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1.

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Southern Transport Development Project (STDP)
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1.1.1 eneral

Sri Lanka has an extensive road network connecting not only all major cities and towns,
but also providing access to even the most remote villages. Out of these 1,! km of "
and # class roads known as $ational %oads belong to the &entral 'overnment while &, (
and ) class roads belong to the *rovincial councils. +n spite of existence of this vast road
development, many roads are found to be highly congested due to the co,existence of high
intensity of motor traffic and an e-ually large volume of non,motori.ed traffic. Since the
implementation of free,market economic policies in 1ate 1/01s all major cities and town
centers have undergone rapid infrastructure development. 2ith all major roads passing
directly through these urban centers, considerable slowing down of traffic speeds and
fre-uent built,up of traffic jams have greatly reduced travel time between major
destinations. 3his situation not only has a direct adverse effect on economic development
of the country but has also given rise to high number of fatal road accidents.
3he Southern 3ransport (evelopment *roject 4S3(*5 was the first project to be
implemented in Sri Lanka based on the concept of providing a new network of high speed,
limited access highways radiating from &olombo. 3he S3(* was initiated with the main
objective of providing improved access from &olombo to 'alle and 6atara in the
Southern *rovince. 3his project once completed will alleviate the critical traffic
conditions in the existing "7 coastal highway.
3he main component of the S3(* presently being implemented is the construction of an
ultimate dual carriage expressway 4Southern 8ighway5 between 9ottawa on the south,
eastern outskirts of &olombo and 6atara 4:igures 1.1 and 1.75. 3he project is financed
from parallel funding by the "sian (evelopment #ank 4"(#5 and the ;apan #ank for
+nternational &ooperation 4;#+&5. +t consists of two segments, i.e. about !! km long
stretch from 9ottawa to 9urundugahahetekma and about ! km stretch from
9urundugahahetekma to 6atara. 3he latter segment funded by "(# is known as the
"(# section, while the former segment funded by ;#+& is referred to as the ;#+& section.
3he construction has already commenced over a large section of the "(# section of the
expressway. "dditionally, a new access road from the "(# section of the expressway to
'alle has been developed. 3his is a ! km long <non,access controlled1 alignment which
will ultimately be a four,lane dual carriage highway.
3he S3(* will lead to economic advancement of the Southern *rovince and improvement
of living standard of the population in that area. +t will serve as a catalyst for raising the
economic growth of the region, which has so far achieved only a modest level of
development mostly through agricultural production, trade and tourism. 3his project will
blend effectively with several mega projects planned to be implemented in the Southern
*rovince including development of a new city =%uhunupura> located close to 8ambantota,
comprising an airport and a commercial port, expansion of 'alle 8arbour, and extension
of existing southern railway line from 6atara up to 9ataragama. +t will have a direct
influence on four districts 4&olombo, 9alutara, 'alle and 6atara5, through which it passes
through. 3he combined population in these four districts amounts to about 7? percent of
national total of 1/ million. 3he poverty level in this region is estimated to be about 71
1
percent of its population and an efficient transportation link between this region and
&olombo has been a major constraint for slow economic growth.
1.1.! "#stor#cal $ac%&roun'
3he concept of the new Southern )xpressway was introduced in late 1/@1s by the %oad
(evelopment "uthority 4%("5 and the 6inistry of 8ighways as a part of the network of
nw highways. #ased on this concept *re,feasibility Studies were entrusted to %esource
(evelopment &onsultants 4%(&5 in 1//7 on the so,called =+nland 3runk %oad from the
Outer &ircular %oad to 'alle and 6atara>. :or this purpose, four alternative traces from
#andaragama on the proposed =Outer &ircular %oad> to 6atara were considered and
evaluated on the economic, technical and environmental considerations. 3he *re,
feasibility Study %eport prepared by %(& was submitted to %(" in 1//A.
#ased on the recommendations of the *re,:easibility Studies, %(" introduced the original
highway trace referred to as =Original %(" 3race> incorporating certain modifications.
3hese modifications included the extension of northern end from #andaragama to
9ottawa, a deviation at #addegama to avoid some flood plains and a hinterland deviation
at "kmeemana. 3he northern end of this trace was changed subse-uently to a point 7A km
on the 8igh Level %oad 4&olombo,%atnapura "B 8ighway5 owing to the uncertainty of
the implementation of the proposed Outer &ircular %oad.
%(" initiated action to commence :easibility Studies and an )nvironmental +mpact
"ssessment 4)+"5 on this one,build alternative, =Original %(" 3race>. 3he )+" was
entrusted to (epartment of &ivil )ngineering, Cniversity of 6oratuwa in 1//!. 3he )+"
report prepared by Cniversity of 6oratuwa was submitted to &entral )nvironmental
"uthority 4&)"5 in 1//0. 8owever, as the project discontinued due to financial
constraints in 1//0, the )+" report was not subjected to review process by the &)".
+n 1//0, the 'overnment of Sri Lanka 4'OSL5 sought the financial assistance of "(# for
the design and implementation of the Southern )xpressway *roject. "ccordingly, the
financial assistance of "(# was obtained in the initial phase for conducting :easibility
Studies. 3he consultancy services for conducting feasibility studies for providing
improved capacity in the Southern 3ransport &orridor were entrusted to 2ilbur Smith
"ssociates +nc 42S"5 in association with %(&. 3he consultants submitted a (raft :inal
%eport in B volumes, an +nitial )nvironmental )xamination 4+))5 and initial Social +mpact
"ssessment 4S+"5 in (ecember 1//@.
"s an outcome of the Southern 3ransport &orridor Study, more alternative traces evolved
and in consultation with %(", the consultants recommended a new alignment described as
the =&ombined 3race>. 3he &ombined 3race for about !D of its length followed the
Original %(" 3race while containing two major deviations near #andaragama at the
&olombo end and near Labuduwa at 'alle end, respectively. 3he Cniversity of 6oratuwa
was re-uested by the %(" to conduct )+" studies based on the =Original %(" 3race> and
the =&ombined 3race> and considering suitable reasonable alternatives. 3he )+" studies
concluded that construction of the Southern )xpressway along the &ombined 3race, with
mitigation of certain environmental as impacts as suggested in the study report was the
most environmentally preferred option.

7
3his )+" study report was submitted to %(" in 1/// and was duly forwarded to &)",
"(# and other relevant government authorities. 3he &)" upon review of )+" study
report granted =&onditional "pproval> on the &ombined 3race and the )+" associated
with this route. 3he "(# also commissioned in 1///, a Summary )+" 4S)+"5 with
#aolloffet and "ssociates +nc. 4#E"5. 3he #E" also assisted %(" in responding to
public comments on the 1/// )+" by Cniversity of 6oratuwa. 3he S)+" report was also
submitted to, and approved by %("F&)".
%(" also entrusted Cniversity of &olombo to conduct a Social +mpact "ssessment 4S+"5
of the &ombined 3race and the :inal S+" report was submitted to %(" in 6arch 1///.
#ased on the 1/// S+" %eport, a %esettlement *lan :inal %eport was completed by %("
with "(# assistance. 3he %esettlement *lan is a detailed framework containing approved
compensation policies and procedures appropriate for the categories of impact identified in
the S+" %eport, and include a preliminary budget and implementation schedule.

3he conditions of approval of the 1/// )+" by the &)" re-uired the recommended
=&ombined 3race> to be sited in such a manner to avoid 2eras 'angaF#olgoda Lake,
6adu 'anga and 9oggala wetlands. %(" re-uired the relocation of the &ombined 3race
primarily between *oddala ;unction and +maduwa, to move the expressway further away
from 'alle urbani.ed area. +n response to these conditions the &ombined 3race on which
:easibility Studies was conducted was partially replaced by the =:inal 3race>, as referred
to hereinafter.
3he detailed engineering of the Southern 3ransport (evelopment *roject 4S3(*5 along
the :inal 3race was arranged to be implemented in two sections. 3he section from
9ottawa to 9urundugahahetekma was to be financed by the ;apan #ank for +nternational
&orporation 4;#+&5 and the remaining section from 9urundugahahetekma to 6atara was
to be financed by the "(#. 3hese two sections are commonly known as ;#+& section and
"(# section, respectively. +n the "(# section, only approximately 17 km of the :inal
3race are on the same alignment as the &ombined 3race and the remaining approximately
? km is anywhere between a few hundred meters and A km from the &ombined 3race. +n
the ;#+& section only approximately 7B km of the :inal 3race is on the same alignment as
the &ombined 3race and the remaining approximately BB km is anywhere between few
hundred meters to A km from the &ombined 3race.
3he 2ilbur Smith "ssociates +nc 42S"5 in association with %(&, *acific &onusltants
+nternational 4*&+5 and #)&" +nternational &onsultants were entrusted consultancy
services for the detailed engineering designs of the "(# section in October 1//@. 3he
*&+ in association with ;apan #ridge E Structure +nstitute +nc. and %(& were engaged to
conduct detailed engineering designs for the ;#+& section in 6arch 7.
"s mentioned above the :inal 3race which evolved largely in order to comply with &)"
conditions of approval contained significant deviations from the &ombined 3race. 3hese
deviations had impacted land ac-uisition and resettlement as well as environmental
management and raised ade-uacy of environmental assessments conducted earlier. 3he
new areas affected by this change re-uired studies in order to ascertain environmental and
social impacts, if any, of the project that were not identified in previous studies. 3he
design consultants during the detailed design surveys on the :inal 3race prepared an
updated Social +mpact "ssessment 4S+"5 %eport and some environmental assessment
updates including an )nvironmental 6anagement *lan 4)6*5. 3his )6* on the :inal
A
3race has been prepared without the benefit of a full )+" along that part of the road not
coincident with &ombined 3race. Social +mpacts were also not comprehensively assessed
along some sections of the :inal 3race.
+n order to assess the magnitude and impact of changes that have occurred as a
conse-uence of change in alignment from the &ombined 3race to the :inal 3race an
agreement was reached between the "(# and the 'OSL that a study on environmental
assessment should be undertaken. +t was decided that environmental assessment would be
undertaken by %(" through Cniversity of 6oratuwa 4CO65. "ccordingly, Cniversity of
6oratuwa 4CO65 was entrusted to conduct a Supplementary )nvironmental "ssessment
and an Cpdating of )nvironmental 6anagement *lan 4)6*5 of the Southern 3ransport
(evelopment *roject 4S3(*5 by (irector, *roject 6anagement Cnit 4*6C5 of the %oad
(evelopment "uthority 4%("5.
3he CO6 study team commenced work in early October 7B. 8owever, as of 7?
October, 7B, *6C directed CO6 to temporarily suspend the studies. 3he inception
report for the works commenced and completed up to then was submitted to the %(",
S3(* and the "sian (evelopment #ank 4"(#5 in (ecember 7B. Cpon resolution of
many issues between the two parties, CO6 reactivated the studies on 1 September, 7?,
based on a revised 3erms of %eference 43O%5 presented by *6C. "n updated +nception
%eport which outlines objectives of the study, study team, methodology and schedule of
work program was presented in October 7?.
3he construction work on large section of the road financed by "(# has already
commenced and construction work on ;#+& section is also about to commence. 3his
+nterim %eport presented in two volumes, one each for "(# section including 'alle *ort
"ccess %oad and ;#+& section is presented as per agreement reached between CO6 and
%("FS3(*.

B
(#&ure 1.1 Nat#onal )ocat#ons o* the Southern +,press-a.
?
(#&ure 1.! Re&#onal )ocat#ons o* the Southern +,press-a.
!
(#&ure 1./ 0lternat#ve Trace1 Cons#'ere' *or Southern +,press-a. 12$IC Sect#on
0
(#&ure 1.3 0lternat#ve Trace1Sho-#n& DS D#v#s#ons 12$IC Sect#on
@
1.1./ Project Descr#pt#on an' Des#&n Rat#onale
3he primary objective of the design was to avoid known impacts and minimi.e any
unavoidable impacts regarding resettlement re-uirements and other identified
environmental resources affected by the project road works to that which was absolutely
necessary.
3he main trace of the ;#+& section is approximately !0 km long. +t commences at
6akumbura ;unction, situated approximately 7A km east of &olombo on &olombo,
%atnapura "B highway. +t then crosses &olombo,8orana road west of 9ahthuduwa
;unction, *anadura,8orana road at 9alutara near 'elanigama ;unction, 9alutara,8orana
road and 9alu 'anga at (iyagama. 3he road passes through (odangoda, $awathuduwa
and crosses "luthgama,6atugama road at 6unamalwatta. 3he road then crosses #entota
%iver at 9otuwabandihena and joins the "(# section at 9urundugahahetekma about 1 km
north of the "mbalangoda,)lpitiya road.
1.1./.1 Sta&es o* Construct#on
3he ;#+& section of the Southern expressway is designed as a ultimate limited access, six
lane, dual carriageway. +t is planned to be constructed in B stages. 3he contract for
construction works is awarded as two packages, package 1 49ottawa to (odangoda5 and
package 7 4(odangoda to 9urundugahahetekma5

Sta&e 1 will comprise the construction of four,lane dual carriageway up to
'elanigama and from 'elanigama to 9urundugahahetekma single carriageway
two lane access control highway.
Sta&e ! will upgrade the expressway to a full four,lane dual carriage highway up
to (odangoda.
Sta&e / the highway will be upgrade to a full four lane dual carriageway up
9urundugahahetekma.
Sta&e 3 the highway will be upgraded to a six lnae dual carriageway by
construction of additional lane to each carriageway adjacent to the median of the
previous construction.
3he work on Stage 1 is about commence with contract for construction under package 1
awarded.
1.1./.! 0l#&nment o* (#nal Trace
3he alignment of :inal 3race has been designed to minimi.e physical impact on the
people who were living on the %ight,of 2ay 4%O25, to optimi.e the balance of cut and
fill in earthworks so that dependence on out of %O2 sources is minimal and to produce a
cost effective but safe facility.
3he hori.ontal alignment for the *roject %oad commences at 9m G and terminates at
9m !!GB. :rom 9m G to 7BG 49alu 'anga #ridge5 the alignment has been set
to deviate easterly from #olgoda LakeF2eas 'anga wetland reserve.
3he typical carriageway consists of two lanes, each A.! m wide and shoulders of A. m
width on each side for Stage 1 construction. Stage 7 construction shoulders are A. m
/
wide on the left side and 1.7 m on the right 4median5 side of each carriageway 4viewed as
when driving along each carriageway5.
Ta4le 1.1 )ocat#ons o* Propose' Interchan&es o* the (#nal Trace Southern +,press-a. Sta&e 1
5 2$IC Sect#on
No. 6m Cross Route
1 !.? 9ottawa H "B 4&olombo H %atnapura %oad5 7A
th
km
7 0.!A 9ahatuduwa H #? 4&olombo , 8orana %oad5 1/
th
km
A 7./0 'alenagama H "@ 4*anadura , 8orana %oad5 17
th
km
B A7.07 (odangoda #@ 4$agoda , 9alawellawa %oad5 @
th
km
? A7.07 Lewanduwa #A 46atugama H8orana %oad5 BArd km
1.1./.3 )ocal C#rculat#on
3he (esign &onsultants have identified a total of 1 numbers of arterial roads 4&lass " E
#5 which are significant to the S3(*, ;#+& section. 3hese " E # class roads are
considered to be the major constituents of the basic road network. 3herefore these roads
are connected to the main highway by six numbers of interchanges. 3he location and
spacing of these interchanges are decided by the traffic condition, geographical condition,
access road development plan, industrial development and urban development. "ll other
minor roads crossed by the highway are connected by overpassFunderpass or service roads
to maintain the local circulation.
1.1./.7 $r#'&e an' Dra#na&e Structures
3able "1.1 of "ppendix "1 presents a list of drainage structures along the trace where the
trace has deviated from the combined trace. 3hese drainages structures consist of major
bridges 4at 9alu 'anga, 2elepenne 'anga E #entota 'anga5. "part from these major
bridges 0 other river and stream crossings are re-uired throughout the length of the
expressway with spans ranging between 1? to A m.
1.1.3 )an' 0c8u#s#t#on an' Involuntar. Resettlement
3he ac-uisition of land and mitigation of the negative impacts on other properties 4houses,
commercial establishments and so on5 are being completed by the project developer
according to the social safe guard policies of Sri Lankan government 4policies on
involuntary resettlement5.
Land ac-uisition is being carried out for two purposes of the projectI
Land for creating resettlement sites
Land re-uired for construction of the road.
3he lands ac-uired for creating resettlements are shown in 3able 1.7.
3he details of the land ac-uired for road development are included in 3able 1.A.
1
Ta4le 1.! )an' ac8u#re' *or resettlement
DS '#v#s#on Name locat#on o* locat#ons No o* *am#l#es settle' +,tent #n perches
9alutara $ewcastle watta 0 17
(odangoda
Loman watta
Lotus watta
*embroke watta
Sent )dward watta
10
71
A
10
7
A?
??
7/
6athugama
'almantha land
9olakada land
0
7
1A
B
2alallawita 6iriswatta 1? A
#enthota 'alketiya Land B @
)lpitiya "takotte land 1/ A@
8omagama (iyagama SL#& land 1/ 1!
6illaniya "nnasigala 8ena 17 B@
3otal 17 10 B?7
$oteI +n addition to the B?7 perches land has been used to establish public facilities such as roads.
Ta4le 1./1 )an' ac8u#re' *or roa' 'evelopment
DS '#v#s#on Pa''. (ha) Other lan' (ha)
6aharagama /.70!1 !.1
8omagama A!.77?/ 7.B00/
#andaragama 7A.1A1? 7./7@?
6illaniya /.B7! A7./A/0
8orana 7.!1?A 17./?0/
9alutara ?.777A B.?@7A
(odamgoda 70.0A 01.?1/?
6athugama 1B.170A B/.@/@7
2alallawita 1/.0@ 70.!0
#enthota 1.?A1 A.77
)lpitiya 0.A1! 7B./?0
9arandeniya 7.701 @./!!
3otal 1!0.!7?B A/.@/A/
1.1.7 Construct#on Processes
1.1.7.1 eneral 0ct#v#t#es
3he construction activities as far as possible will be based on to contain all works within
the right of way 4%O25. 3he road trace has been adjusted to balance the cut and fill so
that the importation of fill material will be minimi.ed. &onstruction camps would be
located in areas that will be ac-uired for interchanges.
3he construction work involves movement of heavy e-uipment and machinery. 3hese
movements are primarily contained within the %O2 causing minimum disturbance to
community living within the immediate vicinity of the road trace. 3he land ac-uisition
has been already completed. 3he pre,construction activities, such as geotechnical
investigations, land surveying has been already completed.
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1.1.7.! )an' Clear#n&
Land ac-uired for the highway will be cleared of all trees and vegetation including vacated
houses, wells and fences. 3he trees will be uprooted using do.ers and owners would be
allowed to remove tree trunks without cost. "ll remaining trunks of trees along with
branches and scrub debris will be uprooted and disposed of at designated locations.
"bandoned wells will be sealed and septic tanks removed. 3he necessary precautions will
be taken to ensure that waterways will not be obstructed or polluted in the process of land
clearing.
1.1.7./ +arth 9or%
)arth filling will be carried out as per design specifications effecting in well compacted
layers. 3he desired compaction will be achieved using sheepfoot or smooth wheel rollers
and heavy vibrating rollers. 3he moisture content of the earth fill will be adjusted to
optimum values depending on soil type and compacting e-uipment. 3he finished surface
will be motor,graded to proper camber to obtain final road formation. (ump trucks will
be employed to transport fill material between cut and fill areas.
1.1.7.3 Sta4#l#:at#on o* +m4an%ments an' Cuts
3he length of the trace passing hilly terrain is less in the ;#+& section compared to that in
the "(# section. 8owever, in the rolling and undulating terrain the bedrock depth can be
significantly higher than that of the hilly terrain. 3herefore, the thickness of the
overburden above the bedrock could be high creating slope stability problems. 6ost of the
slope stability considerations that were experienced in the "(# section are applicable to
the ;#+& section as well. 3herefore, experience gathered from the "(# section should be
used in finding out the solutions to the slope stability problems of the ;#+& section.
Stretches of the trace, where side slopes of the cuts should be made milder than the
original design, should be identified and accordingly, arrangements must be made to make
additional land ac-uisitions.
3he seeding of slopes employing coir blocks and mat would be preferred as an alternative
to turfing as the area of slopes to stabili.e will be large. "s far as possible local varieties
of vegetation will be used for arresting soil erosion and for embankment protection.
1.1.7.7 ;uarr.#n& Operat#ons
3he coarse aggregate re-uirements are obtained from -uarries and crushed to specified
si.es using heavy duty crushers located strategically along the trace. 3he aggregate used
are selected in conformity to design standards for road construction of bases and surfacing
of pavements. 3he dependence on off the %O2 -uarries will be much higher in ;#+&
section compared to "(# section.
1.1.7.< Construct#on =ater#als
" large -uantity of construction materials will be re-uired for the ;#+& section. 3he
-uantities will reflect a commitment to using top soil, granular sub,base materials, crushed
stone and other earthwork materials. 3he material re-uirement will also include paving
and concrete material resources.
17
3he road corridor is within the 2estern province up to #entota 'anga 4&8 ?7 G /@75 and
the balance section lies within the Southern province. #ased on the :inal report of the
&ostal resources management project H "lternatives for %iver sand, the estimated total
demand for sand within the 2estern and Southern provinces during the year 7B are A./
and 1.? million cubic meters. 3his demand for sand is mainly met with the supply of river
sand. 3herefore, almost all the river basins within the project area have already been
mined excessively creating sever environmental problems such as lowering of riverbed
levels, curtailment of sediment flows in the rivers and streams, health problems faced by
people involved in river sand mining and costal erosion.
(ue to the large length of the roadway crossing flood plains of the streams, from upper or
middle peneplain to the lower peneplain, large -uantity of fill material is needed as
construction material for construction of the road embankment. +n addition to the material
needed for the construction of the embankment above the ground level, large amount of
fill material is needed since replacement of compressible material, found in the low lying
areas, is used as a ground improvement techni-ue.
1.1.7.> Construct#on +8u#pment
3he construction work along ;#+& section will involve use of heavy e-uipment such as
do.ers, motor graders, heavy rollers, dump trucks. 3he movement of these e-uipment will
mainly take place along the service road built more or less parallel to the expressway.
3herefore, inconvenience to local community movement is minimi.ed.
1.1.7.? Construct#on 9or% (orce
" large work force will be engaged in construction activities working under several sub,
contractors executing different elements of construction programme. 3his will give rise to
employment opportunities for local community mainly in the form of unskilled and semi,
skilled labour force. "dditionally, civil engineering graduates recently graduated from the
three engineering faculties of Sri Lanka will find gainful employment under various
subcontractors of the project. :urthermore, the project will benefit large number of
undergraduate trainees mainly from the &ivil )ngineering discipline from the local
universities.
1.1.< Operat#on an' =a#ntenance 0ct#v#t#es
Operation and maintenance activities to manage an acceptable level of service to handle
the road traffic will consist of three basic elements, namely, routine operation and
maintenance, periodic maintenance activities and emergency maintenance activities. 3he
routine operation and maintenance activities will involve general upkeep of the %O2,
repairs to road surface and cleaning of drainage ditches, repairs to road furniture, regular
maintenance of bridges etc. *eriodic maintenance works will include pavement overlays,
replacing pavement markings etc. )mergency OE6 activities should be carried out to
mitigate flood damage and accidents including contingency plans.
1A
1.! Present Set up
3he Cniversity of 6oratuwa 4CO65 was entrusted to conduct a Supplementary
)nvironmental "ssessment and an Cpdating of )nvironmental 6anagement *lan 4)6*5
of the Southern 3ransport (evelopment *roject 4S3(*5 by (irector, *roject 6anagement
Cnit 4*6C5 of the %oad (evelopment "uthority 4%("5. "ccordingly, the CO6 study
team commenced work in early October 7B. 8owever, as of 7? October, 7B, *6C
directed CO6 to temporarily suspend the studies. 3he inception report for the works
commenced and completed up to then was submitted to the %(", S3(* and the "sian
(evelopment #ank 4"(#5 in (ecember 7B. Cpon resolution of many issues between
the two parties, CO6 reactivated the studies on 1 September, 7?, based on a revised
3erms of %eference 43O%5 presented by *6C. " fresh +nception %eport outlining
objectives of the study, study team, methodology and schedule of work program was
presented in October 7?. 3his +nterim %eport addresses mainly to existing project
environment and anticipated and prevailing impacts as a result of ongoing construction
work of the expressway. Special emphasis is placed in this report on addressing the
deviations, '*"% and any hot spots where conditions have changed drastically following
1/// )+".
1./ Purpose@ Scope an' Terms o* Re*erence
3he objectives of the study by CO6 as extracted from the revised 3erms of %eference
43O%5 sent by the %(",S3(* is as followsI
7.1.
4i5 %eview all previous reports on the project pertaining to environmental issuesI
including the )nvironmental +mpact "ssessment 4)+"5 and Summary
)nvironmental +mpact "ssessment 4S)+"5, to determine their applicability to the
entire length of =:inal 3race> comprising both ;#+& and "(# funded sections and
'alle *ort "ccess %oad 4'*"%5.
4ii5 +dentify locations on the =:inal 3race> which re-uire further assessment in order to
update the draft )6*, and using parameters accepted for the original assessments,
conduct field surveys and other studies that may be re-uired in these locations
4using participatory techni-ues where appropriate5 to determine environmental and
social impacts and necessary mitigation measures.
7.7 %eview the second draft of )6* based on the additional information generated by
the studies to determine its ade-uacy to address the environmental impacts of the
entire project. (etermine additional monitoring and mitigation measures that
should be included in )6*. +nform client of any immediate actions that are
re-uired to ensure that sufficient environmental mitigation measures are being
applied particularly on the road sections, where construction works have already
started. +f the current mitigation measures are inade-uate to address adverse
impacts, recommend appropriate and ade-uate mitigation measures to be included
in )6*. +n this regard, advice on identifying dumping areas of unsuitable
excavated soil.
1B
7.A #ased on the above reviews, studies and evaluations prepare two reportsI
4i5 Supplementary )nvironmental "ssessment %eportJ and
4ii5 " report that includes detailed comments on the draft )6* and how to
update it as per "(# )nvironmental "ssessment 'uidelines 7A and
'OSL re-uirements.
1.3 Stu'. 0rea
1.3.1 Dev#at#ons an' Descr#pt#on
3he major deviations of the :inal 3race from the &ombined 3race and original %(" 3race
have been identified in order to identify the sections of the road that needs specific
attention during environmental assessment. 43able 1.B5. )ach expert in the study team
43able 1.?5 looks at the major deviations and other prominent sections of the study area
pertaining to their expertise 43able 1.!5. )ach expert considered the study area in line with
the expertise associated with the study.
Ta4le1.3 Dev#at#on o* *#nal trace *rom RD0 trace an' Com4#ne' trace
2$IC Sect#on
D#stance *orm Start#n&
Po#nt (%m)
RD0 Trace Dev#at#on
(m)
Com4#ne' Trace
Dev#at#on (m)
=#n#mum Dev#at#on
*rom RD0 or Com4#ne
Trace (m)
7 7 7
1 17 17 17
7
A 7 7 7
B 17 17 17
? 1 1 1
< /00 /00 /00
> 700 300 300
? 3<0 1000 3<0
A !<0 !000 !<0
1 7@
11 A
17 A
1A A
1B A
1? 0 A 0
1! ! A !
10 ! 7!B !
1@ ! 7B !
1A /30 1A30 /30
!0 7<0 1700 7<0
!1 /00 1!00 /00
77 1@ ?B 1@
7A 7 7 7
!3 /!0 /!0 /!0
!7 <00 <00 <00
!< /!0 /!0 /!0
70 17 17 17
1?
7@ 7B 7B 7B
7/ 7 7 7
A ! ! !
A1 1! 1! 1!
/! <00 <00 <00
// ?30 ?30 ?30
/3 <30 <30 <30
/7 300 300 300
A! 7 7 7
A0 1B 1B 1B
A@ 1! 1! 1!
/A !<0 !<0 !<0
30 300 300 300
B1 1! 1! 1!
B7
BA @ @ @
BB @ @ @
B? B B B
3< /00 /00 /00
3> 300 300 300
B@ @ @ @
B/ @ @ @
? 7 7 7
?1 7 7 7
?7
?A @ @ @
?B @ @ @
?? 7B 7B 7B
?! 7B 7B 7B
7> 330 BB BB
?@ 77 77 77
?/ B B B
! 1 1 1
!1 1B 1B 1B
!7 @ @ @
!A B B B
!B 1B 1B 1B
!? A@ 17 17
!! BB 1 1
!!.? A7
1.3.! Stu'. Team
" multi,disciplinary team of the Cniversity of 6oratuwa for the Supplementary
)nvironmental "ssessment Study 4S)"5 and Cpdating of )nvironmental 6anagement
*lan 4)6*5 as per revised 3O%, is led by *rof. $.3. S. 2ijesekera and *rof 46rs5 $.
%atnayaka is the &o,3eam Leader. 3he core team as indicated in 3able 1.? comprises an
)+" and *olicy Specialist, a 8ydrologist, an )cologist, a Sociologist, an "gricultural
)conomist, an )nvironmental )ngineer, a Soil and 'eotechnical )ngineer, a Landscape
and "esthetics Specialist, a 3raffic )ngineerF3ransport *lanner and other &ivil )ngineers.
3he team is also supported by engineers, field work teams supporting the hydrologist,
ecologist, sociologist, and many other workers and secretarial staff assigned for field
1!
works, meeting and workshop organi.ing, and report preparation. 3he which were
concentrated on and considered important by team members are given in 3able 1.!.
Ta4le 1.7 Core Stu'. Team *or the S+0 an' Up'at#n& +=P
Name Pos#t#on 0**#l#at#on
1. *rof. $.3.S. 2ijesekera 3eam LeaderF8ydrologist Cniversity of 6oratuwa
7. *rof. 46rs5. $. %atnayaka
&o,3eam LeaderF)+" and *olicy
*lanner
Cniversity of 6oratuwa
A. (r. *.*. 'unaratna
(eputy 3eam Leader 4%eview and
%eports5
Cniversity of 6oratuwa
B. (r. $.*.(. 'amage (eputy 3eam Leader,;#+& Cniversity of 6oratuwa
?. )ng. (.".;. %anwala (eputy 3eam Leader,"(#
&onsultant, Cniversity of
6oratuwa
!. *rof. L.L. %atnayaka
3raffic )ngineerF3ransport
*lanner
Cniversity of 6oratuwa
0. (r. 8.S. 3hilakasiri Soil and 'eotechnical )ngineer Cniversity of 6oratuwa
@. (r. 6. 2. ;ayaweera )nvironmental )ngineer Cniversity of 6oratuwa
/.(r. 46rs5 6.(. "marasinghe )cologist Cniversity of 9elaniya
1. 6r. 9. ;inapala Sociologist
&onsultant, Cniversity of
6oratuwa
11. (r. L.6. "beywickrama "gricultural )conomist Cniversity of %uhuna
17."rcht. 46s.5 S.+. #alasuriya
Landscape and "esthetics
Specialist
Cniversity of 6oratuwa
Ta4le 1.< Doma#ns o* Interest o* Spec#al#st Team =em4ers
Spec#al#st Team =em4er Doma#n o* Interest
8ydrologist
(eviations and associated watersheds
3raffic )ngineerF3ransport *lanner
3he %ight of 2ay 4%O25 of the expressway including access roads at
interchanges and 'alle port "ccess %oad.
Soil and 'eotechnical )ngineer
3he major deviations of :inal 3race in the "(# section and 'alle *ort
"ccess %oad including a survey of existing borrow pits and -uarries.
)nvironmental )ngineer
"vailable maps, other baseline data of the "(# section and the ;#+&
section will be studied and field visits, meetings and consultations
data will be used in comparison for the suitability. 3he Surface 2ater
Kuality, 'roundwater Kuality, "ir Kuality, $oise Level and Libration
data collected along with information in the available reports will be
studied and compared with the standards to identify impacts in the
identified project area as per 3O% methodology..
)cologist
Observations on the terrestrial parts along the trace and the deviations
were limited to ?m on either side of the trace. +n localities where the
road trace traverses wetlands the natural boundaries of the wetlands
were taken as the boundaries of the domain of study as changes in
ecology of one place in a wetland is naturally transmitted throughout
the wetland.
Sociologist
3he study on social impact was concentrated on two geographical
units.
"ssess the impact on communities and other land uses in the
?6 belt on both side of the road reservation.
%(" settlement sites to assess the impact on already resettled
communities
"gricultural )conomist 3he socio,economic environment of the deviations and identified
important places in the ;#+&, "(# and 'alle *ort "ccess %oads will
10
be studied using the collected data along with report review.
Landscape and "esthetics
Specialist
3he Landform, "esthetic "spects, "pplication of
*esticidesF8erbicides in Landscaping, Land Cse %elated 6onitoring
will be reviewed and analy.ed in the significant deviations of the
"(# section and along the entire 'alle *ort access road.
1@
!. +NBIRON=+NT0) 0SS+SS=+NT =+T"ODO)C
!.1 Impacts I'ent#*#cat#on
3he methodology adopted for impact matrices in the previous )+" %eport, had been
accepted by the &entral )nvironmental "uthority and therefore the same methodology was
adopted.
!.1.1 Impacts I'ent#*#cat#on
3he project is divided into a number of )+" elements, identified by the )+" 3eam in
consultation with %(" engineers. 7B *roject activities were identified, A activities
occurring during the investigation stage, 1B in the construction stage and 0 in the operation
stage. " list of the 7B *roject "ctivities is given in 3able 7.1. +t was noted that there was no
variation in the project activities of the ;#+& and the "(# section.
Ta4le !.1D )#st o* Project 0ct#v#t#es
". (uring +nvestigations and *reparation
1. 'eotechnical +nvestigations
7. Land Surveying
A. Land "c-uisition
#. (uring &onstruction
1. &onstruction 6aterial )xploitation, 8andling, 3ransportation E Storage
7. Site &learing
A. &ut E :ill
B. #lasting E (rilling
?. Surfacing E *aving
!. Land %eclamation
0. (itching E (rainage
@. Spoil (isposal
/. "sphalt E &oncrete *lants
1. &onstruction of #ridges
11. &onstruction of &ulverts
17. "pplication of *esticidesF8erbicides in Landscaping
1A. $umber, housing and Services for Labour :orce
1B. (isplacement E Settlement of *eople
&. (uring Operation
1/
1. 'enerated E (iverted 3raffic
7. )ncroachment to previously inaccessible areas
A. %oad "ccidents
B. 8a.ards (ue to 3ransport of 8a.ardous 6aterial
?. %oad maintenance work
!. %oadside (evelopment 4*lanned E Cnplanned5
0. :loods, )arth-uakes or "ny Other Cnforeseen "cts
3he affected environment was also divided into B! )nvironmental )lements, considering
the general environment of the area and the environmental issues identified in the previous
studies. 3hese environmental elements were subdivided into 1B *hysicalF&hemical
aspects, ? #iological aspects and 70 SocialF Socioeconomic aspects, as shown in 3able
7.7.
Ta4le !.!D )#st o* +nv#ronmental +lements
0. Ph.s#calEChem#cal 0spects
"1 )arth
1.6ineral %esources
7.&onstruction 6aterials
A.)arth Stability
B Settlement and ground subsidence
?.Landform
"7 2ater
1.Surface 2ater Kuantity
7.'roundwater Kuantity
A.Surface 2ater Kuality
B.'roundwater Kuality
"A "tmosphere
1."ir Kuality
7.$oise Level E Libration
"B *rocesses
1.:loodsF8ydrology E (rainage patterns
7.Soil )rosion, Siltation E Sediment %unoff
A.+rrigation E :lood *rotection work
$. $#olo&#cal 0spects
#1 :lora
1.3errestrial :lora 4)ndemic, 3hreatened or )ndangered species5
7."-uatic :lora
#7 :auna
1.3errestrial :auna
7."-uatic :auna
A."vi :auna
7
C. Soc#alE Soc#oeconom#c 0spects
&1 Land Cse and *roperty Lalues
1.Land use *attern
7.Land tenure
A.Settlement pattern
B.Long 3erm *lans for Land Cse
&7 8uman "ctivities and Kuality of Life
1.Social structure, Local Lifestyle and Lalues
7.*opulation, 6igration E Settlement
A.)ducation
B."ccessibility and 6obility for $ormal "ctivities
?."ccessibility for Special Services,*olice, :ire protection, 8ospitals
!.*ublic 8ealth E Safety
0.8ousing
@.Other infrastructure :acilities, 2ater Supply, 2astewater and Solid 2aste disposal,
*ower supply etc
/.Other 6odes of 3ransport and 3ransportation :acilities
1.'eneral Lifestyle
&A )conomic "spects
1.)mployment
7."griculture
A.3ourism
B.+ncome (istribution
?.Structures
!.#usiness Lolumes
0.*roperty Lalues
@. %ural )conomy
&B :eatures of "esthetic, 8istoric and &ultural +nterest
1.Lisual +ntrusion and Landscape
7.8istoric and "rchaeological 6onuments
A.*laces of worship and religious interest
B. 3extural -uality of structures
?. Legetation E 8istoric value of trees
3he %elevance 6atrix was developed with these 7B identified project activities and B!
environmental elements. " scoping session was conducted by the entire team to identify
possible environmental elements that would have impacts. 3wo separate %elevance
6atrices were developed for the ;#+& section and the "(# section, in order to incorporate
the differences in the extent and the intensity of the impacts on the different environmental
elements.
!.1.! The Impact =atr#ces
3he impact matrices developed for the ;#+& section is shown in :igure 7.1. 3he team
along with each subject specialist ranked the impacts in a scale of two which differentiated
the degree as high and low. 3he scale was selected to maintain the compatibility of the
present work with the previous )+".
3he team with specific expert knowledge, details from literature surveys, results of
scoping and interviews, field measurements and following numerous meetings identified
71
the impact matrix indicated above. 3he summary of reasons for categori.ation is given in
3able )1.1 and )1.7 of "ppendix )B.
77
(#&ure !.1 D The Impact =atr#, *or 2$IC sect#on
7A
/. +FISTIN +NBIRON=+NT 0ND SIT+ D+SCRIPTION
/.1 Ph.s#cal +nv#ronment
/.1.1 +arth
/.1.1.1 =#neral Resources
3he mineral resources of the earth are of many kinds but they can be considered under
three broad categories, namely, energy minerals, metals and industrial minerals.
"ccording to the prevailing knowledge of the geological conditions of Sri Lanka,
energy minerals are not present in economically viable scales in Sri Lanka. 3he
distribution of other mineral deposits in Sri Lanka is shown in :igure ".A.1 in
"ppendix "A. (istribution of mineral deposits in the project area is another important
consideration in the implementation of a project of this nature. "s it is clear from
:igure ".A.1, that important mineral deposits within or in the vicinity of the project
area are graphite and gems. Other types of industrial minerals, that are present within
the road trace, are the rock forming minerals. 3he type of rock forming minerals that
are present along the project corridor are given in 3able ?,14a5 and 3able ?,14b5 of the
)+" 41///5 6ain 3ext H Lolume 1.
3he :inal trace deviates from the &ombined trace significantly between &8 0 G and
&8 7B G . 8owever, the %(" trace runs very close to the :inal trace within this
deviation. :urthermore, the %(" trace and the :inal trace runs along the same terrain and
a major variation of rock types cannot be expected between the %(" trace and the :inal
trace. 3herefore, the rock forming minerals given in 3able ?,14a5 of the )+" 41///5 6ain
3ext H Lolume 1for the %(" trace may be applicable for the :inal trace as well.
/.1.1.! Construct#on =ater#als
/.1.1.!.1 Roc% an' Coarse 0&&re&ate
$ine,tenth of Sri Lanka is made up of highly crystalline, non,fossilifferous rocks of
*recambrian age belonging to one of the most ancient and stable parts of the earth1s crust,
the +ndian shield. On the basis of the rock types and structure, they are divided into three
main complexes namely, 8ighland &omplex 48&5, 2anni &omplex 42&5 and Lijayan
&omplex, and one subordinate unit 9adugannawa &omplex 49&5 as shown in the
simplified geological map of Sri Lanka given in :igure "A.7 in "ppendix "A.
Strength of the weathered rock mass depends on the nature and the spacing of fractures.
3ypical average crushing strengths of some of the unweathered rock types found in Sri
Lanka are given 3able A.1.
7B
Ta4le /.1 Propert#es o* roc% t.pes commonl. *oun' #n the South-estern &roup o* the
"#&hlan' comple,.
%ock 3ype Specific gravity %ange 46pa5 "verage crushing strength
pa5
#iotite gneiss and
granite gneiss
7.! 1AA ,770 1!/
&harnockitic gneiss 7.0 17 , A 10!
'arnetiferous granite 7.0 @! , 7A 101
Kuart.ite 7.? /@ , 77B 1B?
+f the rock is foliated or banded, certain foliae may be weaker than others or may be
slightly weathered in an otherwise fresh rock. 3herefore, the plane of foliation may be
weaker than the other part of the rock and depending on the dip angle of the foliation
plane, slippage of the sides of an excavation may occur if the dip directions of the foliation
planes are towards the excavation.
3he project corridor is located within the 8ighland complex 48O5 and the 2anni complex
42&5. %ock outcrops are visible along the trace closer to the 9alu 'anga crossing. +n
addition, rock outcrops are visible surrounding the $amunukula *lantation, 6iriswatta
division and near the #entota 'anga crossing at *anthota. 3he base rock within the project
corridor mainly consists of biotite gneisses. "t main river crossings, the bed rock mainly
consists of highly decomposed to fresh or slightly weathered, very weak to strong, white,
light gray and black gneiss with very closely to widely spaced joints. "t these river
crossings, fairly large variation between the depth to the bedrock in boreholes in the same
site are reported. Such variations, may be due to thick weathered rock layers present above
the solid bedrock at those locations
&oarse aggregate is another very important construction material needed. "t present, the
coarse aggregate need of the area is met with the supply from the -uarries and the rock
types found in these -uarry sites mainly consist of #iotite gneisses, &harnockite,
&harnockitic gneiss and 'arnet biotite gneisses. 3hese varieties posses -ualities of good
construction material such asI hardness, toughness, strength and higher abbresive
resistance, as they have an interlocking texture of their constituent minerals. 3he -uarry
sites identified by %(" in the area are given in 3able ? H B of the )+" report 41///5 ,
"ppendices and the details of the rock -uarry sites are given in "ppendix & of the same
document.
/.1.1.!.! ravel an' (#ll =ater#al
(ue to the large length of the roadway crossing flood plains of the streams, from upper or
middle peneplain to the lower peneplain, large -uantity of fill material is needed as
construction material for construction of the road embankment. +n addition to the material
needed for the construction of the embankment above the ground level, large amount of
fill material is needed since replacement of compressible material, found in the low lying
areas, is used as a ground improvement techni-ue.
7?
"s it is commonly known, strength of the material in a roadway embankment may
decrease at the lower levels of the embankment as the pressure due to load applied at the
top of the embankment is distributed with the depth. 3herefore, material with low &#%
values may be used for lower levels of the embankment and high -uality material may be
used for higher levels of the embankment. +f replacement method is adopted it is not
practical to de,water the excavation before re,filling with stronger material. 3herefore, the
filling may be done under water and the material used for this purpose should be well
graded as compaction using mechanical means is not possible. Soil in most of the residual
formations can be used for this purpose as they contain varying si.es of particles due to
physical andFor chemical weathering.
6ost of the material from the excavations consists of %ed,Mellow *odo.olic soils with
soft or hard laterite and have fairly high &#% values and can be readily used for the
construction of the lower and upper embankment layers. 8owever, if the clay content is
more than A?D and the plasticity index 4*+5 is more than 11D soil is classified as clayey
soils according to the "S36 designation (,A7@7J ""S83O method 61B? and the
compaction process may become difficult. &lassification of highway subgrade material
using ""S83O method is given in 3able ".1.7 of "ppendix "1.
/.1.1.!./ San'
"t present sand is mainly used for construction work and the demand for sand has gone up
due to the additional demand created by the 3sunami reconstruction work. :or concrete
and other construction work sand or fine aggregate is defined as mineral particles with si.e
range between .1? H ? mm. +n Sri Lanka, sand can be obtained from one of the following
sourcesI
i. 6ining beds and banks of riversJ
ii. 6ining of dunesJ
iii. (redging from off,shoreJ or
iv. 6anufactured sand from crushed rock.
*roperties of types of sand given above from different sources are given in 3able A.7.
Ta4le /.! 5 Propert#es o* san' *rom '#**erent sources
Off,shore sand (une sand 6anufactured 4crushed
rock5 sand
*article si.e &oarse to medium
4but with exceptions5
:ine and contained within
narrow grading envelop
6edium
*article shape Similar to river sand Similar to river sand )longated and irregular
:ine content
4dustFclay si.ed
particles5
Cnless calcareous
mud is present .7D
to 1.?D 4permissible
limit is BD5
.7D to .BD 42ell
within the permissible
limit of BD5
7D to 11D on material
processed by
washingFsieving
4permissible limit 1!D5
&omposition
46aterial other than
sand5
6ay contain shells,
shell fragments or
sometimes calcareous
mud
Small percentage of
heavy metal
Same composition as in
coarse aggregate
*roperties of mortar
or concrete mixes
2orkability
Strength gain
Similar to river sand
,do,
'ood especially in
plasterFmortar mixes. 6ay
need more cement or
mixing with other types of
sand
*oor workability due to
particle shape, but both
strength and workability
improved by blending with
fine sand such as dune sand
(eleterious
7!
materialFchemicals
, chlorides
Sulphates

Organic
matter
.1D to .7D
4overall5 but less than
.?D in samples in
$orth H western
coastal shelf
Less than 5.AD
4within permissible
limits5
+nsignificant
Less than .7D
+nsignificant
Lery low 4as confirmed
by -ualitative analysis5
$ot applicable
,do,
,do,
3he road corridor is within the 2estern province up tp #entota 'anga 4&8 ?7 G /@75 and
the balance section lies within the Southern province. #ased on the :inal report of the
&ostal resources management project H "lternatives for %iver sand, the estimated total
demand for sand within the 2estern and Southern provinces during the year 7B are A./
and 1.? million cubic meters. 3his demand for sand is mainly met with the supply of river
sand. 3herefore, almost all the river basins within the project area have already been
mined excessively creating sever environmental problems such as lowering of riverbed
levels, curtailment of sediment flows in the rivers and streams, health problems faced by
people involved in river sand mining and costal erosion.
3he estimated volume of sand mined from two major rivers in the 2estern province
during the year 1//0 is given in 3able A.A.
Ta4le /./ ;uant#t. o* san' m#ne' *rom major r#vers #n the 9estern prov#nce 'ur#n&
the .ear 1AA>
%iver
)stimated -uantity of sand mined during
1//0
N
4m
A
5
9elani 'anga @77,
9alu 'anga A71,
N
+nterim sand study, (raft final report 41//05
/.1.1./ Sta4#l#t. o* the Su4 Sur*ace
/.1.1./.1 So#ls
3he flood plains and the resulting alluvial deposits form a part of the landscape of the
project area. 3he Surface soil types present within the project corridor are shown in :igure
"A.A in "ppendix "A. "s shown in :igure "A.A in "ppendix "A, the soil formations and
the condition of the terrain within the project area mainly consists of the followingsI
i. %ed,Mellow pod.olic soils with soft or hard laterite, rolling and undulating
terrainJ
ii. %ed,Melllow *odo.olic soils, steeply dissected, hilly and rolling terrain
iii. #og and half bog soils, flat terrainJ and
iv. "lluvial soils of variable drainage and texture, flat terrain.
70
#asic *roperties of Surface Soil 3ypes *resent in *roject "rea in "ppendix "B.
Compar#son o* the sur*ace so#l t.pes 4et-een traces
3he percentage of different soil types at the surface along the three alternative traces are
given in 3able A.B.
Ta4le /.3. Sur*ace so#l t.pes present alon& '#**erent alternat#ve traces #n the 2$IC
sect#on as a percenta&e o* the total len&th.
3race
D of the Length
of the trace
through soil "
N
D of the Length
of the trace
through soil #
N
D of the Length
of the trace
through soil &
N
D of the Length of
the trace through
soil (
N
:inal trace A!./ B?.B 1A./ A.@
&ombined trace A!./ BB.1 1B.1 B./
%(" trace 7!.7 ?B.0 1A./ ?.A
N
" , #og and half bog soilJ flat terrain.
# , %ed H Mellow *odo.olic soils with soft or hard lateriteJ rolling and
undulating terrain.
& , %ed H Mellow *odo.olic soilsJ steeply dissected, hilly and rolling terrain.
( , "lluvial soil of variable drainage and texureJ flat terrain.
3he final trace is more closer to the %(" trace but the top soil layer variation of the :inal
trace is more closer to the &ombined trace. #oth the &ombined and final traces run
through more flat terrain than the %(" trace.
/.1.1./.! +arth Sta4#l#t.
3he project area is located within the wet .one, which receives more than 7? mm of rain
per year. 3herefore, seepage forces in the slopes can go up during the wet season and
cause slope instability. 3he resistive forces that are developed against sliding mainly
depend on the strength properties of the subsurface and the fracture pattern of the bedrock.
Slope angles along the trace goes up to about A? H B?

.
3he length of the road trace passing through steeply dissected, hilly terrain is markedly
less in the ;#+& section when compared with "(# section. 8owever, the existing slopes
along the road trace mainly consists of weathered relics of in,situ material at the top of the
slope and colloidal material deposited at the bottom of the slope due to weathering and
erosion of the upper levels of the slope.
/.1.1.3 Settlement an' roun' Su4s#'ence
3he ground surface can be subjected to settlement due to an imposed load on the ground
surface or in the interior of the ground. Similarly, ground subsidence could take place as a
result of stress release within the soil mass. Such stress release in the interior of the earth
7@
could be due to an under ground cavity created by construction of an underground tunnel
or formation of a cavity due to natural reasons such as solution weathering of limestone.
3hese types of underground tunnels are excavated for mining of gems and graphite but
such industries are not carried out in the corridor of the trace. :urthermore, the bedrock
and the weathered rock layers in the project corridor consist of metasedimentary rocks and
such types of cavity formation in the strong rock formations are very highly unlikely.
"part from very minor structures that are constructed in very soft soil deposits no other
existing ground settlement or subsidence is evident within the project corridor.
/.1.1.7 )an'*orm
3opography of Sri Lanka consists of three well marked peneplains, produced by long
periods of weathering and erosion, and the map of Sri Lanka showing these three
peneplains are shown in :igure "A.B in "ppendix "A. 3he project area lies within the
lowest peneplain which surrounds the central hill country on all sides and is generally flat,
sometimes gently undulating plain stretching down to the coast. 3he average height of the
ground level in the lowest peneplain is about Am but rises inland to 1 to 1?m in the
isolated hills and hill ranges which lie scattered about. 3hese erosion remnants have stood
out against the leveling process of nature largely because they are made up of strong
weather resistant granitic rocks.
&ompared to the "(# section of the trace, the landform in the ;#+& section mainly
consists of flat or rolling and undulating terrain. 3he road trace cuts across three main
rivers namely, 9alu 'anga, #entota 'anga and 2elipenna 'anga, which is a tributary of
#entota 'anga. 3race runs through a fairly long length across the flood plains of all these
rivers. 8owever, due to the sluggish water flow in these rivers in their lower reach, the
flood plains mainly consist of bog and half bog soils.
"gricultural lands within the road trace mainly consists of rubber plantations and paddy
cultivations up to about #entota 'anga crossing at *antota and from there up to the end of
the trace consisting of cinnamon orchards and paddy cultivations.
/.1.! 9ater
/.1.!.1 Sur*ace -ater 8uant#t.
3he hydrologic and meteorological parameters such as rainfall, relative humidity,
temperature, and stream flow -uantities are same along the %(" 3race, &ombined 3race,
and :inal (esign 3race. (rainage paths have not changed significantly in the final trace
compared with previous %(" trace. Surface water is abundant in these areas due to the
low topography and high rainfall 4See 3able A.1@ given under the Section =*rocesses>5.
6ain rivers crossing the final trace are given in 3able A.?. +t is found that only 9alu 'anga
flow data is available in the (epartment of +rrigation data base. 3he 9alu 'anga is gauged
at two locations, *utupaula which is about 11km upstream from road trace, and )llegawa
which is 7/ km upstream of *utupaula. 3he monthly average flows at *utupaula are given
in 3able A.!.
7/
Ta4le /.7 =a#n r#vers cross#n& the *#nal trace an' the 'es#&n *loo' (source ".'rolo&.
an' Dra#na&e report =arch !001 4. Pac#*#c Consultants)
&hainage $ame #asin "rea 4km
7
5
(ischarge 1 yrs. %eturn
*eriod 4m
A
Fs5
7AG/B 9alu 'anga 'anga 7!@@ 1!0
B?GA0 2elipanna 'anga 17/ B1
?AG7 #entota 'anga AB7 @
Ta4le /.< =onthl. avera&e *lo-s at Putupaula #n 6alu an&a
6onth of
water year
(ischarge 4m
A
Fs5
7F71 71F77 77F7A 7AF7B
Oct 1/.1 A!0.! A7A.@
$ov /@.0 A@.B1 A0!.@7
(ec 0!.7@ 7BA.?! 1@1.A
;an 1A/.7 1@.7A 1!/.7
:eb 0A.? 1A@.AA 1A.?
6ar !.! 1?@.BB 1B0.01
"pr 11/.?0 A7A.A? 7B!.7?
6ay 1B.?! A0/.0 A@1.B7
;un 1.! A0B.1? A?B.0A
;ul 0?.@ 171.?7 A0B.!7
"ug !1./@ 10!.?1 1??.7@
Sep 17!.?7 170.7 !1!.@
6aximum
daily
average
B//.// B/7.1? 17A7./ 11@.A
Present use o* sur*ace -ater
*resently water is used for agriculture, drinking, and domestic purposes. 3he $ational
2ater Supply and (rainage #oard presently extract water from 9alu 'anga from
9ethhena for community supply. 3he present intake at 9ethhena is about 77, m
A
Fday
while planned future expansion in year 77 is ??, m
A
Fday.
/.1.!.! roun'-ater 8uant#t.
3able A.0 shows the existing groundwater level along the final design trace of selected
significant deviations. 'roundwater levels in the selected deviations are well below the
design road level. 'roundwater is abundant in these areas due to the low topography and
high rainfall.
A
Ta4le /.> roun'-ater level alon& the *#nal trace
Cha#na&e
(%m)
+,#st#n&
roun' )evel
(m =S))
Des#&n Roa'
)evel
(m =S))
9ater
)evel
(m =S))
9eathere'
Roc% )evel
(m =S))
"ar' Roc%
)evel
(m =S))
?G!7 A.0@ 1.?! 1./@ ,7.0? ,!.B
?G@7 B.B! 17.7A 7.7! O .
!GB A.!/ /.!? 1.?/ O ,7./
0G11 B. ?.@? 1.@ O 1.
0GA! A.B/ !.? , O ,A.
0G0A B./! /.@ , O ,1.?
0G0B B./0 1.1A B./0 ,B.A O ,@.!A
@G1? 7. 1?.7 10.! O 1B.
@G@1 7. 1A.B 10.A O 1B.
7G 1.?! @.A7 ,.A O ,1./?
7AG@B 7.@ 1.7 .?! ,1!.? ,10.?
7BG0 A. /.7 .1? ,0 ,1
7BGB0? B. ?.? ./ ,/ ,1!
7BG0 .1 @.7! .1 O,?.7
7?G1 7. 0.? 1.A? ,7 ,71
7?GA .!7 0.!B .!7 O,A./7
7?G@! .B/ @.@ ,B.A1 ,1.1 O,17.01
A7G?7 1.! /.@ 1.A? ,/.B O,1?.7
A7G/ A.? 11.! 7.A ,.7
AAG!? 1A. 0.0 1 O,1.!7
ABG! ?. 11.1 .?
ABG!7 ?.B! 1B.0? .71
ABG0 !.!/ 1B.? !.1/ O,.A@
A?G@0? 7B. 71. 17.? O1.??
A/G7 0./! 1A./ 0.7! ,A.@B O,0.7B
A/G!7 10.A1 1!.!A /.A1 B.@1 O7.7!
A/G/? /.?@ 1A.? /.A@ O?.7@
BGB 1@.?B 1A.? 10.1B 1A.?B OB.?B
B!G 7.1/ /.A7 .A/ ,?.A1 O,!.71
B0G@? .B !.? ,!.A O,@.A
?0G1 /.?0 @.11 0.?0 7.?0
?0G7? 1/. 0./ 1B.? O17.A?
?0G!B 1?.70 @.1/ 17.!0 O7.70
4(ata extracted from ;#+& section #oreholes5.
/.1.!./ Sur*ace 9ater ;ual#t.
Surface water bodies especially streams and other waterways and stagnant water bodies
such as ponds were sampled in the ;#+& section. 3he areas covered in the ;#+& section
comprises from 9ottawa to 9urundugahahetekma. Cniversity of 6oratuwa had
undertaken sampling of the water bodies in the ;#+& section in 71. :igures "A.0,"A.10
in "ppendix A shows the sampling locations in the ;#+& section. Sampling had been
undertaken during both wet weather 4$ovember5 and dry weather periods 4"ugust5 in
order to evaluate any discrepancies between the parameters obtained or to determine
whether the weather patterns are responsible to cause any significant changes in water
-uality.
A1
"ll sampling, preservation and chemical analysis was carried out in accordance to
Standard 6ethods for the )xamination of 2ater and 2astewater 41//?5. 8eavy metal
analysis was carried out using a '#& /A7 *lus flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer
after acid digestion of the water samples using the methods described in "S36 41//15.
+t should be noted that guideline values as developed by "ustralia and $ew Pealand
)nvironment and &onservation &ouncil 4"$P)&&5 in 7 for recreational waters were
consulted for some parameters, especially for heavy metals in order to assess the degree of
pollution of surface water bodies for recreational purposes. "mbient water -uality
standards for inland waters 4#athing *urposes H &lass ++ 2aters or Sensitive 2aters5
recently proposed by the &entral )nvironmental "uthority 4&)"5 were also taken into
account where necessary for some parameters to evaluate the degree of surface water
pollution. 3he results on surface water -uality for the ;#+& during both the wet weather
and the dry weather are discussed below.
Water Quality Parameters Measured in November 2001 (Wet Weather)
3able "1.A 4"ppendix "15 represents the selected water -uality sampling locations in the
;#+& section. 3able "1.B 4"ppendix "15 shows the general water -uality parameters
obtained by the Cniversity of 6oratuwa during the wet weather period in 71. 3able
"1.? 4"ppendix "15 represents the &)" and "$P)&& 475 guidelines for recreational
waters with a brief note on the general water -uality parameters reported during the wet
weather period from the water bodies in the ;#+& section and 3able "1.! 4"ppendix "15
indicates the heavy metal levels reported during the wet weather period. 3able "1.0
4"ppendix "15 provides a summary of the heavy metal contamination of the water bodies
in the ;#+& section during the wet weather period with reference to the proposed &)" and
"$P)&& 475 guidelines for recreational waters.
p8 and dissolved oxygen 4(O5 levels reported during wet weather 4225 were found to
be satisfactory. 3he only exceptions were at stations 17S2, 1AS2, 1BS2 and 7S2
where slightly acidic conditions occurred. "t AS2 the (O values were low amounting to
7.@ mgFl, thereby indicating the prevalence of some anaerobic conditions. &onductivity
values were also satisfactory as the 3(S values reported were lower 4in comparison with
the results obtained during the dry weather period5 due to significant dilution of the water
bodies by rains.
Oil and grease contamination was observed to be high at almost all locations due to
disposal of oil rich effluents from the commercial, residential and industrial sector.
6oreover in comparison with the results obtained during the dry weather period both
&O( and #O( values were high 4except at stations 0S25 suggesting run off brining in
biodegradable organic matter to water bodies 4in addition to point sources of organic
pollution5. :urther faecal contamination was high in most of the water bodies with
reference to the proposed &)" standards. :aecal coliform levels were higher than the
values reported during the dry weather period in some of the water bodies 4at locations
1S2, 7S2, AS2, BS2, ?S2, 0S2, 1!S2 and 7S25 with values exceeding the
"$P)&& stipulated value of 1? 6*$F1 ml for primary recreational waters. 3he total
coliform levels were also high in most water bodies with reference to the proposed &)"
standards.
A7
3he results also showed that $8
A
,$ levels were higher than "$P)&& values of .1 mgFl
in all the water bodies 4in comparison to the results obtained during the dry weather
period5 suggesting decomposition of organic nitrogen matter brought in rain induced
runoff. 8owever $O
A
,
and $O
7
,
contamination was not significant with reference to the
"$P)&& values of 1 mgFl and 1 mgFl, respectively as was observed during the dry
weather period. 3$ levels reported were higher than values reported during the dry
weather period suggesting run,off brining in organic nitrogenous matter. Similarly 3*
levels seemed high in most water bodies than the values reported during the dry weather
period suggesting run off brining in * from agricultural lands, but the 3* levels reported
conformed to the proposed &)" standards.
2ith reference to heavy metals all the water bodies sampled contained higher :e levels
with values exceeding .A mgFl, which therefore could impart a color with a characteristic
metallic taste to the water -uality. 3he presence of :e in the water bodies may be a
conse-uence of leaching of :e
7G
from :e oxide bearing minerals in the soil and peat soil
during rainy periods under acidic and anaerobic conditions. 6oreover leaching of :e
7G
from decaying organic matter such as tree shed leaves and other dead plant and animal
matter could be another reason for the presence of high :e levels.
Significant dilution of water bodies was noticed such that the heavy *b, &r, &d, $i and &u
were undetected. 3he exception was 1/S2 where the *b levels were higher than
"$P)&& values of .? mgFl for recreational waters. 3he "l concentrations detected in
the water bodies were reported to be higher than "$P)&& values of .7 mgFl for
recreational waters 4other than at locations 1AS2, 1BS2, 1?S2, 1!S2, 7S2, 71S2 and
77S2 where "l was undetected5. 3he presence of "l in the water bodies may also be a
conse-uence of leaching of "l
AG
from "l bearing minerals in the soil during rainy periods.
Water Quality Parameters Measured in August 2001 (Dry Weather)
3he same locations selected for the ;#+& section during the wet weather were also studied
by the Cniversity of 6oratuwa during the dry weather period. 3able "1.@ 4"ppendix "15
represents the general water -uality parameters obtained by the Cniversity of 6oratuwa
during the dry weather period, 3able "1./ 4"ppendix "15 represents the &)" and
"$P)&& 475 guidelines for recreational waters with a brief note on the general water
-uality parameters reported from the water bodies during the dry weather period, 3able
"1.1 4"ppendix "15 indicates the heavy metal levels reported during the dry weather
period and 3able "1.11 4"ppendix "15 provides a summary of the heavy metal
contamination of the water bodies during the dry weather period with reference to the
proposed &)" and "$P)&& 475 guidelines for recreational waters.
+t was noticed that p8 of most of the sampled water bodies were within the normal values
of !.?,/., except at locations !S2, 1BS2 and 1?S2 where acidic conditions were
observed. (O levels seemed to be satisfactory indicating the absence of severe anaerobic
conditions. &onductivity levels recorded were also within the normal range except at
locations 10S2, 77S2 and 7AS2 due to the presence of higher 3(S levels comprising
mainly SO
B
7,
and &l
,
levels 4which may have been a conse-uence of industrial wastewater
discharge or high evapo,transpiration5.
3he results also showed that the water bodies sampled are not very turbid except locations
77S2 due to the presence of high levels of 3SS. 3* levels conformed to the &)"
AA
proposed standard of .0 mgFl for bathing purposes except at locations !S2 and 1BS2
4possibly due to significant discharge of industrial wastewaters rich in * or agricultural
effluents5.
8owever oil and grease levels, #O( and &O( levels did not conform to the &)"
proposed standards of .7 mgFl, B mgFl and 7 mgFl, respectively for bathing purposes
4Sensitive 2aters5. $evertheless $8
A
,$ levels were reported to be lower than "$P)&&
guideline values of .1 mgFl 4except at locations 7AS2 where a higher value of .BB mgFl
was noticed and also at locations !S2 and 1BS2 where the values were slightly higher
than "$P)&& stipulated values5. $O
A
,
levels were also lower than the &)" proposed
standard of ? mgFl. Similarly $O
7
,
levels were lower than "$P)&& guideline values of 1
mgFl for recreational waters.
2ith reference to the presence of coliforms all the locations showed high contamination as
the values reported had exceeded the &)" proposed standard of ? 6*$F1 ml.
8owever only at locations 1BS2 faecal contamination had exceeded the &)" proposed
standard of 1 6*$F1 ml for bathing purposes.
2ith reference to the analysis of heavy metals the results manifested that *b and "l
contamination was significant in almost all water bodies sampled as the levels were higher
than "$P)&& guideline values of .? mgFl and .7 mgFl, respectively for recreational
waters. "ll the water bodies sampled showed the presence of elevated :e exceeding .A
mgFl. 8ence there exists likelihood for the elevated :e levels to impart a color with a
metallic taste to the water -uality. &d was not detected in all the water bodies except at
10S2 and 77S2 where higher values exceeding "$P)&& values of .? mgFl were
noticed. Similarly &r was not detected in the water bodies except at locations !S2 and
1BS2 where slightly higher &r levels exceeding "$P)&& values of .? mgFl.
Significant $i contamination was evident at 77S2 and 7AS2 with levels of .1? mgFl
and .1 mgFl, respectively with reference to both &)" and "$P)&& values for
recreational waters. "t other water bodies $i was undetected. Similarly &u was undetected
other than at 77S2. 8owever the &u levels at 77S2 were insignificant with reference to
the "$P)&& guideline values for recreational waters.
/.1.!.3 roun'-ater ;ual#t.
'roundwater -uality notably well water was sampled in the ;#+& section by the
Cniversity of 6oratuwa in 71. "ll sampling, preservation and chemical analysis of
groundwater samples was also carried out in accordance to Standard 6ethods for the
)xamination of 2ater and 2astewater 41//?5. 3he results on groundwater -uality in the
;#+& section are described below.
3able "1.17 4"ppendix "15 represents the selected groundwater -uality sampling
locations in the ;#+& section, :igures "A.1?,"A.10 in "ppendix A shows the sampling
locations in the ;#+& section., 3able "1.1A 4"ppendix "15 shows the general groundwater
-uality parameters obtained by the Cniversity of 6oratuwa measured in "ugust 71 and
3able "1.1B 4"ppendix "15 provides an overview of the groundwater -uality with
reference to 2orld 8ealth Organi.ation 428O5 and Sri Lankan Standards 4SLS5 1/@/
drinking water guidelines.
AB
'roundwater obtained from locations 1'2 and 7'2 was slightly acidic,
not conforming to the p8 range of !.?,@.? stipulated by the 28OFSLS 1/@/ guidelines.
3he results manifested that the groundwater samples contained 3* and $8
A
,$, thereby not
conforming to 28OFSLS *art 1 1/@/ standards for drinking water. Significant
salini.ation was not evident except at 1'2. 3he presence of considerable #O( levels
were noticed in 7'2 and A'2 and &O( values in all A samples were over 1 mgFl
stipulated by the 28OFSLS standards. 3otal hardness seemed to be moderately high in the
1'2 samples analy.ed. 3otal coliform levels did not conform to the drinking standards
and faecal contamination was slightly evident.

/.1./ 0#r
/.1./.1 0#r ;ual#t.
$ational Standards for "mbient Kuality have been stipulated under the $ational
)nvironmental "ct, $o. B0 of 1/@. One hour averages have been stipulated for $O
7
, SO
7
,
&O and suspended particulate matter 4S*65. Similarly 7B hour average limits have been
stipulated for $O
7
, SO
7
and S*6, except for &O.
"ir -uality measurements with reference to $O
7
, SO
7
and &O were undertaken by +3+ in
;une, 7A 4+3+, 7A5. "nalysis of $O
7
, SO
7
and &O was carried out using the Salt.mann
6ethod, *ararcsaniline method and non,dispersive infrared spectroscopy, respectively.
3he results on air -uality for each section are described below.
:igures "A.0, "A.@, "A.11, "A.17, "A.1? and "A.10 4"ppendix "A5 shows the locations
selected for the study. 3able "1.1? 4"ppendix "15 represents the selected ;#+& locations
for the study. 3able "1.1! 4"ppendix "15 gives the air -uality measurements 41,hour
average5 recorded by +3+ at the selected locations and 3able "1.10 4"ppendix "15 shows
the 7B average concentrations for $O
7
, SO
7
and &O.
+n view of the results obtained it was evident that air pollution was not significant in any
of the monitored areas with reference to these A gaseous pollutants. 3he results also
elucidated that the average levels of $O
7
and SO
7
obtained at each location within a period
of 7B hours is also below the stipulated ambient air -uality standards of .? ppm 47B hrs5
and .A ppm 47B hrs5, respectively.
/.1./.! No#se an' B#4rat#on
(uring the period of $ovember 77 to :ebruary 7A, +3+ has carried out for %oad
(evelopment "uthority 4%("5 noise level measurements in the ;#+& section using
integrated noise level meter. 3he results are described below.
3able "1.1@ 4"ppendix "15 represents the selected locations of noise measurement for the
;#+& section from $ovember 77 to :ebruary 7A. :igures "A.0, "A.@, "A.11, "A.17,
and "A.10 4"ppendix "A5. 3able "1.1/ 4"ppendix "15 gives the background noise level
obtained for each location.
3he results revealed that at location A the noise levels measured during day time had
slightly exceeded the stipulated maximum permissible limit of ?? d#4"5 for *radeshiya
A?
Sabhas. 8owever the noise levels measured at all locations during the night time were
reported to exceed the stipulated limit of B? d#4"5.
/.1.3 Processes
/.1.3.1 (loo'sE ".'rolo&. an' Dra#na&e Patterns
(loo's
3he proposed highway falls within the Southwest of the country and runs parallel to the
shoreline about 11 km inland. 3he general trpography of the area is flat or undulating
terrain with an annual rainfall of about B H ? mm. 3he expressway traces lie on the
first *eneplain of which the elevation is between ,17? m. 3he pattern of drainage is from
the center of inland towards the sea and drainage paths are perpendicular to the road trace
at most locations of the road traces.
3hree major rivers, 9alu 'anga, #entota 'anga, and 'in 'anga, cross the road traces of
;#+& section. 3he deviation of 9alu 'anga #ridge is about 7? m from the previous %("
trace. 3he catchment length of 9alu 'anga is about 17/ km with an annual precipitation
volume of about 1177 6illion m
A
of which about 00D pass through the road trace to the
sea. 3he deviation of the #ridge Site of #entota 'anga is about @ m from the %(" trace.
3he length of the catchment area of #entota 'anga is A1 km with an annual precipitation
volume of 771A 6illion m
A
of which about 0D cross the road trace to reach the sea. 3he
length of 2elipenne 'anga is about 1@ km. 3he 2elipenne 'anga #ridge is deviated
about 1! m from the %(" 3race. Streams crossing the road trace from chainage G
up to 9alu 'anga flows to the #olgoda Lake.
3he catchments of the streams and rivers crossing the final design trace are marked on a
topo map of 1I?. 3he flood and drainage impacts are calculated for the entire length
of the final design trace and are presented in the 3ableQQ
".'rolo&.
Cl#mate
&limatic condition of the proposed highway trace falls within the wet .one of Sri Lanka.
3he meteorological stations with the close proximity of the ;#+& section road trace are
identified as &olombo, %atmalana, 'alle, and %atnapura.
Temperature@ Relat#ve "um#'#t.@ 9#n' Spee'
Mearly averaged maximum and minimum temperature of &olombo, 'alle, %atmalana, and
%atnapura are given in 3able A.@ and 3able A./. 3he temperature in the area varies between
7 & to A! &. 6onthly averaged minimum and maximum temperature during 1//? to
7B are given in 3able A.1 and 3able A.11.
Ta4le /.? Cearl. avera&e' ma,#mum temperature #n
0
C
Place 1AA7 1AA< 1AA> 1AA? 1AAA !000 !001 !00! !00/ !003
&olombo AA AA AA AA A7 A7 A7 AA AA AA
'alle A7 A7 AA A7 A1 A1 A1 A7 A7 A7
A!
%atmalana AA AA AA AB AA AA AB AB AA AA
%atnapura AB A7 AA A? AA AA AA AA AA AB
Ta4le /.A Cearl. avera&e' m#n#mum temperature #n
0
C
Place 1AA7 1AA< 1AA> 1AA? 1AAA !000 !001 !00! !00/ !003
&olombo 77 77 77 7A 77 77 7A 7A 7A 77
'alle 7A 77 77 7A 77 77 77 7A 7A 7A
%atmalana 7A 7A 7A 7A 7A 7A 7A 7A 7A 7A
%atnapura 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77
Ta4le /.10 =onthl. avera&e' ma,#mum temperature #n
0
C
Place 2an (e4 =ar 0pr =a. 2un 2ul 0u& Sep Oct Nov Dec
&olombo AB AB AB AA AA A7 A1 A1 A1 A7 AA AA
'alle AA AA AB AA A7 A1 A A A A1 A7 A7
%atmalana AA AA AB AA AB AB A? AB AA AA AA A7
%atnapura AB A? AB AB AB AA A7 A A7 A7 AA AB
Ta4le /.11 =onthl. avera&e' m#n#mum temperature #n
0
C
Place 2an (e4 =ar 0pr =a. 2un 2ul 0u& Sep Oct Nov Dec
&olombo 71 77 77 7A 7A 7A 7A 7B 7A 7A 77 71
'alle 77 77 77 7A 7A 7A 7A 7A 7A 7A 7A 77
%atmalana 71 71 77 7A 7B 7B 7B 7A 7A 7A 7A 77
%atnapura 7 71 77 7A 7A 7A 7A 7A 7A 77 77 71
Mearly averaged daytime and night time relative humidity of &olombo, 'alle, %atmalana,
and %atnapura are given in 3able A.17 and 3able A.1A. 3he relative humidity in the area
during daytime varies between 0D to @7D. 3he relative humidity in the area during
daytime varies between @AD to /?D. 6onthly averaged daytime and night time relative
humidity during 1//? to 7B are given in 3able A.1B and 3able A.1?.
Ta4le /.1! Cearl. avera&e' relat#ve hum#'#t. percenta&e 'ur#n& 'a.t#me
Place 1AA7 1AA< 1AA> 1AA? 1AAA !000 !001 !00! !00/ !003
&olombo 0B 0? 0B 0B 01 0! 0? 0? 0! 0B
'alle @1 @1 00 0/ @7 @ 0/ 0@ 0/ @
%atmalana 0B 0B 0A 0B 0? 0? 07 0A 0A 0B
%atnapura 00 0! 0? 0 @ 0@ 0! 00 0@ 0!
Ta4le /.1/ Cearl. avera&e' relat#ve hum#'#t. percenta&e 'ur#n& n#&ht t#me
Place 1//? 1//! 1//0 1//@ 1/// 7 71 77 7A 7B
&olombo @@ @0 @/ @@ @/ @@ @@ @@ @/ @@
'alle @@ @@ @0 @! @0 @! @0 @0 @@ @0
%atmalana /7 /7
A0
%atnapura /B /A /7 @A /A /A /B /? /? /7
Ta4le /.13 =onthl. avera&e' relat#ve hum#'#t. percenta&e 'ur#n& 'a.t#me
Place 2an (e4 =ar 0pr =a. 2un 2ul 0u& Sep Oct Nov Dec
&olombo 0 01 0 0B 0@ 01 0@ 00 0@ 0@ 00 01
'alle 00 0B 07 00 @7 @B @B @A @A @7 0/ 00
%atmalana 0 !/ !/ 0B 00 0@ 0! 0! 0! 00 0 0
%atnapura 0B 01 0 0@ 0@ 00 0/ 00 00 0/ @ 00
Ta4le /.17 =onthl. avera&e' relat#ve hum#'#t. percenta&e 'ur#n& n#&ht t#me
Place 2an (e4 =ar 0pr =a. 2un 2ul 0u& Sep Oct Nov Dec
&olombo @0 @0 @@ / @0 @0 @0 @! @0 /1 /7 @@
'alle @0 @? @? @0 @0 @@ @/ @@ @0 @0 @@ @@
%atmalana / @B / /@ /B @/ /7 /A /A /B /7 /?
%atnapura /7 /7 /A /? /A /1 @/ / /7 /A /? /B
3he project area has the influence of the $ortheast 6onsoonal winds "verage wind speed
at 'alle varies between @. kmFh in ;anuary to 1@.! kmFh in ;uly to September. "verage
wind velocity at %atmalana varies between !.B to @.0 kmFh during the year.
+vaporat#on
Mearly averaged evaporation of &olombo, and %atnapura is given in 3able A.1!. 3he
evaporation in &olombo varies between A.0/ mmFday to A.17 mmFday while in %atnapura
varies between 7.10 mmFday to A.1@ mmFday. 6onthly evaporation during 1//? to 7B is
given in 3able A.10.
Ta4le /.1< Cearl. avera&e' evaporat#on #n mm per 'a.
Place 1AA7 1AA< 1AA> 1AA? 1AAA !000 !001 !00! !00/ !003
&olombo A.0/ A.?@ A.B1 A.BB A.17 A.B A.!/ A.01 A.A7 A.B
%atnapura 7.@7 7./0 A.1@ 7.@B 7.7/ 7.10 7.A1 7.0 7.!? ,
Ta4le /.1> =onthl. avera&e' evaporat#on #n mm per 'a.
Place 2an (e4 =ar 0pr =a. 2un 2ul 0u& Sep Oct Nov Dec
&olombo A.B A.!B B.7B A.0A A.BA A.A7 A.B? A.0/ A.!B A.71 A.1 A.0
%atnapura 7.?/ A.71 A.?0 7./ 7.!A 7.B? 7.!? 7.?@ 7.?7 7.7A 7.70 7.A7
Ra#n*all
%ainfall data of four stations monitored by the (epartment of 6eteorology covering the
area of the design trace of ;#+& section is given in the 3able A.1@. "nnual rainfall in the
project area of ;#+& section varies from 77B mm to B7A0 mm.
A@
Ta4le /.1? (a) =onthl. avera&e ra#n*all (mm) 1AA71!003
ST0TION 20N (+$ =0R 0PR =0C 2UN 2U) 0U S+P OCT NOB D+C
&olombo @/.? @@.A ??.B 7A0.7 7!0.? 1/. 1?.7 11?.! 7!.? A?7.7 7@0. 1B!.?
%atmalana /.1 0!.1 @1.! 7@./ 7!A.@ 1@.! 1?/.0 1!.@ 7@7.0 A0A.! A1B.A 77.0
#andaragam
a
111.? /0.B ??.A 70/.? A?./ 7A?.B 1/?.@ 10!.0 ABB.A A00.! A7@.0 7?./
9alutara 11?.0 /0.@ 11./ 7A/./ 7/0.B 771.7 10?.0 177. 70?. A@7.! A7B.B 101.!
%ainfall, evaporation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed in the region of :inal
(esign trace is similar to %(" 3race and &ombined 3race.
Dra#na&e Patterns
3he catchment areas for the :inal trace are shown in the :igure 4&atchment figures from
the '+S maps5Q 3he change in catchment areas with possible impacts are given in the
3able A.1/
Ta4le /.1?(4) Catchment *#&ures *rom the IS maps
&hainage 4km5
(escription
:rom 3o
G !G
$o significant deviation of :inal 3race from &ombined and %("
traces. 3herefore no significant change of flood and hydrology impacts
along this stretch compared with previous traces.
!G !G!@
Location of 9imbul 9otuwa )la #ridge has changed compared with
%(" and &ombined traces. 3he present location of the bridge is in
between the %(" trace and &ombined trace at chainage !G!@ km.
3herefore catchment area for the bridge is grater than the %(" trace
and less than the combined trace.
!G!@ /G7?
&atchment area increased by about ./ km
7
. "t the chainage /G7?
6aha Oya cross the :inal trace. 3he location of the bride is shifted by
about A m down stream from the %(" trace. +ncrease of catchment
area for the bridge is about .1A km
7
.
/G7? 1G? &atchment area increase by about .1@ km
7
.
1G? 1@GA $o significant impact
1@GA 71G &atchment area increased by about ./ km
7
.
71G 71G@ &atchment area increased by about .1! km
7
.
71G@ 7AG &atchment area increased by about .1! km
7
.
7AG 7AG0 &atchment area increased by about .1B km
7
.
7AG0 7BG
9alu 'anga. $o significant increase in catchment area compared with
the bridge location of the %(" trace.
7BG 7?G@ &atchment area increased by about 1. km
7
.
7?G@ 70GA &atchment area increased by about 1. km
7
.
70GA 7/GA &atchment area increased by about .0 km
7
.
7/GA A!G &atchment area increased by about 7. km
7
.
A!G B?G $o significant impact
B?G B@G &atchment area reduced by about 1. km
7
.
B@G !?G $o significant flood and drainage impact due to deviations
!?G !!G &atchment area increased by about .? km
7
.
/.1.3.! So#l +ros#on@ S#ltat#on an' Se'#ment Runo**
A/
Soil type along the road is shown in :igure "A.A in "ppendix "A. 3he area of the trace
consist of mainly #og and 8alf,#og soils, %ed yellow pod.olic soils, and "lluvial soils of
variable drainage and texture. #og and 8alf,#og soils of the region along the trace are
strongly acidic. 3he organic matter and nitrogen status is very high in #og and 8alf,#og
soils.
/.1.3./ Irr#&at#on an' (loo' Protect#on Structures
3he main +rrigation Schemes transected by the deviated 3race 4:inal 3race5 are shown in
:igure "A.71 of "ppendix "A.
/.! $#olo&#cal +nv#ronment
)xcept at locations of the chainages 7G, B7G and ?7G, the new trace deviates
from the combined trace. 3he major deviation occurs between @G and 71G and
the rest are relatively small in extent. )cologically, the minor deviation between G
and 1G, and between AG and 0G? cannot be expected to impose a markedly
different impact on the environment as they still traverse the same or similar wetland areas
which are mostly abandoned paddy fields and built up land. 3he description and impact
analyses therefore are restricted to the major deviation between @G and 71G.
/.!.1 (lora
/.!.1.1 Terrestr#al (lora
3he major deviation in this part of the trace lies between @G and 71G. 3he
deviated segment however traverses largely over built up land where the human
settlements are and between 10G@ and 1/G crosses a segment of the low,lying areas
at *anape. 3herefore the predominant terrestrial flora along the deviation comprises of that
in home gardens. 8owever, out of the 0 endemic species encountered in the area ! were
recorded among terrestrial flora.
/.!.1.! 08uat#c (lora
"-uaticF amphibious flora consists of plant species characteristic to freshwater wetlands,
particularly abandoned paddy fields in the lowlands of Sri Lanka. 3he habitats available in
the wetland are of considerable diversity. #esides the channels across the wetlands that
eventually drain into #olgoda lake, open water areas occur in the wetland and they are the
relatively deep areas of the wetland. Such areas are surrounded by patches of herbaceous
vegetation that consists of marsh plants.
3he marsh consists of herbaceous species characteristic to abandoned paddy fields in the
south western coastal plain and it is dominated by grasses and sedges. :reshwater a-uatic
plants occur in the open water areas in the middle part of the wetland along the channels.
3he peripheral vegetation is dominated by tree species that typically occur associated with
freshwater marshes. " list of species found to occur in the area is presented in 3able A.1/.
Ta4le /.1AD 08uat#cE am4h#4#ous plants #n the area o* the propose' 'ev#at#on o* the
B
roa' trace
Scientific name Lernacular name
Cyperus difformis
Cyperus haspan
Cyperus iria
Cyperus pilosus
Rhyncospora corymbosa
Scoenoplectus grossus
Echinochloa colonum
Isachne globosa
Panicum repens
Pandanus sp.
Ludwigia decurrens
Limnocharis flava
Monochoria vaginalis
Lagenandra ovata
Eacum sp.
3hunessa
8alpan
2el hiri
3hunessa
3hun hiriya
2el maruk
#atadella
)tora
2etakeya
2el,karambu
(iya gowa
9etala
#inara

)xcept for Eacum sp. "ll other species are not endemics and they occur in abundance in
association with paddy fields throughout the wet .one. 3he sedge Scoenoplectus grossus
43hunhiriya5 is collected from this wetland by the villagers to weave mats.
/.!.! (auna
/.!.!.1 Terrestr#al (auna an' 0mph#4#ans
3errestrial environment in the location of deviation 4associated with *anape wetlands5 is
predominantly homesteads and rubber plantations. 3hey provide habitats for terrestrial
fauna, particularly insects, birds and reptiles. +n terms of diversity, the least represented
faunal group in this part of the trace and in the site of deviation are the small mammals.
3hirteen butterfly species have been recorded from the area of the deviation and they are
ecologically important as pollinators. 3hree species of snakes happen to occur in the area
out of which one, i.e. !enochrophis asperrimus 4(iya bariya5 is endemic to Sri Lanka.
*ythons which are rare snakes in the area may find their territories and number of habitats
shrink once the road is constructed and they will become more vulnerable. &innamon
plantations around 9urundugahahetekma is the only area where the endemic small
mammal species 4"is porosnus 5 42il muwa,S5 are found in Sri Lanka.
/.!.!.! 08uat#c (auna
+nvertebrates, fish, amphibians, birds, insects and mammals constitute the fauna of *anape
wetlands and among which fish and birds are visibly the most important groups of fauna in
the ecology of *anape wetlands. 3his also found to be a habitat of migratory birds and it is
of high ecological importance as there are no wetlands of this extent in the vicinity that
can serve the purpose.
9nife fish, an escaped exotic ornamental fish is abundant in the area and being a
carnivorous fish, it appears to affect the indigenous fish populations in the marsh and the
associated streams, hence it is considered an alien invasive species.
B1
/.!.!./ 0v#*auna
3hirty species of birds were observed around the area of the proposed deviation,
particularly associated with *anape wetland. +nterviews with the villagers revealed that
migratory bird species, even large birds such as *elicans and Large )grets visit this
wetland during the season 4October H ;anuary5.
/./ Soc#al +nv#ronment
/./.1 )an' Use 0spects
/./.1.1 )an' Use Pattern
3he proposed road runs through 17 (S divisions 4shown in table A.715 in &olombo,
9alutara and 'alle (istricts in 2estern and southern provinces. 3he land use pattern in
these (S divisions is more or less similar to the land use pattern prevailing in the project
impact area 4%O25.
3he general land use pattern in the 17 (S divisions includesI
%oad and buildings 41@D5
8igh land cultivated with perennial and semi,perennial crops 4?AD5
Cncultivated highlands 4BD5
*addy lands 41/D5
2etland 4AD5
Scrubs and other barren lands 4AD5
3he proposed road runs through mainly paddy land, barren land and high lands cultivated
with various perennial crops. "bout B00 ha of land falls within the %O2 of the proposed
road trace. 3he extent of paddy and other lands that will be affected in each (S division
are shown in 3able A.71 or A.1/. "bout 1!0 ha of paddy land and A/ ha of other types of
lands 4highlands cultivated with perennial and semi,perennial crops, wetlands, barren land
and scrubs etc5 will be re-uired for the development activities of the project.
/./.1.! )an' Tenure Pattern
3he %O2 of the proposed road falls within the area where lands have been used by
traditional people for long time. 3herefore, most of the paddy lands are freehold lands
with different tenure patterns such as =*araveni> 4old and traditional land tenure pattern of
the paddy lands. Cnder this system the paddy lands have freeholds titles coming from
generation to generation. Some *araveni lands are rotated among different family
members in each cultivation season5.
3he highlands including home gardens have two types of land tenure pattern, freehold
lands and the lands with government permits for cultivation 4L(O land5. 3hese are called
=#adu =under the local term. "nother category of lands prevailing in the areas are
encroachments of the government lands 4reservations or other government scrublands5.
3he 'eneral land tenure and land ownership in the (S divisions in the project area and the
land tenure pattern in the %O2 area are shown in 3able A.7.
B7
Ta4le /.!0 1 )an' tenure an' o-nersh#p1 DS area an' RO9
)an' tenure cate&or. DS area RO9
:reehold land 4 mostly cultivated
by the owners or under tenant
system,long term or seasonal 5
!D of land 4 both highland and
paddy land5
!/D
L(O permits A?D
7AD of "gricultural land is
commonly owned land
Other 4 mostly encroachments5 ?D
?0D ownership coming from
generation to generation
/./.1./ Settlement Pattern
3hough the proposed project +nfluential "rea 4*+"5 falls in populated environment the
%O2 runs through isolated wetlands 4paddy Heither cultivating or abandoned5 in most
cases. 3herefore, some houses located scatted are observed. 3he nearest town ships
located in the vicinity of the %O2 includes, (odangoda, 9ottawa and )lpitiya. "ll other
urban centers are located some what far from the %O2.
Some small rural town centers are observed in nearby area of the %O2. 3hese small town
canters 4with few numbers include, 6akunbura, (eepangoda, 9ahathuduwa, 'alahigama,
(odammulla, (iyagama, Ckwatta, 'amgoda, #ombuwala, Sapugahawatta and
2alagedara.
3here are no special communities or indigenous communities residing in the %O2 area or
in the nearby environment of the %O2.
3he following housing schemes are located in the immediate environment of the %O2.
3hese housing schemes will not have direct negative impacts due to construction of the
high way. (uring construction phase there may be some problems due to dust and noise in
the construction sits.
(odangoda *ahanwatta housing scheme
#andaragama new city watta proposed housing scheme
/./.! "uman +nv#ronment
/./.!.1 Soc#al Structure@ )ocal )#*e St.le an' Balues
"s explained under the section on human settlement pattern the road does not run through
densely populated urban or rural settlements. +nstead it has been designed to construct
through paddy lands, and other lands that are not used by communities for settlements.
3his does not mean that houses are not affected. 3here are scatted located houses affected.
+n most cases the road runs through semi,urban and rural village environment. 43he town
centers located in the nearby environment of the %O2 is mentioned under section
A.A.1.A5. 6ost of the people are involved in growing paddy, tea and rubber at small scale.
3he average monthly income of most of thy affected families is about %s 1, or little
more. 3his environment is getting fast changed and young generations have started
migrating to the urban areas for employments. )ven under this rapidly changing
BA
environment the social structure of the project affected area can be categori.ed as rural and
semi,urban.
+n this context the communities in the affected areas have strong social capitals 4social
relations5 developed over time 4times immemorial5. 3he agriculture based livelihood
systems have influenced to develop strong social relations 4although they are getting
deteriorated rapidly under the prevalent conditions5. 6ost of the householders are related
to each other 4blood relations, relations through marriages or friendships5. 3he 3able 1 in
annex 7 includes the villages through which the %O2 is fallen.
/./.!.! Populat#on@ +thn#c Compos#t#on@ =#&rat#on an' Settlement
3he influential area of the proposed road falls in 17 (S divisions in 2estern and Southern
provinces of the country. 3he total population in 17 (S divisions is about 1@7!7. 3he
ethnic composition of this total population is as followsI
Sinhala, 11/1@0 4 /BD 5
3amil, 7B/!/ 47.BD5
6uslim,7@7?! 47.!D5
Other ,17! 4 1D 5
3his means majority of the population is Sinhala. 3he composition of religious groups in
the project influential (S divisions 4*+(s5 is similar to the ethnic composition of project
impact area. 3he religious composition of the population in the *+(s is as followsI
#uddhist, //@@1? 4/7D5
8indu, 701 47 D5
+slamic, 7@@?! 47.@D5
&hristians, AA@@/ 4A.1D5
Others, A?/ 4.1D5
3his situation is common to the population of affected families in the project area. 4%O25.
3he total affected population due to different interventions under the proposed project is
/!?!. 3his is not the total population resettled. 3he number of relocated families is about
?@B. 477 resettled in the %(" established resettlement sites and another A!B families had
chosen their own ways to get resettled in other locations by themselves with their own
initiatives 4with the compensations paid by %("5. 3he /!?! affected population have
different types of impacts such asI
Lands of some people got affected
8ouses of some people got affected
Some people were evacuated
3he total population affected in different ways is shown in 3able A.71.
Ta4le /.!11 0**ecte' total populat#on
DS '#v#s#on Populat#on
BB
6aharagama ?!0
8omagama 1ABA
8orana ?17
#andaragama 10?A
6illaniya B@7
9aluthara A/!
(odamgoda 1??
6athugama @@
2alallawita //0
#enthota !?A
)lpitiya @7?
9arandeniya 7!?
3otal /!?!
SourceI %(", 77
/./.!./ +'ucat#on
3hough the areas under *+(s are rural significant percentage of population has ac-uired
'&) 4"FL5 and university education. 3he populations in affected families have access to
good schools located in near by town ships 4Some have access to good schools in
&olombo5. 3he education levels of population in *+(s are as follows according to the
information available in the (S offices in the 17 (S divisionsI
3he number not ac-uired formal education H B1/? 4?D5
3he number studied up to grades 1,?, 10@0A?47 D5
3he number studied up to grades !,1, AA?71, 4A@D5
3he number studied up to '&) 4OFL5 , 1/!0A! 477D5
3he number studied up to '&) 4"FL5 , 1!//7 417D5
3he number ac-uired Cniversity (egrees, 7?B?? 4AD5
"ccording to the 'rama $iladharies, Samurdhi $iyamakas and other grass root level
officers and the community leaders the education levels of the population in affected
families are more or less similar to the education levels of the people in *+(s.
/./.! 3. 0ccess#4#l#t. an' =o4#l#t. *or Normal 0ct#v#t#es
"bout 71 different roads run across the %O2 of the proposed road. 3he communities
living in the area have been using these access to travel to the local areas to get fulfilled
their routine needs. 3he table 7 in annex 7 includes the names of these sub roads. Of the
total 71 roads 7 are " type and 1 are # type roads. "ll other roads are used to access to
main roads.
/./.!.7. 0ccess#4#l#t. an' =o4#l#t. *or Spec#al Serv#ces
3here are no sub,roads run across %O2 that are providing access to reach special places
such as historical, religious and other cultural locations that are visited by the public in the
country, region or local communities. 2e observed 11 sub,roads that are being used by
people to reach service delivery centers in the area. 3he routine transportation of these
roads may be disturbed during construction stage of the road. 3he 11 roads and the
especial places that are visited by the communities in the region and local areas include 1
B?
" type road and 1 # type roads. $ormally these roads are connected to the main town
centers. :or example ", @, %atnapura *anadura road runs through this area.
/./.!.< Pu4l#c "ealth an' Sa*et.
6ajority of the affected houses had access to toilet facilities 4/@D5. Only about 7D of
house holders were reported as people who had no toilet facilities. "bout 77 D of the
households in the affected area had access to tap water all others had other type of sources
4wells 0@D5. 3he communities in the affected area have better access to hospital facilities
available in near by towns, &olombo and others.

6ost of the existing houses in the project area are located in areas far from the %O2 and
also more or less all the home gardens are well established with shady trees. 3herefore,
noise and dust may not be so serious problems for the communities living in rural
environment.
3here are no hospitals and other main public health delivery centers affected 4to demolish5
due to construction of the proposed road.
/./.!.> "ous#n&
6ajority of the houses in the *+(s are permanent. 3he nature of houses available in the
*+(s according to data available in each (S office is as followsI
*ermanent houses H 7?B/A 4@? D5
Semi,permanent houses ,AB!7 41B D5
3emporary hosues,/@ 4.AD5
:amilies reported as do not have houses to live, 1?!? 4.0D5
6ost of the householders in the affected area have ownership to the houses. $early /A.BD
houses of affected houses are permanent buildings, !.7D are semi,permanent and .AD are
temporary according to the information available in %(" offices. 3he spread of affected
houses among different (S divisions is shown in 3able A.77.
Ta4le /.!!1 The houses a**ecte'
(S division *ermanent houses Semi,permanent houses 3emporary houses
$umber D $umber D $umber D
6aharagama 1/ 1 , , , ,
8omagama !0 /! A B , ,
8orana A! 1 , , , ,
#andaragama 11 1 , , , ,
6illaniya A7 1 , , , ,
9aluthara 71 /7 7 @ , ,
(odangoda /0 @0 1A 17 1 1
6athugama B0 /1 ? @ , ,
2alallawita A? @7 @ 1@ , ,
#enthota B7 /! 7 B , ,
)lpitiya B7 /@ , , 1 7
9arandeniya 1 07 B 7@ , ,
3otal ??@ /A.? A0 !.7 7 .A
$oteI the total affected houses are ?/0 but only ?@B houses were occupied by the people. Others were just physical structures.
%(" offices 4#andaragama and (odangoda5
The a**ecte' 4us#ness centersD
B!
"bout 07 buildings among ?/0 were being used as business centers by the affected
communities. 3he most of the affected business centers are included retailer shops and tea
bouti-ues and so on. 3he spread of these business centers among 17 (S divisions are
shown in 3able A.7A.
Ta4le /.!/1 The a**ecte' 4us#ness centers
DS '#v#s#on Num4er o* 4us#ness centers
6aharagama A
8omagama /
8orana ?
#andaragama 1@
6illaniya ,
9aluthara 1
(odangoda A
6athugama A
2alallawita 1
#enthota ,
)lpitiya 7
9arandeniya ,
3otal 07
/./.!.? Other In*rastructure (ac#l#t#es
3he situation of access to drinking water is common in *+( area and the project affected
areas. 3he situation of the drinking water facilities are as follows in the (S areasI
*ercentage of households have access to tap water, 71.!D
*ercentage of households have access to well water, 0!.!D
*ercentage of houses have access to water from other natural streams, 1D
3he percentage of houses who are reported as no access to a particular water
sources for drinking facilities, .@D
3he area in both *+(s and project impact area have access to electricity facilities. 3hough
the areas in general have access to telephone facilities small percentages of houses have
obtained house connections. "bout /AD of the houses have electricity connections. 3he
percentage of houses that have obtained telephone connections to the houses is 7?D.
/./.!.A Transport
3he access facilities available in the project affected area are explained in sections B.A.7.B
and B.A.7.?. 2e observed that local road net work established provide easy access for the
people living in the affected areas. 6ost of the community members in the affected areas
use motor bikes and push bicycles for the routine travels within the local areas. 3here are
no railway tracks located across the %O2 or in the immediate vicinity of %O2. 3wo "
type roads, 1 # type roads and 1? &F( types roads are located and these roads are used
for public transportations 4public and private buses5.
+n addictions to the roads that are used for public transportation there are local roads that
are being used by local people to travel within the local area for routine purposes.
B0
/./.!.10 eneral )#*e St.le
3he general life styles of the communities in the affected area have been explained in
section A.A.7.1. Some special features of the affected communities according to the
information available in the report prepared by 2ilbur Smith "ssociates +$& 7 are as
followsI
"lmost all the householders living in the project affected area are Sinhala and also
/@D of them are #uddhist. 3herefore, the life style of rural Sinhala and #uddhist
communities of the country is prevailing in this area too.
$early A!Dn of the houses in the affected families is involved in daily paid labor
work as main livelihood activities. Labor work and agriculture are the two main
livelihood activities of the people 4 A!D and 7D respectively 5
6ost of the householders have been in the area for long time 4Some families for
more than ? years and some between 1?,? years5 and therefore, the social capital
they have developed over time is very strong.
/././ Soc#o1+conom#c +nv#ronment
/././.1 +mplo.ment #n the Project 0rea
)mployment provided by different sectors of the economy of Sri Lanka is changing over
time. "ccording to the )conomic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka by the &entral #ank,
by the year 7A, agricultural sector including forestry and fishing provide employment
opportunities for AB.D of the total labour force of Sri Lanka while service sector and
manufacturing sector provide about A@ D and 71 D respectively. :ollowing table shows
occupational groups by districts along the proposed highway.
Ta4leD /.!3 Occupat#onal roups 4. D#str#ct
(istrict &ategory 3otal $umber *ercent
&olombo
1. "griculture, :ishing and :orestry 7/,1/7 B.A
7. *rofessionals 1BB,?7A 71.7/
A. Sales and Service 2orkers 11,!0 1!.A
B. +ndustrial 1@7,!B/ 7!./1
?. &lerks 01,107 1.B/
!. Others 1B,?@B 7.01
Total <>?@>A0 100.00
9alutara
1. "griculture, :ishing and :orestry !@,!B7 7A.0@
7. *rofessionals B1,00! 1B.B0
A. Sales and Service 2orkers AB,B/! 11./?
B. +ndustrial 0?,7! 7!.@
?. &lerks 1/,?A? !.00
!. Others B@,/! 1!./?
Total !??@<17 100.00
'alle
1. "griculture, :ishing and :orestry 11!,A1 A/.!1
7. *rofessionals A1,70? 1.!?
A. Sales and Service 2orkers A,B@ 1.A@
B. +ndustrial !B,1!/ 71.@?
?. &lerks 1A,/0 B.B!
!. Others A@,7@! 1A.B
Total !A/@<1> 100.00
B@
6atara 1. "griculture, :ishing and :orestry 10,7AB B@.B1
7. *rofessionals 71,7?0 /.!
A. Sales and Service 2orkers 71,@A /.@B
B. +ndustrial BB,A?7 7.7
?. &lerks 0,/1A A.?0
!. Others 1@,/A! @.??
Total !!1@3A7 100.00
SourceI (ept. of &ensus and Statistics, 1//7
+t is obvious that composition of employment is changing by districts from &olombo to
6atara as &olombo district is dominated by professional groups and industrial and service
sector while agricultural sector contribute only less than ?D of the total work force.
Southern end of the trace H 6atara district, is dominated by agricultural workers 4B@D5
while in 'alle and 9alutara (istricts, contribution of agricultural sector to the labour force
are BD and 7BD respectively. *addy is the main food crop grown in four districts which
provides employment opportunities for a majority of non,marketable work force
irrespective to their education and age. &oconut, tea, rubber, cinnamon are the main
plantation crops which provide livelihood for another remarkable part of the work force.
3hese plantations are scattered along the road trace in four districts as a few large
plantations and many small holdings.
:ishery sector also provide a perceptible amount of employment opportunities along the
coastal belt of the Southern &orridor especially in a number of fishing villages of
#eruwala, 6aggona, and #alapitiya. Livestock sector and forestry are not developed
enterprises in the area while cultivation of vegetable and fruits in small plots also an
important part of the economy which provides livelihood for a smaal part of the work
force especially in 'alle and 6atara districts. +n addition to that, homestead mix gardens
also provide livelihood for idle labours in the area while supplementing daily food
re-uirement of many family units.
+ndustries, which concentrated in major cities H 9alutara, 'alle and 6atara H and :ree
3rade Pone located in 9oggala provide employment opportunities for a smaal part of the
work force especially in garment industry. 3ourism provides employment opportunities in
the cities of "mbalangoda and #eruwala.
3he self employment category accounts for about 17D which consists different types of
craftsmen and services. &asual labour is the major income source for about 1@D of the
households in the project area. " few families are employed in inland fishing sector along
the road trace as a part,time job.
/././.! 0&r#culture
3he @ m corridor marked for the proposed &olombo,6atara )xpressway traverses
through an array of crop lands which fall under 1? (ivisional Secretary (ivisions of
&olombo, 9alutara, 'alle and 6atara administrative districts which fall under climatic
conditions of low country wet .one. 6ajor crops grown in these four districts are tea,
rubber, coconut, paddy and cinnamon. "lthough paddy covers the largest extent of
cultivated lands in 9alutara, 'alle and 6atara districts, salt water intrusion, poor drainage
and water scarcity have reduced the cultivated extent of paddy. &ropping intensity is about
1?D because all the area cannot be cultivated in both seasons #ala and Maha. Land use
pattern of four districts are explained by following table.
B/
Ta4le /.!7 )an' Use Pattern 4. D#str#ct@ 1AA? (comp#le' *rom 1A?1 to 1A?? Stat#st#cs)
3ypes of Land
Cse
&olombo 9alutara 'alle 6atara
8a D 8a D 8a D 8a D
#uilt up and
non
"gricultural
Land
@,B@ 17.1? 1,A0 .@! 0B .B? !7 .B@
8omesteads 1B,@B 71.70 A?,7A 77.? B!,? 7@.1? A/,17 A.?
3ea 71 .A A,A@ 7.17 1!, /.!/ 7,1A 1?.0
%ubber 7,!0 7/.!7 ?1,71 A7.? 1!, /.!/ !,7A B.@!
&oconut ?,B/ 0.@0 7,10 1.A! 7,A0 1.BA ?,71 B.!
&innamon , , 7? .1! !,7@ A.@ 7,! 7.A
*addy 1,?/ 1?.1@ 70,@0 10.BB 7@,0 10. 1!,@/ 1A.10
6ixed 3ree
&rops
7,B? A.?1 7,/ 1.@7 7,A1 1.B A,0! 7./A
Sparsely Csed 0? 1.0 1B,@B /.7/ 1!,A7 /.@@ /,!/ 0.?!
:orests 1,?B 7.71 1!,!1 1.B 7A,! 1B.7/ 1@,!0 1B.?!
Scrub and
'rass Land
1,70 1.@7 0A .B! 1,@0 1.1A A,70 7.??
6angroves 7 .7/ 77 .1B B0 .7@ 7 .7
6arsh Land /A 1.AA B! .7/ B/ .A B@ .A0
2ater #odies 7,A7 A.A7 7,71 1.A@ A,?? 7.1? 1,A1 1.7
#arren Land B .! A1 .1/ ?/ .A! 7? .1/
3otal !/,0@ 1. 1?/,0! 1. 1!?,1! 1. 17@,7? 1.
SourceI (ept. of &ensus and Statistics, 1//!
"bove table emphasi.es that the percentage of built up area is higher in &olombo (istrict
while area under tea, cinnamon and homestead gardens is higher in 6atar and 'alle
districts, which is the southern Rpart of the corridor.
3he traces marked for the proposed Southern )xpressway traverses through an array of
croplands, which fall under the 7 (S (ivisions. 3he project area considered for this
analysis consist of an area that falls under
a5 a corridor of S km and
b5 a corridor of 1 km
on either side of the centre line of the trace marked for the proposed
expressway.
+,tents un'er D#**erent Crops
Ta4le /.!< The lan' use o* the corr#'or o* the project area mar%e' *or the propose'
+,press-a. #sG
Section *addy lands 4ha5 Other 4ha5 3otal 4ha5
;#+& 1A7.7! AB1.B B0A.!!
+t is clear that the trace is marked to minimi.e displacement of number of family units, the
trace is running mainly through paddy lands and other cultivations. 8owever, paddy is the
most succeptible crop along entire trace which damages the livelihood of many
households. 3herefore, it is important consider the paddy based cropping systems of the
area. :ollowing table shows the distribution of paddy lands along the trace according to
relevant (S divisions.
?
Pa''.
Since rice is the staple food of Sri Lankans, paddy cultivation is wide spread throughout
the project area. 3hese paddy lands are generally rainfed and the largest number of paddy
fields in the project area are found between #andaragama and #addegama (S(. *addy is
generally a small,holder crop and its productivity in terms of average yields shows a
significant variation mainly depending on the water regime. 3he least productive paddy
lands are found in the #addegama and 6atara (S( close to the 'in 'anga and $ilwala
'anga flood planes.
Ta4leD /.!> D#str#4ut#on o* pa''. lan' alon& the DS D#v#s#ons o* *our '#str#cts
1AA<EA> =aha 1AA> Cala
D#str#ct DS D#v#s#on
Total
area
Cult#vate'
area
H cult#vate'
Cult#vate'
area
H cult#vate'
&olombo 6aharagama ?0! ?!? /@ @0 1?
8omagama 77@A 1/?@ @! 0@ A1
9alutara
#andaragama 7/11 7A/ @7 !00 7A
8orana 7!7A 7?!B /@ 1?7@ ?@
9alutara 1!? ?@1 A? B? 70
(odangoda 1BA0 1A7/ /A !!7 B@
6athugama 7A!7 107 0A 1?BA !?
2alallavita 71A 1/7 @/ 1!B/ 00
'all
#entota 1A/A ??A B B0? AB
)lpitiya 77!A 771? /@ 7A /
9arandeniya 7771 71A? /! 1!B1 0B
#addegama 7AAA 1@1@ 0@ ?/? 7!
#ope,*oddala @! !B0 0? @! 1
"kmeemana 17/ 11B1 /B 7B1 7
'all :our
'ravetes
00 !A @7 7A A
+maduwa 7A71 10B7 0? A/A 10
6atara
6alimbada 1A/B 101 00 00@ ?!
6atara 11@ ?/7 ?A 7@ A
3hihagoda 7?!0 7/7 @1 1@!A 0A
2elipitiya 1B07 1A?/ /A @7? ?!
SourceI "gricultural Statistics of Sri Lanka, (epartment of &ensus and Statistics, 1//0
+n 6aha season average area under cultivation out of toatal land area is around @@D in
&olombo district, @D in 9alutara district, @1.BD in 'alle district, 0@ D in 6atara district
and @D of of the entire area. 6oreover, in Mala season cultivated area was only B! D
along the entire trace. 3he analysis of land use of paddy lands implies that 7D of the total
paddy lands are totally abandoned and ?D of the lands are abandoned only for the #ala
season.
*%" method of eliciting information about paddy farmer revealed following problems in
relation to paddy farming in the area and different methods of sharing lands. :looding is
the most pressing problem for paddy cultivation in the area. 3here are paddy lands which
have not been cultivated for the last 1?,7 years. 3hese fields have now turned into
marshes. +nade-uacy of water during dry periods is also a problem confronted by farmers
"nde cultivation is the most pervasive pattern of tenure in the area along the trace. 3he
owners of many of the lands are resident in cities and they have little interest in putting
?1
their land into cultivation because the low soil fertility has produced poor results.
3herefore, farmers who are wiling to cultivate are confronted with the problem of access
into lands, although land is available.
$he prominant types of ande found in the area are, a. <half,half1 type and b. <-uarter to
owner1 type. +n the former, cost of seed paddy, fertili.er and agro,chemicals are borne by
the land owner who is entitled to a half share of the output. +n the second type, total cost of
cultivation is borne by the cultivator and the land owner is entitled to only a one fourth
share. %attimaru 4seasonal rotation of cultivators among a few allotments of land5 is
another form of tenure which is common in the area. 3his is a method that has been
developed to distributed risk of crop failure among groups of farmers over the long,run.
Cnavailability of labour was cited by farmers as a reason for not cultivation available
paddy lands. Labour has better employment opportunities outside the paddy sector
4women finding employment of ten in the garment industry, while many boys get into
tourist and hotel trade5.3he average daily wage rate of labour in the area appears to be
around %s A. 4with meals in paddy sector.
"ccording to farmers, low open market price of paddy has made paddy farming a low,
return activity. Cnless paddy is cultivated as a subsistence crop using family labour, paddy
can not attract people who want to produce for the market expecting a cash income. +t is
for this reason, that paddy has become an activity which is not undertaken by the youth in
the village. 3otal area of paddy lands falling under trace is 71@7.! ha in S km corridor
either sides and it1s B@7.@ ha in the corridor of 1km either sides.
Tea
3ea is usually fond towards the southern end of the project area. #eing low,grown tea, it
usually fetches high prices at &olombo auctions. 6ost of the tea lands in the project area
are plantations, either privately owned or state,owned, and are well managed. On the
proposed trace the total extent of tea falling under the S km corridor is A/0.? ha, while it
is 0/B.@ ha under the 1 km corridor. 3he major tea plantations in the project area are as
follows.
1. 2ahala 9ananke 4in the 8abaraduwa (S(5
7. (evitura )state 4in the 8abaraduwa (S(5
A. &itrus )state 4in the #ope,*oddala (S(5
B. 2alpita )state 4in the #ope,*oddala (S(5
3ea plantations and tea processing factories provide many employment opportunities,
especially for women laborers in southern part of the area.
Ru44er
+n contrast to tea, rubber cultivation is spread out over the entire project area and its
importance is more pronounced in areas such as #andaragama, (odangoda, 6atugama,
2alallawita, 9arandeniya, #addegama, "kmeemana and 2elipitiya. %ubber too is
important as a plantation crop, but evidence point to a process of replacement of old
rubber gardens with coconut, especially towards the southern end of the project area.
?7
+t is well evident from the above that, most of the large rubber estates in the project area
are concentrated in the 6athugama and (odangoda (S (ivisions. 3he total extents of
rubber plantations in &olombo, 9alutara, 'alle and 6atara districts are 7!0, ?171,
1! and !7A hectares respectively. %ubber plantations occupy 1@?.A ha in the corridor
of S km either sides and it1s B1?@.! ha in the corridor of 1km either sides.
Coconut
&oconut is the least important crop in the project area in terms of land extent. 6ost of the
coconut lands in the project area are found in the (S( of 8omagama, #andaragama and
2elipitiya. "s indicated earlier, coconut is gaining importance in the southern end of the
project area where it is being cultivated in place of rubber. %ising prices of nuts and
coconut oil along with poor rubber yields may have had a significant influence on this
shift of farming systems. 2hile coconut is a common three in mixed gardens, it is found
as a single crop mainly under plantation agriculture. 3he major coconut plantations in the
project area are as follows.
1. 6allika 2atte 46alimbada (S(5
7. 6ithrananda 2atta 46alimbada (S(5
A. $idanwela 2atta 42elipitiya (S(5
3he total extent of coconut falling under the S km corridor is 70.!? ha while it occupies
??!.A ha within the 1 km corridor.
Be&eta4les an' *#el' crops
*roduction of field crops and vegetables also found in many areas, especially in 'alle and
6atara districts in homestead gardenes and closed to paddy lands 4&vita5 in small scale..
6any of them are subsidiary level, although some produce for the market.
Ta4le /.!? Pro'uct#on o* su4s#'#ar. *oo' crops (=T)
&olombo 9alutara 'alle 6atara
:inger millet , , , !
Sweet potato 1B7 ?17/ 701@ A17@
6anioc @BB7 1BA7/ !11? 0?1@
'reen chillies 1!/ / @ 1/
"part from growing vegetables in homesteads and at higher elevations, a handful of
individuals have cultivated vegetables in paddy fields. 3his is mainly done as a part,time
activity. " vegetable farm at 'altuduwa colony, revealed that vegetables are grown in
paddy fields at slightly higher elevations 4T7, 6SL5 with success. +nnala, #atata, %adish,
'ourds, #rinjal, etc. appear to grow well in the above farm. :rom vegetables grown in an
extent of about one acre, the farmer earns about %s. 7,?. per week. "ssuming the cost
of agrochemicals and labour 4imputed cost of family labour5 to be %s. A,. per month,
the farmer earns a net revenue of %s. 0,. per month.
?A
(#sh#n& #n #nlan' reservo#rs
" few families are involved in fisheries activities in inland reservoirs along the trace H
9alu 'anga, #entara 'anga, *anape )la, 9epu )la, 'inganga and *oawatu 'anga
whereas the activity is more dominant in #entara 'anga. "although the actual number of
fishermen involved in any kind of fishery activity is about 7? it may be much more
because some individuals may fish during leasure time with a hook and line and, they may
also identify themselves as fishermen. Species that are usually found in catches consist of
9oraliya 4*earl Spot H Etroplus suratensis5 3ilapia 4Saratherodon mossambicus5,
2eligouva 4Scribbled 'oby ( "waous grammepomus5, "nguluwa 4Long)whis*ered catfish
( Mystus gulio5, 'odaya 4&eram 6ullet H Li+a ceramensis5 and prawn 4pinaeous sp.5.
:ishing methods commonly used are, fish kraals 4ja kotuwa5, cast nets, gill nets hook,and
Hline. Other commonly employed fishing methods is the use of cast or gill net by
fishermen operating small non mechani.ed canoes. "lthough fishing can be done through
out the year, the total number of fishing days per year is around 1@ days. 3he fish catch
per fishing trip or per kraal per day is around 7,? kg, with an average of A.? kg per day.
6any fishermen use their catch for own consumption. 8owever, fish that are sold to
small,scale local fish buyers 4bicycle traders5 by some of them. +rrespective of species
composition of the catch, the catch is usually sold at the rate of %s. !. per kg. On the
other hand, prawns can be sold at %s. 7. per kg. Met, prawn catches appear to be -uite
low in the lake at present.
=at 9eav#n& #n'ustr. 4ase' on se'&es *rom the -#l'
6at weaving from sedges is also practiced by women as a part,time activity in in
%antotawila area closer to #entara 'anga. Only sedges from the wild such as, 3hunhiriya,
8ambu, #orupan and *othukola are used for mat weaving.
Operations such as, a. adding ash and dryingJ b. boiling in waterJ c. dying and dryingJ d.
pressing and e. weaving are carried out to produce a mat for sale. 3he selling prices of
mats range from %s. 0. 4for *othukola mats5 and %s. 1. 4for 3hunhiriya mats5.
2omen in marginali.ed families of rural craftsmen and artists are willing to undertake mat
making or any other income generation activity but industries based on sedges appear to
stagnate for lack of market opportunities and new technology. +t is therefore important to
look for means of establishing links between the consumers looking for diverse sedge
products and the willing producers, which should be done along with the provision of
necessary technical know how, infrastructure facilities and access to land.
6ask making from 9aduru wood 4Cerbera manghas5
6ask making in #entara (S (ivision is carried out both as large scale mask
manufacturing enterprise and as a small,scale rural industry. Some of the craftsmen in the
area work for large mask making enterprises, which are located mainly in #entota. 3hese
craftsmen are paid by <piece rate1. +n general the average monthly earnings of a craftsman
is around %s. B,.. 3here are also craftsmen who are negated in mask and puppet
making on a smaller scale. 3hey work at home and the products are sold to shops at
#entota or 8ikkaduwa tourist villages. Some craftsmen take their products even to
?B
$egambo, which is also a famous tourist resort. 3he major source of %aduru trees for
mask makers in the rea is the mangrove reserve area on the #entara 'anga river side of
%antotawila.
6r. (. $obert of Suddegoda is a mask maker who has been engaged in small scale mask
making at home. 8owever, due to low prices paid for his masks by the shop keepers,
difficulty of securing sufficient 9aduru trees and risk of fluctuating incomes, he has
joined a large scale mask making factory at Suddegoda. 6r. $obert now has an assured
monthly income of about %s. B,.. 6oreover, during holidays and after office hours
4in the evenings5 he earns supplementary incomes by playing the drum 4gata beraya5 for
tourists.
6ixed gardens consist of home gardens and other mixed cropping systems of cultivations.
6ixed cropping systems generally consist of perennials such as jak, breadfruit, cinnamon,
coconut, arecanut, coffee and other trees such as fruits and field crops. 3hese are mainly
grown on high lands.
(ru#ts
6ango, cashew, papaya, banana and pine apples are the main fruits cultivated in almost all
homestead gardens while small scale plantations also found closed to the road trace.
:ollowing table shows the distribution of different fruit species in four districts.
Ta4le /.!A Pro'uct#on o* su4s#'#ar. (ru#ts (ha) #n *our '#str#cts
&olombo 9alutara 'alle 6atara
*ineapple ? 110 B/ 1B
#anana /0? 1?/! 1707 1B1B
6ango 0A7 0@/ 1AB 1AA@
*apaw 77B 770 1BB 17!
&ashew @1 @7 ?A1 @!?
SourceI (ept. of &ensus and Statistics, 1//0
Sp#ces an' t#m4er
*epper, areca nut, cloves and coffee are the main crops found along the trace in many
homestead gardens along the trace. +t is very difficult to generali.e the income and other
benefits of homestead gardens as they have a mix of multipurpose trees and vines which
partially fulfill daily need of spices, vegetables, medicines, flowers, shade and timber also.
3he team estimated the average annual return of the homestead garden per perch is around
%s. @A. in spite of land value using a sample of 1 homestead gardens.
Other lan' 4ase' a&r#cultural act#v#t#es
+n low lying areas of the southern transport corridor, sedge cultivation, vegetable
cultivation in isolated patches in raised beds and some industries based on sedge and
extensively grown %aduru and 2elatta 4"nona glabra5 trees are some of the land based
activities. 6at weaving by ladies in 8abaraduwa, 2elipitiya and 6atara 'S divisions is a
traditional activity, although it is not a profitable enterprise. 6ask making using 9aduru
??
wood and extraction of roots of 2elatta trees found in poor drainage areas are rarely found
land based industries in the project area.
)#vestoc%
Livestock production is also found along the trace. Some farm families rare cattle and
buffaloes in small scale and produce milk mainly for daily consumption. 3hey practice
free range method or cut and feed system to feed animals. 'rasses in road sides, coconut
and rubber lands and abandoned paddy lands are used to feed animals. "bondoned paddy
lands, marshes and swamp are used to rare buffaloes which are manly used for the draft
power in paddy cultivation and production of milk.
Ta4le /./0 )#vestoc% Pro'uct#on #n *our '#str#cts (1AA>)
&olombo 9alutara 'alle 6atara
&ows 1B1 7B? 1!/ 77
#ulls A! !@ A? B7
&alves ?! /! 0! @?
#uffaloes 1A/ A1 17! 117
'oats !B 1?0 @1 A?
*igs !0 B ? 7
/./././ Tour#sm
3he tourist sector of the southern part of Sri Lanka consists of different private sector
institutions and public sector institutions providing lodging and services. 3hey cater the
needs of both foreign and local tourists. 3ourist arrivals in the year 7A recorded
?,,!B7. 6ore than @D of tourists come to Sri Lanka for pleasure while another 1D are
coming for business purposes. )mployment provided by the tourist sector was 11? and
the contribution of the tourist sector is about A.?D by the year 7A.
#eruwala, "luthgama, "mbalangoda, 8ikkaduwa, 'alle, Cnawatuna, 2eligama, 6irissa
and 3angalle are the main tourist beach resorts along the coastal belt of southern corridor.
6ore than 1 tourists hotels and restaurants are registerd in the districts of &olombo,
9alutara and 6atara while many unregistered individuals are providing services to the
tourists. )stimated indirect employment in tourist sector is about !?, by the year 7?.
" survey was conducted in 8ikkaduwa and Cnawatuna tourist cities in October, 7? to
supplement and to update the findings of the survey conducted in year 1//! by Cniversity
of %uhuna. 3he survey revealed that still a majority 4@7D5 visits southern coastal belt for
holidaying in the beach. 3heir modes of transport were private cars and vans 47@D5, public
transport 4#us, train5 471D5, transport arranged by travel agents and hotels4A!D5.
"bout @D of tourists were unhappy about the transport facilities and road conditions
especially in the tourist areas of 8ikkaduwa and Cnawatuna. :ollowing table summari.es
the results of the survey conducted in October, 7?.
?!
Ta4le /./1 B#e-s o* *ore#&n tour#sts a4out the transport an' roa' con'#t#ons
. (Sample s#:eG Una-atuna /> I "#%%a'u-a 7/ J A0)
%easons for dissatisfaction *ercentage reported
*oor road conditions @7
3ime consuming !B
%oad congestion 01
(anger in traveling due to road accidents A0
%oad congestions in hotel areas /0
+t is obvious that due to road congestion in 8ikkaduwa nd Cnawatuna tourist areas in "7
4&olombo,6atara5 road in front of hotels and restaurants it is very difficult to walk along
the roads for shopping and recreation. " majority 4/D5 believe that a separate roadlinking
&olombo and tourist resorts instead of existing "7 road will improve tourist arrivals to the
Southern coastal belt.
/././.3 Income D#str#4ut#on
(istribution of income of different geographical location is not even in Sri Lanka as infra
structural development and resources are not e-ually distributed. 2estern province
contributes B@D of the total 'ross (omestic *roduction 4'(*5 of the country while
Southern province4'alle, 6atara and 8ambantota districts5 contributes only /.0D of the
total '(* by the year 7A.4&entral #ank of Sri Lanka, 7B5. &ontribution of agriculture
sector to the '(* has declined up to 7D while service sector has increased its
contribution up to ?AD by the year 7A. 8owever, in Southern province, agricultural
sector still plays a dominant role contributing about A?D of the '(* while contribution of
service sector and industrial sector in far below the national average due to under
developed industrial sector. :ollowng table shows the contribution of different sectors to
the '(* in different areas
Ta4le /./! Ta4leD Compos#t#on o* DP
Sector Sri Lanka 2estern province Southern province
"griculture 7 ? A?
+ndustry 70 AA 10
Service ?A !7 B@
*er capita '(* %s5 !!? 11717 ?A7B
:igures in the above table revealed that the development process in Sri Lanka is une-ual
and southern province is far below the all aspects of development indicators.
$ot only the sectoral and geographical variation of income distribution, but also ine-uality
of income between different occupational categories also common in the southern region
as well as in the country. %esults of the Socio,economic survey conducted by %(" along
the road trace are used for the analysis of income distribution along the road trace.
:ollowing table explains income distribution of affected families including affected
houses, land and other structures.
?0
Ta4le /.// Income '#str#4ut#on o* a**ecte' *am#l#es alon& the trace accor'#n& to DS
'#v#s#ons
Section (S (ivision
$umber of
"ffected
families
6onthly income 4%s5
6ore than
?
A H
?
Less than
A
D D D
;#+&
6aharagama 17? 01 71 @
8omagama A07 B A@ 77
#andaragama A!/ ?1 7 7/
8orana 1A? A BB 70
6illaniya 17A B/ 1/ AA
6atugama 7B1 77 !7 1!
9arandeniya /? AB ?0 /
(odangoda B1 ! 77 1@
#entota 7?@ 77 ?7 7?
2alallawita 7A@ AB A@ 70
)lpitiya 7!1 7A ?7 7!
9alutara 1B0 B@ 7/ 7B
"(#
#addegama A!A A1 B? 7B
2eliwitiya A17 77 A1 B0
9arandeniya 1A? 00 11 17
#ope,*oddla 171 !B 7 10
2elipitiya BA AA B! 71
6alimbada 10@ 71 B/ A
"kmeemana B@! B7 AA 7?
6atara /@ 7A A? B7
+maduwa !0! AB A@ 7@
'alle : ' !! A@ 7B A@
3hihagoda BB 70 B1 A7
Total 7<?/ /? /> !7
+t is evident that according to the analysis in the table, the group of the highest income is
0@ D in 6aharagama followed by 9arandeniya 400D5 #ope,*oddala 4!BD5 and
(odangoda 4!D5 where the proposed trace crosses built up areas with fairly good access
road structure and other urban facilities. 3he highes income category is very less along the
trace at 6atara 47AD5, 6alimbada 471D5, 2eliwitiya,(ivitura 477D5, )lpitiya 47AD5 and
#entota 477D5 where road accees and urban facilities are not present. 3herfore, it is
anticipated that the income distribution will be improved as a conse-uence of
improvement of infrastructure in less developed areas with the activities of proposed road.
/././.7 Structures
"s the structures along the trace are already ac-uired and removed for construction
purposes, it was not practicable to explain the initial environment of the project area
related to structures. +n the first part of the trace 4;#+&5 from 6aharagama to
9urundugaha,hetepma, therewere ?/0 residential housesand 07 commercial buildings
while in the "(# section there were 01@ residential houses and 0/ commercial buildings.
"t the end of the trace of "(# section H in 6atara and 3hihagoda (S divisions, there
were no buildings as the trace is running through abandoned paddy lands making a
minimum damage to the society. 8owever, in all other (S divisions it was not possible to
avoid residential areas and conse-uentially some residential and commercial buildings are
affected. "t #andaragama, (odangoda and "kmeemana, as the trace pass through highly
residential areas it is unavoidable to avoid replacement of well developed structures.
?@
/././.< $us#ness Bolumes an' Ta, Revenues
+t is envisaged that the construction on the proposed )xpressway will induce the
development of industries, residential areas, markets and associated infrastructural
facilities, which fall under positive externalities of the project. Such a wave of
development activities are likely to take place in the neighborhood of the interchange
points rather than in other places from where the road can not be accessed. )mergence of
urban centres with increased business activities would enable the government 4the local
authorities5 to earn revenue from the collection of taxes from all businesses. +t is necessary
to find out what the government can expect as tax revenues from businesses that are
expected to emerge at interchange points of the proposed )xpressway. "n attempt was first
made to findout the volume of taxes collected by the local authorities at three points in the
existing &olombo,'alle %oadJ 9alutara, #alapitiya and 9osgoda. 9alutara can be
considered as a highly developed large urban centre while 9osgoda and #alapitiya can be
considered as small urban centres.
3he existing "7 road is highly congested and the coastal belt has a enourmous potential to
develop as a tourist resort. +nner part of the southern belt is under developed due to poor
road access and other infrastructure facilities. 2ith the improved access due to proposed
highway it is expected that industries and business volume will be increased especially
closer to interchanges at (odangoda, 9urundugaha,htepma, *innaduwa and 'odagama.
3ax revenue of Crban centres according to number of institutions, irrespective to business
volume about 1 times higher than that of rural local authorities 4*radeshiya Sabha5
3herfore it is expected a remarkable increase of tax revenue for Local 'overnment #odies
and #usiness volume after construction of proposed %oad.
/././.> Propert. Balues
One of the important positive externalities of road projects is the increase in property
values in the neighborhood, which arise from new market links created and development
activities emerging therefore. 8owever, in the case of limited access highways which have
very little influence on property values except at interchange points, one may expect the
property values to decrease in arrears from where the )xpressway can not be accessed
because the highway will generate negative externalities such as noise. Met, this theory,
although may have relevance to developed countries, it not applicable to developing
countries like Sri Lanka, where people living in rural areas, with very little facilities for
recreation, derive use values by observing the movement of vehicles along the roads. 3his
is -uite evident in the existing "7, where the residents along the road, rather than building
up their dwellings in a way to minimi.e dust and noise from the road 4defensive
expenditure5, have purposely exposed the verandahs of their houses to the road. +t is
apparent that moving vehicles, which cause noise and dust, do not generate negative
externalities, but may even generate positive externalities. +n fact, the proposal of the
&olombo,6atara limited access )xpressway, although has not materiali.ed yet, has caused
property values along the road trace to rise.
#efore starting the construction of proposed highway, Cniversity of %uhuna has estimated
market values of different categories of land in the year 1//!.
?/
Ta4leD /./3 0vera&e Pr#ces o* '#**erent t.pes o* lan' alon& the or#&#nal RD0 Trace
(Rs. Per perch)
3ype &olombo 9alutara 'alle 6atara
Crban %esidential A? 7? 7 1?
%ural %esidential 1A 1? ? A
*addy 1 1 A A
"bandoned *addy ! 1 A A
&oconut 1 1 1
6ix garden @ @ 1 ?
%ubber 1 B 1 1
3ea 1 1
&innamon 1 1
SourceI )nvironment +mpact "ssessment, Southern )xpressway, Cniversity of 6oratuwa, 1///
3he survey conducted in October, 7? reveled that land values have been increased by
several times in close proximities of proposed trace expecting development in the area.
:ollowing table shows the present average values of land in different locations closer to
proposed trace.
Ta4le/./7 =ar%et values o* '#**erent t.pes o* lan' (Rs.Eperch) 4. Octo4er !007
3ype &olombo 9alutara 'alle 6atara
Crban %esidential 1 0? ! ?
%ural %esidential A? 7 7 7?
*addy 7 7 1 1
"bandoned *addy 1? @ @
&oconut A A 7 !
6ix garden 7? 1? 7 ?
%ubber B B 7 !
3ea A A
&innamon 7? 1
/./.3
0esthet#c 0spects an' S#te Descr#pt#on
3he ;#+& Section 4:unded by ;apan5 of the final trace of the Southern 8igh,
way is belonging to the &olombo, 9alutara and 'alle district. 3he ;#+&
Section defined as 9urundugahahethepma 4'alle5 to 9ottawa 4&olombo5.
3he Study is mainly concern to the deviation in between, final road trace and
combine road trace. 4:ig 15. :or the assessment materials are collected by
conducting various field surveys, historical documents and contemporary
parallel researches, review of relevant previous reports, consultations with
officials of relevant departments by getting interviews with village
community members and formal and informal field risks.
3he domain of the study is ?m from either side of the final road
reservation. #ut in some, most critical, large deviation from combine trace 1
km from either side of the final road reservation.
!
/./.3.1 B#sual Intrus#on an' )an'scape
3he proposed road trace is going through the -uality of landscape character
as rural, simple unsophisticated, semi urban and average or low its scenic
value when compared with other areas in Sri Lanka. #ut in some places,
have high -uality of landscape character and scenic beautiful places.

&onse-uent reverse. i.e. rivers that flow along the natural fall of the land,
pass through this area. 9alu 'anga and #entota 'anga are such rivers. 3he
two main rivers end in their flood plains as they flow area the flattest part to
the sea giving rich sc scenic beauty to the road movers.
:resh water marches are a welcomed natural commodity, that are distributed
throughout with their district reed beds, tall grasses providing shelter,
roosting and nest sites for many species of birds 4:ig.A.1 +n "ppendix
Lolume #5. "n expense of park like meadows encircles the marches with
trees and water tolerant species. 3his is a common natural landscape features
in this area.
+n the present situation there are four significant beautiful visual intrutions
can be identified along the study area.

%antotuwila
41BG km5
&ross the #entota 'anga
:resh water marshy area

6unamalwatte
471G / km5
8igher elevated intersection point. 3herefore very large
visual directions are formed. "nd also cross the river.

(iyagama
4BB G 1 9m5
&ross the 9aluganga. 3he natural flat terrain the rich of
water plants and birds species can be identified. 3he
dominant landscape character is marshy area. +ts formed
the infinite view to the road movers.

*anape
4?7 G 1 km5
3he final road trace of the ;#+& section cross the *anape
)la, at that point. *anape )la create a very
contemplative still water body due to slow flowing of
water.
N$ 3he G chainage point is 9urundugahahettakma
/./.3.! "#stor#cal an' archeolo&#cal monument
+nformation collected from department of archeology and other sources
revealed that all the historic and archeological monuments found in the ;#+&
*roject area are found in temples (ewala, and churches, and therefore fall
into the category of places of worship and religious interest too. "ccording to
the department of archeology fifty years old temples are considered as the
archeological monument. :ield studies in the ;#+& project area confirmed
these findings.
!1
$o of archeological monuments along the final trace 7!
"ffected archeological monuments along the final trace ?
%eduction of the archeological monuments due to deviations 7
3he mostly affected archeological monuments are marked 4 :ig , "p. vol,
7.5 at the appendix volume ++
/./.3./. Places o* -orsh#p an' Rel#&#ous Interest
:ield Studies were carried out to collect information about places of worship
and religious interest along the final trace of the ;+#& Section with
concerning deviations.
3he original %(" 3race, and combined trace area covered from the past )+"
report in march 1///, done by Cniversity of 6oratuwa. 3he information
gathered is indicated in maps, schedules, with detailed information and
summary tables.
$o of %eligious places in ;#+& final trace AB
$o of (irectly affected religious places ?
$o of partly affected religious places B
$o of religious places in the deviation 17
!7
3. 0NTICIP0T+D +NBIRON=+NT0) I=P0CTS
3.1 Ph.s#cal +nv#ronment
3.1.1 +arth
3.1.1.1 =#neral Resources
:rom the map of mineral deposits of Sri Lanka given in the :igure "A.1 in "ppendix "A,
it is clear that the proposed corridors of the project doesn1t go through areas with
economical -uantities of industrial minerals such as graphite or gems. 8owever, deposits
of minerals used in the construction industry within the road trace will be depleted due to
the project. 6oreover, rock re-uired for the road construction may be -uarried from
outside the trace, mineral deposits outside the project corridor may be used up for the
construction of the highway 8owever, these minerals are commonly found in other areas
of the region no significant impact is on the mineral resources due to the construction of
the road trace.
3.1.1.! Construct#on =ater#als
3.1.1.!.1 Roc% an' Coarse 0&&re&ate
3otal -uantity of rock re-uired from -uarries out side the road trace is B,ABB. m
A
:urthermore, to produce 1BB,A? m
A
of fine aggregate at least same amount of rock is
needed. 3herefore, extraction of large -uantity of rock from outside the road trace will
cause significant impact on the environment.
3.1.1.!.! ravel an' (#ll =ater#al
!A
"ccording to the already carried out designs, a typical embankment consists of the layers
shown in :igure B.1,from the existing ground surface.
(#&ure 3.1 T.p#cal la.ers o* roa' em4an%ment
#ased on the typical cross section given in :igure B.1, and the high fre-uency of the
flooding experienced in the region, it is clear that large amount of fill material is needed
for the construction of the embankment. 3he fill material needed may be obtained from
borrow pits of the area and the excavations done through the higher elevation areas of the
road trace.
(ue to excavation of material from the road trace and other borrow pits, the landscape of
these areas will be changed significantly. 3he vegetation cover, which protects the soil
underneath, will be removed and the exposed soil will be subjected to erosion during the
rainy season. 3he eroded material will be transported to the low lying areas and will cause
other environmental issues such asI blocking existing waterways, reducing the yield of
economical crops such as paddy, tea etc, pollution of drinking water sources, and
instability of the cut slopes.
(uring the dry season the dust generated from the excavation and filling of soil could
create other environmental issues such asI health problems due to inhaling of dusty air,
reducing the yield of economical crops such as paddy, tea etc, pollution of drinking water
sources etc. Such problems may be aggravated due to spilling of the fill material during
transportation.
3he road trace for package 1, from 9ottawa to (odangoda interchange at &8 A?G
re-uires ?.A 6illion m
A
of fill material out of which only A.7 6illion m
A
could be obtained
from the trace itself. :or the package 7, from the (odangoda interchange to
9urudugahahethakma, excess fill material of about .AB? 6illion m
A
will be generated and
that could be used for the construction for package 1. 3herefore, total -uantity of fill
!B
Lower embankment H compacted to
minimum of /D 6aximum (ry
(ensity 46((5
)xisting ground level
Subbase layer H&#% T AD, *+ O !D
Cpper embankment H ?mm thick,
compacted to minimum of /?D of
6((.
+mproved subgrade 4capping layer5 H
? to Amm thick, compacted to
/?D 6((, &#% T 1?D
#ase coarse H &#% T @D
"sphaltic concrete wearing
course and binder course
material needed for package 1 is 1.A0 million m
A
. "s such, this project activity will cause
significant impact on the environment due to borrowing of material.
3.1.1.!./ San'
#ased on the :inal (esign %eport 4715 of the final trace in the "(# section prepared by
2ilbur Smith "ssociates +nc. the total re-uirement of fine aggregate 4sand5 for *ackages 1
4&8 G to A? G 5 E 7 4&8 A? G to !! G BA75 are 0/AB m
A
and !B!A? m
A
respectively. 3here is a severe environmental problem associated with all of the major
rivers in the ;#+& section due seawater intrusion. 3he situation is worsen by the extensive
sand mining of the river beds, especially in 9elani 'anga and 9alu 'anga. (ue to the
environmental concerns associated with sand mining from rivers, government has
enforced certain restrictions on sand mining from rivers. "s a result, there is a shortage of
sand for general construction works within 2estern and Southern provinces. "dditional,
use of river sand for a project of this magnitude will increase the burden on the normal
consumers of sand within the region. 3herefore, similar to the "(# section, use of crushed
rock aggregate as fine aggregate is highly advisable. 8owever, the offshore sand dredged
to be used for the &olombo 9atunayak expressway can also be used for the project
activities if a need arises.
3.1.1./ Sta4#l#t. o* the Su4 Sur*ace
"s it is pointed out earlier, the length of the trace passing hilly terrain is less in the ;#+&
section compared to that in the "(# section. 8owever, in the rolling and undulating
terrain the bedrock depth can be significantly higher than that of the hilly terrain.
3herefore, the thickness of the overburden above the bedrock could be high creating slope
stability problems. 6ost of the slope stability considerations that were experienced in the
"(# section are applicable to the ;#+& section as well. 3herefore, experience gathered
from the "(# section should be used in finding out the solutions to the slope stability
problems of the ;#+& section. Stretches of the trace, where side slopes of the cuts should
be made milder than the original design, should be identified and accordingly,
arrangements must be made to make additional land ac-uisitions. Since there are boulders
on the slopes of the middle portion of the trace, stability of the boulders in the vicinity of a
rock blasting sites should be given due considerations. 3herefore, the project will have a
significant impact on the stability of the slopes along the project corridor.
3.1.1.3 Settlement an' roun' Su4s#'ence
3he ground treatment methods proposed for the ;#+& section consists ofI 4i5 surcharging
with or without counter weights and pre,fabricated Lertical (rains 4*L(5J 4ii5 +f the
foundation ground mainly consists of peaty soils, excavation and replacement of peaty
soils with or without counter weightJ 4iii5 +f the foundation ground consists of peaty and
clayey soils, replacement of peat and part of clay with or without counter weight and 4iv5
+f the foundation ground consists of peaty and clayey soils, installation of the gravel
compaction piles. +f partial replacement of clay layers is used as a ground improvement
method 4method 4iii5 above5, possible variations of the layer thickness and the soil
properties should be given due considerations to avoid undesirable settlements of the
roadway due to unexpected settlement of the remaining clay layer.
!?
:rom the site investigation done so far it is clear that the excavation and replacement of
the soft soils will be used extensively. 3herefore, an appropriate plans should be drawn up
prior to the beginning of construction to avoid environmental issues related to dumping of
the spoil along the road trace. Locations of the sites to temporally stock pile the spoil
before the final disposal and the sites for permanent disposal should be identified at this
stage.
3.1.1.7 )an'*orm
Landform of the project corridor will be severely changed due to the construction of the
expressway. &hanging of the stabili.ed landform over a long period of time will create an
environmental instability. 3herefore, the nature will try its best to stabili.e the artificial
landform created by the man. Such agents like rain and gravity in particular will contribute
to the stabili.ation process of the nature through soil erosion and landslides. " significant
impact on the landform will occur due to the construction of the road trace.
3.1.! 9ater
3.1.!.1 Sur*ace 9ater ;uant#t.
3he topography of the final design trace lies in similar topography as the %(" trace along
the significantly deviated stretches. 3he deviation of 9alu 'anga #ridge is about 7? m
from the previous %(" trace. 3he catchment length of 9alu 'anga is about 17/ km.
2hen compared with the length of the catchment and the deviated distance, :inal (esign
3race deviation has marginal effect on the catchment area, river width, and flood plain
width of either side of the 9alu 'anga flood plain at the proposed #ridge site. 3herefore
the design flood at the new bridge location of the :inal 3race does not have significant
variation when compared with the previous %(" 3race.
3he length of 2elipenne 'anga is about 1@ km. 3he 2elipenne 'anga #ridge is deviated
about 1! m from the %(" 3race. 2hen compared with the length of the catchment and
the deviated distance, :inal (esign 3race deviation has marginal effect on the catchment
area, river width, and flood plain width of either side of the 2elipenne 'anga. 3herefore
the deviation does not have any significant change of flood impacts compared with the
%(" trace.
3he deviation of the #ridge Site of #entota 'anga is about @ m from the %(" trace. 3he
length of the catchment area of #entota 'anga is A1 km. 3herefore change of flood impact
compared with %(" trace is insignificant at this location.
Since the terrains of the :inal 3race is similar to the %(" trace and &ombined trace,
surface water -uantity characteristics remains similar in the ;#+& section. 3he proposed
deviation would not cause any significant change of surface water -uantity compared with
the previous %(" and &ombined 3race.
3.1.!.! roun'-ater ;uant#t.
(etailed studies on the -uantity of groundwater are carried out for the :inal (esign 3race
in the (rainage %eport on =Southern 3ransport (evelopment *roject, )ffects on
'roundwater Levels and 2ater Kuality in the *roject "rea> of 6ay 7A.
!!
3he deviations include cut areas as well as fill areas. +n the fill areas existing groundwater
flow paths can be affected due to trenching and foundation treatment. +n the cut areas
groundwater table can lower due to the seepage from the cut surfaces.
3.1.!./ Sur*ace 9ater ;ual#t.
(a) 0nt#c#pate' Construct#onal Impacts
2ith reference to the distance from the project area it seems that in the final trace the
water bodies at locations 7S2, AS2, ?S2, BS2, !S2, /S2, 1S2, 11S2, 1AS2, 1BS2,
1?S2, 1!S2, 1@S2 and 7AS2 are subject to significant construction associated pollution
problems such as high turbidity and colour and post,construction or highway operation
associated pollution problems such as urban run,off, sewage enrichment, atmospheric
deposition, etc. 3he water bodies at locations 7S2, AS2, BS2, ?S2, 0S2 and 7AS2 are
also subject to construction and post,construction associated pollution problems in the
%(" trace. Other locations that are at significant risk in the %(" trace has been identified
as the water body at location 10S2. +n the combined trace the water bodies regarded as
significant pollutant recipients during both phases of the project have been identified as
1S2, @S2 and /S2. 8owever depending on flow rates and wind patterns scenarios
pertaining to the transport of pollutants 4i.e. especially when present in significant amounts
particularly due to post,construction related activities or when pollutants gets concentrated
with time during the operational phase5 are likely to occur in those water bodies that are
interconnected but far away from the project site. 3his has been reported in the case of
lakes for faecal matter 4%ajala and 8einonen,3anski, 1//@5.
+t has been identified that during the construction phase material exploitation, site clearing,
cut and fill operations, land reclamation, ditching and drainage, spoil disposal, asphalt and
concrete plants and construction of bridge and culverts could result in significant pollution
of surface water bodies, though the effects are temporary in comparison with the effects on
water -uality caused by the operational activities.
&onstruction material exploration and exploitation seem to be a major activity of a project
of this nature. :or the proposed highway it is anticipated that a substantial amount of the
construction material is to be found from -uarry sites. 3hese activities if not done properly
could pose significant water -uality issues in both surface water bodies and groundwater
wells.
*reliminary and field observations revealed that the peat content in the soils in the ;#+&
section is high 3herefore during construction works improper handling and storing of
materials 4particularly the peat material unearthed5 in storm,water drainage areas can
cause solubili.ation of certain minerals such as gypsum, calcite, halite, dolomite, pyrite,
etc. 3his can cause changes to surface or groundwater -uality depending on the degree of
solubility. Csually these minerals containing aluminosilicates are attacked by rainwater
containing 8
7
&O
A
, thereby forming &a
7G
, 6g
7G
, $a
G
, 9
G
and dissolved SiO
7
. )xcess
amounts of these cations may dissolve in run,off and cause hardness problems in water
bodies. :urther the peat material removed could make the nearby water bodies acidic
resulting in poor water -uality. 6oreover improper storage of construction material such
as cement could result in such material being washed into the water bodies during periods
of heavy rains hence leading to higher turbidity problems.
!0
*ooling of water, blocking of water ways, restrictions to surface run,off and flood water
flows could result in due to unplanned stockpiling and disposal of spoil, unstable
excavations, careless stockpiling in construction materials and careless camp siting.
&hanges in water -uality and water levels from such activities could affect flows into or
out of existing waterbodies.
(uring the construction phase, surface run,off from the cut and fill areas, borrow areas,
spoil disposal sites, etc. will contain substantial dust and earth -uantities which will cause
significant color and turbidity problems. #ridge and culverts construction activities are
also known to cause surface water -uality deterioration with reference to color and
turbidity. 3he presence of high turbidity levels and therefore the associated visual
pollution will have a negative impact on fish inhabiting water bodies. 6oreover the
settling particles in large -uantities may produce a smothering effect on benthic fauna and
even make the waterbodies shallow.
(uring the construction phase large -uantities of asphalt and concrete will be re-uired for
strengthening and surfacing of the highway. 3herefore wash water arising during the
cleaning of the machines involved in asphalt and concrete plant operations could also lead
to significant color and turbidity problems in waterbodies. :urther any significant oil spills
from machinery and other e-uipment used for construction works may lead to
contamination of water bodies with oil particularly during heavy rainy periods.
"pplication of pesticides and herbicides for the landscaping and turfing of embankments
could result in significant pollution of waterbodies 4if not properly controlled5 through
leaching and rain induced surface run,off bringing in the organic contaminants. 3he use of
organochlorine pesticides 4O&*s5 such as ((3 and aldrin could produce adverse effects
on both a-uatic and terrestrial since these chemicals are environmentally persistent, toxic,
carcinogenic, mutagenic and are fat,solubleJ hence biomagnification potential is high in
ecosystem food chains. 3he use of organophosphorus pesticides 4O**5 are known to cause
intense toxicity by producing inhibitory effects on the transmission of electrochemical
nerve impulses or mimicking the action of acetylcholine secretion. 3hese pesticide
chemicals which also contain high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus could lead to cultural
eutrophication in the case of !S2 since this water body is stagnant. 8owever any slow
moving streams will also become susceptible for cultural eutrophication. Such scenarios
would become significant if the inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus levels exceed .A mgFl
and .1 mgFl, respectively 46etcalf and )ddy, 1//?5.
Lack of proper sanitation and solid waste disposal facilities for the labor force involved in
the construction works and improper planning of resettlements for people displaced due to
the project, would cause untreated domestic waste enriched in high organic matters to
enter water bodies. 3his may lead to substantial depletion in (O perhaps resulting in
subse-uent fish kills particularly when (O levels drop below B mgFl 4'arg, 1/0/5.
$utrient pollution scenarios leading to cultural eutrophication and contamination with
faecal coliforms 4Escherichia coli5 and other faecal pathogens such as faecal streptococci
could also occur if proper sanitation facilities are not available. 3hese effects will be
anticipated to be high in the water body !S2 and other slow moving streams. 3able B.1
presents a summary of the anticipated construction costs for the ;#+& section.
!@
Ta4le 3.1D 0nt#c#pate' construct#on costs *or the 2$IC sect#on
0ct#v#t. (actors a**ect#n& #mpacts Remar%s
&onstruction material,
exploitation, handling and
storage
+mproper handling and storage of
construction materialJ e.g. cement
3urbidity and colour problems are
significant during periods of
heavy rains, but effects temporary
Site clearing %un,off during rains will deliver
debris and sediments, etc.
3urbidity and colour problems are
significant during periods of
heavy rains, but effects temporary
&ut and fill operations %un,off during rains will deliver
debris and sediments, etc.
3urbidity and colour problems are
significant during periods of
heavy rains
#orrow areas %un,off during rains will deliver
debris and sediments, etc.
3urbidity and colour problems are
significant during periods of
heavy rains
Spoil disposal %un,off during rains will deliver
debris and sediments, etc.
3urbidity and colour problems are
significant during periods of
heavy rains
&onstruction of bridges and
culverts
%un,off during rainy days
Spillage of construction material
3urbidity and colour problems are
significant, but effects temporary
"sphalt and concrete plants Oil spills and contamination
during rains 4as run,off5
2ash waters from cleaning of
machines
)ffects are significant 4unless
measures taken5, though
temporary
"pplication of weedicides for
soft landscaping
:re-uency and dosage of
application
%un,off and leaching of pollutants
"pplication of pesticides rich in
O&*s, O**s and even heavy
metals could be a serious concern
if large scale application of such
chemicals is carried out for the
project
Cnplanned activities $umber of persons employed and
displaced due to project
+nade-uacy of facilities or
infrastructure for appropriate
sanitation and solid waste disposal
)ffects on water -uality will be
significant if the duration of the
construction phase is rather long
(4) 0nt#c#pate' Operat#onal Impacts
(uring the operational phase of the highway, with the generated and diverted traffic,
spillage of oil, grease and petroleum products may contribute hydrocarbons, oils and trace
metals such as *b and Pn into run,off. 3his could result in pollution of freshwater and
marine water bodies with adverse impacts on a-uatic fauna.
3here is always a risk of accidental spillage of gasoline or other petroleum products during
road accidents with subse-uent impacts on surface water bodies. Similarly improper
transport of ha.ardous materials could impact surface water bodies. %oad accidents with
negative impacts to water -uality are expected to be high during careless high speed
driving behavior. "lso unauthori.ed road crossings and fog from low lying areas such as
nearby paddy fields could increase the risk of road accidents, which could cause spillages
into the water bodies.
8ighway maintenance activities are also known to have detrimental impacts on water
-uality. *ollution of waterbodies with oil and grease and turbidity are likely to occur
4especially during rainy days5 during highway maintenance works.
!/
Crban and suburban growth and expansion associated with highway related activities
could result in significant adverse impacts on water -uality indirectly. +ndustrial
expansion, construction of airports, development and expansion of 'alle *ort, construction
of the fisheries harbor at 8ambantota and other economic activities will tend to spur
expansion, thereby resulting in increased water demand causing an additional stress on
surface water bodies, water treatment systems and water distribution systems. 6oreover
increased growth and development will generate additional wastewater flows which could
overload existing sewers, sometimes causing total blockage. Crban and suburban growth
also influences run,off. 3he extent of impervious land area may be increased resulting in
increased -uantities of run,off and reduced flowing time causing potential siltation and
sedimentation of water bodies. Storm sewers may drastically alter natural drainage
patterns.
3he following are some of the development activities that could result in deterioration of
water -uality.
Domestic Wasteaters
(omestic wastewaters emanating from the expanding residential, commercial and
industrial sector due to the proposed highway could be directly discharged into water
bodies without any treatment could cause pollution through enrichment with #O(, &l
,
,
nutrients and faecal coliform. 3he end result would lead to substantial (O depletions and
shallowing of waterbodies with detrimental effects on a-uatic fauna, notably fish.
3he presence of high $O
7
,
and $O
A
,
levels 4with

$O
A
,
levels exceeding B? mgFl5 would
make the water not potable and consumption of such untreated water would result in
methaemoglobinemia in infants less than ! months of age. &ultural eutrophication
scenarios would be expected to rise in slow moving and stagnant water bodies due to
continuous disposal of untreated domestic wastewaters from the residential, commercial
and industrial sector along with continuous disposal of high nutrient rich industrial
wastewaters from industries such as canneries, food processing facilities and piggeries,
and agricultural run,off.
3he presence of blue,green algal 4cyanobacterial5 blooms would result in discoloration
with a thick, smelly, green,paint like scum on the water surfaces. "s the algae die, they
settle to the benthic .one and over time the water body would become shallow due to
sediment deposition while drastically depleting the (O levels due to microbial
degradation. 6oreover some blue,green algal species are known to produce toxins such as
hepatotoxins 4e.g. microcystin from Microcystis aeruginosa5, cytotoxins 4e.g.
cylindrospermopsin from Cylindrospermopsis racibors*ii5 and neurotoxins 4e.g. anatoxin,
a hydrochloride by &scillatoria and "phani+omenon5, which are relatively stable. 3hese
toxins are also released following the death of the algal blooms and could remain potent
for several periods of time even after the algal blooms have disappeared 4:alconer, 1///5.
3he negative impacts on surface water -uality caused by enrichment with domestic
wastewaters are anticipated to be e-ually substantial in the road deviations and along the
main highway area.
0
!rban "un#o$$
Crban development in close proximity of freshwater water bodies is subject to urban run,
off especially during periods of heavy rains. +f urban and suburban growth and
development continues unabated, rain water may flow directly into nearby water bodies
resulting in water -uality deterioration especially with reference to color, turbidity and
nutrients. "lso there will be elevated levels of oil products and *b 4a result of increased
number of gasoline automobiles5, as well as other heavy metals and organic contaminants
4associated with local domestic industries5 in urban run,off. )ven if the urban run,off is
collected in the sewerage system, excessive showers may lead to an overload with
possibilities of causing a total blockage giving rise to water -uality deterioration.
3he negative impacts on surface water -uality due to enrichment with urban run,off are
anticipated to be significant in the road deviations as well as along the main highway area.
Agricultural Activities
)asy access to the market may promote some of the agricultural activities such as paddy,
rubber, tea, coconut, vegetable and mix crop cultivation, animal husbandry and
a-uaculture developments with subse-uent affects on water -uality. +mpacts relating to
agricultural activities concern about organic and inorganic compounds incorporated in the
fertili.ers and pesticides and herbicides. Leaching of these chemicals and agricultural run,
off could result in detrimental impacts on water bodies. +ncreased salini.ation, cultural
eutrophication 4i.e. in the case of slow moving and stagnant waterbodies5 and
biomagnifications scenarios with subse-uent effects on the local fauna by the O&* rich
pesticide residues and heavy metals such as &u and "s are likely to increase with
expanding mismanaged agricultural activities.
3he impacts on surface water -uality due to agricultural activities would be expected to be
more significant in areas where more paddy fields and other agricultural activities are
likely to occur and expand.
Dis%osal o$ &olid Munici%al Waste and 'a(ardous Materials
Open dumping of municipal solid waste which generally comprises ?,!D biodegradable
organic matter and industrial solid waste such as slurries and sludges produced in the
water or wastewater treatment plants could generate acidic leachates rich in nutrients,
heavy metals, #O(, &O( and pathogens. 3hese leachates could impact groundwater and
even leach out to nearby water bodies. Similarly disposal of untreated industrial
wastewater or disposal from faulty treatment plants are likely to occur with expanding
industriali.ation, thereby further increasing the likelihood of surface water -uality
deterioration.
Atmos%heric &ources
"tmospheric emissions from industries and vehicles may come down with the rains and
adversely affect water bodies through run,off. "cidic depositions lead to loss of alkalinity
of waterbodies which in turn decreases the p8 and eventually affects the normal chemical
balances of the entire waterbodies.
01
Acidi$ication and Pollution due to 'eavy Metals
"cidification of water bodies mainly occurs during the disposal of acidic wastewaters
from industries and deposition of rain washed out SO
7
and $O
x
produced by vehicles and
some industries such as coal,burning power plants. Substantial acidification scenarios with
adverse impacts on fish and other a-uatic fauna are likely to be high in rivers and other
water bodies having a low alkalinity. 3his includes areas of non,carbonate detrital rocks
such as sandstones and of crystalline rocks such as granite and gneisses. Since the
proposed trace lies in areas comprising granite and gneiss, acidification may be one of the
important negative conse-uences of the proposed highway. *articularly the peat soil
disturbances could readily leach out acidic run,off giving rise to water -uality issues.
+n addition to direct impacts of high acidity on a-uatic fauna and flora, high acidity 4p8 O
B,?5 could suppress bacterial action and hence subse-uent removal of pollutants such as
biodegradable organics, nutrients and heavy metals. "nother significant phenomenon is
the solubili.ation of some metals, particularly "l to "l
AG
when p8 drops below B.!,B.@
4#ell and 3allis, 1/0BJ &ocker et al., 1//@5 or less than ? 46eagher, 75. Such resultant
increased metal levels may to be toxic to fish and also render the water not potable.
6oreover drastic acidity scenarios with low )h may also result in an excessive loading of
sediment absorbed heavy metals back to the water column, eventually leading to intense
toxicity problems to the biota.
&alini(ation
Salini.ation occurs due to an increase of mineral salts 43(S levels5 in the water. (isposal
of domestic wastewaters and industrial wastewaters rich in higher levels of mineral salts
such as SO
B
7,
and &l
,
, increased evaporation and evapotranspiration in the river catchments
due to deforestation, and changes in flow regime in the catchments due to hydraulic and
irrigation structures are some of the major causes of salini.ation. +t is anticipated that those
water bodies located in the vicinity of the expanding residential, commercial and industrial
sector would become rich in anions such as SO
B
7,
and &l
,
with time as a conse-uence of
disposal of untreated sewage and other wastewaters containing high levels of 3(S.
3he presence of higher levels of anions such as SO
B
7,
and &l
,
will make the water
unpalatable for drinking and will have direct impacts on the biotaJ e.g. osmotic effects and
direct toxicity. 3he effects of higher 3(S levels would get aggravated during the driest
periods when transpiration rates are substantially high. "lso the water body at !S2 and
those slow moving streams would be great risk due to their insufficient water circulation
patterns. :urther in the water body at !S2 elevated SO
B
7,
levels would also induce cultural
eutrophication as a conse-uence of anion 4e.g. phosphorus5 displacement 4O1Sullivan et
al., 7B5. "lso under anoxic conditions and in the presence of higher SO
B
7,
levels the
proliferation of sulphate reducing bacterial 4S%#5 biofilms in sediments and a-uatic plant
roots would occur resulting in the production of S
7,
4highly toxic to fish communities5 and
8
7
S gas 4a corrosive, toxic gas with a characteristic smell of rotten eggs5. 3he presence of
high &l
,
may increase the bioavailability of some heavy metals such as *b and &d 4'reger
et al., 1//?J :it.gerald et al., 7A5. $ormally bioavailability of heavy metals such as 6n,
Pn and *b is known to maximi.e at electrical conductivities of B,! dSFm but decreases as
salinity further increases 4*arkplan et al., 775. 3able 3.! presents a summary of the
anticipated operation costs for the ;#+& section.
Ta4le 3.!D 0nt#c#pate' operat#on costs *or the 2$IC sect#on
07
0ct#v#t. (actors a**ect#n& #mpacts Remar%s
(omestic wastewaters
$umber of housing schemes
3he degree of expansion of
residential, commercial and
industrial sector
+nade-uacy of facilities for
appropriate sanitation
+mpacts will become severe with
time unless mitigatory measures
not taken
Stagnant water bodies are more
susceptible for pollution. +n the
;#+& section !S2 and any slow
moving streams are at risk
Crban run,off
%un,off during rains
%ate of urban and sub,urban growth
+mpacts will become severe with
time unless mitigatory measures
not taken, especially with
reference to enrichment with
suspended particulate matter,
nutrients and heavy metals
"gricultural activities
%ate of expansion in agricultural
activities
:re-uency in the usage of more
inorganic fertili.ers and pesticides
+mpacts will be significant
especially with time
Stagnant water bodies are more
susceptible for cultural
eutrophication pollution. +n the
;#+& section !S2 and any slow
moving streams are at risk.
6oreover bioaccumulation
scenarios are likely to increase
due to the use of heavy metal and
O&*s rich pesticides
(isposal of solid municipal
wastes and ha.ardous
materials
$umber of housing schemes
3he degree of expansion of
residential, commercial and
industrial sector
+nade-uacy of facilities for
appropriate solid waste management
in terms of collection and final
disposal
+mpacts will become severe with
time unless mitigatory measures
not taken
Stagnant water bodies are more
susceptible for pollution
#ioaccumulation scenarios from
contamination with heavy metals,
*&#s and other organo,chlorides
are likely to increase over time if
mitigatory measures are not
implemented
"tmospheric sources
$umber of vehicles and traffic flow
$umber of industries and rate of
industriali.ation
+mpacts will become more
significant with time if mitigatory
measures are not taken
"cidification and pollution
due to heavy metals
$umber of vehicles and traffic flow
$umber of industries and rate of
industriali.ation
+mpacts will become more
significant with time if mitigatory
measures are not taken
Salini.ation
3he degree of expansion of
residential, commercial and
industrial sector. +nade-uacy of
facilities for appropriate sanitation
$umber of industries and rate of
industriali.ation
+mpacts will become more
significant with time if mitigatory
measures are not taken
3.1.!.3 roun'-ater ;ual#t.
(a) 0nt#c#pate' Construct#onal Impacts
2ith reference to the distance from the project area it has been identified that groundwater
at location A'2 is possibly at a higher risk during the construction phase in the final trace.
+n the %(" trace groundwater at all the sampled locations seems to be at a higher water
0A
-uality deterioration risk. +n the combined trace groundwater -uality deterioration seems
to be a potential significant issue at 1'2.
3he main construction activities that could result in groundwater -uality deterioration
includes spoil disposal activities, problems associated with construction of bridges and
culverts, application of weedicides for landscaping pollution and problems associated with
the improper planning and setting up of housing and services for the persons involved in
construction and resettlement of persons affected by the project.
(uring construction spoil disposal activities could lead to groundwater -uality
deterioration to a certain extent. 6icrobial degradation of vegetation removed for site
clearing produces organic compounds especially and solubili.ed forms of nutrients such as
$8
B
,$ and $O
A
,
and even *O
B
A,
4especially during anaerobic decay5 which could leach out
to surface waterbodies and percolate through the soil to contaminate groundwater. 3he
presence of high $O
7
,
and $O
A
,
levels 4with

levels exceeding B? mgFl5 would make the
water not potable and consumption of such untreated groundwater would result in nitrate
poisoning to infants less than ! months of age, a phenomenon known as
methaemoglobinemia.
&onstruction of bridges and culverts is also known to cause groundwater contamination.
3hese will be constructed from mass concrete with reinforced concrete foundations on
cylinders or pile caps. 3hese processes may disturb the natural groundwater table and
cause water -uality problems downstream. %isks of draw down of water table will be
higher at 7'2 in view of the fact that a deep cut of @ m is planned in this area for the
project.
:illing of low lying areas at 1'2 and A'2 could result in flooding during periods of
heavy rains, groundwater movement and even water -uality particularly during floods.
3he use of pesticides and herbicides in soft landscaping and vegetation cover could also
result in groundwater contamination. 3he pesticides to be used are generally classified into
two major groups, namely organochlorine pesticides 4O&*s5 and organophosphorus
pesticides 4O**5. O&*s may sometimes be found in groundwater where leaching from
turfing material occurs. "s these compounds are hydrophobic, but soluble in fats and
hydrocarbons, their occurrence in groundwater may lead to solubili.ation in fluoric acid
materials.
+mproper planning and setting up of housing and services for the persons involved in
construction and resettlement of persons affected by the project leading to poor sanitary
conditions, could also lead to pollution of groundwater with reference to organic matter
4#O(5, nutrients, faecal matter, and higher &l
,
levels 4noting that human excreta in general
has a chloride content of ! g per person per day5 46etcalf and )ddy, 1//?5. 3he presence
of faecal coliforms could lead to diseases if such contaminated groundwater is consumed
without any treatment.
+t should be noted that groundwater pollution scenarios would become more significant
during the dry weather periods. +n other words since the evapotranspiration is higher
during the driest periods it is anticipated that the groundwater would get highly
concentrated with pollutants such as heavy metals, 3$, &l
,
and 3* due to sewage disposal
and pesticides used for soft landscaping purposes, etc. 6oreover groundwater in the areas
0B
having the highest hydraulic gradient would be more susceptible for possible
contamination.
(4) 0nt#c#pate' Operat#onal Impacts
(uring the operational phase un,planned and planned road,side development activities
may cause degradation of groundwater -uality unless precautions are taken. 3he activities
mentioned in Surface 2ater Kuality will have similar impacts on the groundwater -uality,
with the exception of increased turbidity.
3.1./ 0#r
3.1./.1 0#r ;ual#t.
(a) 0nt#c#pate' Construct#onal Impacts
Lehicles involved in the constructional phase traveling on unpaved road could lead to dust
generation. Such scenarios are significant when operating at high speeds under dry
weather and gusty wind conditions. Similarly excavation works and exploitation rubbleF
coarse aggregates may cause dust problems. 6eteorological conditions, fineness of the
material and the rate at which the materials are exploited are some of the triggering factors
for increased dust pollution scenarios. 3he more fine materials before being deposited
either on vegetation or in residence in the form of a thin film may be carried away to
considerable distances.
+mproper handling and transferring of materials into vehicles for external or internal
transport and improper storage or cover of material could also lead to significant dust
emissions. &ut and fill operations using heavy construction e-uipment are other crucial
activities which can lead to significant dust emission rates. *roduction of asphalt and
concrete in large -uantities may also cause emission of various materials such as cement
particles, gaseous pollutants and unburnt or partially burnt petroleum products
4hydrocarbons5. 6ost of these pollutants may come down with rains and impact water
bodies and other ecosystems through run,off.
Cse of pesticides for turfing vegetation could contribute to air pollution with reference to
aerosols. Spraying of pesticides in windy days could result in elevated levels of ha.ardous
materials into the atmosphere.
(4) 0nt#c#pate' Operat#onal Impacts
(uring the operational phase, air pollutants caused by transport will be expected to be
present in the atmosphere, notably primary pollutants such as $O
x
, &O and 8& and
derived or secondary pollutants formed from chemical reactions in the atmosphere 4such
as photochemical oxidants5. (irect emissions are mainly found to come from exhaust
pipes, engines, fuel tanks and carburetors, etc.
+n this study the model described in the appendix 4refer 3ables "1.7,"1.7? in "ppendix
"15 was used in order to predict the impacts on air -uality. 2ith this model ambient values
resulting from the predicted vehicular fleet were calculated up to 77? and were compared
0?
with values permitted for ambient air -uality standards stipulated in Sri Lanka 43able
"1.7? in "ppendix "15.
:rom the results of this model, it is clear that the 1,hour average values reported for each
pollutant tended to increase with the time period due to increasing traffic flow. 8owever
the values seemed to be not exceeding the stipulated 1,hour average standards given in
3able ?B, though only at 9ahathuduwa to 'elanigama area the S*6 levels will be slightly
high in the year 77?.
3.1./.! No#se an' B#4rat#on
(a) 0nt#c#pate' Construct#onal Impacts
&onstruction processes connected with extraction, handling and material transportation
may cause increased noise levels. 3he exploitation of rock which involves blasting
operations is likely to produce very high noise levels which could result in having adverse
impacts on nearby communities, though the effects may be sporadic and temporary in
nature. +n addition, potential vibrations and shocks arising from blasting activities could
result in severe damages to nearby properties such as archaeological, religious and
culturally important sites.
)-uipment involved in cut and fill operations are known to generate excessive noise.
Similarly e-uipment used in clearing sites are also generate significant noise levels.
"sphalt and concrete plants may also be cause excessive noise and vibration. 3herefore
such plants should be located in poorly or sparsely populated areas to minimi.e impacts on
any nearby human settlement.
"ccording to present noise legislation, maximum permissible noise levels at boundaries of
the land in which the construction activities are undertaken are stipulated as 0? d#4"5 and
? d#4"5 during daytime 4defined as !. am H 0. pm5 and night time 4from 0. pm H
!. am on the following day5, respectively. 3able B.A gives the identified noise levels of
various construction e-uipment and machinery at a distance of 0 m.
Ta4le 3./D No#se levels o* construct#on e8u#pment

+8u#pment No#se level at > m #n '$(0)
&row bar 11?
&ompressor 1/
*ile drivers 4drop hammer type5 11
3ruck, scraper or grader /B
*neumatic drill @?
&ranes 4movable and derrick5 @?
)xcavator 117
Loader 117
%oller vibrator 1@
*oke vibrator 11A
Sound reduced jack hammers and lock drills @7
3herefore in view of the values given in 3able B.A, the noise levels generated from the
machinery involved in construction works could drastically disturb nearby communities
0!
since the noise levels generated tend to exceed the permissible day time limit of 0? d#4"5
stipulated for construction activities.
&onstant exposure to very high noise levels can often cause hearing deficiencies and
machine operators who are directly involved in such activities are at high risk. 3able B.B
shows the exposure levels and time limits adopted in the Cnited 9ingdom and they can be
used as guides in Sri Lanka.
Ta4le 3.3(a)D +,posure levels an' t#me l#m#t #n U6
)evels Dose t#me l#m#ts
/ @ hr
/A B hr
1 B@ min
11 B.@ min
17 7@.@ min
1A 7.@@ min
+n the e-ual energy basis, an increase of A d# in exposure level may be permitted for each
halving of the exposure duration. 8owever, increases in level cannot be sustained
indefinitely, when the level is increased over a short time period above 1A d#, hearing
loss may become spontaneously. *roper combination of e-uipment is therefore crucial to
minimi.e the risks of hearing disorders.
(4) 0nt#c#pate' Operat#onal Impacts
+n this study the model developed by :ederal 8ighway "ssociation of CS" 4:82"5 was
used to predict noise levels with reference to average speeds of @ kmFh, 1 kmFh and
17 kmFh 4refer to 3able "1.7! in "ppendix "15. 2ith this model the possible noise levels
generated by highway traffic were calculated up to 77? 43able "1.70 in "ppendix "15
and results were compared with maximum allowable noise levels generated by highway
traffic 43able B.B5.
Ta4le 3.3(4) D The ma,#mum allo-a4le no#se levels &enerate' 4. h#&h-a. tra**#c
("ourl. 0 5 9e#&hte' Soun' )evels 5 '$(0)
1
)
0ct#ve Cate&or. )e8 (h) Descr#pt#on
" ?0 4exterior5
Lands on which serenity and -uiet are
of extraordinary significance and serve
an important public need and where the
preservation of those -ualities is
essential if the area is to continue to
serve its intended purpose
# !0 4exterior5
*icnic areas, recreation areas,
playgrounds, active sports area, parks,
residences, motels, hotels, schools,
churches, libraries and hospitals
& 07 4exterior5
(eveloped lands, properties or
activities not included in " or #
( , Cndeveloped lands
) ?7 4interior5
%esidences, motels, hotels, schools,
churches, libraries, hospitals and
auditoriums
?
1
)ither L1 4h5 or Le- 4h5 4but not both5 may be used on a project
00
#asically the results from the model revealed that noise level generation increases with the
time period mainly due to the increase in vehicular fleet hence peak values will be higher
in the year 77?. 3he results also manifested that the predicted noise levels reported for
each time period is higher than the stipulated limit of !0 d#4"5 by the :82" and hence
would have a significant disturbing effect on schools, religious sites and other areas or
buildings listed under &ategory # 43ables B.B and "1.70 in "ppendix "15. +t should be
noted that the ;#+& section comprises such sites namely, / government schools, 1/
#uddhist temples and 1 mos-ue.
6oreover the results also revealed that the predicted noise levels would significantly
affect lands on which serenity and -uiet are of extraordinary significance 4i.e. &ategory "
areas such as forest patches and wetlands that would serve as habitats for birds and other
fauna5 since the predicted levels for each time had exceeded the stipulated limit of ?0 d#
4"5 43ables B.B4a5, 4b5 and "1.70 in "ppendix "15.
3herefore a drastic noise level reduction should be practiced by means of noise barriers
and if necessary together with acoustic insulation of buildings. "lternately concrete or any
other type of barrier systems would be crucial in places where there is no possibility of
having an earthen beam due to lack of space. +ntensive noise reduction programmes will
be necessary in areas where lands on which serenity and -uiet are of significance.
+n addition to traffic noise, pneumatic construction e-uipment used for maintenance work
may generate excessive noise levels, though the affects could be temporary.
*lanned and un,planned development activities especially industries may cause higher
noise levels. 8owever the present noise standard addresses the allowable limits for
industries and therefore they may be used to control excessive noise levels.
)m%acts on vibration
+nterim standard on vibration control has been introduced in Sri Lanka though it could not
be implemented at present. $evertheless this standard could be used as a guideline
particularly during new construction. 3he interim standard addresses areas such asJ
i. Libration for the operation of machinery, construction activities and vehicle
movements traffic 43able "1.7@ in "ppendix "15
ii. Libration for blasting activities 43able "1.7/ in "ppendix "15
iii. Libration for the inconvenience of the occupants in building 43able "1.A
in "ppendix "15.
3ables "1.7@, "1.7/ and "1.A in "ppendix "1 are based on different types of buildings,
which are categori.ed in 3able "1.A1 in "ppendix "1.
3hese guideline values should be applied for any significant case where there is a
likelihood of building being subject to vibration both during construction and operational
phases.
0@
3.1.3 Processes
3.1.3.1 (loo'sE ".'rolo&. an' Dra#na&e Patterns
Ra#n*all
*roposed construction work in the ;#+& section of the highway has no impact on the
monsoonal rain as it would not affect the monsoonal moisture inflow or outflow and wind
direction.
9#n'
*roposed road trace of the ;#+& section will not have significant impact on the wind speed
and direction.
Cl#mate
*roposed highway will not have a impact to the climatic conditions of the trace area. #ut
due to site clearing, cut and fill can cause some micro climatic changes to the surface
water flows in the streams and to the groundwater levels in the area.
Stream *lo- an' *loo'#n&
+t is expected that proposed project will affect the surface flow which is passing through
the proposed trace due to the obstruction of flow paths. 3his can create local flooding
unless ade-uate culverts are provided. 3he trace length that is going over paddy lands are
about A/D of the total trace length of the ;#+& section. 3he above trace lengths were
identified by measuring the length on the 1I?, topo maps which are given in the
"ppendix " :igures "1 to "@.
3he major rivers crossing the trace are given in the. 3he proposed road trace can cause
blockage of flood water creating a significant impact on flooding.
Topo&raph. an' 'ra#na&e
3he lengths of final design trace on retention areas which are clearly identifiable as paddy
or marsh on the 1I?, topo maps and inundation elevation were taken as flood impact
identification parameters. 3he flood impact ratings given are shown in 3able B.?. 3he
flood impact due to inundation depth and detention length is given 3able B.!. 3he number
of drainage structures was taken as the drainage impact parameter. 3he drainage impact
ratings are given in 3able B.0. (egree of flood and drainage impacts is given in 3able B.@.
Ta4le 3.7 (loo' #mpact rat#n&
+mpact indicator $one Low 6oderate 8igh Severe
(etention length to total length ratio as
D
,1 1,A A,! T!
+nundation depth 4m5 .1 H
.?
.?1,1. 1.1,7. T7.
0/
Ta4le 3.< (loo' Impact 'ue to #nun'at#on 'epth an' 'etent#on len&th
:lood
impact of
inundation
depth
:lood impacts of detention length
S " = ) N
+mpact of :looding
S S S 8 6 6
" S 8 8 6 L
= 8 8 6 L L
) 6 6 L L $
N 6 L L $ $
$ , $one, L H Low, 6 H 6oderate, 8 H 8igh, S , Severe
Ta4le 3.> Dra#na&e #mpact rat#n&
+mpact indicator $one Significant Lery Significant Severe
3otal number of identified structures 1 7,A TA
Ta4le 3.? De&ree o* *loo' an' 'ra#na&e #mpacts
&ontrol *oint
Length
of flood
detentio
n 4km5
3opo
6ap
flood
detentio
n
Length
D
$umber
of
(rainag
e
Structur
es
+nundati
on
(epth
4m5
:lood
impact of
inundatio
n depth
:lood
impacts
of
detention
length
+mpact of
:looding
+mpacts
(rainage
Startin
g
chaina
ge
4km5
)nding
chaina
ge
4km5
1 1. 1 .0? 6oderate Severe 8igh $one
1 7 1. 1 1 .1? Low Severe 6oderate Significant
7 A 1. 1 1 .B? Low Severe 6oderate Significant
A B 1. 1 7 .1 Low Severe 6oderate L Significant
B ? 1. 1 . $one Severe 6oderate $one
? ! .A7 A7 1 .7 Low 8igh 6oderate Significant
! 0 .71 71 7 . $one 6oderate Low L Significant
0 @ .0/ 0/ A . $one Severe 6oderate L Significant
@ / . . $one $one $ $one
/ 1 .?A ?A 7 .1 Low Severe 6oderate L Significant
1 11 .71 71 7 1.A 8igh 6oderate 8igh L Significant
11 17 1. 1 1 . $one Severe 6oderate Significant
17 1A .1! 1! . $one 6oderate Low $one
1A 1B .11 11 . $one 6oderate Low $one
1B 1? .0/ 0/ 7 1.1? 8igh Severe Severe L Significant
1? 1! .?A ?A . $one 8igh Low $one
1! 10 1. 1 1 .1 Low Severe 6oderate Significant
10 1@ .!A !A . $one Severe 6oderate $one
1@ 1/ .11 11 .A Low 6oderate Low $one
1/ 7 .1! 1! 1 . $one 6oderate Low Significant
7 71 .71 71 1 .1 Low 6oderate Low Significant
71 77 .11 11 7 1.B? 8igh 6oderate 8igh L Significant
77 7A .? ? 1 .7 Low Low Low Significant
7A 7B .0/ 0/ 1 7./ Severe Severe Severe Significant
@
7B 7? .?A ?A 1 .0@ 6oderate 8igh 8igh Significant
7? 7! .0/ 0/ 1 . $one Severe 6oderate Significant
7! 70 .0B 0B 7 .7 Low Severe 6oderate L Significant
70 7@ .A0 A0 A .AB Low 8igh 6oderate L Significant
7@ 7/ .71 71 1 .10 Low 6oderate Low Significant
7/ A . . $one $one $one $one
A A1 .7! 7! 1 .! 6oderate 6oderate 6oderate Significant
A1 A7 .11 11 7 .B Low 6oderate Low L Significant
A7 AA .B0 B0 7 . $one 8igh Low L Significant
AA AB .1! 1! . $one 6oderate Low $one
AB A? .A7 A7 A ./7 6oderate 8igh 8igh L Significant
A? A! .? ? . $one Low $one $one
A! A0 .? ? 1 . $one Low $one Significant
A0 A@ . 7 . $one $one $one L Significant
A@ A/ .11 11 1 . $one 6oderate Low Significant
A/ B .71 71 7 .0 Low 6oderate Low L Significant
B B1 .71 71 A ./ 6oderate 6oderate 6oderate L Significant
B1 B7 .B0 B0 7 .A Low 8igh 6oderate L Significant
B7 BA . 1 .?B 6oderate $one Low Significant
BA BB .B0 B0 1 .!7 6oderate 8igh 8igh Significant
BB B? .?A ?A . $one 8igh Low $one
B? B! .B7 B7 1 .7 Low 8igh 6oderate Significant
B! B0 .A0 A0 1 .A Low 8igh 6oderate Significant
B0 B@ .A0 A0 1 .AA Low 8igh 6oderate Significant
B@ B/ . 1 . $one $one $one Significant
B/ ? . 1 . $one $one $one Significant
? ?1 .?A ?A 7 1.?0 8igh 8igh 8igh L Significant
?1 ?7 .0/ 0/ 1. 8igh Severe Severe $one
?7 ?A .B7 B7 7 .17 Low 8igh 6oderate L Significant
?A ?B .A0 A0 .@? 6oderate 8igh 8igh $one
?B ?? .7! 7! 1 1.! 8igh 6oderate 8igh Significant
?? ?! .11 11 . Low 6oderate Low $one
?! ?0 .?A ?A 7 1./7 8igh 8igh 8igh L Significant
?0 ?@ .11 11 1 .A! Low 6oderate 6oderate Significant
?@ ?/ .A0 A0 1 1.?A 8igh 8igh 8igh Significant
?/ ! .?A ?A . $one 8igh Low $one
! !1 .0/ 0/ 7 1.BA 8igh Severe Severe L Significant
!1 !7 .?A ?A 1 .?/ 6oderate 8igh 8igh Significant
!7 !A .? ? 7 .0! 6oderate Low Low L Significant
!A !B .7! 7! 1 .1 Low 6oderate Low Significant
!B !? . 1 . $one $one $one Significant
!? !! .7! 7! 1 . $one 6oderate Low Significant
!! !0 .1! 1! 1 ./ 6oderate 6oderate 6oderate Significant
3.1.3.! So#l +ros#on@ S#ltat#on an' Se'#mentat#on Runo**
3.1.3./ Irr#&at#on an' (loo' Protect#on Structures
@1
3.! $#olo&#cal +nv#ronment
3able #1.A of "ppendix #1 presents the network analysis of potential impacts due to the
major deviation between @G and 71G in the ;#+& section of the road trace.
3.!.1 (lora
3.!.1.1 Terrestr#al (lora
3he major deviation that occurs in the ;#+& section of the trace lies at #andaragama area
4between @G and 71G5 and it traverses across a relatively small 4compared to
#olgoda wetlands5 patch of wetlands situated around *anape ela 4stream5.
Since the terrestrial flora is represented primarily by the flora of home gardens
construction of the road may not lead to complete loss of these species, but will reduce
significantly the available habitats for fauna, including birds and particularly the insects
that are of extreme importance as pollinators. 8arvests from home gardens depend largely
on the pollination success and when the pollinators lose habitats and thus survival in the
area agricultural produce too will decline.
3.!.1.! 08uat#c (lora
2etlands of *anape represent an abandoned paddy field and the floral species present are
characteristic to such environments, as such removal of these species from the area may
not contribute immensely to decrease plant diversity in general. 3he only endemic plant
species encountered in the area 4Eacum sp5 is also rare and of high potential as an
ornamental plant.
6any wetland plant species are traditionally used by the villagers for subsistence uses
such as sedges for weaving mats and other household items and with the road construction
such opportunities will not be available for the villagers.
"lthough the wetland around *anape is going to be reclaimed and changed with all the
impacts discussed herein, suggestion to deviate it to the present trace will produce less
impact when compared to the combined trace which was proposed to traverse across the
#olgoda lake wetland complex.
%eclamation of this wetland will affect the local water table as this is an area with stagnant
freshwater that may play the role of groundwater recharge.
3.!.! (auna
3.!.!.1 Terrestr#al (auna an' 0mph#4#ans
@7
3errestrial fauna are affected mainly through loss of habitats, particularly those that are
important as pollinators and biological pest controllers such as insects. 8abitats of the
endemic mammal "is porosnus will not be affected by the deviated road trace, however
road kills of this rare species may take place as the cinnomon plantations have been
fragmented by the major trace 4combined trace5.
*ollinators will lose habitats and thus their role will be hampered resulting local declines
in crop harvests, particularly fruits.
3.!.!.! 08uat#c (auna
2ith the proposed activities of the road construction, habitats for a-uatic fauna,
particularly fish will be largely lost permanently. *anape wetlands support otters, a
protected animal in Sri Lanka. %emoval of vegetation, reclamation and noise created by
the traffic will make this site unfavourable for them and may leave the area with time as
this wetland is connected to #olgoda lake wetland complex and 9alu ganga.
3.!.!./ 0v#*auna
*anape wetland at the deviation is a site that migratory birds visit due to its sheltered
locality and relatively low disturbance. 2ith reclaiming part of it for the road and due to
subse-uent introduction of traffic, this will become unsuitable as a bird habitat and it will
affect migrant bird populations, leading to declining diversity among them.
&learing vegetation will reduce the habitats, food and shelter for the avifauna and this will
lead to decline in their population si.es. #irds are seed dispersal agents and low numbers
of birds in the area may affect natural seed dispersal and in turn will negatively affect
terrestrial plant diversity.
3./ Soc#al +nv#ronment
3./.1 )an' Use 0spects
3./.1.1 )an' Use Pattern
"ccording to the information available %("1s offices in #andaragama and (odangoda
about 1!@ ha of paddy lands and A1 ha of other lands with different land use pattern had
negative impacts. 3hese lands have been already ac-uired by the %(" for development
activities of the proposed road project. 3he land use pattern of these affected and already
ac-uired land includedI
3he agriculture land 4paddy and other crops5, ??D
)state land 4rubber and coconut 5, 7D
8ome gardens, 7D
Other water bodies and wetland,?D
3he consultation of the affected families who have been resettled in different locations
expressed following views on the impacts they hadI
@A
3he crop land that gave some support for livelihoods were lost now
3he traditional lands got lost
+t may take long time to reestablish such developed lands once again.
Some persons said that they received compensation only for the land affected but
not for the crops existed
3he following views were expressed by the agency personnelI
6oderate negative impacts created on the land use
3he negative impacts is not so serious to create significant implications on the
livelihoods of the affected people
3he land value in the area may go up significantly.
3./.1.! )an' Tenure Pattern
3he following land tenure pattern existed and it got affected.
:reehold land, !?D
L(O land, 7D
Other government land, 1?D
3he communities consulted expressed following views on the impact on land tenure due to
road development in the areaI
2e lost our traditional freehold land
Some "*s were not still happy about the compensation package 4 although
ade-uate money has been paid according to the valuation reports, the views of the
%(" officers and also the 'rama $iladharies of the area5
Some "*s who lost their encroached land are happy about getting freehold lands as
compensation.
3he views of the agency officersI
3he "*s who were holding government encroached land and also who were
staying in least, in land received free hold land as compensation.
3he L"%& committee has some problems to pay compensation for the land
without clear titles and also without clear ownerships.
3./.1./ Settlement Pattern
3here were no town centers to create impact due to road construction. Only a few
small urban centers with some bouti-ues are affected. Such rural shop centers are
located in, 6akumbura, (eepangoda, 9ahathuduwa, 'alanigama and (iyagama.
3he communities in the adjacent environment of the %O2 are of the opinion that
the removal of these centers will not create significant impacts to them because
they have many other alternative places to reach for such needs.
(odangodaF*ahanwatta housing scheme and #andaragama new city watta
proposed housing scheme may be affected. 3here is no need to evacuate all the
@B
houses of the (odangamaFpasanwatta shame. Only few houses are to be evacuated.
3he #andaragma housing scheme is not yet established. 3herefore, the impact on
this proposed housing development will not be so serious. 3he officers of the area
mentioned that only few lands and houses in *ahanwattaF(odangoda scheme have
some negative impacts.
3./.! "uman +nv#ronment
3./.!.1 Soc#al Structure@ )ocal )#*e St.le an' Balues
3he likelihood impacts on long established social structure, local life style and social
values are well explained in the report of %(" on resettlement implementation plan
4Lolume 1 main report H 77 %("5. 6ainly it highlighted the following issuesI
Social capital established 4various social relations5 by traditional village
communities for generation to generation will get disturbed due to physical
separation of the communities due to proposed road running across their villages
3he affected communities will have problems of getting involved in activities of
the community based organi.ations 4due to evacuation and also due to separation
of communities5
3he fre-uent interactions among relations, friends and colleagues will get seriously
disturbed.
3he community consultations had by the consultant of this study also reconfirmed the
likelihood impacts mentioned in the %(" report. 3he communities now started
experiencing these problems even at this stage of the project. 3hese problems will be
much significant once road construction is completed.
Some of the concerns of the communities areI
*rier to resettlement in the current locations the affected communities lived among
relations but now they are compelled to rebuild social contacts with unknown
people in the neighboring communities.
Leaving of the relations in the previous locations has crated some psychological
problems
3hey were compelled to leave the environment very much familiar to them.
3he children of the affected families are not happy to leave their friends and
relations with whom they lived for long.
3./.!.! Populat#on@ +thn#c Compos#t#on@ =#&rat#on an' Settlement
"ccording to the definition of affected families 4Lolume 1 main report H 77 %("5
population of /!?! will have negative impacts due to the various interventions of the
proposed project. 3he nature of impacts on these people are various and mainly
concentrated on land, houses and some other livelihood activities. 3he number of families
to be evacuated from the current residences is ?@B 4with following composition5I
3o be resettled in the %(" established resettlement sites, 77
@?
(ecided to resettle with the own initiatives and decisions by the affected families,
A!B
$early about /@D of the affected population 4/!?!5 is Sinhala. 4"ll the evacuated families
are Sinhala5. 3he householders of the evacuated families expressed positive and negative
impacts due to road construction project. 3hese community views are mentioned in 3able
B./.
Ta4le 3.A1 B#e-s o* the commun#t#es on #mpacts
Pos#t#ve #mpacts Ne&at#ve #mpacts
)ven the encroachers 4 illegal settlers5
received land for resettlement 4 land with
freehold tiles5
Some people who has drinking water
difficulties were able to receive land in
relocation sites with ade-uate water
Opportunities to develop relations with
new communities
3he home gardens developed and used for
long was lost
+ncome from home gardens and other
affected lands was lost
&ompelled to leave the much familiar
environment
Lost of long term established social
relations 4 social capital5
$egative impacts on schooling of the
children
3./.!./ +'ucat#on
3here were no schools to demolish or to evacuate due to project interventions. 3he
proposed road runs near some schools premises but there will not be serious negative
impacts on the school buildings. 3he following schools will have some impactsI
Leediyagoda School, 4small belt of land and the fence may be affected 5
9aragastota vidyalaya, 4same impact5
*alpola vidyalaya 4belt of land5
3he impacts on school going children were the problem reported. 3hese problems may
prevail for sometimes until they get established in the new locations with new schools or
with current schools but with new transport arrangements to travel to schools.
3he nature of problems faced by the School going children include following according to
their parentsI
$early /?D of the affected families will have opportunities to continue their
childrenU education in the same school. 3he distance to travel got little far from the
newly settled locations.
"bout ?D of the families can not send their children to the previous schools due to
relocation in far away places. 3hey will have to seek for new schools.
(uring resettlement period the routine studies of the children get affected.
3./.!.3 0ccess#4#l#t. an' =o4#l#t. *or Normal 0ct#v#t#es
"bout 71 sub,roads 4names of these roads are mentioned in 3able 7 in "ppendix &B.15 that
run across the proposed high way will have some impacts during construction and even in
@!
the post construction stage. 3hese are the roads that are being used by local communities
for their routine transportation and travel. 3he communities consulted expressed A types of
impacts on the use of these roads for their routine purposes.
(ue to disturbances to the roads the transaction cost for the routine travel will go
up 4cost and time both5
3he buses that run on these roads may have difficulties due to problems during
rainy days 4 muddy and slippery nature of roads created by the construction
project5
3he local traders will have difficulties to transport their goods.
3./.!.7. 0ccess#4#l#t. an' =o4#l#t. *or Spec#al Serv#ces
3here are no nationally or regionally famous historical, cultural and religious places
located in the %O2. 3he routine visits to the nearby temples and other religious places
will have disturbances during construction phase of the project. )ven in the post
construction phase the communities may have difficulties to continue their visits to the
religious places. 3he 9irigampamunuwa Sri Lisudharamaya, 2eniwelkola Sambodhi
viharaya and 9olamadiriya *urana viharaya are some religious places where communities
may have difficulties to visit.
3./.!.< Pu4l#c "ealth an' Sa*et.
3he hospitals or any other public heath service delivery organi.ations are not affected due
to the development project. (uring construction stage when the existing roads get
disturbed the access to the health service delivery centers will have some negative impacts
as in the case of all other routine travel and transport of the communities . 3he
communities in the adjacent areas of the %O2 perceive some beneficial impacts on
improved access to good hospitals in nearby towns. Once the high way is developed they
also can travel to nearby townships due to enhanced transportation of the new road.
3./.!.> "ous#n&
"bout ?/0 houses are affected. 3he composition of the affected houses areI
*ermanent housesJ ??@ 4/A.?D5
Semi,permanent houses H A0 4!.7D5
3emporary houses, 7 4.AD5
3he communities affected expressed following views on the impact on their housesI
Loss of the houses that came from generation to generation 4 sentimental value5
3he houses constructed with care and especial efforts were lost
3he houses located in attractive environments were lost
3he houses located among the relations and friends were lost.
3he following positive impact are perceived by the affected communitiesI
2ere able to receive compensation to build new houses. 4many affected families
had old houses5
@0
3he families who have been living long in houses constructed in encroached land
were able to receive lands with clear titles to build houses in such lands.
3./.!.? Other In*rastructure (ac#l#t#es
3he impacts on other infrastructure facilities were assessed based on agency and
community stakeholders view points. 3he experiences of the stakeholders and also what
they perceive as future anticipated impacts, various project interventions so far
implemented and also to be implemented in near future were considered in discussions
with stakeholders.
Impact on 9ater ( 'omest#c -ater suppl. s.stems an' also natural -ater
4o'#es) *rom the commun#t#es po#nt o* v#e-
$early /D of the affected householders had domestic wells in their home
gardens. 3hese were affected.
3here may be tendency to get natural streams and drainage canals blocked
during construction period. 3his may lead to get the lowland areas flooded.
2ater in some natural streams may get polluted due to land filling and
other project interventions during construction phase.
3here may be tendency to create problems to the drinking water wells in
the lands located adjacent to the %O2 area. 4 lowering the water levels and
pollution of water etc5
3here may be tendency to block the existing pipe water systems established
along roads.
The #mpact on telephone an' electr#c#t. '#str#4ut#on l#nesD
Since the road construction activities have not yet been started there are no negative
impacts on the electricity and telephone lines. Once the construction phase is commenced
there will be temporary disconnections of electricity and telephone lines in the areas
around construction sites. +f so it will create various problems to all segment of the
population in the area.
3./.!.A Transport
3he transportation on public roads in the project impact area may be affected. "ccording
to the local communities the transportation on 71 sub,roads are affected in different
degrees now and they anticipate that it will get increased in future. 3he names of 71 roads
are included in "ppendix &B.
3he nature of impacts on transportation is mentioned belowI
Once construction activities are started the transportation on the existing roads
may get disturbed
3he road users may have disturbances to travel on time to their desired
destinations. 4 some may be compelled to look for alternative roads where both
time and money re-uired for traveling is higher than the current rates on the
existing roads that are being used5
@@
+n the post,construction phase there may be difficulties for easy movements of the
communities in the area mainly due to limited access to cross the high way.
3./.!.10 eneral )#*e St.le
3he communities expressed their views on impacts of two aspects.
The #mpact on commun#t. "ealthD
3he dust created in the construction sites may have some negative impacts on the
health of the communities living in the adjacent areas
3he deteriorated water -uality in the wells of the adjacent areas of the project may
create some negative health impacts
3he noise and other disturbances due to blasting in the -uarry sites.
(isturbances to natural drainage system may occur and it may lead to create
problems such as odor, mos-uito and so on.
Other #mpacts on the env#ronment #n the area
3he construction sites may create various problems to the neighboring
environment.
3he earth cutting and filling may create some new problems 4water logging and
odor5 in the area.
Long standing a-uifers and other natural water streams may get deteriorated or
disturbed and it may create negative changes on the environment
3he decrease of trees and erosion of soil may create some problems to the existing
environment.
3././ Soc#o1+conom#c +nv#ronment
3his section deals with the possible environmental impacts of the proposed &olombo,6atara
limited access speedway on employment, agriculture, tourism, income distribution,
structures, business volumes and property values. 3he impacts will be first identified, then
-uantified and finally valued using the available analytical techni-ues.
3he following impacts are taken into consideration in this section.
Ta4le 3.10 Impacts Ta%en Into 0ccount #n Soc#o1+conom#c1+nv#ronment
Receptors T.pe o* Impact =a&n#tu'e
1. )mployment (irect negative impacts
(irect positive impacts
+ndirect positive impacts
8
6
6
7. "gricultural production and
productivity
(irect and indirect negative impacts 8
A. 3ourism (irect and indirect positive impacts 6
B. +ncome distribution +nduced secondary positive impacts L
?. Structures (irect negative impacts
+ndirect negative impacts
8
L
@/
!. #usiness volume (irect positive impacts
+nduced secondary positive impacts
6
6
0. *roperty values +nduced secondary positive impacts 8
@. %ural economy (irect negative impacts in construction phase
+nduced positive secondary benefits
6
8
8,8igh, 6,6edium, L,Low
3././.1 +mplo.ment #n the project 0rea
Ne&at#ve Impacts on 0&r#cultural +mplo.mentD
"gricultural )mployment along the trace
"c-uisition of land for the project will generate negative employments impacts as many will
lose their livelihood. 3he land area ac-uired for the construction is around B0@ ha from
9ottawa to 9urundugahahetepma. *otential employment losses under different cropping
systems were estimated using existing estimates drawn by different authorities such as
(epartment of "griculture, &oconut %esearch +nstitute, and %ubber %esearch +nstitute.
8owever, as available published sources are not ade-uate to capture the variation along the
trace, field studies were conducted to find the labour use for different enterprises along the
trace to find the real labour demand for different agricultural activities especially for mixed
homestead gardens with different cropping combinations and different holding si.es.
6oreover, many agricultural laborers are not full time labors and they are engaged with
different activities simultaneously. (isguised unemployment is a common phenomenon in
agricultural sector, especially in paddy cultivation and livestock.
3otal number of persons annually employed in agricultural activities in the project area was
estimated using average demand of labour for each activities of different crops. Study
revealed that around 1D of the paddy lands along the trace in ;#+& section are totally
abandoned during last 1 years as a conse-uence of soil degradation, poor drainage, low
productivity, labour scarcity or several other reasons. +n addition to that normal cropping
intensity is 1?. "nnual labour demand of tea, rubber, coconut was estimated to the most
pessimistic value with maximum potential labour demand.
Ta4le 3.11 D#str#4ut#on o* '#**erent crops alon& the trace *rom 6otta-a to
6urun'u&ahahetepma
&rop Land area 4ha5
*addy 1A7.7
3ea
10.A
%ubber
1!
&oconut 11.7
&innamon
17.A
8omestead 'arden
/@.0
Cnproductive *addy
A?.B
)stimated annual labour demand for a hectare of paddy is 1/0 man days with average
cropping intensity of 1?. "verage annual labour demand for tea, rubber, coconut and
cinnamon is !/@, ??7, 171 and 71@ per hectare respectively. :or the mixed home gardens it
is not possible to estimate the number of labour units re-uired as the plots are very small and
variety of cropping systems.
/
Ta4le 3.1! +st#mate' la4our replacement 'ue to ac8u#s#t#on o* lan's alon& the trace.
(=an 'a.s per .ear)
&rop 6an days
*addy
7!BA
3ea
170?
%ubber
@@A7
&oconut
1A??
&innamon
7!@1
8omestead 'arden
,,
Cnproductive *addy
,,
3otal man days
1AB0?
3otal employment e-uivalent
?BB
3otal number of estimated direct employment loss in agriculture along the ac-uired trace is 1AB0?man days per year which is e-uivalent to
?BB labours.
"s mentioned earlier, the actual number of people employed in agriculture along the road
trace may eceed the estimated number due to the prevalence of disguised unemployment
and under)employment- two common phenomena characteri+ing rural agrarian
communities.
+t was described earlier that the total number of employment opportunities 4jobs5 provided by
all agricultural land under the road trace of @ meters would be ?BB labor units annually
4without making any distinction between sexes5. 3herefore, it is evident that ?BB laborers will
lose their source of employment once agricultural land is ac-uired for the road project. 2ith
an average wage rate of %s. A?. per man day in the project area for agricultural activities,
the true price of labour was determined by multiplying the market wage rate by the
conversion factor for labour, which is .0?A? 4the average of the conversion factors for
surplus labour and scarce labour5. 3his was found to be %s. 77!. per man day. :ollowing
table shows the estimated economic of loss of employment due to ac-uisition of agricultural
lands per year up to settling the people in another livelihood or until providing a e-uivalent
jobs. 3herefore, estimated direct employment loss per year due to ac-uisition of land is %s.
AB.B million in ;#+& section.
$egative impacts on other employment categories
1. +mpact on other employment categories such as those employed in the private and state
sector is minimal provided that employees who are displaced due to land ac-uisition are
relocated in locations from where their work places can be accessed without much difficulty.
8owever, if people who are self employed and those who find employment in the casual
labour market are displaced due to land ac-uisition, they may confront with different market
situations unless they are relocated within their village. $evertheless, it is difficult to predict
the net impact on employment in respect of the above employment categories.
/1
7. " small number of fishermen who are fishing in inland reservoirs in %antotuwila area,
*anape )la, 9epu ela and in few other locations in ;#+& section will lose their income in
construction stage due to siltation of water bodies and deterioration of water -uality.
A. *eople who are involving in industries based on freely available reed 4sedges5 would be
partially affected in (iyagama 49alu,ganga valley5 %antotuwila 4#entara 'anga5 due to
absent of raw materials as some of the low,line lands under natural sedges may be lost with
the construction of highway.
B. :rom 9ottawa to 9urundugahahetepma, it was estimated about ? fishermen who are
engaged in fishing in inland reservoirs with daily income between %s.A H 1 4average
B?.5 and about A families involved in reed based industries with and average income of
%s.?. per month. "ssuming that ?D of employment opportunities would displaced in
the construction stage, annual loss of labour in agri,based industries and inland fishing was
estimated %s. A.7 million.

Pos#t#ve #mpacts on emplo.ment 'ur#n& the construct#on phaseD
(uring the construction phases, a large number of people will have to be employed by the
contractors for road construction work and, this will be a direct positive impact of the project
on employment. 8owever, the cost breakup of the project, as given in the economic
feasibility study, does not indicate the number of labour units re-uired for road construction.
3herefore, no attempt was made to -uantify the value of positive impact on employment
although it may be grater than loss in construction stage. %oad maintenance work over the
entire project,life also will generate additional employment opportunities and hence direct
positive impacts.
8owever, with the project a large number of employment opportunities will generate,
especially in the construction period and then a large number of direct and indirect
employment in the operation stage. 3he employment generation will exceed the employment
loss of agricultural sector. Mouth in the area, who are reluctant to do agricultural jobs due to
their attitudes, will have a good opportunity to find a non agricultural jobs.
3././.! 0&r#culture
D#rect ne&at#ve Impacts on 0&r#cultureD
3o estimate the impact of land ac-uisition for the proposed project, average yields of each
crop for different areas which were estimated by the relevant authorities and the prices for
year 7A published by 3he &entral #ank of Sri Lanka were considered. Mields prices and
method of estimation of loss due to declining agricultural production are shown in the
annex11.
+n the ;#+& section direct loss of paddy was estimated !!0? kg per year which valued
about %s.1.7 million. "s the labour involved in the production is already estimated under
employment 4B.A.A.15 and other inputs are cash inputs the estimated gross margin
(irect impact on paddy production was %s. .@7 million due to loss of paddy production.
)stimated losses of tea, rubber, cinnamon and coconut in the ;#+& section due to the
proposed project were %s. 6illion 7.7B, B.!/, .7@ and 1.7? respectively.
/7
"lthough it is difficult to generali.e the output of homestead gardens average gross margin
out of the average home garden with a few coconut trees, fruit trees, spices, supplementary
vegetable, spices and condiments were evaluated in the sample survey and gross margin were
generali.ed to %s.10 per hectare per year. 3herefore, as the total area of homestead
gardens ac-uired for the proposed project in ;#+& section is about /@.0 ha the total gross
margin per year is %s. 1.!@ million.
3otal direct negative impacts on agricultural production is summari.ed below.
Ta4le 3.1/ D#rect #mpact 0&r#cultural pro'uct#on (Rs m#ll#on per .ear) #n 2$IC Sect#on
*addy .@7
3ea 7.7B
%ubber B.!/
&oconut .7@
&innamon 1.7?
8omestead garden 1.!@
Total 10.A<
2hile estimated crop outputs will give a general picture of the annual production potential of
agricultural land under the @ m trace, there is a significant variation in yields among (S
(ivisions and even among plots within a particular (S (ivision. :or example, the estimated
paddy output in 6alimbada 11AB7! kg in 6atara (S (ivisions are overestimated because an
average cropping intensity of 1?D has been assumed for all lands for this estimation
although the actual cropping intensity of most of the paddy land in 6alimbada and 6atara
approximate 1D or even less.
Out of total loss of income from agricultural production, "(# section contributes the highest
portion 4??D5 while ;#+& section contributes only BBD. 3ea is the most significant cash crop
in the trace as its gross margin is high. "round 0!D of the total tea lands along the trace is
located in the "(# section. "s in the ;#+& section, majority of the plantations are rubber and
homestead the income loss is less compared to "(# section.
+,pecte' #n'#rect losses o* a&r#cultural #ncome
)specially in the construction phase, due to excavation of soil, blocking the irrigation and
drainage canals, exposing peat to the air and rain would make some adverse impacts on
agricultural crops irrespective to the location.
1. (epletion of groundwater level due to deep excavation of soil in many other locations may
cause yield reduction in perennial crops and also water scarcity for other field crops.
8owever, due to rainy climate during the last few months there were no records of depletion
of groundwater level and loss of yield.
7. (uring the period of earth work, disruption of water ways and drainage canals may cause
flooding of paddy lands and yield would be completely or partially lost. On the other hand, as
a significant length of the road is running through paddy lands, soil and silt transported by
runoff water may damage the crop. *ermanent damage of a cultivated paddy lands by
siltation, flooding or any other accidental damage worth about %s. 7 per perch and it varies
depending on the stage of the crop and the location. 2ithin the ?m either side of the trace
/A
the paddy land area is about 117? ha from 9ottawa to 9urundugahahetepma. )xperience in
'inganga and $ilwala 'anga projects shows that an area of about 1 m from the base of
earth fillings with pod.olic soil will be completely abandoned. 8ence, the loss is estimated
about 4%s.!717N77.?) %s. 6illion .1B per year.

A. *artial yield loss of paddy fields due to +ron toxicity caused by oxidation of exposed
extracted deep soil and runoff water.
B. *artial or complete crop damage of paddy lands due to exposed peat in dumping grounds
closer to the paddy fields 4Oxidi.ation of peat may generate carbonic acids5
?. (uring the earth work, transport of materials by heavy vehicles may generate dust clouds
and it will reduce the -uality of yield of tea, vegetable and other crops in adjacent lands.
!. 3emporary F accidental disruptions of access roads during the construction phase would
make problems for transporting of farm products.
0. (eletion of the -uality and the -uantity of gra.ing lands due to land ac-uisition, acidic soil
due to peat, dust and silt decomposition.
@. *otential loss of a-uatic resources and conse-uent losses of fish yield in the inland
reservoirs in low line areas.
Pos#t#ve e,ternal#t#es on a&r#culture an' *#sher#esD
3he proposed highway, by enabling speeding transport of produce, will have a positive
influence on agriculture by way of expanding markets, reducing wastage during
transportation, timely availability of inputs, -uicker disposal or produce, etc. 3he outputs of
agriculture and fisheries are highly perishable and large amounts of produce go waste during
transportation of produce from southern areas of the country to large urban centres like 'alle,
9alutara and &olombo. 3he proposed highway provides the channels of marketing with
opportunities of -uicker delivery of produce which will enable them to reduce marketing
costs accrued to wastage. 6oreover, produce like fish, which deteriorates fast, do not often
reach interior areas of the country due to the difficulty of -uicker delivery of the produce with
the existing road network. 3he proposed road, with interchange points linking important
markets in the interior regions of the country to the producing areas, will ensure availability
of produce like fresh fish in such markets. 3he consumers in these areas will reap benefits
due to the presence of important consumption goods that were not previously available and,
producers will benefits due to the increased demand created by consumers in the interior
regions.
3./././ Tour#sm
+t is envisaged that the construction of the proposed limited access highway will have a
positive impact on tourism 4a positive externality5 due to factors such as savings on travel
time, better transport services made available, etc. +n order to find out whether the proposed
highway will have a significant impact on tourism, a study was carried out at 8ikkaduwa and
Cnawatuna tourist villages where a structured -uestionnaire was administered to a sample of
tourists and for owners of restaurants and hotels in October, 7? to elicit information on
/B
places of interest in the south of Sri Lanka in addition to the survey conducted by the
Cniversity of %uhuna in 8ikkaduwa in 1//!.
Study revealed that the problems of road conditions from &olombo to 'alle and 8ikkaduwa,
road congestion, time consuming and congestions and road accidents at hotel areas are the
main barriers to develop the tourism in the Southern coastal belt. 6ore over, they all agreed
that there is a unexploited potential to improve the echo,tourism in rural areas and in coastal
belt of the southern region.
:rom the results of the field studies the following conclusions can be drawn which have
important implications in respect of the expected positive impacts of the proposed highway
on tourism development.
8owever, the tourists who are coming for holidaying are do not bother about time as they
have come to spend time leisurely. 3he only problem is the unpleasant environment due to
road congestion on the "7 road. #ut the tourist who are coming for business purposes
4around 1D5 are interested about highway and they will select the highway for their
traveling.
3he proposed highway may have positive impacts on tourism development 4and therefore
tourist earnings5 if tourism,related facilities are developed along with the construction of the
highway. 3here is a large potential to develop echo tourism and tourist resources in #entota
(S division in ;#+& section close to #entara 'anga
3././.3 Income '#str#4ut#on
"s explained under the section of )xisting )nvironment distribution of income of different
geographical location is not even along the trace as infra,structural development and
resources are not e-ually distributed. "s conse-uences of development projects, the costs
and benefits also not distributed e-ually among the people. Some people will be better,off
while some people are bearing the cost. 8ence, the responsibility of the project proponents
is to identify the vulnerable groups of people and taking actions to protect such groups.
"mong the displaced families in 6aharagama (S division in ;#+& section only five
families 4BD5 belong to the category of farm families while A families are belonged to
business category. +n #entota (S division no one is under business category and 7@ 411D5
families lost their homestead gardens and 71B 4@AD5 families lost a part or a whole of their
agricultural lands. 6oreover, in 6aharagama, #andaragama, and (odangoda (S divisions
of ;#+& section, majority of the affected families are belonged to upper income category
while in 6atugama, )lpitiya and #entota (S divisions of ;#+& section majority are in the
low income category.
+t is important to note that among affected families, following categories will be severely
affected due to land ac-uisitionJ
1. Lost of total land area and house and employed as casual agricultural labor in
the same area.
7. Lost of total land area or a substantial portion and entirely depend on
agricultural
income such as tea, cinnamon on the same land.
A. Low income weak families with children and old aged people
B. :emale headed households
/?
?. :amilies who earned a substantial portion of income from land based subsistent
activities such as reed industry, vegetable production, inland fishing and animal
husbandry
!. :amilies who were keeping small scale retail shops in the village area
:ollowing table shows the displacement of different kinds of families in ;#+& section,
"(# section and 'alle access road. (etailed information according to (S divisions is
available in "ppendix &B.7.
Ta4le 3.13D Num4er o* a**ecte' *am#l#es #n '#**erent cate&or#es
Section 8omestead garden #usiness Cntitled owners
Socially weak
families
;#+& B1? ?! A7 111
"(# A7 7/ 1@! /@
'alle "ccess / ! 7! ?
3otal 0BB /1 7BB 71B
6ajority of the business families are displaced in ;#+& section. Land owners without
proper titles are mainly concentrated in #Ope,*oddla and +maduwa (S divisiona in "(#
section and in 8omagama (S division in ;#+& section. +n +maduwa and #ope, *oddala,
number of week families are higher than other areas. 3otally 71B families are categori.ed
under weak families and they should be properly treated while paying compensation and
relocation.
"t the time of land ac-uisition, land owners with substantial land areas and well developed
houses will get a large amount of money to start their life in a good environment.
8owever, rural poor will not get a substantial amount as compensation as they don1t have
proper titles and well built houses. 6oreover, many of poor families fulfill their daily
needs 4curry leaves, jak, coconut, green leaves..5 from the homestead gardens after
relocation they have to pay for all kinds of foods at the new place.
+ncome of the young generation would be increased in the construction phase as they can
provide their labour force in different activities. 6oreover, land owners of close
proximities to the interchanges 4access points5 can sell their lands at higher prices and can
earn a good income. 3his phenomenon can be seen at 'odagama, 9okmaduwa, (eegoda
and *innaduwa in "(# section.
3././.7 StructuresD
" large number of structures , both permanent and temporary, that are present along the
proposed road trace of @ m will have to be demolished once land is ac-uired for the project.
)stimated number of different building structures is summari.ed in the table below. "s the
buildings along the trace are already removed either by %(" or owners themselves, it was
not possible to estimate the real value of the structures that are to be removed. :ollowing
table summari.es different buildings which were demolished or to be demolished along the
trace. "ppendix &B.7 shows more detail of building structures.
Ta4le 3.17 Res#'ent#al an' 4us#ness structures alon& the trace to 4e remove'
/!
Section
3otal
number of 8ouses
#usiness premises
Semi ,permanent
structures
3emporary
structures
;#+& section ?/0 07 A0 7
"(# section !@1 01 ?A 7?
'alle "ccess A0 @ B 10
3otal 1A1? 1?1 /B BB
+t should be noted that in the ;#+& section, especially in 6aharagama (S division, average
si.e of the houses is the largest along the entire trace which was 777@ s-uare feet per house.
$umber of houses to be removed is highest in #andaragama followed by 8omagama and
(odangoda divisions which was 11, 0 and 111 respectively as the trace is running through
semi,urbani.ed areas in the ;#+& section. #usiness premises reported the highest number in
6aharagama (S division 4A5 followed by 8omagama division 41@5 in ;#+& section
+n %(" section, 9arandeniya 4175, +maduwa 415, #addegama 41A5, "kmeemana 41A5 and
2elipitiya are the main centers with a large number of business places and houses.4"nnex,75.
"s the 'alle access road is running through a populated semi,urban area, the number of
houses and business premises were A0 although the length of the trace is only B.A km.
+n %(" section, semi,permanent and temporary houses were found as many people had built
such houses in their lands in order re-uest compensations as they were aware about the trace.
$umber of temporary and semi,permanent houses in +maduwa (S division was B which
was the highest followed by 7 in "kmeemana and 1 in 2elipitiya.
"long the 'alle access road also 71 buildings were temporary structures with an average si.e
of @ s-uare feet.
%oad (evelopment "uthority has estimated the average replacement costs of structures
irrespective to the -uality of the buildings as %s. 1F ft
7
, %s 17? F ft
7
and %s BF ft
7
for
houses, other structures and business premises respectively. "ccordingly the estimated
replacement costs of structures in the proposed trace are given in the table below.
Ta4le 3.1< +st#mate' replacement costs o* structures (Rs. =#ll#on)
;#+& section
3ype of building "rea 4ft
7
5 &ost per ft
7
%eplacement cost4%s5
8ouses B/AB! 1 B/A,B!
Other buildings 17?
#usiness premises !110! B 7BB,0B
3otal of ;#+& Section
0A0.0?
%(" Section
3ype of building "rea 4ft
7
5 &ost per ft
7
%eplacement cost
8ouses B1/! 1 B1,/!
Other buildings /@0 17? 11,A?/
#usiness premises A1A B 17,B17
3otal of %(" Section
?A7,@!0
'alle access road
3ype of building "rea 4ft
7
5 &ost per ft
7
%eplacement cost
8ouses 0A@? 1 0,A@?
/0
Other buildings 1? 17? ,1@@
#usiness premises 0?? B A,7
3otal of 'alle access road
A0,00A
"long the entire trace
3ype of building "rea 4ft
7
5 &ost per ft
7
%eplacement cost
8ouses /1?70 1 /1,?70
Other buildings /7A0 17? 11,?B!
#usiness premises /@@7/ B A/?,A1!
3otal of entire trace
1A@,A@/
6ost of the structures under the road trace are of the permanent type with tiled rooves. 3he
total value of the structures worked out to be approximately %s million 1A@.B. +t should be
noted that these values are based on the cost price of material that go into the construction
process rather than the market values which are highly influenced by the location. 3he above
figure represents the loss of value to the society of demolishing structures for road
construction. 8owever, with information from relevant sources it was found that ? D of the
materials used for the construction of temporary houses 4planks, rafters.. etc5 , !D of
materials used for the construction of semi permanent house, and 7?D of the materials used
for the construction of a permanent house can be reused and therefore, it should be deducted
from the social cost. 3herefore the total cost of the above structured can be estimated as %s.
6illion /@1.7/.
(ue to the fact that markets are imperfect, shadow prices will have to be used to convert the
market prices into economic prices. Since an array of inputs go into the construction of
houses, the market prices are multiplied by the average conversion factor for the economy,
which is .0@?. 3he economic loss arising from demolishing structures was estimated as %s.
6illion 00.A7.
+n addition to direct losses of structures due to ac-uisition for the road, steep slopes created in
hilly areas along the trace 49okmaduwa, (eegoda, 9abaragala, *innaduwa would reduce the
values of structures and make damages. Librations due to use of heavy vehicles and
machineries, rock blasting also would damage the existing structures along the trace. (ust
formation, water lodging in low line areas and earth embankments also damage the structures
although it is very difficult to estimate the real value of such damages.
3././.< $us#ness Bolumes an' Ta, Revenues
+t is envisaged that the construction of the proposed highway will induce the development of
industries, residential areas, markets and associated infrastructure facilities, which fall under
positive externalities of the project. Such a wave of development activities are likely to take
place in the neighborhood of the interchange points rather than in other places from where the
road can not be accessed.
"t the time of construction phase, providing employment opportunities for different
categories of labor force in the area will improve their purchasing power and demand for
commodities. 8ence, the business volume of Southern cities will rise. +n adition to that new
businesses will start to cater demand for food and other utilities of the large workforce
involved in construction activities.
"fter construction of the road it is envisaged that the tourist industry, and 'alle harbour
would be developed with improved access. +nterchanges proposed in the ;#+& section,
9ottawa, 9ahathuduwa, and (odangoda are already partially developed areas. 8owever,
/@
proposed interchanges in "(# section H 2elipenna, *innaduwa, (eegoda and 9okmaduwa,
are mainly rural under,developed areas with a great potential for development.
)mergence of urban centers with increased business activities would enable the government
4the local authorities5 to earn revenue from the collection of taxes based on number of
business enterprises in different categories irrespective to business volume of each enterprise.
3././.> Chan&es #n Propert. BaluesD
One of the important positive externalities of road projects is the increase in property values
in the neighborhood which arise from new market links created and development activities
emerging therefrom. 8owever, in the case of limited access highways which have very little
influence on property values except at interchange points, one may expect the property values
to decrease in areas from where the highway can not be accessed because the highway will
generate negative externalities such as noise. Met, this theory, although may have relevance to
developed countries, is not applicable to developing countries like Sri Lanka, where people
living in rural areas, with very little facilities for creation, derive use values by observing the
movement of vehicles along the roads. 3his is -uite evident in the existing 'alle road, where
the residents along the road, rather than building up their dwellings in a way to minimi.e dust
and noise from the road 4defensive expenditure5, have purposely exposed the verandahs of
their houses to the road. +t is apparent moving vehicles that cause noise and dust does not
generate negative externalities, but may even generate positive externalities. +n fact, the
proposal of the &olombo,6atara limited access highway, although has not completely
materiali.ed yet, has caused property values along the road trace to rise.
Observations in 'odama 46atara5, (eegoga 4'alle,"kuressa %oad and *innadwa 4'alle5
have proved that the values of lands during last two years have increased by four five folds
compared to increases in other areas. 8edonic value method were used to find the impact of
proposed road on property values at in surrounding areas of interchanges. Surveys conducted
in *innaduwa and 8iyare in 'alle district, 'odagama and 3hihagoda in 6atara district,
(odangoda and #ombuwala in 9alutara district, :ound that the differences of land values
between the areas closed to interchanges and similler other areas were varied between %s.
1. to %s A? per perch. 3he difference was highest in 'odagama 4%s.A?5 and
lowest in *innaduwa 4%s.15.
$ot only in interchange areas, but also in other areas along the trace, the land values have
been significantly increase due to vicinity of the trace and the service road although the
highway not free to access.
3././.? Rural +conom.
+n additions to the impacts of the proposed road in different stages on the agricultural sector,
structures, business volume, employment and tourism there are several other aspects to be
considered especially in the construction stage.
1. 2orsening of rural roads and accidental blockings due to use of rural roads by heavy
vehicles and machineries of road construction.
//
7. +nconveniences and delays for school children and office workers due to clogging of roads
by vehicles and machineries of the highway. 3his problem persist in #ogahagoda and
*innaduwa in %(" section.
A. Loss of business in small retail shops in rural areas due to severance of the customers as a
conse-uence of proposed road.
!. (eteriorating and groundwater -uality and deepening of the wells in hilly areas along the
trace.
0. "ccidents for animals and children in the areas which created steep sloes due to earth
work.
@. +nconvenience due to dust formation and water lodging.
/. (ifficult to feed animals 4especially ranching buffaloes5 due to loss and deteriorating of
gracing land and also due to severance of gracing lands with limited access highway.
1. %educing the water levels of wells for drinking water, drying up of drinking wells due to
deep excavating. 4(eegoda, 9okmaduwa in "(# section5
11. (eteriorating of -uality of groundwater due to silt, dust, disturbed groundwater flows and
oxidi.ation of iron minerals in law line areas of in #oth ;#+& and "(# sections.
=#t#&atar. =easures
1. "gricultural *roductivity of the lands bordering the proposed road, especially the
paddy lands, is likely to fall during the construction period due to soil erosion.
3herefore, the contractor should be asked to adopt measures that minimi.es soil
erosion during the construction period in order to prevent any loss of value due to
reduced agricultural productivity. Otherwise the farmers should pay a substantial
amount for their damages. 4%s. 1?. per perch of complete loss of cultivated paddy
land and %s. ?. per perch for not sowing 4#ut land preparation has been done5 due
to problems occurred with construction activities of highway.
7. Since tea is particularly vulnerable to dust which may cause degradation of -uality,
the contractor should ensure that dust emerging from various operations and moving
vehicles that carry soil is kept to a minimum by taking proper precautions in handling
cut and fill operations within the vicinity of tea lands.
A. *rovision of drainage facilities becomes very important in low lying lands because
water logging, especially in paddy lands bordering the proposed road may cause
serious losses in yields. 3herefore, proper drainage structures should be constructed
to avoid any losses in agricultural output.
B. 2henever the construction of the proposed road lead to division of fertile agricultural
land, it is necessary to adopt measures that preserve the productivity of of blocks of
divided land. One of the strategies that can be adopted to preserve the productivity of
the divided blocks of fertile agricultural land is to provide access to such lands from
closeby overpasses or underpasses 4by constructing small access roads5 if investment
on such means of access is unlikely to exceed the expected social benefits.
1
?. +t is of paramount importance to provide the people with access to agricultural lands,
work places and markets by constructing overpasses or underpasses across the
proposed road 4which will help preserve the existing road net work too5. Met, people
may still find problems of access during the construction period. 3herefore, the
contractor must make sure that he provides the people with temporary means of
access to land and work places in order to avoid such short term negative impacts on
the society.
!. 2hen ac-uisition of land leads to displacement of people belonging to various
employment categories, precautions will have to be taken in relocating them once
relocation sites are identified. %elocation may bring in additional benefits to some
employees and additional costs to the others, depending on factors such as the status
of factor markets, product markets, infrastructure facilities, access to work places, etc.
3herefore, in relocating people, it is necessary to get the proper consent of the people
affected in order to avoid any unforeseen social costs imposed on some employees.
0. "s a measure of e-uity, those who lost employment due to the project and seek
employment should be given additional weights when various vacancies for
employment are filled within the affected areas.
@. Cse of contractors1 own access roads for transporting materials instead of using
existing rural roads in the area.
/. "void rainy seasons in earth work closer to paddy lands and water bodies in order
prevent from moving soil through run off water
1 "ppropriate soil conserving structures to prevent movement of soil to adjoining
lands.
11. )xcavated peat and boggy soils should not be dumped closer to paddy fields and
water bodies as acidic conditions created due to oxidi.ation of peat may be harmful
to paddy cultivations and a-uatic resources.
3./.3. 0esthet#c 0espect
3./.3.1 B#sual Intrus#on an' lan'scape
3he ;#+& Section of the highway has been initiated now. 3he project itself
caused negative or positive impacts on the aesthetic appearance of the new
structures appearing in the area. "ttention to aesthetic appearance of the new
structures and surface of the earth cuts are important in order to maintain the
-uality of the environment, avoiding loss of rural F countryside F wilderness
-uality of the existing environment.
(uring the construction activities, the following impacts are anticipated.
K (amage to Legetation
K (amage to topsoil.
K )rosion of sites due to excavation.
11
K (ust, "coustics, Librations
K Storage of material in the roadsides.
K (isturb the existing circulation of the villages
K (isturb the animal behavior 4#irds and &ows5
K &hanged the environmental sensitivity near the water bodies due to bridge
construction egI #entota 'anga river crossing at *anape.
K (uring operational activities, the following activities could be anticipated.
K )ncroachment of historic F cultural monuments
K "coustics
K &irculation to sites H pedestrian and vehicular
K Lisual intrusion by structures and billboards that may come by the road
side
K (isturbance to the landscape charactor F -uality of the rural living pattern.
K (isturbance the roadside lights to the rural natural landscape.
K (ust, "coustics, Librations
K Storage of material in the roadsides.
K (isturb the existing circulation of the villages
3./.3.! "#stor#c an' 0rcheolo&#cal =onuments
"s mentioned in chapter A sections B.7 all historic and archeological
monuments in the ;#+& Section are found in temples, (ewala and churches.
"s such this section is covered under section B.A
3./.3./. Places o* -orsh#p an' Rel#&#ous Interest.
3he anticipated environmental impacts on the places of worship and religious
interest would be
K (ust, acoustics and vibration during construction period
K "coustics during the operational stage
K &hanges in -uality and charactor of the religious environment.
K (isturb the naturally forming worshiping places 4%oad side trees5 near the
8ighway and access roads.
K (isturb the contextual dominancy of the worshiping places due to huge
road Structures.
#ut following remedial actions can be considered during the construction and after
construction of the road to reali.ation of the unified and harmonious appearance of the
highway.

%oute H 3he route of the highway and newly proposed access road to be
selected in sympathy with the landform. +t should look as much a part of the
elements of the natural environment as possible.
17

)arth 2orks H Slopes and cutting to be maintained the angle of repose or to


be hard landscaped, turfed or landscaped with ground cover planting, that are
mostly available of that area.

#ridges , 2ith the form, materials, surface texture, colour and scale to be
compatible to the local environmental and regional context.

Street :urniture H Signs, bill boards, planters, to conform with overall visual
-uality of design. Side fences can be used as a bill board holder without
disturbing the views.

%etaining walls, screen walls, noise barriers to be designed to avoid


monotony with sculptured texture effect.

%oad side lighting H 3o avoid visual disturbance in the rural environment and
birds habitat.

"ssociated StructuresI,
:uel Sheds, telephone booths, entrances, gateways, and all the road side
structures should be designed to reflect and present Sri Lankan architecture
culture 4eg. can be inspired from "mbalama :orm5
1A
7. BISITS@ =++TINS 0ND CONSU)T0TIONS
7.1 =eet#n&s
3his section refers to formal meetings between Study 3eam representatives, %(", "(#
and 6&,S3(*.
Ta4le 7.1 Deta#ls o* =eet#n&s 4et-een Stu'. Team@ RD0@ 0D$ an' =C1STDP
Date )ocat#on Part#c#pants
1 September, 7B %(" CO6, %(" and 6&,S3(*
10 September, 7B "(# CO6, %(", 6&,S3(* and "(#
? October, 7B %(" CO6, %(" and 6&,S3(*
@ October, 7B "(# CO6, "(#
1B October, 7B %(" CO6, %(", S3(*,6&
7 ;uly 7? %(" CO6, %(" H S3(*, 6&,S3(*,, SecyV6inistry of 8ighways
7.! B#s#ts
:ield work was mainly carried out in order to get a better understanding about the
environmental impacts caused by the construction of the highway on the deviated trace
and any significant changes that had taken place in the un,deviated trace since the
previous environmental assessment in 1///. 3ables ?.7 summari.e the details of field
visits carried out by each specialist staff member of the study team.
Ta4le 7.! Deta#ls o* (#el' B#s#ts
Date o* B#s#t (#el' 9or% Carr#e' Out
B September 7? &arried out a preliminary visit of selected locations in the trace with
several members of study team and %(" officials.
&arried out a preliminary reconnaissance visit in selected locations of
"(# E ;#+& trace with several study team members.
7?F/F11 *reliminary site Observation +dentify important places to be further
studied
7?F/F10 &overed the :ield work from 9urundugaha to *anape Lillage
7?F/F1@ &overed the :ield work from 6alapalla to *anape Lillage
7 September 7? " reconnaissance survey was done throughout the entire road trace
7B September 7? :ield reconnaissance of ;#+& section deviations with %(" officials.
7? September 7? :ield reconnaissance of ;#+& section deviations with %(" officials.
7@ September 7? to
A September 7?
%econnaissance survey 4 visit5 along the road trace of "(# and part
of ;#+& funded sections
1 October 7? :ield reconnaissance of ;#+& section deviations with %(" officials.
? October 7? 6eetings with %(" officers of ;#+& section
7?F1F/ Studied and collected data on "rcheological sites at 2idagama E
*elpola
1,11 October 7B (etailed site reconnaissance of main trace with %(" officials.
1 October 7? to 77
October 7?
%apid assessment surveys in both sections of the road
11 October 7? :ield surveys in (odangoda and #ombuwela
1B
October 17 , 1A, 1B, 1?,
7?
:ield studies in ;#+& Section and 6eetings with :armers, 'rama
$iladaris, Officers of :armer Organi.ations and 2elfare "ssociations
at #rahmanagama, 9irigampamunuwa, %ilawala and 2eniwelkola
'$ (ivisions in 8omagama (S division. %addegoda, *aragastota and
*elpola '$ divisions in 6illaniya (S division 2eedagama '$
division in #adaragama (S (ivision
10 October, 7B &arried out a reconnaissance visit of selected locations of ;#+&
section of the highway with %(" officials.
October 1@ 7? :ield visit to collect information from %(" offices at (odangoda and
9urundugahahetekma.
October 1/ 7? :ield visit to collect information from %(" *61s office
#andaragama.
7?F1F7@ Ste Lisit to 9ahatuduwa E (iscussed religious background with the
community
7./ Consultat#ons
3he specialist staff of the study team had many consultations with officers of the
%("FS3(* other organi.ations and various individuals during their field visits and other
visits made for the purpose of information collection. 3he details of these consultations
are given in 3able ?.A.
Ta4le 7./ Deta#ls o* Consultat#ons
Date o*
=eet#n&EConsultat#on
Personnel =et Deta#ls o* '#scuss#ons "el'
B September 7? 6r. 2ijedasa, %esident )ngineer at
the %(" office at #andaragama,
(iscussions regarding important
aspects involved in alignment of :inal
3race.
7?F/F0 "rcheological (epartment &ol,0 "rcheological sites E the boundary
7?F/F10 Site engineers
;#+& H Sections
%oad trace E intersections
7B September 7? 6r. 2ijedasa, %esident )ngineer at
the %(" office at #andaragama,
(iscussions regarding alignment of
deviations of the :inal 3race.
7? September 7? 6r. 2ijedasa, %esident )ngineer at
the %(" office at #andaragama,
(iscussions regarding important
hydrological aspects involved in
alignment of :inal 3race.
? October 7? *roject manager and other staff of
%(" involved in social impact
monitoring 4 ;#+& section 5
3o obtain data and information on
social impact and mitigatory measures
so far carried out
7?F1F/ &hief %ev. %enuka (ammajothi %eligious &eremony E periods
7?F1F/ Lillage &ommunity 2eedagama %eligious +mpact
11 October 7? S * "luthge, Senior %esearch Officer
%egional %ice %esearch +nstitute
#ombuwela
;agath )dirisinghe and 2asana
2ijesooriya 4%esearch Officers5
%ubber %esearch +nstitute,
(artonfield, "galawatta.
(iscussions regarding socio,economic
impacts of proposed highway and
relevant data collection
17 October 7? 6r. 2ijedasa, %esident )ngineer at
the %(" office at #andaragama
*otential sites along the trace where
ecological impacts would be
significant
*erception of the residents in the
vicinity about the potential impacts
1?
October 17 , 1A, 1B, 1?
7?
:armers, 'rama $iladaris, Officers
of :armer Organi.ations and 2elfare
"ssociations at
#rahmanagama, 9irigampamunuwa,
%ilawala and 2eniwelkola '$
(ivisions in 8omagama (S division.
%addegoda, *aragastota and *elpola
'$ divisions in 6illaniya (S
division
2eedagama '$ division in
#adaragama (S (ivision
(ata collection and discussion of
community views on the proposed
construction work and connected
socio,economic issues.
10 October, 7B 6r. 2ijedasa, %esident )ngineer at
the %(" office at #andaragama
(iscussions regarding important
aspects involved in alignment of :inal
3race and river crossings.
1 October 7? to 77
October 7?
&onsultation of stakeholders
4affected communities in road
adjacent environment and already
resettled communities in resettlement
sites and other local agency officers5
+n both "(# and ;#+& sections H
$ames of the stakeholders consulted
are given in two final draft reports as
annexes.
(ata collection and documentation of
their views on the impact on social
environment and mitigatory measures.
October 1@ 7? 6s. *riyanthi 'rero and 6r. Sunil
Silva, *6 Office, %(",
9urundugahahetepma
6s. 3hiloka "lwis, *6 Office, %(",
(odangoda
(ata collection and discussion on
socio,economic aspects.
October 1/ 7? 6s. &handralatha, 4%esettlement
Officar5 6r. 2ijeratne, *6 Office,
#andaragama
(ata collection and discussion on
socio,economic aspects.
7?F1F7B 6r. 2imal Liganage
*rincipal *ohorukanda 6aha
Lidyalaya
8istory and the religious impact
7?F11FA (irector, Landscape E )nvironment
6rs. 8ester #assnayake
%oadside Landscape E billboard.
1!
<. PROR+SS O( 9OR6 0ND (UTUR+ 9OR6 P)0N
<.1 Pro&ress o* 9or%
3he study team has completed their assessment of existing environment and impact
assessment based on their field visits, data collections, consultations and review of available
literature. 3he major focus was on the deviations of the final trace from the combined trace
and %(" 3race, while any changes in combined trace since the 1/// )+" were carefully
noted. 3he impacts already visible as a result of ongoing construction work was noted and
based on conditions anticipated during operational phase operational impacts were identified.
3he intensity of impacts was categori.ed as =Significant 4S5> or 6arginal 465 and
accordingly an impact matrix was developed for ;#+& section. 3he specialist team members
are already in the process of formulating the mitigatory maeasures and are reviewing the (raft
)nvironmental 6anagement *lan. " detailed scoping session is scheduled to be conducted
immediately following submission of this report prior to finali.ing the :inal %eport.
<.! 6e. (#n'#n&s an' Conclus#ons
1. " large -uantity of rock exceeding about ?, m
A
in total is re-uired from -uarries
out side the road trace. 3herefore, extraction of large -uantity of rock from outside the
road trace will cause significant impact on the environment.
7. (uring the construction phase large -uantities of asphalt and concrete will be re-uired
for strengthening and surfacing of the highway. 3herefore wash water arising during
the cleaning of the machines involved in asphalt and concrete plant operations could
also lead to significant color and turbidity problems in waterbodies. :urther any
significant oil spills from machinery and other e-uipment used for construction works
may lead to contamination of water bodies with oil particularly during heavy rainy
periods.
A. (uring the operational phase of the highway, with the generated and diverted traffic,
spillage of oil, grease and petroleum products may contribute hydrocarbons, oils and
trace metals such as *b and Pn into run,off. 3his could result in pollution of
freshwater and marine water bodies with adverse impacts on a-uatic fauna.
B. 3he field observations indicate the groundwater -uality at certain localities is at risk
during construction phase. 3he main construction activities that could result in
groundwater -uality deterioration includes spoil disposal activities, problems
associated with construction of bridges and culverts, application of weedicides for
landscaping pollution and problems associated with the improper planning and setting
up of housing and services for the persons involved in construction and resettlement of
persons affected by the project.
?. "ccording to present noise legislation, maximum permissible noise levels at
boundaries of the land in which the construction activities are undertaken are
stipulated as 0? d#4"5 and ? d#4"5 during daytime 4defined as !. am H 0. pm5
and night time 4from 0. pm H !. am on the following day5, respectively. 3he
identified noise levels of various construction e-uipment and machinery that will be in
operation at a distance of 0 m exceeds these limits. &onstant exposure to very high
10
noise levels can often cause hearing deficiencies and machine operators who are
directly involved in such activities are at high risk.
!. "lthough the wetland around *anape is going to be reclaimed and changed, decision to
deviate it to the present :inal 3race will produce less ecological impacts when
compared to the &ombined 3race which was proposed to traverse across the #olgoda
lake wetland complex. %eclamation of this wetland will affect the local water table as
this is an area with stagnant freshwater that may play the role of groundwater recharge.
0. 2ith the proposed activities of the road construction, habitats for a-uatic fauna,
particularly fish will be largely lost permanently. *anape wetlands support otters, a
protected animal in Sri Lanka. %emoval of vegetation, reclamation and noise created
by the traffic will make this site unfavorable for them and may leave the area with
time as this wetland is connected to #olgoda lake wetland complex and 9alu 'anga.
@. "s a result of resettlement due to road construction even the encroachers 4 illegal
settlers5 received land for resettlement 4 land with freehold tiles5. Some people who
had drinking water difficulties were able to receive land in relocation sites with
ade-uate water. 8owever, on the other hand loss of familiar social environment and
schooling problems created to children could be sited as negative impacts of
resettlement.
/. 3he construction of the proposed limited access highway will have a positive impact on
tourism due to factors such as savings on travel time, better transport services made
available, etc.

<./ (uture 9or%
1. +ncorporation modifications to the report contents on )xisting )nvironmental and
+mpacts based on %(" comments expected within 7weeks from submission.
7. %eport preparation H chapter on 6itigatury measures
A. %eport on %eview of (raft )nvironmental management *lan
1@
>. $I$)IOR0P"C
1. )nvironmental +mapct "ssessment %eport of the *roposed $ew Southern 8ighway H
Lolume + , (ecember 1//!.
7. )nvironmental +mapct "ssessment %eport of the *roposed $ew Southern 8ighway H
Lolume ++ , (ecember 1//!.
A. )nvironmental +mapct "ssessment %eport of the *roposed $ew Southern 8ighway H
6ain 3ext Lolume + , 6arch 1///.
B. Southern 3ransport &orridor *roject 3" 7@/7 H :inal (raft %eport Lolume + )xecutive
Summary H (ecember 1//@.
?. (rainage %eport on Southern 3ransport (evelopment *roject H :inal %eport H "pril
77.
!. Southern 3ransport &orridor *roject 3" 7@/7 S%+ +nception %eport V 2ilbur Smith
"ssociation H 6ay 1//@.
0. )nvironmental 6anagement *lan for Southern 3ransport development *roject H
Second (raft 7B.
@. )nvironmental :indings %eport for Southern 3ransport (evelopment *roject H
*reliminary )ngineering (esign and (etail )ngineering (esign H
9urudugahahaetekma to 6atara.
/. "ddendum to the %esettlement +mplementation *lan Southern 3ransport (evelopment
*roject 9ottawa to 6atara H ;une 77.
1. (esign %eport 41@5 8ydrolgy ad (rainage %eport H 9ottawa to 9urudugahahaetekma
H 6arch 7.
11. Social +mpact "ssessment Cpdated %eport H 9urudugahahaetekma to 6atara H
$ovember 7.
17. *reliminary )ngineering (esign and (etailed )ngineering (esign H
9urudugahahaetekma to 6atara H :inal (esign %eport H :ebruary 71.
1A. *reliminary )ngineering (esign and (etailed )ngineering (esign H 9ottawa to
9urudugahahaetekma H :inal (esign %eport.
1B. Social +mpact "ssessment H :inal %eport H 6arch 1///.
1?. 8ydrology and (rainage %eport 4(raft5 H 9ottawa to 9urudugahahaetekma H
$ovember 7.
1!. (raft %esettlement +mplementation *lan H 9urudugahahaetekma to 6atara H
$ovember 7.
10. Southern 3ransport (evelopment *roject H 8ighway Station from
9urudugahahaetekma to 6atara H Lolume ? H Section W H (rawings H ;anuary 71.
1@. Southern 3ransport (evelopment *roject H ;#+& :unded Section H 9ottawa to
9urudugahahaetekma H 3ender (ocuments.
1/. "S36 (1/01,/1, 1//. "S36 Standards 'uide for 'ood Laboratory *ractices in
Laboratories )ngaged in Sampling and "nalysis of 2ater. "merican Society for
3esting 6aterials, 2ashington (&, CS"
7. #ell, ;.$.#. and ;.8. 3allis, 1/0B. 3he response of Empetrum nigrum L. to different
mire water regimes, with special reference to 2ybunbury 6oss, &heshire and
:eatherbed 6oss, (erbyshire. ;ournal of )cology, !7I 0?,/?.
71. &ocker, 9.6., (.). )vans and 6.;. 8odson, 1//@. 3he amelioration of aluminium
toxicity by silicon in higher plantsI solution chemistry or an in planta mechanismX
*hysiologia *lantarum, 1BI !@,!1B.
77. :alconer, +.%., 1///. "n overview of problems caused by toxic blue,green algae
4cyanobactreia5 in drinking and recreational water. )nvironmental 3oxicology, 1BI ?,
17.
1/
7A. :it.gerald, ).;., ;.6. &affrey, S.3. $esaratnam and *. 6cLoughlin, 7A. &opper and
lead concentrations in salt marsh plants on the Suir )stuary, +reland. )nvironmental
*ollution, 17AI !0,0B.
7B. 'arg, S.9., 1/0/. Sewage (isposal and "ir *ollution )ngineering H )nvironmental
)ngineering 4Lol. ++5. 9hanna *ublishers, (ehli,11!, +ndia
7?. 'reger, 6., L. 9autsky and 3. Sandberg, 1//?. " tentative model of &d uptake in
Potamogeton pectinatus in relation to salinity. )nvironmental and )xperimental
#otany, A?I 71?,77?.
7!. 6eagher, %.#., 7. *hytoremediation of toxic elemental and organic pollutants.
&urrent Opinion in *lant #iology, AI 1?A,1!7.
70. 6etcalf, )ddy, 1//?. 2astewater )ngineering H 3reatment, (isposal and %euse. 3hird
)dition, 3ata 6c'raw,8ill *ublishing &ompany Limited, $ew (elhi, +ndia.
7@. O1Sullivan, ".(., #.6. 6oran and 6.L. Otte, 7B. "ccumulation and fate of
contaminants 4Pn, *b, :e and S5 in substrates of wetlands constructed for treating
mine wastewater. 2ater, "ir, and Soil *ollution, 1?0I AB?,A!B.
7/. *arkplan, *., S.3. Leong, *. Laortanakul and ;.L. 3orotoro, 77. +nfluence of salinity
and acidity on bioavailability of sludge,borne heavy metals. " case study of #angkok
municipal sludge. 2ater, "ir, and Soil *ollution, 1A/I BA,!.
A. %ajala, %.L. and 8. 8einonen,3anski, 1//@. Survival and transfer of feacal indicator
organisms of wastewater effluents in receiving lake waters. 2ater Science and
3echnology, A@I 1/1,1/B.
A1. Standard 6ethods for the )xamination of 2ater and 2astewater 41//?5. 1/
th
edn.,
"merican *ublic 8ealth "ssociationF"merican 2ater 2orks "ssociationF2ater
)nvironment :ederation, 2ashington (&, CS"
11