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UNIFIED

MODELING LANGUAGE
Lecture Notes
On
UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE
MCA III year I semester
Topic: Basic concepts of UML
By
MD.ZAHEER AHMED
Assistant Professor
MCA Department
i!ya "yot#i Institute of Tec#no$o%y
&'DE(ABAD
The Unified Modeling Language
)
UNIFIED
MODELING LANGUAGE
CONTENT
Basic concept of unified modeling language (UML)
Overview
Introduction to UML
W! do we model"
Wat is te #mportance of UML
Conceptual Model of UML
$eferences
Basic concept of unifed ode!in" !an"ua"e#UML$
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UNIFIED
MODELING LANGUAGE
Overview%
The heart of object-oriented problem solving is the construction of a model. The model
abstracts the essential details of the underlying problem from its usually complicated real world.
Several modeling tools are wrapped under the heading of the UML, which stands for Unified
Modeling Language.
Unified Modeling Language, UML for short, is the international standard notation for
bject-riented !nalysis and "esign #!"$. %t is a standardi&ed speciali&ation language that
can be used for bject Modeling. %t has been defined by the bject Management 'roup #M'$
and has already become the de-facto standard for designing bject-riented Software
!pplications.
%n the field of software engineering, the UML is a standardi&ed specification language for
object modeling. UML is a general-purpose modeling language that includes a graphical notation
used to create an abstract model of a system, referred to as a UML Model&
#ntroduction to UML%
!ccording to the M' specification, (The Unified Modeling Language #UML$ is a
graphical language for
visuali'ing(
specif!ing(
constructing( and
documenting te artifacts of a software)intensive s!stem&
E*ample of artifacts % re+uirements ( arcitecture ( design ( ,ource code ( test cases
-isuali'ing
. picture is wort a tousand words/ a grapical notation articulates and
unam0iguousl! communicates te overall view of te s!stem (pro0lem)domain)&
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MODELING LANGUAGE

-isuali'ing ,pecif!ing Constructing
,pecif!ing
UML provides te means to model precisel!( unam0iguousl! and completel!( te
s!stem in +uestion
Constructing
models 0uilt wit UML ave a 1design2 dimension to it/ tese are language
independent and can 0e implemented in an! programming language.
3ocumenting
ever! software pro4ect involves a lot of documentation ) from te inception pase to
te delivera0les.

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MODELING LANGUAGE
W! do we model
A model is a simplification of reality.
We build models so that we can better understand the system we are developing
Benefits%
Models help us to visuali&e a system as it is or as we want it to be.
Models permit us to specify the structure or behavior of a system.
Models give us a template that guides us in constructing a system.
Models document the decisions we have made&
)rovide structure for problem solving
*+periment to e+plore multiple solutions
,urnish abstractions to manage comple+ity
-educe time-to-mar.et for business problem solutions
"ecrease development costs
Manage the ris. of mista.es
W! is UML important"
,rom the point of view of the construction trade. !rchitects design buildings. /uilders
use the designs to create buildings. The more complicated the building, the more critical the
communication between architect and builder. Blueprints are the standard graphical language
that both architects and builders must learn as part of their trade.
0riting software is not unli.e constructing a 0uilding& The more complicated the
underlying system, the more critical the communication among everyone involved in creating
and deploying the software.
%n the past decade, the UML has emerged as the software blueprint language for analysts,
designers, and programmers ali.e. %t is now part of the software trade.
The UML gives everyone from business analyst to designer to programmer a common
vocabulary to tal. about software design.
The UML is applicable to o04ect)oriented pro0lem solving& !nyone interested in
learning UML must be familiar with the underlying tenet of object-oriented problem solving -- it
all begins with the construction of a model. ! model is an abstraction of the underlying problem.
The domain is the actual world from which the problem comes.
Models consist of o04ects that interact by sending each other messages. Thin. of an
object as (alive.( bjects have things they .now #attri0utes$ and things they can do #0eaviors
or operations$.
The values of an object1s attributes determine its state. Classes are the (blueprints( for
objects. ! class wraps attributes #data$ and behaviors #methods or functions$ into a single distinct
entity. bjects are instances of classes.
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MODELING LANGUAGE
UML Modeling%
2owever, most of the software projects developed around the globe do not follow any
specific modeling tecni+ue to avoid te perceived ris5 and comple*it! in O04ect Oriented
modeling of large s!stems. The semantics defined in the language are based on the software
systems3 they do not have complete support for systems of other domains
.

Moreover, the UML is still incomplete in its support for components. (0hile modeling
software is useful, it will notsolve all design issues .
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MODELING LANGUAGE
Smart people and a good methodology are a must. /ut if used correctly, UML and the
modeling process can help improve +ualit!( completeness( and scala0ilit! and reduce
production time in man! software pro4ects.
Conceptual Model of UML
Building Bloc5s $ules Common Mecanisms
Tings $elationsips 3iagrams 6) ,pecifications
7) .dornments
6& Class 3iagram& 8) Common 3ivisions
6) .ssociation 7& O04ect 3iagram& 9) E*tensi0ilit! Mecanisms
7) 3ependenc! 8& Use Case 3iagram&
8) :enerali'ation 9& ,e+uence 3iagram& ;,tereot!pes
9) $eali'ation <& Colla0oration 3iagram& ;Tagged -alues
=& ,tate Cart 3iagram& 6) Names ;Constraints
>& .ctivit! 3iagram& 7) ,cope
?& 3eplo!ment 3iagram& 8) -isi0ilit!
9) #ntegrit!
<) E*ecution
,tructural Tings Beavioral Tings :rouping Tings .nnotational
Tings
;Classes ;#nteraction ;@ac5ages ;notes
;#nterfaces ;,tate macines
;Colla0orations ;,tates
;Use Case
;Component
;Node
/
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MODELING LANGUAGE
,tructural Tings
Structural things are the nouns of UML models. These are the mostly static parts of a
model, representing elements that are either conceptual or physical. %n all, there are seven .inds
of structural things& %t #ncludes%
Classes
#nterfaces
Colla0orations
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MODELING LANGUAGE
Use Case
Component
Node
The ,tructural tings define the static part of te model. They represent physical and
conceptual elements. ,ollowing are the brief descriptions of the structural things.

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