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-18 TWe

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

P.75 5.1

P.161 7.4

kW/m
Above
50.0
40.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
Below

60.0

30.0

60.0
- 60.0
- 50.0
- 40.0
- 30.0
- 25.0
- 20.0
- 15.0
- 10.0
5.0

0.0

-30.0

-150.0

-120.0

-90.0

-60.0

-30.0

0.0

30.0

60.0

90.0

120.0

150.0

P.193 8.2

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40 E

80 E

120 E 160 E 160 W 120 W 80 W

40 W

0 W

40 N
20 N

20 S
40 S

1000
18

22 24

18 20

24

20 22

1000

P.236 10.1

P.259 11.3

11.44%
0.17%
0.12%
3.34%
0.5%
0.17%
0.28%
0.51%
0.07%
0.06
CSP 0.002%
0.001%

80.6%
16.7%
2.7%

II

P.298 12.52010

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2009
2010
16% 194 GW
20% 2011

2010 22.4% 17.7%


1969

2007 Belarus 2011

2011 5 30

Heinrich Boll Stiftung 2012 11 28


German Energy Transition

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iii

iv

2013

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1970

sustainable development
London Trust Herbert Giradet
ecological footprint 2,100
125
29 200

Hydrogen

Economyfossil fuel

sustainability
fossil energy
alternative clean energy
wind energysolar energy
renewable energyenergy conservation
energy efficiency

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vi

2008

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(02)2705-5066

10
prexes

1
1

E
P
T
G
M
k
h
da
d
c
m

exapetateragigamegakilohectodecadecicentimillimicronano-

18

10
1015
1012
109
106
103
102
10
10 1
10 2
10 3
10 6
10 9

One quintillion
One quadrillion
One trillion
One billion
One million
One thousand
One hundred
Ten
One tenth
One hundredth
One thousandth
One millionth
One billionth

watt
Joule, J
- = 3.6 kJkilowatt, kW
horsepower, hp

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vii


2
MJ

1MJ =
1 GJ =
1kWh =
1 toe =
1 tce =

GJ

1
1000
3.60
42 000
28 000

KWh

0.001
1
0.0036
42
28

0.2778
277.8
1
12 000
7800

toe

tce
-5

3.610 5
0.036
1.310 4
1.5
1
-

2.410
0.024
8.610 5
1
0.67

1 kW
1 GW

kW-hr/yr

oe/yr

ce/yr

3.6 MJ
3.6 TJ

31.54 GJ
31.54 PJ

8760
8.67109

0.75 toe
0.75 Mtoe

1.1 tce
1.1 Mtce

viii

SI

1 lbpound
= 0.4536 kg
1 ttonne
= 1000 kg
1 ftfoot
= 0.3048 m
1 ydyard
= 0.9144 m
1 mimile
= 1609 m
-1
1 km hr kph
= 0.2778 m s 1
1 mi hr 1mph
= 0.4770 m s 1
1 knot
= 0.5144 m s 1
1 acre
= 4047 m2
1 hectare, ha
= 104 m2
1 liter, l
= 10 3 m3
1 gal,
= 4.54610 3 m3
1 gal,
= 3.78510 3 m3
1 eV
= 1.60210 19 J
1 HPhorse power = 745.7 W

1 kg = 2.205 lb
1 kg = 10 3 t
1 m = 3.281 ft
1 m = 1.094 yd
1 m = 6.21410 4 mi
1 ms 1 = 3.600 kph
1 ms 1 = 2.237 mph
1 ms 1 = 1.944
1m2 = 2.47110 4
1m2 = 10 4
1 m3 = 1000
1 m3 = 220.0
1 m3 = 264.2
1 J = 6.24210 18 eV
1kW = 1.341 HP

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ix

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PV ................................................................................... 098

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OTEC ...................................................................................... 240
OTEC .............................................................................. 245
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xi


...................................................................................... 297
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xii

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1970

sustainable energy

greenhouse gas, GHG

002

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CO2 1.1 1990

2012 CO2e 108


MT 2007 253 2008 2009
230 2011 251
2008 2009
5.73 10.9 16
1.2

CO2

CO2

12.00

300,000

10.00

250,000

8.00

200,000

6.00

150,000

CO2

4.00

100,000

2.00

50,000

0.00

0
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012

1.11990-2012
2013 6
300,000
250,000

CO2

200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

1.2 CO2

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003

1970

1990

oil tankeroil spill

SOx
NOx
CO2
global warmingclimate change

GHG

RE

2008

10 kW 60 kWh
004

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2012

2012
carbon footprint

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005

1987
Brundtland CommissionOur Common Future
sustainable development

6
6
6

1.3 1850 2150 1.4

2020
6
fuel cell, FC

6
6 hydrogen car

6 micro FC

6 250 kW power grid

006

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100

80

60
40

1997

20

0
1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

2100

2150

1.31850 2150

180

160
140
120

100

80
60
40
20
0

1997

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

1.4 1998

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007

RE

50% 90% green architecture

008

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Hy-

drogen busGreen city

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non-renewable

nuclear fuelnonrenewable

energy
hydropowerbioenergy

ow

consumption

2011 Renewables 2011 Global Status

Report 2009
2010
16% 2.1

19% 2.2

194 GW
20% 2011
2.3

010

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2010

3%
16%

81%

2.1 2010

13%

3%

16%

68%

2.2 2010

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011

2005-2010
2010

( )

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

2.3 2005 2010

1963

242 W 1980
Altmont Pass

150 kW 3.5 MW5 MW

solar farm

2.1 2010 2.2


2010 2010

6 2009 5.6%
10.9% 11.3%

6 29 GW 263GW 2009
12% 26% 2010
9%
6 11%
16.8% 9.8%
36%

012

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PV

6
22%
21%
15.4%
10.1%

6 2005 2010
CSP

15% 50%
6
2010
PV

2.1 2010

2
3
4
5

2.22010

1
2
3
4
5

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013

solar radiation

1986 Twidell Weir


2000 Sorensen

acid rain

6 biomass
6
6 modular plant
6
6
6
6
6

6
6
6
6
6
6

014

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solar collector

generating capacitysolar

water-heater

panel collector

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015

natural circulation

coil

photovoltaic

cell, PV cellsolar
panel
PV

PV
PV
PV

PV PV
array

PV PV
semi-conductor
PV 40
module
PV PV

016

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power plant

concentrating solar power system, CSP system

wind turbines

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017

SO2NOxCO2
thermal power

plant NOx CO2

CO2
nuclear power

plantheat pollution
ground watersurface water
solid wastes

1992

66% 27%

hydropower

018

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potential energy
hydro turbine

mechanical energy

wave

energy

biomass

biomass energy

biofuel

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019

gasication

energy crops

CO2
closed cycle
CO2
NOx soot

atmospheric emissionsco-ring

1 saw dustresidues
pellets
2
3

020

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, .
., 2013.12

ISBN 978-957-11-7375-7 ()
1. 2. 3.
400.15

102020829

5E51

Introduction to Renewable Energy (2nd ed)


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