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ax2

dx =

x2e

kx2

ax2

xn e

In

dx=

[1]

dx =

d
dk

dx =

ax2

kx2

dx =

ax2

1
2

2k 3/2

dx =

n 1
I x2ne
2a n 2
0

ax2

dx=

135 2n 1
2n + 1 an

(x, y)Polar coordinate(r, )

[2]

Laplace Laplace transform

[1]

ax2

dx =

ax2

dx

a x2 + y2

I2 =
+

ay2

dy

ay2

dy

dxdy

(x, y) (r, )
0 < r < 0 < < 2 x2 + y2 = r2
2

I 2 =

e
0 0

ar2

rdrd = 2

ar2

rdr

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(02)2705-5066

ar2

1
d e
2a

rdr =

ar2

1
d e
2a

I 2 = 2
0

ar2

ar2
0

1 =

I=

ax2

dx =

[2] Fourier Fourier transform Laplace Laplace transformIntegral transform


Laplace
x2

dx =

f t F

K , t f t dt
a

K , t kernel
Fourier K , t = e

i t

a =

b=+

Laplace K , t = e st a = 0 b =
+

Fourier

f t dt

Laplace f t
lim f t
t 0

0 t t > 0

Laplace e

x2

dx =

t
2

1
2

1
t

Laplace L t

1
2

1
2 e stdt

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k = st dk = sdt
L t

1
2

1
2 e stdt

t
0

=
0

1
s

1
2

k
s

dk
s

1
2 e k dk

k
0

k = x2 dk = 2xdx
L t
I =
I2 =

1
2

1
s

=
x2

dx =
x2

dx

1
e
x

e
e

y2

x2

2xdx =

2
s

x2

dx

dy

y2

dy =

x2 + y2

dxdy

x2 + y2 = r2 cos2 + r2 sin2 = r2

dx

0dy

0dr

0d

0 ABCD

AB'CD

dxdy = rdrd

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I2 =

x2 + y2

dxdy

2
2

e r rdrd

=
0 0

e r rdr

=2
0

2
1
e r d r2
2

=2
0

=
e

0
x2

1 =

dx =

0
1
2

L t

Dirac

2
s

ex dx =
0

Dirac -functionUnit im-

pulse function
(x) =

,
0,

x=0

x=0

x dx = 1

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(02)2705-5066

[1]

f x

[2]

ax =

1
a

[3]

x =

a dx = f a
x
x

x x = 0

[4]

[5]

f x ' x dx =

f ' 0 ' x =

df x
d x
f' x =

dx
dx

(x)Unit step function Dirac

[6]

x
d

u du = (x) =

0,
1,

x<0

x>0

x
= x
dx
+

[7]

t =

1
2

[8]

x =

1
2L

ei t d
+
m=

eim

x/L

[1] Dirac
Dirac
Dirac

Generalized func-

tion
+

x dx =

x Test functionpoint

charge

x x x

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a f x dx =

x f x + a dx = f a
b

a dx = 1 a > 0 b > 0

a
+

1
f 0
a

ax f x dx =

[2]

x
x x
a

a > 0
+

1
a

ax f x dx =

x
dx
a

1
f 0
a

=
a < 0

x f

1
f 0
a

1
ax f x dx =
a

1
a

=
=
=

1
a

x f

x
dx
a

x f

x
dx
a

x f

1
f 0
a

ax f x dx =

ax f x dx =

1
f 0
a

1
f 0
a

1
=
a
6

x
dx
a

x f x dx

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(02)2705-5066

1
a

=
ax =

[3]

1
a

1
a

ax =

x f x dx

x
x

[4]

x =

x f x =

x f 0

x f x

x dx =

x f x

=f 0

x dx

0
+

=f 0

x dx

=
f x

x =f 0

x f 0

x dx

f x = x x x = 0
+

f' x

[5]

x dx =

f x

' x dx

x
+

f' x

x dx = f x

f x

' x dx

=0

f x

' x dx

f x

' x dx

Integration by parts

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f x ' x dx = f x

f' x

x dx

f' x

f' 0

x dx

f x ' x dx =

f ' 0

x =

f x

x dx =

dn x
f
dxn

0 =

1nf
dn f x
dxn

x=0

[6]

x<0

x>0

f x

' x dx

f x dx
+

f' x

[5]

0,
1,

x f x dx =

x =

x dx =

'x

x dx =

' x dx

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' x dx
0

0
+

=
d x
dx =

' x dx

[7] Fourier
t =F

1
2

1
2

=
F
t =

1
2

[1]
1ei t d
ei t d

f x f x Fourier

ei t d

[8] Fourier
1 +
f t = T
n=
F f t =
=

1
F [ + e
T
1 +2
T +2

1 +
T n=

2
T

j2

n=

+e

+2

n
n

+2

2
+

0t

e jn 0t Fourier
j

0t

+ 1 + ej

+2

+
2

0t

+ e 2j

0
0

0t

+ ]

+2

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cos n

0t

F sin n 0t = j

F e jn

10

t =

+
n=

0t

=
0

+j

n
+n

0
0

+n

=F cos n 0t +jsin n 0t =2

nT

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t =F

n=

nT

+ t + 2T +
+ t T + t
2
=+
+2 0 +
T
2
2
+
0 +
T
T
=F

=
f t =

1
T

t =

2
T

n=
+

e jn

n=

0t

1 +
2L m =

x =

eim

x/L

[1]

n+1 x

x2e

dx =

[2]

[3]

(n+1)

[1]
1

n=

2
T

nT
2L

2
T

0=

x2e

n+1 x

dx

2 n+1

3/2

=
2
2

xne xdx

xn

e xx2
1 e x

2nL

e xx2

dx = e
1 e x x
0
0

xT

n=

2T +
2
+
T

n=

t+T +

dx =

e xx2 e

+x

dx =

n
0

x2 e

n+1 x

dx

[2]

y2 e

y2

dy =

d
d

y2

dy

y2

dy =

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11

y2

dy =

1
2

y = x 2 y2 = x dx = 2ydy
1

[3]

x2 e

+x

dx = 2

n+1

y2 e

n + 1 y2

xn e x dx

dx =

3
2

2 n+1
1

3/2

x 2 e x dx =

Fourier
[1]

f t =

A,
0,

t
t
t +
2
2
elsewhere

[2]

12

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1, t = 0

t =

0, elsewhere

[3]

f t = 1
[4]

f t =e

[1] f t =

at2

a > 0
t
t
t +
2
2 Fourier
elsewhere

A,
0,
+

f t ei2 vt dt

F v =
+

f t Aei2 vt dt

=
2

A
sin v t
v

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13

=A t

sin v t
v t

= A t sin c
v=

v t

n = 1, 2, 3, F v = 0 v 0

F v = A t

[2]

t =

1, t = 0

[1] 1 A t = 1 Fo0, elsewhere


+

urier F v =

t ei2 vt dt = A t

sin

v t
= 1
v t

F v = 1 v

14

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[3] f t = 1[1]
1
A t
F v 1
2

A,

= A = 1

2
2 f t = A = 1 t
0,
elsewhere
1
v = 0 F v v = 0
t = v

f t =

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15

F v

v=0

=A t

sin v t
v t

Dirac delta Dirac

delta function f t = 1 Fourier Dirac delta

[4]

f t =e

at2

Fourier

2
Gauss Gaussian function
a
1
2
1
2

1
2

=
=
=
=
=
16

f t ei t dt
e

at2 i t

a t2

/4a +

/4a +

a t

i
2a

dt
2

dt

2
e

i t

2
e

e dt

/4a

2
1
e
2a

/4a

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1
e
2a

/4a

Gauss 4 a Ga-

uss Fourier Gauss

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17

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Einstein Space-time model


Space coordinatex1x2x3
Time coordinatex4Vector spaceR4 R4
ElementEvent
x1x2x3 x4
Hermann Minkowski Special relativity Minkowski Minkowski geometry
X = (x1, x2, x3, x4) Y = (y1, y2, y3, y4) R4
X Y
(a)
X, Y= x1y1

x2y2

x3y3 + x4y4 x

X, Y

X, Y= 0 X Y
(b)
d (X, Y) X Y
d (X, Y) = X
=

Y
x1

y1

x2

y2

x3

y3 2 + x 4

y4 2

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19

Alpha Centauri 4 Light-year


Space-time diagram R
Aleck JenelleAleck
P Jenelle P 0.8 Alpha
Centauri 0.8
Q
[1]

Aleck Jenelle Aleck

[2]

P R

[3]

R Q

[4]

Aleck Jenelle Jenelle

[1] Aleck Alpha Centauri 4


8 0.8c
8c
= 10 Aleck Q 10
0.8c
[2] PQR R4 P = 0, 0, 0, 0 Q = 0, 0, 0, 10
R = (4, 0, 0, 5)
20

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-function 4, 5, 39, 41, 43
-matrix form 29, 32

Sommerfeld 60-64
Boltzmann constant Boltzmann

-rays 52
k p method k p

Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rules Bohr-

167, 168

26,

54, 228
Boson 183, 184, 191-194, 198

Absorption 32-34, 146, 157, 211


Absorption transition rate 33
Acoustical phonons

45

Brillouin zone Brillouin 168, 170


Bulk system 38, 39
Bulk 37

Angular equation 129


Angular momentum commutation
145, 149
Angular momentum operator
117, 119, 120, 122, 152
Anisotropic 170

Cauchy-Schwartz inequality Cauchy-Schwartz


72
Cavity field 218
Cavity radiation field
222, 226

Anticommute 30

Cavity radiation 35

Antisymmetric operator 193

Central force 127, 152

Antisymmetric wavefunction

Charge density 56, 57

189
Associated Legrendre polynomials Legrendre 129
Azimuthal equation 128

Classical mechanics 65, 71, 161


Clebsch-Gordan coefficients Clebsch-Gordan 144, 152
Closure

108

Coherent superposition 211


Basis functions 175
Best eigenfunctions 173
Bohr magneton Bohr 153

Color 192
Commute 120, 122, 145, 149
Complex vectors 146

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Compton effect Compton 43


Conduction band 168, 169

204, 206

Conservation of charge 55-58


Constant of the motion

Density of states 36-45, 48, 49,

194

Continuity equation 55-57

Density of the active atoms coupled to the


radiation field
214

Correct 155

Density operator 213-215, 230-233

Coulomb potential Coulomb 127, 166

Dipole operator 212

Covariance form 28, 29, 32

Dirac delta function Dirac delta

Current density 56

16,

185
Dirac -function Dirac 4, 5

DAlembertian operator DAlembertian

Dirac relativistic equation Dirac


28, 31, 32

28
Damping 214, 223

Discrete energy 42

Davisson-Germer experiment Davisson-Ger-

Dispersion curves 5, 168


Doppler broadening Doppler 24, 27

mer 43
De Broglie hypothesis de Broglie 43

Doppler effect Doppler 22, 24

Debye law Debye T 3 53

Doppler width Doppler 27

Debye function Debye

Driving frequency

52

Debye temperature Debye 52


Debyes theory of specific heat Debye

158

Dulong-Petit law Dulong-Petit 44, 45,


50, 52, 53
Dynamical behaviors

44, 51
Decay 113, 205, 212, 216, 223

222, 226,

227

Decay constant 212


Decay factor 212
Degenerate wave functions
173
Degenerate

Ek

k dispersion relation E k

169, 170, 172


Effective mass tensor

63, 138, 155, 161, 162,

170,

172

167, 169, 173, 178, 180, 183, 196-198, 204

242

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Eigenequation 173, 177, 181

Electron pair 23

Eigenfunction

Electron spin magnetic moment

55, 59, 75, 76, 79,

83, 84, 93, 94, 113-115, 128, 165, 166, 172,


173, 190-192
Eigen-mode

153
Element 19, 90, 92, 93, 145, 170-172,

66

180, 213, 221, 231

Eigenvector 66, 101-104, 181

Emission transition rate 33

Einstein function Einstein 50

Energy density of states 204

Einstein photoelectric effect Einstein

Energy density

43

35, 67, 69

Energy equation

Einstein temperature Einstein 50

Energy flow 67

Einsteins theory of specific heat Einstein

Energy flux rate 35

112, 114, 116

44, 48

Energy-state density 204

Elastic properties 52

Ensemble 211

Electric dipole approximation

Entanglement 237
Equation of motion 65, 215

33, 146
Electric dipole Hamiltonian Ham-

Even parity operator

137, 138

Event 19

iltonian 32
Electric dipole momentum

145,

Excess population 226, 227


Exchange operator 194

151, 152
Electric dipole operator

145, 214

Electric dipole transition 145,

Excitation

93, 94, 192, 194, 195,

197-212, 215-218, 222

149, 151
Electric multipole transition
144

Fermi system Fermi 201

Electrical resistivity 52
Electrodynamics 22, 67
Electromagnetic power 227
Electron g-factor g-

Fermi golden rule Fermi 33

153

Fermi-Dirac distribution function Fermi-Dirac 184, 201


Fermion 132, 183, 184, 191-193, 201, 207,
208

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243

131, 132, 136

Final state 36

Heisenberg picture Heisenberg

Final wave function 33


First-order perturbation correction

227,

228, 231, 233


Heisenberg uncertainty principle Heisenberg

169

54, 72, 84, 85

Flavor 193
Flux 57

Hermitian

30, 78, 215

Four-dimensional coordinates 28

Homogeneous broadening

Fourier transform Fourier 2, 9, 12-14,

Hookes law Hooke 45

24

Hunds rule Hund 143

16, 17, 59, 65


Fourier transformation Fourier

2, 9,

Hydrogen-like atom 61, 64

12-14, 16, 17, 59, 65


Freedom 37-42, 48, 49, 192

In phase 215
Incoherent 218

Gamma function 11

Indistinguishable 189, 236

Gauss law Gauss 57

Inhomogeneous broadening 24

Gaussian distribution Gauss 24

Initial state 36

Gaussian function Gauss 16, 17, 24

Initial wave function 33

Generalized function 5

Inner product 95, 173

Good 155, 162, 163

Instantaneously 211, 212

Ground states 83, 84, 85, 90, 93, 94,

Integral transform 1, 2

160, 162, 166, 192, 194, 196, 197, 199, 211

Integration by part 7, 201


Interaction energy 153, 215,

Group velocity 58, 59, 67

223
Harmonic perturbation

33

Interference effect

Hartree equation Hartree

131, 132,

Internal degrees of freedom

136, 137
Hartree-Fock equation Hartree-Fock

212

192
Isospin 192
Iteration 176

244

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Lwdins renormalization method Lwdin


j-j coupling j j

172

141

Lowering operator 81, 82, 90, 92,


93

Kane model Kane 167


Klein-Gordon relativistic equation KleinGordon 27
Kronecker delta function Kronecker delta

L-S coupling L S 139, 140


Luttinger-Kohns model Luttinger-Kohn
167

44, 48
Macroscopic electric polarization
Lagrange multiplier Lagrange

134,

136, 137, 186, 188


Laguerre polynomials Laguerre
128, 129
Laplace transform Laplace 1, 2
Larmor precession Larmor 153
Laser 24, 26, 157, 214, 222, 223, 226,
227
Lattice specific heat 44, 45, 53,
54
Lattice vibration 44, 45, 48
Lifetime

211

Linear differential operator


29
Local maximum 186
Lorentzian function Lorentz 24
Lwdins perturbation method Lwdin
172

214, 223, 226


Magnetic multpole transition
145
Magnetic quantum number 124,
128, 145, 193
Matrix representation 76, 77, 98,
99, 106-108, 110
Matter wave 43, 67
Maxwells equations Maxwell

56,

67, 214, 223, 226


Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution MaxwellBoltzmann 24, 26
Mean free path 205, 206
Mean lifetime 205
Minkowski geometry Minkowski

19

Mix state 230-233, 236-239


Momentum density of states
204
Momentum operator

71, 75-77,

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245

97-99, 107

83, 90, 93, 117, 119, 120, 122, 152


Momentum-state density

Orthonormal functions

173

Orthonormality 78, 86, 94, 97-99,

204
Monochromatic plane waves

101, 104, 106, 107, 111, 173, 215, 235, 238


Orthonormalization

67

86, 94,

97-99, 104, 106, 107, 111, 173, 235, 238


Neutrons 52

Oscillator 48

Newtonian law Newton 45

Oscillator 54, 55, 75, 76, 79, 81, 90,

Nondegenerate band

93, 94, 160, 161, 213, 227

169

Nondiagonal element 170, 172


Normalization constant

Outer product notation 98, 101

102,
Parity operator

103

137, 138, 148,

165, 166

Normalization factor 26
Null identity 56

Particle interchange operator

Number operator 81, 83

Partition function 228

194

Pauli exclusive principle Pauli


Odd parity operator 137, 138

131, 132, 190

Operator commutation 88

Pauli matrix Pauli 31

Optical phonons 44

Permutation operator 194

Orbital angular momentum quantum number

Perturbation theory

155, 157,

158, 172

145
Orbital quantum number 124,

Phase velocity 58, 59, 67


Point charge 5

125, 129, 193


Orientation angle 125-127, 186-189

Polar coordinates 1, 3, 186, 188

Orthonormal and complete basis

Polarization vector 146, 147


Position operator 71, 75, 76, 83,

78, 101
Orthonormal basis

94,

90, 92
Poynting vextor Poynting 67, 69

246

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Principal quantum number

129,

Relaxation time 205


Resonant frequency

139, 144, 193


Probability distribution 57

214,

223

Probability flux 57
Pumping excitation 215
Pure state 230-233, 235-238
Purely diagonal 218

Schrdinger picture Schrdinger 227,


228
Second-order perturbation correction
169

Quantum beats 211, 212

Secular equation 175

Quantum dot system 38, 39, 41

Selection rule 145, 149, 151

Quantum dot 37

Single band 169

Quantum mechanical Boltzmann equation

Sinusoidal time dependence

Boltzmann 214, 215

157, 158

Quantum well system 38, 39

Slater determinant Slater 193

Quantum well 37

Sommerfeld expansion Sommerfeld

Quantum wire system 38, 39


Quantum wire 37

202, 203
Space coordinate 19
Space quantization 124

Radial equation 129

Space-time diagram 20

Radical function 146

Space-time model 19

Radioactive decay 205

Special relativity 19, 21

Raising operator 81-83

Spherical harmonics functions

Rate equation

214, 216, 217,

Spin degeneracy factor 204

222-224, 227
Real operator

227

Relativistic Hamiltonian Hamiltonian


27, 28

128, 129, 146

Spin vector 196


Spin-down 143, 196
Spin-orbit interaction -
141, 152, 153

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247

Spin-up

143, 144, 196

Total Hamiltonian Hamiltonian

Spontaneous emission 146

215, 216, 218

Stabilized Eigenfunction
165, 166

Transition frequency 158


Transition matrix

110, 111

Statistical mixture 228

Transition probability 157, 159

Steady state 55, 217, 221

Transition rate 146

Step function 5, 8

Transition selection rule 145

Stimulated emission 146

Translational vector 168

Symmetric operator 193

Triangle inequality 86, 87

Symmetric wavefunction 189

Two coupled first-order nonlinear rate equa-

Symmetrization postulate 192

tion

Symmetry

226

26, 31, 32, 68, 127, 170,

172, 189, 192, 193

Two-state quantum system


230

Taylor series expansion Taylor


Uncertainty principle

202

54, 72,

84, 85

Tensor 67, 68, 170, 172


Test function 5, 7

Unit impulse function 4

Thermal expansion 52

Unperturbed Hamiltonian Ham-

Thermally averaged expectation value

iltonian

168

229
Thomas factor Thomas 153

Variational method 131, 132, 134

Three-dimensional complex vector space

Vector model 124, 143

95

Vector space 19

Time coordinate 19

Vector-addition coefficients Clebsch-Gordan

Time evolution 230


Total angular momentum

144, 152
121,

Vibrational energy 48

143, 144

248

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Virial theorem Virial 166, 167


Zero energy 72, 84
Wave packet 67
Wigner-Eckart theorem Wigner-Eckart
144, 152

Zero-order wave function 155,


162, 163
Zone edge central cell function
170

X-rays X

52

Yukawa

54

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249

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.
.,

2013.12

I S B N: 978-957-11-7436-5
1.
339

102023800

5BH3

Problems and Solutions on Modern Physics

106 339 4

(02)2705-5066

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(02)2706-6100

wunan@wunan.com.tw
0106 8953

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