j S
I
I I V
| | |


The a-phase voltage of the source is:
( )( )
( )V. 57 . 1 51 . 357
025 . 0 005 . 0 87 . 36 35 . 577 3 600
1

Z =
+ Z + =
+ =
j
Z
a aA AN an
I V V
39
Example 11.5 (3)


The complex power provided by the source of a-
phase is:


The complex power dissipated by the line of a-
phase is:
( )( )
( )kVA. 44 . 38 41 . 206
87 . 36 35 . 577 57 . 1 51 . 357
*


Z =
Z Z = =
aA an an
S I V
( ) ( )
( )kVA. 66 . 78 50 . 8
025 . 0 005 . 0 35 . 577
2
1
2

Z =
+ = = j Z S
a aA aA
I
40
Key points


What is a three-phase circuit (source, line, load)?


Why a balanced three-phase circuit can be
analyzed by an equivalent one-phase circuit?


How to get all the unknowns (e.g. line voltage of
the load) by the result of one-phase circuit
analysis?


Why the total instantaneous power of a
balanced three-phase circuit is a constant?