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Chapter 3 Movement of Substances across the Plasma Membrane

List of PEKA experiments:


1. The movement of substances across a semi-permeable membrane
2. To demonstrate the process of osmosis using simple osmometer
3. Conducting a role-play to show the movement of substances across the plasma membrane
4. Studying the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on animal cells
5. To study the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on plant cells (cell sap of
onion cells)
6. Determining the concentration of an external solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of a
plant
Number Activity 3.1 (Experiment)
Pg. 20
Title The movement of substances across a semi-
permeable membrane
Aim /
Objective of
the Study
To study the movement of substances across the
Visking tubing
Problem
Statement
What factor influences the diffusion of substances
through a semi-permeable membrane?
Hypothesis The diffusion of molecules through a semi-permeable
membrane is based on the size of the molecule
Variables Manipulated variable: Size of the solute
molecules in the Visking tubing
Responding variable: Colour of the solution in
Visking tubing
Fixed variable: Time, volume of solutions and
surrounding temperature
Material Benedicts solution
1% starch suspension
Iodine solution
30% glucose solution
Distilled water
Apparatus Visking tubing
Cotton thread
Test tubes
Beakers
Water bath (Bunsen burner, tripod stand & wire
gauze)
Technique
used
Test for the presence of starch and glucose with
iodine and Benedicts solution respectively
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EKSPERIMEN PEKA
Number Activity 3.2 (Experiment)
Pg. 23
Title Studying osmosis using an osmometer
Aim /
Objective of
the Study
To demonstrate the process of osmosis using simple
osmometer
Problem
Statement
What substances can diffuse through a semi-
permeable membrane?
Hypothesis Osmosis takes place when water moves from a region
of low solute concentration to a region of high solute
soncentration across a semi-permeable membrane
Variables Manipulated variable: Concentration of solution
Responding variable: Increase in the level of
sucrose solution / The level of sucrose solution in
the capillary tube
Fixed variable: Concentration of sucrose
solution, surrounding temperature
Material 30% sucrose solution
Distilled water
Apparatus 25 cm capillary tube
Visking tubing
Retort stand and clamp
Cotton thread
Ruler
Marker pen
A pair of scissors
250 ml beaker
Syringe
Stopwatch
Technique
used
Measure and record the increase in the height of
sucrose solution with a ruler.
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Number Activity 3.3 (Simulation)
Pg. 26
Title Conducting a role-play to show the movement of
substances across the plasma membrane
Aim /
Objective of
the Study
To study the movement of soluble substances
across the plasma membrane through the
process of passive transport.
To study the movement of water molecules
across the plasma membrane by osmosis
To study the movement of substances across the
plasma across the plasma membrane through the
process of active transport.
Material Strings
Cardboard
A pair of scissors
Marker pen
Apparatus -
Technique
used
Conduct an interesting and creative role-play to learn
the movement of substances across the plasma
membrane (phospholipid bilayer)
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Number Activity 3.4 (Observation)
Pg. 27
Title Studying the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and
isotonic solutions on animal cells
Aim /
Objective of
the Study
To study the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and
isotonic solutions on animal cells (red blood cells)
Material Fresh chicken blood
0.15 M sodium chloride solutions
0.50 M sodium chloride solutions
Distilled water
Filter paper
Apparatus Glass slides
Cover slips
Filter papers
Light microscope
Test tubes
Beakers
Dropper
Technique
used
Observe and study the effects of hypotonic,
hypertonic and isotonic solutions on animal cells
from the slides by using microscope
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Number Activity 3.5 (Observation)
Pg. 28
Title Studying the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and
isotonic solutions on plant cells
Aim /
Objective of
the Study
To study the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and
isotonic solutions on plant cells (cell sap of onion
cells)
Material Onion bulb
0.5 M sucrose solutions
1.0 M sucrose solutions
Distilled water
Apparatus Light microscope
Glass slides
Cover slips
Razor blade / scalpel
A pair of forceps
Mounting needle
Filter papers
Technique
used
Observe and study the effects of hypotonic,
hypertonic and isotonic solutions on plant cells from
the slides by using microscope.










Number Activity 3.6 (Experiment)
Pg. 30
Title Determining the concentration of an external
solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of a plant
Aim /
Objective of
the Study
To determine the concentration of an external
solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of a plant
Problem
Statement
What is the concentration of an external (sucrose)
solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of plants?
Hypothesis The concentration of the solution which is
isotonic to the cell sap of plant cells has no effect
on the mass, length and size of plant cells.
0.36 M sucrose solution is isotonic to the cell sap
of plants
Variables Manipulated variable: Concentration of sucrose
solution
Responding variable: Length of potato strips /
Mass of potato strips
Fixed variable: Volume of sucrose solution used,
surrounding temperature and time
Material Fresh potato
Distilled water
0.1 M sucrose solution
0.2 M sucrose solution
0.3 M sucrose solution
0.4 M sucrose solution
0.5 M sucrose solution
0.6 M sucrose solution
Apparatus Petri dishes
A pair of forceps
Razor blade / Sharp scalpel
Cork borer
Ruler
50 ml beakers
Electronic scale / electronic balance
Tissue paper
Technique
used
Measure the length of potato strips with ruler
Determine the percentage difference in length
Mass of potato strips with an electronic balance
Determine the percentage difference in mass