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Esteves, Kate Louise

Girado, Giles Joseph
Ragosta, Jeanny
Sarmiento, June Pearl

Century Treaties which Changed the World

Treaty of London (1604)
 The 1604 Treaty of London was signed on August 1604 between England and Spain. It is also known as the
Somerset House Conference.
 Its main contribution was that it was the treaty which ended the Anglo-Spanish War from 1585 to 1604 (conflict
between England and Spain which is mainly rooted in religion: Catholicism and Protestantism).
 Along with it ending the Anglo-Spanish war from 1585 to 1604 came two more outcomes: (1) Spain recognized
the Protestant monarchy of England, and (2) England stopped its financial and military support for the Dutch
(who was engaged in war with Spain at the time). (Ulm, 2004)

Peace of Prague (1635)
 The 1635 Peace of Prague was a treaty signed on May 1635 which involved the Holy Roman Empire and the
Electorate of Saxony.
 Its main contribution was it ended the civil war aspect of the Thirty Years’ War (conflict involving the Protestants
and the Catholics of Europe (Trueman, 2011)).
 It also brought an end to using religion as a source of national conflict.

Treaty of Zuhab (1639)
 Persian:ن یری ش رص ق, also called Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin (Treaty of Kasr-ı Şirin)
 was an accord signed between Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire on May 17, 1639. The accord ended the
war that had begun in 1623 and was the last conflict in almost 150 years of intermittent wars between the two
states over territorial disputes.
 The treaty divided territories in the Middle East by granting Yerevan in the southern Caucasus to Iran and all of
Mesopotamia (including Baghdad) to the Ottomans. Nevertheless, border disputes between Persia and the
Ottoman Empire did not end. Between 1555 and 1918, Persia and the Ottomans signed no less than 18 treaties
that would re-address their disputed borders.
 The exact demarcation according to this treaty would not begin until the 19th century, essentially laying out the
rough outline for the frontier between modern day Iran and the states of Turkey and Iraq (the former Ottoman-
Persian border until 1918, when the Ottoman empire lost its territories in the Middle East following their defeat
in World War I.)

Peace of Westphalia (1648)
 The Peace of Westphalia was not a single treaty, but involved three treaties which ended both the Thirty Years’
War and the Eighty Years’ War (also known as Dutch War of Independence; conflict between Spain and the
Dutch Republic). The three treaties are as follows:
 Peace of Münster – Dutch Republic and Spain (signed on January 1648 and ratified on May of the same
 Treaty of Münster – Holy Roman Empire and France (signed on October 1648)
 Treaty of Osnabrück – Holy Roman Empire and Sweden (signed on October 1648)
 The Peace of Westphalia has a very big contribution to today’s society because it provided the concept of a
Sovereign State (also called Westphalian Sovereignty).
 This also had other contributions such as the freedom of religious worship, equality of Protestantism and
Catholicism, as well as some territorial adjustments.

Treaty of Paris (1657)
 signed in March 1657 allied the English Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell with King Louis XIV of France against
King Philip IV of Spain, merging the Anglo-Spanish War (1654–1660) with the larger Franco-Spanish War (1635-
 Based on the terms of the treaty, the English would join with France in her continuing war against Spain
in Flanders. France would contribute an army of 20,000 men, England would contribute both 6,000 troops and
the English fleet in a campaign against the Flemish coastal fortresses of Gravelines, Dunkirk and Mardyck. It was
agreed that Gravelines would be ceded to France, Dunkirk and Mardyck to England. Dunkirk, in particular, was
on the Commonwealth's mind mainly because of the privateers that were causing damage to the mercantile
fleet. For Cromwell and the Commonwealth, the question of possession of Dunkirk thus passed from regional
diplomatic possibility to urgent political necessity.

Concert of Hague (1659)
 Signed on 21 May 1659, it was an outline of the common stance of England, France and the Dutch
Republic regarding the Second Northern War.
 The powers agreed that the Swedish Empire and Denmark–Norway should settle for a peace treaty based on
the Treaty of Roskilde, including free navigation through The Sound and the Baltic Sea based on the Treaty of
 The subsequent Dano-Swedish Peace of Copenhagen largely followed the terms dictated by the Concert of The
 The concert was preceded by two Dutch interventions against Sweden in the Second Northern War, the first
being the relief of Danzig(Gdansk) in 1656 that led to the treaty of Elbing, the second being the relief
of Copenhagen in 1658.
 The thriving force behind the treaty was Dutch Johan De Witt, protecting Dutch interests in the Baltic Sea, and
the concert agreed to have the Dutch fleet enact pressure to impose the envisioned peace terms on Denmark
and Sweden.
 England likewise had trade interests in the Baltic Sea and was willing to protect them by force. De Witt's
attempts to turn the concert into a formal alliance was only in part successful, as negotiations with France
resulted in a Franco-Dutch alliance in 1662 which became important during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, but
negotiations with England did not result in an alliance due to disagreements over the freedom of seas.

Treaty of Lisbon (1668)
 The Treaty of Lisbon of 1668 was a peace treaty between Portugal and Spain, concluded at Lisbon on 13
February 1668, through the mediation of England, in which Spain recognized the sovereignty of Portugal's new
ruling dynasty, the House of Braganza.
 The Treaty of Lisbon of 1668 had advantages for both countries. Spain, relieved to be ending a financially
ruinous war, was quite pliant in the negotiations. As for Portugal, it was now able to pursue the peaceful
possession of its overseas colonies.

Strasbourg Agreement (1675)
 The Strasbourg Agreement of 1675 is the first international agreement banning the use of chemical weapons.
The treaty was signed between France and the Holy Roman Empire, and was created in response to the use of
poisoned bullets. The treaty was signed on August 27, 1675. The next major agreement on chemical weapons
did not occur until the 1925 Geneva Protocol.

Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689)
 Peace settlement between Russia and the Manchu Chinese empire. The Russians gave up the area north of
the Amur River and east of the mouth of the Argun River but kept the area between the Argun River and
Lake Baikal.
 The agreement was signed in Nerchinsk on August 27, 1689. The signatories were Songgotu on behalf of the
Kangxi Emperor and Fedor Golovin on behalf of the Russian tsars Peter I and Ivan V. The treaty had six
 1 and 2: definition of the border,
 3. Albazin to be abandoned and destroyed.
 4. Refugees who arrived before the treaty to stay, those arriving after the treaty to be sent back.
 5. Trade to be allowed with proper documents.
 6. Boundary stones to be erected, and general exhortations to avoid conflict.
 By the treaty’s terms Russia lost easy access to the Sea of Okhotsk and Far Eastern markets but secured its
claim to Transbaikalia (the area east of Lake Baikal) and gained the right of passage to Beijing for its trade
caravans. The border between the two countries was set along the Stanovoy Range and the Argun River.
 The treaty prevented Russia’s potential military defeat and gained China’s implied recognition of Russia as a
state of equal status, an accomplishment not achieved by other European countries.
 Remained the basis of Russo-Chinese relations until 1858–60.
 Confirmed and expanded by the Treaty of Kyakhta (1727)

Treaty of Limerick (1691)
 Ended the Williamite war in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange.
 It concluded the Siege of Limerick
 Signed on 3 October 1691.
 The main provisions of the Treaty were:
1. Roman Catholics were to have the same freedom rights as under the reign of Charles II.
2. Those in arms for King James were to keep any estates they had at the time and to be free to
exercise their calling and professionals without hindrance.
3. The Irish Garison in Limerick was free to march out of the city with colours flying and drums beating
and with weapons and baggage. The soldiers were permitted to go to any foreign country they liked
or to join William's army. (Of the garrison of Limerick about 20,000 entered the French army, 1,000
joined William's army and 2,000 returned home.)
 The civil article of the treaty indicates that the rights of the defeated Jacobite landed gentry who chose to
remain in Ireland, most of whom were Catholics, would be protected . Their property was not to be confiscated
so long as they swore allegiance to William and Mary, and Catholic noblemen were to be allowed to bear arms.
 Those who did not were known as "non-jurors", and their loyalty to the new regime was automatically suspect.
Some managed to have an outlawry specifically reversed, such as the 8th Viscount Dillon in 1694. Starting in
1695, a series of harsh penal laws were enacted by the Irish parliament to make it difficult for the Irish Catholic
gentry who had not taken the oath by 1695 to remain Catholic
 Accordingly, it is one of the reasons of Irish migration to Northern America.

Treaty of Rijswijk (1697)
 formally ceded the western third of Hispaniola from Spain to France, which renamed it Saint-Domingue
 Saint Domingue became France’s most prosperous New World possession, exporting sugar and smaller
amounts of coffee, cacao, indigo, and cotton. By the 1780s nearly two-thirds of France’s foreign investments
were based on Saint-Domingue, and the number of stopovers by oceangoing vessels sometimes exceeded
700 per year.


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Haiti. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 8, 2012,

Peace of Prague (1635). (2012, July 15). In Wikipedia, the Free Enyclopedia. Retrieved January 8, 2012,

Peace of Westphalia. (2012, December 22). In Wikipedia, the Free Enclyclopedia. Retrieved January 8, 2012,

Strasbourg Agreement (1675). (2012, August 31). In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 8, 2012,

Things went wrong with the Treaty of Limerick after it was signed. (n.d.). In Irish Identity. Retrieved January 8, 2012,

Treaty of Limerick. (2012, September 17). In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 8, 2012,

Treaty of Lisbon (1668). (2012, November 1). In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 8, 2012,

Treaty of London (1604). (2012, December 11). In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 8, 2012,

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Treaty of Paris (1657). (2011, August 19). In Wikipedia, the Free Encylcopedia. Retrieved January 8, 2012,

Treaty of Zuhab. (2012, July 5). In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 8, 2012,

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Ulm, W. (2004) The Defeat of the English Armada and the 16th-Century Spanish Naval Resurgence. Harvard University,