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Lecture 6

Multioperand Addition

Applications of multioperand addition

Inner product

Multiplication

n-1

p=ax

s=

n-1

x(i) y(i) =

p(i)

i=0

i=0

Number of bits of the result

n-1

S=

x(i)

x(i) [0..2k-1]

i=0

Smin = 0

Smax = n (2k-1)

# of bits of S = log2 (Smax + 1)


= log2 (n (2k-1) + 1)

log2 n 2k =

= k + log2 n

Serial implementation of multioperand addition

Adding 7 numbers in the binary tree of adders

Ripple-carry adders at levels i and i+1

Ripple-Carry Carry Propagate Adder (CPA)

a2 b2

an-1 bn-1
cn

FA

cn-1

...

c3

FA

a1 b1
c2

s2

sn-1

FA

a0 b0
c1

s1

FA

c0

s0

Carry Save Adder (CSA)

an-1 bn-1 cn-1

cn

a2 b2 c2

a1 b1 c1

a0 b0 c0

FA

...

FA

FA

FA

sn-1 cn-1

s3 c3

s2 c2

s1 c1

s0

A Ripple-Carry vs. Carry-Save Adder

Operation of a Carry Save Adder (CSA)

Example
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x
y
z

0 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1 1
1 0 1 1 1

0 0 1 1 0
s
c 1 1 0 1 1

x+y+z = s + c

Carry propagate and carry-save adders


in dot notation

Specifying full- and half-adder blocks


in dot notation

Carry-save adder for four operands


x3 x2 x1 x0
y3 y2 y1 y0
z3 z2 z1 z0
w3 w2 w1 w0
s3 s2 s1 s0
c4 c3 c2 c1
w3 w2 w1 w0
c4 s3 s2 s1 s0
c4 c3 c2 c1
S5 S4 S3 S2 S1 S0

Carry-save adder for four operands

c4

c4

s3

c3

s3

c3

s2

c2

s2

s1

s1

c2

c1

c1

s0

s0

Carry-save adder for four operands


z

x
4

CSA
c

CSA
s

c
CPA
S

Carry-save adder for six operands

CSA tree

Implementation of
one-bit slice

Tree of carry save adders reducing


seven numbers to two

Addition of seven
six-bit numbers
in dot notation

Adding seven
k-bit numbers:
block diagram

Parameters of tree carry-save adders (1)


Latency
LatencyCSA =

h(n) TFA + LatencyCPA(k, n)

Tree height
for n operands
Component Adders

Widths

CSA

k .. k + log2 n

CPA

k + log2 n

typically
close to k bits

Parameters of tree carry-save adders (2)


Maximum number of inputs that can be reduced
to two by an h-level tree, n(h)
n(0) = 2
n(h) = 3 n(h-1)
2
n(1) = 3
n(2) = 4
n(3) = 6

n(4) = 9
n(5) = 13
n(6) = 19

( 2 )h-1 < n(h) 2 ( 2 )h

Parameters of tree carry-save adders (3)


Smallest height of the tree carry save adder
for n operands, h(n)
2
n
3

h(n) = 1 + h

h(2) = 0

h(n) log 3
2

( 2n )

Wallace vs. Dadda Trees


Wallace trees
Reduce the size of the final Carry Propagate Adder (CPA)
Optimum from the point of view of speed
Dadda trees
Reduce the cost of the carry save tree
Optimum (among the CSA trees) from the point of
view of area

5-to-3 Parallel Counter


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0
a
1
b
1
c
1
d
1
e
0
s0
0 1
s1
s2 1 0 0

1
1
0
0
1

0
0
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

0
1
1
1
1

1 1 1 0
1 0 0
1 1

a+b+c+d+e = s0+s1+s2

Implementation of 1-bit of 5-to-3 parallel counter


using single CLB slice of a Virtex FPGA
S2

d
c
b

LUT G

d
c
b

S1
0

LUT F

S0

Carry Save Adder vs. 5-to-3 Parallel Counter


a
w

c
w

d e
w w

a
w

b
w

CSA

d
w

e
w

PC
s1

s2

CSA

s0

CSA

CSA

CPA

CPA

w
y=a+b+c+d+e mod 2w

y=a+b+c+d+e mod 2w

Generalized Parallel Counters


Multicolumn
reduction

(5, 5; 4)-counter
Unequal
columns

Fig. 8.17 Dot notation for a (5, 5; 4)-counter


and the use of such counters for reducing five
numbers to two numbers.

Generalized parallel counter =


Parallel compressor
(2, 3; 3)-counter

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Serial carry propagate adder with pipelining


x(i6) + x(i7)
x(i1)
Ready to
compute
Delay

x(i)

Delays

s (i12)

+ x(i1)

x(i8) + x(i9) + x(i10) +x(i11)

x(i)
x(i4)

+ x(i5)

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