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# Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M.

## Pintor / De La Salle University

Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems

Method of Analysis for Statically Indeterminate Structures

! Satisfy equilibrium, compatibility, and force-displacement requirements
o Equilibrium reactive forces must hold structure at rest
o Compatibility various segments fit together without intentional breaks
o force-displacement linear elastic response of material

! Force method of analysis: General procedure
1. choose one of the support reactions as redundant, temporarily remove its effect on the
primary structure
2. determine the expected displacement primary structure on the due to effects of external
loads
3. by principle of superposition, apply the displacement due to the redundant external
4. establish the compatibility condition/equations relating the displacements in steps 2 & 3
5. determine the redundant and/or internal loading/stresses as needed

Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M. Pintor / De La Salle University
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems

! Method of Virtual Work: Trusses

o 1 external virtual unit load acting on the truss joint in the stated direction of !
o n internal virtual normal force in the truss member caused by the external virtual unit
load
o ! external joint displacement caused by real loads on the truss
o N internal normal force in the truss member caused by the real loads
o L length of the member
o A cross-sectional area
o E modulus of elasticity

" External virtual unit loads creates internal virtual forces
" Real loads cause the truss joints to be displaced ! in the same direction as the
virtual unit load
" Each member is displaced NL/AE in the same direction as its respective n force
" External virtual work 1!! equals the internal virtual work (or internal virtual
strain) in all truss members

! Maxwells Theorem of Reciprocal Displacements
o The displacement of a point B on a structure due to a unit load acting at point A is equal
to the displacement of point A when the unit load is acting at point B.

! Indeterminate Truss, Example No. 1

Using the method of consistent deformations, determine the vertical and horizontal reactions at A
and E and the resulting member loads for the truss in the accompanying figure.
The member properties are A = 2 in
2
and E = 29x10
3
ksi.

Figure 1 - Truss structure to analyze

" determine the degree of indeterminacy
The structure is indeterminate to the first degree (r=4, e=3, n=r-n=4-3=1).
Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M. Pintor / De La Salle University
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems

" select redundant and remove restraint
To solve for the single degree of indeterminacy, the structure has to be reduced to a statically
determinate and stable structure. This is done by removing a redundant support.
In this example, the horizontal reaction at support E is selected as a redundant to remove in order to
obtain a primary determinate structure.

Figure 2 - Primary determinate structure

" determine reactions and member forces
Calculate the support reactions of the primary structure, and then determine the individual member
forces by using either the method of sections, or the method of joints.

Figure 3 - Support reactions and member forces

" calculate deformation at redundant
Use the virtual work method, calculate the horizontal translation of support E that corresponds to
the removed redundant X
E
. Remove all loads and apply a unit force in the direction of the
redundant.

Figure 4 - Primary structure with unit load applied
Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M. Pintor / De La Salle University
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems

Calculate the member forces due to the unit load.

Figure 5 - Member forces due to unit load
Since the horizontal translation at E is equal to zero in the original structure, the horizontal
translation of the released structure at support E must be countered by a force at E which causes an
equal translation in the opposite direction.
Since the member forces are known in the released structure, and the virtual structure with a unit
load applied at E, the deflection at support E ( ) caused by the applied loads on the released
structure is determined by the following equation.

where
m - number of members
n - force in the member due to the virtual load
N - force in the member due to the applied loads
L - length
A area
E - Young's Modulus of Elasticity.
The force required to counter this deflection is found by determining the deflection caused by a unit
load in the positive direction at the removed support, and multiplying this answer by the unknown
support reaction.

" write consistent deformation equation
The consistent deformation equation that corresponds to the redundant X
E
(the horizontal reaction
at support E) is:
(1)
where !
E0
is the deflection at E of the primary structure, f
ee
is the deflection of the released
structure at E caused by the unit load, and X
E
is the value of the unknown redundant at E.

Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M. Pintor / De La Salle University
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems

" solve consistent deformation equations
The deflection of the released structure under applied loads,
E0
.
note: for trusses, only the members which are subjected to the unit load need to be included
Member n(k) N(k) L(ft)
nNL/AE (k
2
-
ft)/AE
AB 1 -25.83 4 -103.33/AE
BC 1 -25.83 4 -103.33/AE
CD 1 -44.167 4 -176.67/AE
DE 1 -44.167 4 -176.67/AE
Total =
E0
= -560/AE
The deflection of the released structure at E caused by the unit load, f
ee
.
Member n (k) N (k) L(ft)
nNL/AE (k
2
-
ft)/AE
AB 1 1 4 4/AE
BC 1 1 4 4/AE
CD 1 1 4 4/AE
DE 1 1 4 4/AE
Total = f
ee
= 16/AE
Using equation (1), solve for X
E
:
-560 (ft
2
-k)/AE + 16 (ft
2
-k)/AE*X
E
= 0
X
E
= 35
Multiply the unit load by this value to get the final reaction. The positive answer indicates that the
reaction is in the direction of the applied unit load.

" determine support reactions
Impose the value of the calculated X
E
along with the other applied loads on the original truss.
Calculate the remaining reactions using the three static equilibrium equations, ("F
x
= 0, "F
y
= 0
and "M = 0).

Figure 6 - Truss with resultant support reactions
Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M. Pintor / De La Salle University
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems

The resulting member forces are now determined by using the method of sections, or method of
joints.
However, a much easier method is to use superposition and add the effects caused by the redundant
load on the released structure.
In this example, the 35 k load will cause only the top chord of the truss to experience a 35 k tensile
load in each member. This result can be added to those found in figure 3 above. The final results,

Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M. Pintor / De La Salle University
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems

! Virtual work method, Determinate Truss, Example No. 2

Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M. Pintor / De La Salle University
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems

Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M. Pintor / De La Salle University
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems

Load = 4 k

Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M. Pintor / De La Salle University
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems

Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M. Pintor / De La Salle University
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems

Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M. Pintor / De La Salle University
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems

Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M. Pintor / De La Salle University
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems

Notes in Structural Analysis II Glenn M. Pintor / De La Salle University
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Force Method, Bettis & Maxwells Theorems