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Bienvenido: r120rxc7
Producto: TRUCK
Modelo: 793F TRUCK SSP
Configuracin: 793F Off-Highway Truck SSP00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY C175-16 Engine
Instruccin Especial
VIMS 3G Application Guide{7601}
Nmero de medio -REHS5539-00 Fecha de publicacin -01/05/2012 Fecha de actualizacin -01/05/2012
VIMS 3G Application Guide{7601}
SMCS - 7601
Articulated Truck:
735B (S/N: L4D1-UP; T4P1-UP)
740B (S/N: L4E1-UP; T4R1-UP)
740B EJECTOR (S/N: L4F1-UP; T4S1-UP)
Off-Highway Truck/Tractor:
770G (S/N: ECM1-UP)
772G (S/N: LTS1-UP)
777G (S/N: TNM1-UP; RDR1-UP)
793F Series AC (S/N: EMD1-UP)
793F (S/N: SND1-UP; SSP1-UP)
795F Series AC (S/N: ERM1-UP)
797F (S/N: LAJ1-UP; WSP1-UP)
Quarry Truck:
773G (S/N: MWH1-UP; JWS1-UP)
775G (S/N: RFM1-UP; MJS1-UP)
Track-Type Tractor:
D9T (S/N: TWG1-UP)
Wheel Dozer:
854K (S/N: H9K1-UP; H8M1-UP)
Wheel Loader:
950K (S/N: R4A1-UP; J5M1-UP)
962K (S/N: T6A1-UP; X4T1-UP)
966K (S/N: PBG1-UP; TFS1-UP)
972K (S/N: PEM1-UP; Z4W1-UP)
980K (S/N: W7K1-UP; GTZ1-UP)
992K (S/N: ZMX1-UP; 8801-UP)
994H (S/N: DWC1-UP)
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VIMS 3G is the third generation of the original Vital Information Monitoring System (VIMS) family. There
is no relationship to the "3G" as used in cellular communications. This guide introduces the various potential
uses of VIMS information for improving machine operation and maintenance.
Important Safety Information
Do not operate or work on this machine unless you have read and
understand the instructions and warnings in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual. Failure to follow the instructions or heed the
warnings could result in injury or death. Contact any Caterpillar dealer
for replacement manuals. Proper care is your responsibility.
Before service work is begun, park the machine on a hard level surface.
Block the wheels of the machine so unexpected movement will not
occur. Unexpected movement of the machine can cause personal injury
or death.
Work safely. Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance, and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs.
A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary training, skills, and
tools in order to perform these functions properly.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this instruction and on the product. If these hazard warnings
are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons. Caterpillar cannot anticipate
every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard.
Therefore, the warnings in this publication and the warnings that are on the product are not all inclusive. If a
tool, a procedure, a work method, or operating technique that is not recommended specifically by Caterpillar
is used, you must ensure that it is safe for you and for other people to use.
You should ensure that the product will not be damaged or the product will be made unsafe by the operation,
lubrication, maintenance, or the repair procedures that are used.
Overview of VIMS Features and Benefits
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VIMS is an advanced onboard data collection system that generates vital machine health and production
information to help maintenance and operations personnel reduce downtime and increase operating
However VIMS is not the only source of information needed for maintaining machine health, or "Condition
Monitoring". Effective Condition Monitoring, as defined by Caterpillar Inc., is comprised of five
information sources:
Machine Electronic Control Modules (ECMs)
Fluid Analysis
Repair History
Site/Application Conditions
VIMS provides information from the ECMs, which this document covers. More information on Condition
Monitoring can be found at "" under "Support - Equipment Management". Also refer to the
Knowledge Network Communities at "" for "Condition Monitoring and Condition Monitoring -
Product Description
VIMS provides information beyond Caterpillars Product Link or Vision Link. VIMS transforms key sensor
data into easy to view information in seven different categories: event list, snapshots, dataloggers, trends,
cumulatives, histograms, and payload information where applicable. This information is downloaded at the
machine or wirelessly, and further processed and reported using VIMSpc, Cat

MineStar System, or other

VIMSpc creates useful reports and charts to help supervisors and managers understand both individual and
fleet equipment utilization and performance statistics. Historical reports in the forms of histograms and
trends highlight changes in machine systems. The reports help identify abnormal conditions that could lead
to unplanned machine downtime. The reports allow a more orderly and proactive investigation into a
potential issue that can be rectified early, preventing a costly failure and significant down time. Event
reports, snapshots, and dataloggers help in diagnosing and troubleshooting problems.
Key Features
Monitors key pressures, temperatures, fluid levels, speeds, and operating conditions
Analyzes and stores information from the machines engine, power train, hydraulics, steering, and
Records and presents prognostic data to optimize scheduling of maintenance and repair
Uses a three-level event warning system for early indication of potential problems
Includes a 30 minute datalogger that records all data at a one second interval, for troubleshooting and
performance testing and signatures
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A continuous datalogger captures the last hour of operation at any given time
Features snapshots associated with critical events to capture a short data log surrounding the event
automatically, to help determine the cause
Downloads information to an off-board computer for additional analysis and reports
Displays real-time machine operation information via the onboard generated web page using VIMSpc,
or wireless if equipped.
Key Benefits
Improved preventative maintenance analysis
Reduced downtime
Off-board computer analysis of machine and fleet information
Increased production efficiency
Improved information access
Real-time access to data
Detailed diagnostic and performance history
Identifying locations of machine events, if equipped with appropriate GPS or GSM system.
Recorded Data
The event list is a record of all of machine generated events and electrical system diagnostic events. Machine
events take the form of an overheat, low pressure, and so on. System diagnostic events are in the form of
short to ground, open circuit, and so on. The event list will retain the last 500 machine and system events in
chronological order, including date, time and service meter reading, warning category, event duration,
parameter ID, trigger value and maximum value reached.
Event records provide maintenance personnel with vital information that allows a review of a machines
repair needs prior to scheduled preventative maintenance, significantly reducing downtime.
The dataloggers capture all machine data parameters at a one second interval. The continuous datalogger
stores the last hour of data while key is on. Another datalogger can be store up to 30 minutes, and then stops
recording and must be downloaded and reset before using again. This datalogger is for capturing certain
conditions and can be automatically or manually activated with VIMSpc or via the cab display for
intermittent issues.
The VIMS dataloggers are a maintenance technicians built-in diagnostic tool kit. The datalogger works
while the machine stays productive and saves man-hours that would have otherwise been spent tracking and
diagnosing a problem.
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The datalogger is also a powerful tool for monitoring haul road and underfoot conditions. Rack and pitch
information if available can be used to justify haul road maintenance, maximizing production and machine
VIMS includes an on-board event activated data recorder, similar to a flight data recorder that stores
machine/sensor data following an event. The system activated event recorder creates a snapshot of data from
5 minutes prior to the event to 1 minute afterwards. VIMS automatically links an event record to serious
diagnostic events for analysis. This feature is useful for collecting data, troubleshooting, and diagnosing
unpredictable problems.
Real Time Information
Radios and cellular modems allow wireless viewing of machine real-time information presented in a web
page created by VIMS 3G. Most information found in a datalogger is also available real time. Low Precision
Global Position System (LPGPS) location is available on the web page and events with the standalone VIMS
3G version. GPS location from Product Link PL321 Satellite Radio is available only on events in the
PL/VIMS 3G version.
Prognostic Information
VIMS automatically generates information that can be useful in understanding machine operation and
changing machine health conditions. This information gives maintenance personnel a broad overview of
operator and machine performance, allowing personnel to expedite the maintenance and troubleshooting
process, maximize component life, reduce catastrophic failures and minimize unscheduled downtime.
Trends show minimum, maximum and average values for specific parameters over typically an hours time.
By analyzing trends and identifying problems before failure, maintenance personnel can more accurately
plan machine maintenance and resources.
Cumulatives show accumulated time or amounts of important indicators used for estimating both machine
condition and operator performance.
Histograms show the percentage of time a parameters value is in a specified range. Histograms document the
history of a parameter over the life of the machine. Histograms also shed light on machine health,
maintenance practices, site conditions and machine performance.
Examples of prognostics include:
Trends hourly average fuel rate, maximum and minimum coolant temperature
Cumulatives - total fuel, time in gears, idle time, total distance
Histograms - engine speed, fuel rate, machine speed, fluid temperatures
VIMS gives maintenance greater control over fleet management, improving overall machine availability and
Payload Systems
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The payload system available on trucks and loaders provide productivity data to enhance truck loading tool
effectiveness while improving fleet production.
The Wheel Loader Payload Control System (PCS) records loader identification, date, time, bucket payload,
weight, number of passes, material and truck identification.
The Truck Payload Monitoring System (TPMS) utilizes strut pressure technology for accurate payload
measurement. The truck system stores up to 2400 payload cycles, cycle times, distance, time, and date of
each payload cycle. External lights on the sides of Cat trucks signal the loading tool operator when the truck
is full.
Payload accuracy can be maintained with proper loading and strut maintenance. Load limits can be set to
optimize loads for maximum machine reliability and production.
ReferenceFor more information, refer to the section on "Payload" at "".
By studying payload data, a production manager can determine equipment usage, future machine
requirements, personnel performance, and productivity levels. Payload information can also be used as an
accounting tool, an indicator of cycle time efficiency and truck overloading or under loading.
The Datalogger records important data, which can help production managers plan for haul road maintenance.
Important data such as cycle times, speed, strut pressures, and braking trends help identify improvements to
haul roads to ultimately improve component life, reduce tire costs, and increase fleet productivity.
Cycle time information in addition to PCS information is also available for some Wheel Loader models.
Refer to the SIS System Operation Manual for more information.
Ultimately, VIMS payload reports give production managers the information needed to operate more
efficiently and achieve the lowest cost.
Additional VIMS Features (Trucks)
Other important VIMS features are provided for monitoring Truck operations to help manage tire and
suspension component life.
Road Analysis Control (RAC)
RAC is an onboard information technology product designed to measure and benchmark haul road quality.
RAC provides real-time feedback to the operator about haul road conditions that are detrimental to cycle
times, power train, frame, suspension components, and tire life.
VIMS stores RAC events and creates a summary measurement called a Fatigue Equivalent Load Analysis
(FELA) that allows management to track severity and benchmark road conditions. When used with a
telemetry system like Cat

MineStar System, RAC events and GPS location can be transmitted in near real
time to the mine control office for immediate action by haul road maintenance crews.
RAC measures the frames rack, pitch, and bias utilizing the same suspension strut sensors that determine
payload weight.
Rack - The lateral twisting of the frame due to uneven load on the diagonal tires. Potholes in the haul road
combined with excessive speed can cause a Rack event.
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Pitch - The front to rear shift in weight. Dips in the haul road and hard braking can cause a Pitch event.
Bias - The side-to-side movement of the frame. Improper loading or excessive speed on a haul road switch
back can cause a Bias event.
Two warning levels of RAC events alert the operator, via the cab display, to places in the haul road needing
improvement. Either the operator should slow down and/or avoid areas that trigger the events, or support
equipment should be sent to remedy the problem areas.
RAC is available on all VIMS 3G equipped trucks with TPMS.
For more information Refer to Systems Operation, RENR2636, "785D, 793C, and 793D Off-Highway
Truck/Tractors and 785D OEM Off-Highway Truck/Tractors Road Analysis Control (RAC)".
Maximum Payload Speed Manager (MPSM)
MPSM compares the actual payload weight on the machine to an overload setting. When VIMS has
determined that the machine is overloaded, the shift range of the transmission, and engine speed, is limited,
slowing the machine down, until the load is dumped.
Ton Kilometer Per Hour/Ton Mile Per Hour (TKPH/TMPH)
TKPH is a measure used by tire manufacturers to "rate" the ability of the tires to carry a load over time. If
the TKPH value for a particular tire is exceeded, the tire overheats causing reverse vulcanization that can
lead to tire separation. This feature constantly monitors the real-time TKPH value and report/instructs the
operator if the value has been exceeded. The feature was designed with adjustability for different
applications, manufacturers, and customer requests.
For more information Refer to Special Instruction, REHS2662, "VIMS

TKPH/TMPH Monitoring"
Onboard Machine System Details
The VIMS machine system is fully integrated and comprised of modular electronics that can collect data,
perform analysis, and store information. These electronic modules communicate with each other to control
and synchronize machine systems. The modules monitor vital machine statistics and alert the operator of
abnormal machine conditions.
Illustration 1 shows the machine system consisting of:
VIMS Main Module
VIMS Application Module for TPMS on trucks
Sensors and Switches
Data links
Control System Modules and Sensors
Interfaces to radios and networks
For more information on the VIMS 3G system, refer to the SIS System Operation / Testing and Adjusting
Manual for the machine in question.
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Illustration 1 g02609400
Off-Board Tools
VIMSpc is a downloading, analysis, and reporting tool for VIMS equipped machines. VIMSpc is designed
to assist in the evaluation and management of machine health, performance, and productivity. Events stored
in VIMS provide service personnel with a broad overview of operator, machine, and fleet performance.
Checked at regular intervals, VIMS information enables service personnel to view a history of past and
potential problems quickly, expediting maintenance, and troubleshooting. Faster more efficient diagnostics
mean less repair time and increased machine availability - reducing overall cost and keeping the machine
VIMS Training and References
For advanced VIMS-related training, contact your Regional Mining Representative for details on available
For all VIMS inquires work through the Dealer Solution Network .
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For general marketing type information refer to the following media.
VIMS General Product Brochure, AEXC0681
VIMS Frequently Asked Questions, AEXC0680
VIMS Case Study Mining Operations, Western Australia, AEXC0694
VIMS Case Study Koolyanobbing Mine Rail Facility, AEXC0684
VIMS Case Study Foundation Coal West, AEXC0683
ReferenceAlso refer to "" for links to additional information.
Implementation Plan Development
Dealers should develop an implementation plan specific to each customer to maximize VIMS benefits. Each
customers background and needs will be different. The dealer needs a good knowledge of the customers
production and maintenance management routines and procedures. This understanding will enable the dealer
to formulate an implementation plan that will directly address customer needs.
Development of this plan should appropriately begin at the point of sale. The plan should identify training
and other product support needs from delivery up through the first 1000 hours or 2000 hours of machine
Customer Issues
Computer Hardware and Operating System
VIMSpc (off-board software) requires a PC platform and Windows environment for data collection and
manipulation. Whoever (the customer, the dealer or both) is going to be working with VIMS needs adequate
computer hardware.
Data collection requires a portable PC with the VIMSpc software installed. This computer will be used to
download data from the machine, merge data files, and copy files to disks for others. This PC operator will
be working with the downloaded data. This computer may also be used for data analysis such as graphing
datalogger or event recorder information.
Radio System
The dealer should help the customer setup a wireless system if desired. An ethernet-based wireless device
can be connected for transmitting VIMS data.
Product Link can coexist with VIMS 3G but cannot transmit VIMS information.
A wireless system dedicated to VIMS allows real-time machine monitoring from a remote location. VIMS
can also be set up to send files wirelessly on a user-defined schedule.
Customer Training
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Much of the information gathered in the sales negotiation process will provide the basis for training plan
development. One of the issues that needs addressed is the extent to which machine operators, maintenance
mechanics, and supervisors will be involved with VIMS.
For example, depending on the customers philosophy and normal practices, the operator may be expected to
Operate the machine correctly only
Monitor the warning system
Be actively involved in helping solve problems when a warning occurs
Start the datalogger
Trigger a snapshot
The training requirements for these options are different. The same applies to mechanics and supervisors
involved with VIMS.
Another issue is whether the VIMS equipped machines are new to the customer or the work location. If the
machines are new to the customers people, training related to VIMS may be delayed until after the machine
and machine systems have been covered.
Software Training
The VIMS user needs a thorough understanding and/or training on Windows and the VIMSpc software.
For those downloading data from the machine, knowledge must include file manipulation techniques such as
copy, move and rename the relationship of the root directory and subdirectories.
Circumstances will dictate if the sales proposal should include training as part of the package. Regardless of
whether the training is included in the sales proposal or not, the customer should understand the need to have
software training prior to delivery.
Management Training Requirements
A machine, or a fleet, with VIMS must be supported with training on several levels. Dealers and districts are
accustomed to training for operators, maintenance people, and mechanics. VIMS requires that the customers
management level people also be trained at least on what information VIMS can provide and in what form
the information will reach the management. Supervision and management people will need to recognize that
training is a new experience and training may require resources beyond what may have been normal in the
past. Being aware of the training needed at the time of a sales proposal will make for a more complete
Operator Training
In general, the first priority for operator training is to cover the material necessary to get the machine safely
into production, and as soon as possible. The training plan should have identified the timing and extent of
VIMS training that will be added to the customary operator training.
As a minimum requirement, all operators, supervisors, and dispatchers should be trained on warning features
and capabilities provided in the machine display, regardless of whether VIMS is utilized. The operator will
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need to recognize the difference between machine events and system diagnostic warnings. For machine
events, the operators will need to recognize and understand the three warning levels and be instructed on
how to react to information on the communication panel. How the customer expects the operator to report
the different level warnings needs covering.
Operators should understand that VIMS records and timestamps events displayed in the cab, and must react
appropriately to events and not ignore ones that may result in machine damage.
Depending upon the customers expectations for operator involvement in problem identification, instructing
the operator on the use of the cab display to access VIMS features may be necessary. Typically the display
would be used for turning on the datalogger or event recorder or for viewing the data or fault codes after an
event is displayed.
Maintenance Personnel Training
The anticipated level of maintenance personnel involvement with the machines and with VIMS will
determine the scope of training. Maintenance personnel may need training on how to access the event list,
and to use VIMS datalogger and snapshot features using the display interface. The maintenance personnel
may also be required to perform data downloads and review VIMS data for potential advance warnings or
for troubleshooting current problems.
Data Access & Usage
VIMS data can be put into one of two categories, production data and machine or system data. The machine
and system data is used to identify problems or faults. This early identification allows problems or potential
problems to be corrected with little impact on downtime or cost. Allowing the dealer or Caterpillar access to
this data will help in managing machine health and maintenance.
For Production data, some customers may be sensitive about protecting the confidentiality of this data or the
information that can be learned. The dealer may have to develop methods, or procedures that will ensure
protection of the customers interests.
Machine Signature
By conducting standardized tests utilizing the VIMS datalogger, a machine signature can be documented,
preferably when the machine is new. The tests can be repeated periodically, perhaps every 2000 hours, and
compared to the original signature to identify degradation in the systems. Repairs can then be made to
restore performance and productivity. Otherwise degradation may go unnoticed and productivity may suffer
Some machine-specific standardized tests have been documented to assist in recording a machine signature
on large trucks and loaders, and have relevant information for smaller machines.
Refer to SIS for more information on signature tests. The following signature test instructions are available
for reference for performing tests on other machines with similar systems.
Special Instruction, REHS7433, "Signature Tests for Certain 789B And 793B Off-Highway Trucks"
Special Instruction, REHS7434, "Procedure for Performing Signature Test in 992G/994/994D Wheel
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Special Instruction, REHS7435, "Signature Tests for Certain 797B Off-Highway Trucks"
Preventative Maintenance Planning
Many operations expect to review the VIMS data a few days before the machine is scheduled for PM. The
review is done to help in planning the parts and manpower resources that will be needed when the machine
is in the shop for PM.
Alternatively, PM schedules may be adjusted based on VIMS, SOS, and other information.
For more information, refer to "". Click on Support, then Best Practices, then Maintenance &
Repair, and then Condition Monitoring.
VIMS and Machine Performance Management
Operator Evaluation
Evaluating operator techniques or practices, and determining training effectiveness, are two important uses
of VIMS generated information. VIMS data can be used to detect problems that develop as a result of
operators reacting to job conditions and adopting methods or techniques that are counter productive or
potentially damaging to machine systems or components.
Occasionally the operators actions trigger a machine event warning. For example if the operator leaves a
truck in gear while waiting at the loading tool, this event may cause the torque converter temperature to
increase to the point where a machine event warning is triggered. By reviewing the VIMS event list where
the overheating condition is captured and comparing the event to the load cycle data from the payload data
in VIMS, is possible to determine precisely when the overheating occurred during the cycle. Thus can be
determined that the overheating problem was caused by machine operation characteristics rather than by
some fault in the torque converter or the cooling system. This information could then be used to train the
operator in the correct machine operation.
There may be other instances when the mode of operation is detrimental to either the machine or
productivity but does not trigger an event. Two problem analysis methods are recommended.
First an analysis of VIMS payload and cycle time data.
Second an evaluation of the datalogger after performing routine load or 1 hour continuous. Payload and
cycle time analysis can be used to evaluate payload consistency and operator effectiveness. An evaluation of
cycle times can help identify inefficient operation techniques between two or more operators. Additional
operator training or coaching can be provided to improve inefficient techniques that are found.
The Continuous datalogger is equivalent to having someone ride with the operator to observe the operators
technique. However is unobtrusive and less likely to cause the operator to change the normal routine which
might make the cause of the inefficiency more difficult to find.
The Continuous VIMS 3G datalogger contains the last hour of data at any given time, so downloading soon
after a cycle will capture the cycle data. Wireless systems make downloading easier and can be set up to
download automatically at any time interval.
Examples from field experience using VIMS data have been successful in identifying the following machine
operation problems on trucks:
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Incorrect use of the Automatic Retarder Control (ARC) turning the ARC off and on needlessly. The
event shows up as a "retarder off/on" record or as high brake temperatures
High speed sharp cornering is detectable as high strut pressure in one of the front struts
Excessive transmission shifts or hunting as a result of the operator placing the shift selector in too high
a gear
Table 1
Impact of Site Condition Change vs Truck Operation Cost
Wheel Gp/Diff
Tire Cost/Hr Engine Cost/Hr Production Fuel Cost/Hr
Haul Road
May or May
Not Be
May or May Not
Be Significant
Haul Road
Grade Increase
May or May
Not Be
No Change No Change No Change
Haul Road
May or May
Not Be
No Change
As shown in Table 1, VIMS data can be used in various ways to evaluate and improve productivity and
machine operation techniques. VIMS has considerable potential to expand the systems usefulness well
beyond a simple warning system. Wireless capability and the power of VIMSpc software provide
management with powerful new tools to manage operations effectively .
VIMS and Maintenance Management
Maintenance Management
Good basic maintenance practices and disciplines are the cornerstones of an effective maintenance
management system. Maintenance management decisions often are a tradeoff between the cost of downtime
and cost of repair. By using performance and condition monitoring techniques, repair indicators can be
identified in the early stages of a potential problem.
All the elements of a maintenance system must work together to control costs and availability effectively.
VIMS information supplements the following basic maintenance management practices:
Perform recommended routine maintenance, oil and filter changes, lubrication, adjustments, and so on.
VIMS data showing plugged filters before the recommended interval indicates extreme conditions or
other problems needing sooner attention
Utilize SOS scheduled fluid sampling to monitor fluid condition, contamination, and wear rate in a
component or system. SOS, VIMS, and fuel usage data can support extended change intervals
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Utilize a series of routine inspections designed to identify problems before the problems create major
downtime and repair expense. Reviewing VIMS reports can also flag issues
Provide training to enhance the skills of the people responsible for maintaining and repairing
machines. Training applies to VIMS data as well
Keep records of historical information for use in making machine performance decisions
Follow up on needed repairs or VIMS alerts and trends in a timely manner to minimize catastrophic
damage and to prevent extensive downtime
Table 2 lists some of the activities required for effective equipment maintenance management. The
contribution of VIMS to these activities is shown in the right-hand column.
Machine signature data, trends, cumulatives, and histograms data are useful for monitoring machine
performance. When compared to earlier data from the same machine or to other similar machines, the
information will help to identify component wear characteristics and problems that may have gone
undetected by more conventional inspections.
When used with good basic maintenance practices, VIMS will enable the customer to manage the equipment
maintenance program in a cost effective manner.
Table 2
Operator Input VIMS Events
Daily VIMS Events
Weekly VIMS Events
PM Inspections VIMS Events
Diagnostic Inspections
VIMS Events
Event Recorder
Trend Data
Machine Signature Data
VIMS Data Download
Backlog Items VIMS Events
Planned Component Replacement (PCR) Machine Signature Data
Trend Data
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Productivity Data
Fleet History
Maintenance History
Productivity Data
Trend Data
Machine Signature Data
Operations/Production Productivity Data
VIMS Events
Service Technician
All VIMS Data - Event Recorder and Datalogger
Productivity Data
Using VIMS Information
VIMS information is useful for:
Evaluating machine condition to discover trends leading to a need for servicing
Identifying causes of conditions that are generating events or reduced performance
Analyzing machine performance efficiency
The type of VIMS information available for these purposes is:
When troubleshooting, fleet data can help define whether a pattern exists that might help formulate a
solution to the problem. The following basic troubleshooting questions are worth asking. Is the problem
On one machine or across the fleet
On one shift, all shifts, with only one operator
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Only when the trucks are operating on one particular haul. Is there something on that haul that is
causing the problem
A steep grade, tight corners, rough sections in a haul road, a tight Loading Zone
Only during certain weather or seasonal conditions
Fleet Analysis
VIMSpc 2011A and later allows simultaneous viewing of fleet information on the same page. Analyzing a
fleet of similar machines under similar applications allows machines with problems to stand out compared to
normal machines, when looking at trends for example. Or, site conditions may cause all machines to behave
in a similar fashion but at extreme limits of operation, showing up as an increase in a trend, possibly
generating events. However if a fleet experiences the same symptoms, the event is most likely to be caused
by site conditions. Another example could be frequent fuel filter plugging in a fleet of machines. Filter
plugging could be caused by poor fuel handling practices at the site.
Events and Diagnostics
Events are the most common troubleshooting tools available on electronically controlled machines, and are
reported by all monitoring systems, Operator display, Cat ET, Product Link and VIMS. VIMS3G platform
gathers all Events from machine ECMs when events occur. The "Event Chronological List" is created for
downloading, including a time stamp and duration for each event. Machine ECMs report just the first, last,
and number of events to Cat ET. VIMS does not delete any events, although VIMS has a limit of 500 events,
and should be downloaded and reset before that limit is reached to keep a complete history.
There are two types of Events found on Caterpillar machines.
1. System Diagnostic Events. Commonly known as "Codes", "Diagnostic Troubleshooting
Codes" (DTCs) or "System Events" in VIMS. DTCs are generated by the ECMs when a sensor signal
is abnormal. The codes contain the Module Identification (MID) the Component Identification (CID)
and the Failure Mode Indicator (FMI).
2. Data Events. Commonly known as "Events" with an Event ID (EID) only, EIDs indicate the exceeding
of a parameter limit, defined in the ECM software. Examples of Data events are:
a. Overheating Alarms:
i. Engine Coolant, lube oil, and so on.
b. High or Low Pressure Alarms:
i. Engine Oil, Steering Oil, Brake Air Systems
ii. Suspension Cylinder Charge
iii. Turbo Boost, Crankcase
c. Filter Plugging / Bypass
d. Low Levels Alarms:
i. Coolant, Engine Oil, Transmission Oil
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Events come in different levels of severity and have a standard Caterpillar definition as shown in table 3.
Warning indications refer to the cab display.
Table 3
Warning Indications
Required Operator
Possible Result
1 X
No immediate action
required. The system
needs attention soon.
No harmful or
damaging effects.
2 X X
Change machine
operation or perform
maintenance to the
Severe damage to
2-S X X X
Immediately change the
machine operation.
Severe damage to
3 X X X
Immediately perform a
safe engine shutdown.
Operator injury or
severe damage to
( 1 )
The active warning indications are marked with an "X".
( 2 )
Based on the problem detected, the specific status indicator will illuminate.
( 3 )
Possible result if no operator action is taken.
( 4 )
The alarm is on continuously.
( 5 )
Pulsating alarm.
Note: VIMSpc 2011A will be used as a source of report examples. Refer to "", VIMS
Software Ordering Instructions to obtain VIMSpc. Once installed and activated, VIMSpc can be used to
download information from the machine. A download cable ( 305-5528 Cable As ) is needed to connect a
laptop to the dedicated VIMS 3G service port (same as the Cat ET port but black in color). The "Help"
section of VIMSpc provides information on using reports as well as connecting to machines and
downloading. Once downloaded, data must be merged into the database, by selecting the "Merge" button.
After merging, the reports will be available for viewing. Select "Reports" to access Events and other reports.
Viewing Events
VIMSpc provides various reports and filtering options to navigate the many types of events generated,
especially when viewing multiple machines, which can be overwhelming.
Report types of various formats include:
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GPS Graph
GPS Detail
Illustration 2 g02612542
Sorting options exist in "Summary" and "Detail" reports, as well as ability to exclude different columns for
more clarity, as shown in Illustration 2 for "Summary Report".
Events also can be filtered by:
Event Category
Event type (System or Data)
Event Parameter or Description
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Illustration 3 g02612545
A summary report of all level 2 and 3 events for multiple machines, sorted by Total Count, is shown in
Illustration 3.
Illustration 4 g02612696
Detailed information on selected event types can be obtained by selecting "Detail" Report Type, "Include
Selected Events/Parameter Groups", and selecting the desired events.
Refer to Illustration 4.
System Events should be reviewed before reviewing trends, histograms and cumulatives to see if codes exist
for pressure, temperature or speed sensors, indicating faulty readings, and possibly affecting the data,
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especially if intermittent. A complete list of FMI codes is shown in table 4. Note however that replacing a
component without additional checks is not sufficient. Additional checks are needed.
Refer to SIS for more direction if this code exists.
Table 4
FMI Description
0 Data valid but above normal operating range
1 Data valid but below normal operating range.
2 Data erratic, intermittent, or incorrect.
3 Voltage above normal or shorted high.
4 Voltage below normal or shorted low.
5 Current below normal or open circuit.
6 Current above normal or grounded circuit.
7 Mechanical system not responding properly
8 Abnormal frequency, pulse, or period.
9 Abnormal Update.
10 Abnormal rate of change
11 Failure mode not identified.
12 Bad device or component.
13 Out of calibration.
14 N/A
15 N/A
16 Parameter not available.
17 Module not responding.
18 Sensor supply fault.
19 Conditions not met.
FMI 2-6, 16-18 could affect the data being read by histograms and trends and could be misleading by
providing incorrect data, especially when intermittent. Always check for System Events before action is
taken based on unusual histogram or trend data.
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Illustration 5 g02612997
Data Events can also be filtered using the maximum value reached during the event, as shown in Illustration
5, where only events with maximum values > 265 will be shown in this case.
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Illustration 6 g02965441
Illustration 7 g02613000
Events and Diagnostic codes are easily evaluated using Component Based Troubleshooting found in SIS at SIS is a dealer tool for service information access. Customers can provide the information to the
dealer over the telephone. For example, to evaluate 82-490-3 from the above ECL, For example, entering
"Z4W" serial number prefix for 972K results in illustration 8 and select "Component Based
Troubleshooting" as show in Illustration 7.
Illustration 8 g02613377
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Selecting "Component Based Troubleshooting" results in the screen shown in Illustration 8.
Illustration 9 g02613378
Selecting the "Implement ECM MID (82)", gives the screen showing DTCs. Note at the top of the
"Description" column, you can also select "Event" which will give EIDs for events.
Refer to Illustration 9
Illustration 10 g02613396
Scrolling down, the 490-03 code is seen.
The associated information for 490-03 is quickly found using the upper link, "MID 082 - CID 0490", refer to
Illustration 10.
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Illustration 11 g02613436
Illustration 12 g02965636
Illustration 13 g02965637
Events may be found by selecting "Events" as previously mentioned and shown in Illustration 9. The result
of selecting "Events" is shown in Illustration 12. The Code is the EID. Select a SIS link for further
information about the desired event. The Event code list is referenced in SIS. Scroll down to the desired
EID. Illustration 13 shows a sample from the Event Code list, showing relevant information about the event,
including activation conditions.
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Snapshots and Dataloggers
Snapshots and dataloggers record key machine parameters at a one second interval. Snapshots and
dataloggers are useful for troubleshooting and for evaluating machine and operator actions preceding an
event or to improve operations.
Snapshots provide the previous 5 min. and the next 1 min. of data and are typically triggered when a level 3
data event occurs. There are two snapshots available.
Note: Not all machines support snapshots.
Two dataloggers exist. One is the continuous datalogger, containing the last hour of operation. The other
datalogger can be activated manually with the operator display, or with VIMSpc.
793 to 797 and 993-4 machines also activate the datalogger under certain operating conditions pre-
programmed into VIMS Software. Refer to SIS Advisor System Operation for more information.
Trends, Histograms, and Cumulatives
Trends are the most popular tool after events in determining machine health, and can provide an advanced
warning of problems, allowing corrections before an unplanned event occurs. Trends and histograms are
populated during certain engine conditions to give a more constant result. Then changes are more easily
spotted. Trends have a limit of 1000 hours so must be downloaded and reset to maintain continuity.
Histograms summarize the long-term history of the parameter in question. Histograms also can give a
limited time history based on frequency of downloading, by viewing separate histograms for each time
Cumulatives provide time durations of various operational modes, such as time in First Gear. Cumulatives
can help understand machine usage and related performance or health issues.
Engine Systems
The different engine systems will be covered that are monitored by VIMS.
Inlet Air System
The inlet air system is comprised of the Air Filter, Turbocharger, Air to Air aftercooler (ATAAC) and inlet
manifold. Common problems and causes with this system are
EID 172- High Air Filter Restriction
EID 539 - High Intake Manifold Air Temperature
Low Boost
High Boost
Information needed:
Air Filter Restriction Trend
Boost pressure Trends and Histograms
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Inlet Air Temperature Trend and Histogram
Ambient Temperature Trend (if available)
Fuel Rate Trend
Air Filter
Air filter restriction increases as filter plugs, causing EID 172 eventually.
Illustration 14 g02613579
The Air Filter trend in Illustration 14 shows a filter change cycle in a severe application, starting from 12
inches H2O and changed at 32 inches H20, which is too high. Boost pressure drops gradually as restriction
increases, and high fuel rate confirms high engine loads and air flow.
A new air filter typically runs a restriction of about 3 kPa (0.43 psi) to 3.5 kPa (0.507 psi) (or 12 to 14 inches
H2O), although some may run nominally lower or higher. Engines typically derate due to excessive intake
restriction greater than 7 kPa (1 psi) (or 28 inches H2O). Filter elements should be changed or cleaned
regularly, well before an event is tripped. Running with a severely plugged filter causes dirt ingestion
through the filter, accelerated turbo seal wear, and potential oil suction into the airstream from turbo seals.
This practice should be avoided with planned filter change-outs during regular maintenance or sooner if
needed. Extended intervals can also be developed for mild environments using trend data.
Actions : Clean/Change air filter per recommendations.
ReferenceRefer to EID E172, "High Air Filter Restriction" in SIS for more information about the desired
Intake Manifold Air Temperature Trend
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Intake Manifold Temperature (IMT) is highly dependent on the ambient temperature, as shown in
Illustration 15. The other major factors are core cleanliness and air flow. High temperatures may reduce
power slightly but is unnoticeable unless unusually high. High temperatures also cause higher exhaust gas
temperatures, and effect emissions adversely.
Illustration 15 g02613596
If IMT trends higher relative to ambient temperature: Check core cleanliness. If not the cause, refer to EID
Boost Pressure
Boost, or Inlet Manifold Pressure, should be viewed with Air Filter Restriction, as above, since plugged
filters lower boost. Normally boost is relatively flat as measured. Flat boost is due to "trap conditions" that
sample only during load greater than 90 percent and engine speed is high, so only a high boost condition is
sampled. If the graph trends lower or higher, then something is changing in the system. In Illustration 16, the
maximum boost is shown in hourly intervals.
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Illustration 16 g02613598
If boost trends lower: The average boost would indicate a sustained problem. Minimum or maximum trends
generate short term "blips" due to intermittent problems. Note there is no event generated for low boost. Low
boost could also reduce power. Check the following if the boost is significantly lower.
Air cleaner restriction
Air lines for leaks or loose clamps, misplaced rags, and so on
Engine derating codes if present
Check for low power
Fuel pressure - low fuel pressure can cause low power, causing lower boost
Turbocharger - assess turbo bearing/wheel condition for noise or rubbing
Plugged exhaust system
If boost is high: Note there is no event generated for high boost. Check the turbo wastegate and hose
integrity. Check electrical resistance of waste-gate control valve solenoid. Check seat and ball valve at
control valve for wear.
A Boost histogram is also provided to show long term operating history at the same conditions as trends.
Exhaust Temperatures
Trends show individual cylinder banks and the difference between cylinder banks (RH minus LH). The
individual trends should also be examined to insure that both temperatures are not rising or falling together
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due to low boost or high inlet air temperatures. Differences in temperatures over time are a good indicator of
problems. If the difference changes suddenly, a valve or injector problem could exist. Gradual changes could
be due to valve issues.
Refer to SIS for more information on temperature limits and troubleshooting.
Cooling System
A cooling system is designed to accommodate machine operation up to a certain ambient temperature,
typically 43 C (109 F). High ambient packages raise machine operation up a few degrees. However once
the machine sees the dirt, cooling cores become covered with dust and lose cooling efficiency. So,
cleanliness is the first requirement for an effective cooling system at high ambient temperatures.
The thermostat regulates the temperature, so that the average temperature should be close to the thermostat
setting, until ambient temperatures increase to where the system capacity is reached. Then the average
coolant temperature will rise by the same amount as the ambient temperature.
Illustration 17 g02613696
Overheating Checks
In the Illustration 17 graph, the system capacity has been reached where the maximum temperature peaks
(upper curve), because of the higher ambient temperature and system heat rejection loads. Also the machine
shutdown times are clearly visible with the minimum points dropping to ambient, indicating the machine sat
for a significant time to cool down. Minimum points dropping to ambient is also a method to verify sensor
accuracies. Note how minimum coolant temperature points agree with ambient temperature.
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If Maximum Coolant temperature is trending higher but ambient temperature is not, then cores are probably
getting dirty. Cores should be cleaned before events start being generated. Dirty cores will cause Average
Coolant Temperature to start trending high also.
If dirty cores are suspected, then other systems should also be affected, such as Hydraulic Oil Temperature
and Inlet Manifold Temperature, which both have separate cooling cores alongside the engine core.
Overheating Actions
If cores are not dirty, coolant level is adequate, and ambient temperature is not excessive, then several other
malfunctions are possible. A Fan Pump Pressure trend is provided on some machines. A Fan Pump Pressure
trend can be viewed to check for proper pump pressure. Refer to CBT under "x Symptoms- ENGINE /
Cooling". Event limits can be found in "Engine ECM Codes", "Events" section of CBT by following the link
for EID 361 High Engine Coolant Temperature (Cat Data Link). Troubleshooting information can be found
following the SMCS code 1395 ENGINE COOLANT.
Overcooling Checks
If the average temperature does not rise to the normal average within an hour, then overcooling is present
and the thermostat may be malfunctioning. Running at cooler temperatures is not desirable, especially under
74 C (165 F) because of acids forming in the engine, and should be rectified soon. Also most engine wear
occurs while warming up and clearances are looser.
Histograms provide a view of long-term operation and can help indicate if an overheating or overcooling
condition has contributed to issues such as failed head gaskets, poor oil quality, or reduced component life.
Overcooling Actions
Verify sensor accuracy. Verify machine application. Consider that long periods of downhill machine loaded
in cold-weather applications may cause overcooling and may necessitate use of shutters, covers, or an active
fan control. If applicable, verify correct actuation of active fan control (hydraulic clutch, hydraulic motor,
Fan control, and so on.). Check thermostats to ensure that the thermostats are all closing completely. Replace
if necessary as a set.
Engine Lube System
Engine Oil Pressure Trends
Two oil pressure trends are of primary value, average pressure at high and at low engine speed, with coolant
warm. Pressure is measured after the filter. Pressure is determined by the pump relief valve, filter condition,
bearing condition, oil viscosity, oil temperature, and pump condition.
At high engine speeds, the pump is normally bypassing, so pump condition is not usually an issue but filter
restriction becomes a major factor due to the high oil flow. Pressure will drop to a point where the filter
bypass valve will open, typically at 103 kPa (15 psi) delta P. After opening, the pressure will no longer drop.
Once filters start plugging, filters tend to plug quickly, so acting quickly is important and not letting the
bypass valve remain open during normal operation. Sometimes debris from piston ring scoring will plug a
filter quickly, which also requires immediate attention to avoid further engine damage if the filter starts
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At low engine speeds, component wear becomes much more apparent. Worn engine bearings or oil pump
will cause a drop in pressure when oil is warmed and thin. Fuel dilution of oil will be more apparent.
Refer to SIS for more information on low engine oil pressure.
Illustration 18 g02614401
The graphs in Illustration 18 show oil pressure along with coolant and ambient temperature, to see if
overheating may be affecting oil pressure. Initially, oil pressure is higher at 0 hr of the machine. This zero
hour data is probably factory test data, which uses different oil
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Illustration 19 g02614416
Another source of data for a machine is Technical Marketing Information (TMI), showing data at machine
test in the factory. Dealers can access this information at "". The machine serial number
used in Illustration 19 is W7K00290, and the Engine/Parts data option is used.
From TMI in Illustration 19, the Oil pressure at 2100 rpm was 517 kPa (75 psi) The upper value 517 kPa (75
psi) agrees closely with the graph in Illustration 18.
The pressure drops later, probably due to increased oil temperature from longer running, reducing oil
viscosity and oil pressure.
Another method is to look at a fleet of similar machine with the same serial number prefix ideally, or
prefixes with the same engine.
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Illustration 20 g02614420
First select the machines desired. Refer to Illustration 20. Then select the "Trend" tab, and then "Sort By:
Machine". Then select the two oil pressure trends to display. Then select "Preview" on the left for a pdf file.
Only one trend parameter per graph is allowed.
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Illustration 21 g02614421
Illustration 21 shows the Engine Oil Pressure at low engine speed for four machines of the same model. The
average pressure is similar, which is normal. A machine with an average pressure that is obviously lower
than the others, and is trending down, may have a plugging filter or other mechanical issue. Refer to SIS for
low oil pressure causes.
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Illustration 22 g02614437
By selecting "Average" instead of "Normal" graph type, the graphs are smoothed for easier viewing, as
shown in Illustration 22.
Summary: Oil Pressure trends should remain relatively constant. Pressure may drift slightly lower due to oil
filter plugging or to normal variation. Significant drop indicates premature plugging due to excessive debris,
or reduced viscosity due to fuel in oil. Pressure loss due to pump or engine bearing normal wear is
independent of oil filter changes.
Action: Immediate action should be taken for sudden or rapid pressure drops. Replace filter. If pressure
normalizes, examine old filter for wear particles due to possible debris contamination. Use Oil Analysis
Services to look for wear metals to assess condition, or for degradation in the oil that may indicate fuel
dilution or viscosity breakdown.
Refer to SIS for further information.
Fuel System
VIMS reports fuel pressure in the low-pressure fuel system, to detect plugged fuel filters. The low-pressure
fuel system consists of the:
Fuel Tank
Primary Filter/Water Separator
Electric Priming Pump (if equipped)
Mechanical Transfer Pump with internal bypass valve
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Secondary Filter
Tertiary Filter (in some cases)
Pressure regulating valve
Lines, fittings
Refer to SIS System Operation manual for the exact configuration.
Illustration 23 g02614766
The task of the low-pressure fuel system is to provide "CLEAN" fuel to the fuel injection system. Illustration
23 is from a 1945 Caterpillar D4 Maintenance manual illustrating the importance of proper fuel handling
practices, and is still relevant today.
The final filter (secondary or tertiary) should never be prefilled with fuel, because the center hole in the filter
is the clean side, resulting in unfiltered fuel being sent directly to the injectors. High pressures combined
with fine dirt create an effective microscopic sand blaster and cause wear in injector and pump pistons and
spill valve. When worn, pressures cannot build to inject sufficient fuel. The first symptom is hard starting,
followed by no starting. Also essential is the use of Caterpillar High Efficiency Fuel filters for secondary and
tertiary filters. With clean fuel, injectors will have minimal wear over the life of the engine. Also, running
filters partially plugged will force dirt through the media and cause unnecessary and avoidable wear.
Monitoring fuel pressure trends for pressure drop is far superior to waiting for a plugged filter event or low
power, which results from significant pressure drop.
Fuel Pressure
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Illustration 24 g02614771
(1) Filter pressure clearly dropping
Conditions used for Trend and Histogram are engine at high rpm and warm. High rpm eliminates low
pressures due to low engine speed. Engine warm is because cold fuel can be more viscous. Pressure should
be relatively constant normally. Look for decreasing Pressure as filters plug, as shown in Illustration 24. The
filter was not changed and pressure was allowed to drop excessively. The filters should have been changed
ideally around 6275 hours, where the pressure is clearly dropping (1). Typically the primary filter plugs first
but the primary and secondary filters should be changed together. Refer to SIS for tertiary filter
The Fuel Pressure Histogram gives a history of pressure at the same condition as a trend and should be
narrow. If running plugged excessively, the histogram will show lower pressures. If injectors are failing
prematurely and the histogram shows significant time at lower pressures, then filters probably are not being
changed properly. Or, if filter life is long, the possibility of aftermarket filters are being used that are not
high efficiency, and will cause premature injector wear out.
If a filter change does not return pressure to normal, then other causes of low pressure are:
Faulty pressure regulating valve
Faulty or stuck open bypass valve in fuel transfer pump
Worn transfer pump
Air infiltration on suction side of pump due to poor seal at fitting, filter, or water bowl
Pinched line from fuel tank
Plugged vent in tank
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Plugged Tank Cap
Fuel Temperature Histogram
Fuel temperature normally has minimal effect on performance, but if too high, fuel temperature could cause
low power, but just a few percent.
Refer to SIS if High Fuel Temperature events are encountered.
Engine Speed Histogram
Useful in seeing overspeed or idle time summary. Engine overspeeds may result in premature main or rod
bearing wear, or failure of valve train and rods. Some machines have overspeed warnings lower than engine
generated values due to other reasons such as transmission or drive train limitations.
Refer to SIS for further information.
Actions: Engine overspeeds require operator education to pay attention to warnings, avoid coasting, and so
on. If significant speeds above 2600 rpm are seen, then an oil sample should be taken to look for bearing
wear metals. If high, bearings may need replaced.
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) (If Equipped)
A trend (max) for the DPF Soot loading is provided to show percent of soot when regenerations occur, how
often, at what percent loading the filters regenerate.
Actions: If soot loads exceed 100 percent before regeneration, then the regenerations may be being
overridden due to production needs. Events will be generated if loadings get too high. Also partial
regenerations may be caused by overrides. This practice should be avoided.
Refer to SIS for further information.
Power Train Health
Note: Signature tests referred to earlier are recommended to monitor system health over time, primarily the
stall speed tests for torque convertor machines.
Torque Converter Oil Outlet Temperature
Torque Converter (TC) oil temperature is highly dependent on operator technique. For the trend look for
patterns of high oil temperatures, indicating aggressive or incorrect gear use, and possibly changing patterns
with different operators. High TC oil temperature may also indicate tightly knit material, a tight loading area,
increased travel on ramps or incorrect use of the left pedal (ICTC control) (if equipped). Increasingly higher
average temperatures could be due to dirty cooling cores and/or ambient temperature effects.
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Illustration 25 g02614796
Average temperature can also shed additional light on the application. A high maximum temperature but
lower average temperature is less worrisome than both running high, which indicates a more continual issue
needing rectification. The trends in Illustration 25 show both cases.
Actions: High Temperature events start triggering at about typically 124 C (255 F). Refer to SIS for exact
values. When max trends start approaching or exceeding limits frequently, other machines in similar
applications can be viewed to see if site conditions are the cause. If not, the continuous datalogger should be
examined to see what conditions surround the high temperatures, such as gear, machine speed and throttle
position. If improvements appear possible, discuss with operator/owner. If transmission oil, engine coolant
and inlet air temperatures are also higher, then dirty cores could be the problem.
Refer to SIS for more details.
Transmission Oil Temperature vs TC Outlet Temperature Histogram
A two parameter histogram is available on some machines. Transmission Oil temperature is typically less
than TC Oil Temperature. This histogram can be viewed occasionally to verify proper temperature
relationship. If changed, then the transmission or cooling system may have an issue. If both rise, then the
cooling system cores may be plugged.
Transmission Oil Temperature at Filter Bypass
The oil temperature at filter bypass histograms shows the condition of the filter. New filters normally bypass
with cold, viscous oil. As the oil warms, the bypassing stops. As the filter plugs, the bypass occurs at higher
temperatures. The temperature typically used to indicate a plugging filter is 52 C (125 F) where bypassing
is ignored below this temperature. Bypassing above this temperature generates an event. Monitoring the
histogram will show the increasing bypass temperature. Lower efficiency aftermarket filters will stop
bypassing at lower temperatures but are not filtering as well. A plugged filter event will be generated when
bypassing occurs above the temperature threshold. Refer to event details in SIS for more information.
TC Ratio vs Engine Speed Histograms
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Some machines support a 3D histogram that has two parameters vs time. These histograms are viewed by
selecting the "3D Graph" Report type in VIMSpc 2011.These 3D histograms show the TC speed ratio at
different engine speeds in 1st and 2nd gear for use when troubleshooting transmission and TC problems. The
histograms should be saved for use by Caterpillar Inc. engineers to help determine causes of transmission
Axle Oil Temperatures
Illustration 26 g02615306
Trends and histograms are provided for Front and Rear Axle temperatures on Loaders. Front and rear
temperatures are normally similar. If different than a problem could exist in the higher temperature axle.
Similar machine can also be compared. High temperatures can be caused by low oil, incorrect viscosity,
contamination, or excessive wear and friction. Medium wheel loaders also include brakes in the same
system, which can raise temperatures. Take an oil sample and check the oils physical conditions (color and
smell), and for metallic debris on magnetic plug. High Temperature level 2 events typically start at 90 C
(194 F) to 100 C (212 F) for large loaders, and 125C for MWL Series (H series).
Illustration 26 is an example of Front Axle Temperature trends.
Refer to SIS for more details.
Use label thermometers on final drives and differential for easy field temperature follow-up. Stick the decal
on a clean area of the component.
Brake Oil Temperature (Trucks)
Used for confirming that brakes are not dragging or operator is not riding the brake pedal, or other site
condition causes. High brake oil temperature may lead to reduced brake pack life and/or poor machine
Actions: If truck operation is not the problem, the following can be checked.
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Verify that the brake system is properly serviced, in good mechanical condition, and is operating
correctly. A dragging brake may be caused by poor slack adjuster operation (check for residual
pressure in the brakes)
Look for friction material at hydraulic screens. Take a hydraulic oil sample. Check color and smell of
hydraulic fluid
Refer to SIS for more information.
Hydraulic System Health
Hydraulic Oil Temperature
A Trend and histograms, including filter bypass histograms, are provided. Look for increasing oil
temperature trend that may indicate the machine is being used more aggressively. High hydraulic oil
temperature may also indicate a tightly knit material, poor cooler performance through core plugging or
excessive pump/motor leakage.
The histogram shows an overall history of temperatures and can aid in troubleshooting system problems
such as low component life.
Illustration 27 g02973308
The hydraulic oil temperature at filter bypass histograms shows the condition of the filter. Typically new
filters bypass with cold, viscous oil. As the oil warms, the bypassing stops. Machines should be warmed up
before using hydraulics so oil will be filtered. As the filter plugs, the bypass occurs at higher temperatures.
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Do not run engine at high speeds to warm the hydraulic system. Running the engine at high speeds to warm
the hydraulic system causes premature wear to hydraulic pumps. Some machines provide a histogram of
hydraulic oil temperature less than 10 C (50 F) when engine speed is more than 1800 rpm to show when
this occurs. See Illustration 27 for an example. The temperature typically used to indicate a plugging filter is
52 C (126 F) and bypassing is ignored below this temperature. Bypassing above this temperature generates
an event. Monitoring the histogram will show the increasing bypass temperature. Ideally the filter should be
changed before this stage is reached. Lower efficiency aftermarket filters will stop bypassing at lower
temperatures but are not filtering as well.
Illustration 28 g02973316
A hydraulic pump pressure histogram is included with some models, to show the degree of hydraulic system
use and to monitor pump max pressures. The relief pressure can also be seen with the histogram. An
example is shown for two large TTTs in Illustration 28.This histogram shows relatively light use of the
Hydraulic Oil Temperature Trend should fairly constant or histogram range steady at each download
interval, but may vary slightly due to changes in ambient temperature conditions. Events start at as low as
104 C (219.20 F). The trend looks at an average over 1 hour, so the maximum is not seen. A trend average
of 100 C (212.00 F) would be considered getting close to the limit, depending on application. A good
warning value will be developed over time. The histogram can also be monitored for high temperatures.
Actions: Change filters as soon as practical when close to triggering events. If temperatures are excessive,
assess cooler cleanliness, machine application, pump/motor condition, and rapidly plugging filters could
indicate a problem. Verify oil condition using SOS Services analysis. Take an additional oil sample and
verify oil condition (color, smell, and metallic particles). Verify hydraulic stand-by and relief system
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Refer to SIS for more information.
Stick label thermometers on the following components:
Hydraulic pumps: Potential cause of overheating from wear or internal leaks
Control valves: Potential cause of overheating from internal leaks
Cylinders: Potential cause of failure from internal leaks
Machine Operating Conditions
Machines operate under various conditions and loads, and are controlled by various operators. VIMS
provides information to help understand and compare overall machine operation.
Engine Speed vs Load Factor Histogram
Illustration 29 g02973336
This 3D histogram shows the loads seen at different engine speeds. The load factor is in percent and is based
on maximum fuel useable at the given engine speed, so is one when operating on the lug curve. Illustration
29 shows a partial example in tabular form. Light loads at higher engine speeds would indicate a lightly
loaded operation. Note that at high idle, the load factor is one and does not indicate working.
The machine can be compared to other similar machines to see if the machine appears under or over utilized.
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Fuel Consumption Rate Histogram and Trend
Illustration 30 g02615354
Fuel rate is directly related to power consumption, which generally relates to work. The fuel rate trend shows
the average fuel usage over an hour and clearly shows the workload of the machine, including idle.
Illustration 30 shows multi-machine plots for two large TTT machines. The histogram shows the time at
different fuel rates, clearly showing idle time and work time (high fuel rate).
Ground Speed and Track Speed/Direction
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These histograms indicate machine speeds in different gears. Additional histograms are provided on some
machines for different gears, neutral only, and at gear changes. These histograms indicate speeds during
various machine operations and also show high speed coasting and gear direction changes that can cause
reduced machine reliability. Operators can then be coached in proper machine operation.
Torque Converter (TC) and Transmission Shift Times
Off Highway Trucks have trends and histograms that show the Lockup Clutch (LUC) and certain Gear Shift
times, and should be reviewed periodically to detect increases in shift times. Shift times are determined
under the condition of high power train loads to provide meaningful results. In some cases no number will be
available, if shifts are under light load. Longer shift times indicate a need for adjustment. Refer to SIS
Testing and Adjusting of the Power Train for more information on normal shift times and adjustments
Once an adjustment has been made, confirm TC LUC or Transmission clutch slip time is back in acceptable
range by reviewing Trend data several days after the adjustment. Readjust if necessary to achieve desired
time. This process should also be used to confirm the correct operation of newly installed rebuilt
components. Collect several days of data then download and view trends to ensure that slip times are as
Expect Values - Ensure 90 percent of values are occurring less than maximum acceptable value.
Action Trigger - Analysis shows more than 10 percent of values are more than maximum acceptable value.
Action Required - At low hours, readjust valve timing to achieve desired slip time.
Site-specific slip time values may be used to allow closer monitoring of slip times for the Torque Converter
and Transmission Gear slip times. A set of expected values can be developed that allows closer tolerances
than published factory ranges using "Fleet Trend" functions in VIMSpc 2011A, when components are in
optimum condition.
Suspension Cylinders (OHT)
Trends are provided for Front and Rear Suspension Cylinder pressures and differential pressures (RH minus
Data is used for confirming that nitrogen and oil charge levels in each pair of suspension cylinders (Front
Right/Left and Rear Right/Left) are in an acceptable condition.
Correct Oil/Nitrogen charge condition is required to ensure correct operation of the suspension system in
maintained which minimizes stresses into the mainframe of the machine. It also ensures a comfortable ride
for the operator and maintains Payload Monitor accuracy within acceptable levels.
The datalogger can also be used to capture data under known conditions, such as traveling empty on a flat
surface. The data can be used as a signature for future evaluation.
Typical values while traveling empty - Delta P stays within 375 kPa (54 psi) across each axle group.
Field information suggests typical operating pressures of: Front axle is in a range -200 375 kPa (29 54
psi); Rear axle is in a range 0 375 kPa (0 54 psi).
If these values are exceeded, check empty suspension cylinder height (amount of chrome rod showing) and
if these values are below expected value as per published values drop the oil and nitrogen charge from the
cylinder and recharge. Verify that cylinder rods have adequate grease lubrication
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Refer to SIS Systems Operationfor more information.
TKPH Trends are provided to record tire loadings.
For more information about these values, Refer to Special Instruction, REHS2662, "VIMS

Histograms for Rack, Pitch, and Bias are provided. Refer to RAC System Operation in SIS for more
For more information on using these values, Refer to Systems Operation, RENR2636, "785D, 793C, and
793D Off-Highway Truck/Tractors and 785D OEM Off-Highway Truck/Tractors Road Analysis Control
(RAC) ".
Various cumulatives are provided to help determine machine operation and usage.
Automatic Shutdown Count
Delayed Engine Shutdown Override Count
Directional Shift Count
Engine Idle Fuel Consumed
Engine Idle Time- the time the engine is at low idle, machine moving or not
Engine Revolutions Count (Future use)
Engine Start Count
Filter Bypass Times
Forward Travel Distance
Fuel Consumed
Load Count - from Payload system
Load Pass Count - from Payload system
Machine Idle Fuel Consumed Machine Idle Time - the time the machine is not moving and controls
are not being used. Engine can be at any speed
Machine Operating Time- Engine running time
Machine Working Time
Payload Weight- from Payload system
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Quick Coupler Transition Count
Time in Gears and Neutral
Travel Distance - Total distance, forward and reverse
Travel Distance, Gear Reverse
Work Tool Change Count
and more
Illustration 31 g02973402
Illustration 31 is an example of the cumulatives from a TTT machine.
These cumulatives can be used by operations managers to understand the machine applications and
productivity for planning purposes or operator comparisons. Maintenance managers can better relate
machine wear to certain cumulatives, such as time in gear or distance traveled. For example TTT Track wear
is related to distance traveled, as well as ground speed.
Use the DSN system to request new features or to report problems with information.
Copyright 1993 - 2014 Caterpillar Inc.
Todos los derechos reservados.
Red privada para licenciados del SIS.
Mon Jul 14 09:57:46 UTC-0400 2014
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