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ﻮِﺤ ﱠﻨﻟا ﻞ ﻬ

ْ

ُ

ْ

ِ

ْ

َ

ﻴ ﺴ ﺗ

TASHEEL AL-NAHW

based on ‘Ilm al-Nahw of Mawlana Mushtaq Ahmad Charthawali

Copyright © D Ér al-Sa‘ Édah Publications 2011 First Online Edition July 2011

“General and unrestricted permission is granted for the unaltered duplication, distribution, and transmission of this text.”

In Plain English: Make as many copies as you want.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents List of Tables Introduction to the Text & Translation

ﻴ ﺑ ﻌْﻟا تﺎ ﺣ ﻼ ﺻ

ﺔ ﱠ

ُ

َ َ

ُ

َ

َ

ِ

ْ

ِ

ِ

ﻻْ َ ا Arabic Terms

CHAPTER 1

1.1.

1.2

ُ ْ

ُ

َ

ِ

ﱠﻨﻟا

َ

Arabic Grammar The Word

ﻤ ﻜَ ْﻟا

َ

ِ ا Noun Verb

ٌ ْ

ٌ

ٌ

ف ﺮ ْ َ

ْ

ِ

Particle

1.3

1.4

ﺳ ﻻا مﺎ ﺴ ْ ﻗَأ

ْ

ُ

َ

ِ

ﻞِ ﻌ

ف َ ﳊْ ا مﺎ ﺴ ْ ﻗَأ

ْ

ْ

ِ

ِ

ِ

ﻔ ْﻟا مﺎ ﺴ ﻗَأ

ُ

ُ

َ

َ

ْ

Types of Noun Types of Verb

Types of Particle

تﺎ َ ﺒﻛﱠ َ ﻤْﻟا و

َ

ُ

ُ

ُ ﳉْ َ ا Sentences and Phrases

ﻞ ُ َ

1.4.1

ِ

ِ

َ

ﻳ ﱪ َ ﳋْ ا ﺔ ﻠ ﻤ ُ ﳉْ ا مﺎ ﺴ ْ ﻗَأ

َ

ِ

ْ

ُ

َ

1.4.2

1.4.3

1.4.4

ِ

ِ

ﺔ ﱪ

ٌ

ٌ

ﻳ ﺧ ﺔ ﲰ ا ﺔ ﲨ

ِ ﻓ ﺔ ﲨ

َ َ

َ

ﺧ َ

ٌ ﱠ ْ

ﺔ ﱠ

ٌ

ِ ِ

ْ

ِ

َ

ٌ ُْ

ٌ ُْ

َ

Nominal Sentence

Verbal Sentence

ﺔ ﺋﺎ

ِ ِ

ﺺِ ﻗﺎ

ﺸ ﻹا ﺔ ﻠ ﻤ ُ ﳉْ ا مﺎ ﺴ ْ ﻗَأ

َ ْ

ِ

ِ

َ

ْ

ُ

َ

ِ

ﱠﻨﻟا ﺐ ﻛﱠﺮ ْﻟا مﺎ ﺴ ﻗَأ

َ ُ

ُ

َ

ْ

ِ

Types of Phrases

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

ِ

ﰱﺎ

ِ

ﻔ ﺻ ـﺗ ﺐ ﻛﱠﺮ ﻣ

ُ

ْ

ْ

َ

ٌ

َ

Descriptive Phrase

ِ

Possessive Phrase Demonstrative Phrase

ِ

َ

َ

ى

ى

ف

ِ

ِ

د

ِ

ْ

ِ

ﺪ َ ﻋ َ

ٌ

رﺎ ﺷ إ ﺐ ﻛﱠﺮ ﻣ

ُ

َ

/

ُ

َ

َ

ِ

ٌ

ِ

ﺋﺎ ﺑ ﺐ ﻛﱠﺮ ﻣ

ُ

ٌ

َ

Numerical Phrase

ﺮ ﺼﻟا ﻊ ﻣ ﺐ ﻛﱠﺮ ﻣ

ُ

ْ

َ

Indeclinable Phrase

ﺿ إ ﺐ ﻛﱠﺮ ﻣ

ُ

ٌ

َ

Additional Notes About

ﺔ ﲰ ا ﺔ ﲨ

ٌ ﱠ ْ

ٌ ُْ

َ

ِ ِ

Summary

i

i

vii

ix

xi

1

1

2

2

2

3

4

4

4

4

6

6

6

7

8

9

9

9

10

10

11

13

14

1.5

15

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

ﺳ ﻻْا تﺎ ﻼ ﻋ

ْ

ُ

َ

َ

ﻞِ ﻌ

َ

ِ

ْ

ِ

ِ

ﻔ ْﻟا تﺎ ﻼ ﻋ

ف

ِ

ْ

َ ﳊْ ا ﺔ ﻼ ﻋ

ُ

ُ

َ

َ

َ

َ

َ

Signs of a Noun Signs of a Verb Sign of a Particle

َ

1.5.1 General Notes

ُ

َ

ِ

ﺋﺎ ﻀﱠ ﻟ َ

ا

Personal Pronouns

رﺎ َ ﳉْ ا فو ُ ﳊْ

ُ ة

ُ

ْ

َ ا

Prepositions

ﻞِ ﻌ ْﻟﺎﺑ ﺔ ـﺒ

ُ

ﻬ ﺸ ْﻟا فو ُ ﳊْ

ْ

ِ

ِ

ُ

َ

َ

ُ

ﻗﺎ

َ

ِ

ﱠﻨﻟا لُ ﺎﻌ َﻷْا

َ

ْ

َ

ـﻓ

ُ

ُ

َ ا

Those Particles That Resemble the Verb

Auxiliary (Defective) Verbs

CHAPTER 2

ﻰ ﻤ

ِ

ﻨ ﺒ ْﻟا و ب ﻌ ْﻟا

َ

ْ َ

َ

ُ

َ ْ ُ

ﺮ ﻤ

2.1

Declinable and Indeclinable Nouns

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

با

ِ

َ

ِ

ْ

ﻤْﻟا ُ

ب ﻌ

ِ

ُ

ﺮ ﻹْا تﺎ ﻣ ﻼ ﻋ

َ

ُ

ْ

َ

َ

َ

َ

Signs of I‘raab

ت

ﻻﺎ ﺣ

َ

Conditions of Mu‘rab

Difference Between ٌ

ﱠ َ

ﻤ ﺿ ﺔ ﺤ ـﻓ ة ﺴ ﻛ

ٌ

َ

ْ َ

ٌ

َ ْ

َ

and

ﻢ ﺿ ﺢ ـﻓ ﺮ ﺴ ﻛ

ْ َ

ﱞ َ

ٌ

َ

ٌ ْ

ﲎِ Indeclinable Noun

Declinable Noun

ْ َ

ﺮ ﻌ ﻤ ْﻟا

َ

ُ

ب

َ

ْ

ُ

ﺒ ْﻟا

َ

ﻨ ﺒ ْﻟا ءﺎ ﲰ َﻷْا مﺎ ﺴ ﻗَأ

ْ َ

ﻴ ﻤ

ِ ِ

ِ

َ

ْ

ُ

َ

ْ

Types of Indeclinable Nouns

2.4.1

2.4.2

2.4.3

2.4.4

2.4.5

2.4.6

ُ

َ

ا

Personal Pronouns

ُ

ِ

ة رﺎ

َ

لﺎ ﻌ َﻷْا ءﺎ ﲰ

ُ

َ

ُ

َ

َ

ﻹْا ءﺎ ﲰ

ُ

َ

ْ

َ

ْ

ـﻓ

َأ

ِ

ْ

ِ

َﻟﻮﺻﻮ ْﻟا ءﺎ ﲰ َﻷْا

َ

ﺋﺎ ﻀﱠ ﻟ َ

- Relative Pronouns

ُ

َ

ْ

َأ

Demonstrative Pronouns Those Nouns Which Have the Meaning of Verbs

تا ﻮ

ِ

َ

فو

ِ

ِ

نﺎ

ْ

َﻷْا ءﺎ ﲰ

ُ

َأ

ُ

Those Nouns Which Denote a Sound

ُ

َ

ْ

Adverbs

Adverb of Time

َ

ْ

َأ

ُ ﻈ ْﻟا ءﺎ ﲰ

ُ

ْ

ﻣ ﺰﱠﻟا ف ﺮ َ ﻇ

َ

2.4.7

ِ

نﺎﻜَ ْﻟا ف ﺮ َ ﻇ

ْﻟا ءﺎ ﲰ

ِ

َ

ُ

ْ

ِ

ُ

َ

ْ

تﺎ َ ﻳﺎ َ

َأ

Adverb of Place

Those Nouns Which Indicate an Unspecified

2.4.8

Quantity

ﺋﺎ َ ﺒْﻟا ﺐﻛﱠ َ

ِ

ِ

ُ

ﻤْﻟ Numerical phrase

ُ

َ ا

ُ

َ َ ْ ُ

ﺮ ﻌ ﻤ ْﻟا ءﺎ ﲰ َﻷْا

َ

ُ

َ

ْ

Types of Declinable Nouns

ٌ

ف ﺼ ﻨ

ْ

َ

ِ

ُ

ii

15

15

15

16

17

18

20

22

25

25

25

25

26

27

28

29

30

36

39

41

42

43

43

45

47

47

48

48

2.6

ف ﺮ ﺼ ﻨ ﻣ ﺮ ـﻴ ﻏ

ْ

َ

ُ

ُ ْ

َ

ِ

ﺮ ﱠ

ْ

تﺎ َ

ٍ

ف

ِ

ِ

ﺼﻟا ﻊِ ﻣ بﺎ َ ﺳ َأ

ْ

َ

ُ

ْ

َ

ْ

ُ

ِ

ْ

ِ

َ

ﺑ ﺮ ﻤْﻟا ءﺎ َ ﲰَﻷْا مﺎ ﺴ ْ ﻗَأ با ﺮ

َ

ُ

ﻋ ِ إ I‘raab of the Various Types of Mu‘rab Nouns

ْ

CHAPTER 3 Further Discussion of Nouns

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

ﻨ ْﻟا ﻢ ﺳ ﻻْ َ ا

ْ

Relative Adjective Diminutive Noun Definite and Common Nouns

ﻤْﻟا Masculine and Feminine Nouns

ﻮ ﺴ ﻤ

ِ

ُ

َ

ْ

ُ

ة

َ

َ

ُ

ب

ْ ُ

َ

ُ ْ

ِ

ِ

ا

َ

ْ َ

ِ

ْﻟا ﻢ ﺳ ﻻْ

ُ ْ

ِ

ﻜﱠﻨﻟا و ُ َ ﻓ ﻌ ﻤ ْﻟا

َ

ﺚﱠﻧ ﻤْﻟا و ﺮﻛﱠ ﺬَ

ُ

َ

ُ

َ

ُ

ُ

ﺳ ﻻْ

ُ ْ

ِ

َ ا

ٌ َْ

و َ ٌ َ

ْ َ

ِ ﻨ ﺜ ـﺗ و ﺪ ﺣا

َ

ٌ

َ ﳉْ ا مﺎ ُ

تﺎ

ِ

و َ Singular, Dual and Plural

ْ

ﻊِ

ٌ

ْ ﻗَأ Types of Plural - Words Which Are Always Marfoo‘

ُ ﻓ

َ

ﻋﻮ

ْ ﻣ َ

َ

3.7.1

3.7.2

3.7.3

3.7.4

ﻋﺎ َ Subject/Doer

ٌ

/ ُ

ﺲ ﺑ ﲔ ﻬ ـﺒ ﺸ ﻤْﻟ َ ا ﻻ و ﺎ ﻣ ﻢ ﺳ ا

ِ

ﻞِ

ِ

َ

َ

ﻠ ِ

ْ

ِ

ﻋﺎ ﻔ ْﻟا ﺐ ِ ﺋﺎ َ

َ

ُ

ْ َ َ

ِ

ـﺘ

ُ

ِ

ﻋﺎ َ ﻓ ﻢ ﺴ ُ ْ ﱂَ ﺎ ﻣ ﻞ

َ

ُ

َ

َ

َ

َ

ُ

َ

ُ ْ

ْ

ِ Substitute of

ِ

ﻞ ﻋﺎ َ

ٌ

َ

The Noun of ﺎ ﻣ and , Which Is Similar

َ

ﻴَﻟ

ْ

to

َ

ﻨ ﳉْ ا

ْ

ْ

ِ

ﺲِ

ٌ

ِ

ْ َ

ْ

ﻲِ

ِ

(Class)

ﻔ ـﻨ ﻟ ﱴِﱠ ﻟ َ ا ﻻ

َ

َ

ُ َ

ﺮ ـﺒ ﺧ

َ

The of That Which Negates an Entire

ﺮ ـﺒ َ

َ

ٌ

3.8

3.9

3.10

تﺎ Words Which Are Always Mansoob

3.8.1

3.8.2

3.8.3

3.8.4

3.8.4

3.8.5

3.8.6

ٌ

َ ْ ُ

َ

ﺑ ﺼ ﻣ

ْ

Object

ْ ُ

ِ

ﻪ ِ ﺑ

ٌ

ﻮ ﻔ

َ

لٌ

ْ ُ

ﻮ ﻔ

َ

ﻌ ﻣ

ْ

َ ﻠْﻄ ﻣ

ُ

َ لٌﻮﻌ ﻣ /

ﻪ ﻣ

ﻪﻴ ِ ﻓ لٌ

ِ

ُ َ َ

ُ

لٌ

ْ ُ ﻌ ﻣ

ُ

ْ

َ

ْ

ﻮ ﻔ

َ

ْ

ْ ُ ﻌ ﻣ

َ

ﻮ ﻔ

/

ﻪ ِ ِ ﺟَ

ْ

ِ

ُ

ف

ْ

ﺮ ﱠ ﻈﻟ َ

ا

ُ

ْ

ﻷ لٌﻮﻌ ﻣ

َ

لٌ

ْ

لُ ﺎﳊْ State / Condition

َ

ا

َ

ِ

ﺰ ﻤﱠﺘﻟ َ ا / ﺰ ﻴ

ُ ـﻴ ْ

ِ

ُ ْ

ْ

ـﻴ ﻤﱠﺘﻟ َ ا

د

ِ

Rules for

ﺪ ْﻟا ءﺎ ﲰ

َ

َ

ُ

َ

ْ

َأ

(Numerals)

3.8.7

ﺴ ْ ﻤْﻟ ُ َ ا

ـﺜ ْ َ ﺘ

ٰ

تا Words Which Are Always Majroor

َ ْ ُ ْ َ

ُ

ﺠ ْﻟ َ ا

ر ﺮ

و

ِ

ﻊ ﻮ

ُ

ﺑا ـﱠﺘﻟا

َ

َ

iii

48

48

52

55

55

57

58

59

61

62

66

66

68

69

69

71

71

73

73

73

74

76

79

80

84

87

88

3.10.1

3.10.2

3.10.3

3.10.4

3.10.5

ُ َ ﺼﻟ ﱢ َ ا

ُ ْ

ِ

ﻛ ْﺄﱠﺘﻟا

َ

و َأ

ْ

ﺖ ﻌـﱠﻨﻟ َ

ا

ْ

ُ

Adjective

Emphasis

لُ ﺪ Substitute

َ

ْﻟا

َ

َ

ﺴ ﱠﻨﻟا ﻒ ْﻄﻋ /ف ﲝ ﻒ ْﻄﻋ

ِ

نﺎ ْﻟا ﻒ ْﻄﻋ

َ

ِ

َ َ

ـﺒ

ُ

ُ

َ

َ

ٍ

ْ

َ

ِ

ٌ

َ

Conjunction

CHAPTER 4

ﻮ ْﻟ َ ا

ُ

َ َ

ﻣا ﻌ

ِ

Governing Words

4.1

4.2

4.3

ﺔ ﻣﺎ ْﻟا ف ﺮ

ْ ُ

ُ َ ﻠ

َ

ِ

ُ

و ُ ﳊْ

َ ا

Governing Particles

Particles Which Govern Nouns

Particles Which Govern

4.1.1

4.1.2

ِ

ع رِﺎﻀ ﻣ ﻞ ﻓ

ٌ

َ

ُ ٌ

ْ

ُ

َ

ِ

ُ

َ

ﺻﺎ ﱠﻨﻟا ف ﺮ

ْ ُ

ُ

ُ

و ُ ﳊْ

ا

َ

و ُ ﳊْ

Particles That Give N asb

ا

َ

Particles That Give J azm

ِ

زﺎ َ ﳉْ ا ف ﺮ

ْ ُ

ُ

ﻠ ﻣﺎ ْﻟا لُﺎ ﻌ ـﻓ َﻷْا

َ

َ

َ

ِ

َ

ْ

Governing Verbs

4.2.1

4.2.2

4.2.3

4.2.4

ىﺪﱢ ﻌ ﻤ

َ َ

ُ

ـﺘ ْﻟا ﻞ ﻌ ﻔْﻟ َ ا

ُ

ْ

ِ

Transitive Verb

ْ ُ

عِ

م

َ

َ

و ﺮﺸﱡ ﻟا و ءﺎ ﺮﻟا و ﺔ ﺑ رﺎ ﻘ ﻤْﻟا لُﺎ ﻌ ـﻓ

ْ

ﺬﻟا و حِ

َ

ِ

َ

ِ

َ

َ

ﻤْﻟا لُﺎ ﻌ

ْ

َ

َ

ُ

َ

َأ

َ

ـﻓَأ Verbs of Praise and Blame

ْ

ﺐ ﺠ ﻌـﱠﺘﻟا لُﺎ ﻌ

َ

َ

ـﻓَأ Verbs of Wonder

ْ

ِ

ُ

ﻠ ﻣﺎ ْﻟا ءﺎ ﲰ َﻷْا

َ

ُ

َ

َ

َ

ْ

ِ

Governing Nouns

4.3.1

4.3.2

4.3.3

4.3.4

4.3.5

4.3.6

4.3.7

4.3.8

ﺮﺸﱠ ﻟا ُ ءﺎ Conditional Nouns

ﺔ ﱠ

ُ

ﻞِ

ل

ِ

ﻞِ

ِ

ْ

ْ

َ

ِ

ﻋﺎ ﻔْﻟا ﻢ ﺳ ِ ا

ُ ْ

ﻌ ﻤْﻟا ﻢ ﺳ ِ ا

ْ

ْ ُ

ﻮ ﻔ

َ

ُ ْ

ِ

ﻋﺎ ﻔْﻟا ﻢ

َ

ْ

ِ

ﺳﺎ ِ ﺑ

ﺔ ـﺒ

ُ

َ

ﺸ ﻤْﻟا ُ ﺔ َ ﺼﻟ ﱢ َ

ا

َ

ُ

ﲰ َﻷْ َ ا

َ

That Adjective Which Is Similar to

ﻞِﻋﺎ ْﻟا

ِ

ﻔ َ

ﻞِ

ر َ ﺼ ْ ﻤْﻟ َ ا

فﺎ ﻀ ﻤْﻟ َ ا

َ

مﺎﱠﺘﻟا ﻢ ﺳ ﻻْ َ ا

ْ

ﻴ ﻀ ﻔـﱠﺘﻟا ﻢ ﺳ ِ ا

ْ

ُ ْ

ِ

ُ

ُ

َ

ُ

ُ ْ

ِ

iv

ُ ْ

ِ

ﺳ ا

88

91

94

95

96

97

98

98

98

99

102

104

105

107

109

111

112

112

114

116

117

118

120

120

121

4.4

4.3.9

4.3.10

ِ

َأ

َ ﻐَﻟﺎ َ ﻤْﻟا ﻢ ﺳ ِ ا

ِ

َ ﻳﺎ َ ﻜْﻟا ُ ءﺎ َ ْ

ِ

ُ

ُ ْ

ِ

َ

ِ

ﻠ ﻣﺎ ْﻟا ﺮ ﻐ

َ

ُ ْ َ

ـﻴ ْﻟا ف ﺮ

ْ ُ

ُ

و ُ ﳊْ

َ ا

Non-Governing Particles

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

ِ

ﻪ ﻨـﱠﺘﻟا ف ﺮ

ْ

ِ

ْ

ُ

Particles of Notification

ْ ُ ُ

و

بﺎ َ ﻹْا ف و ﺮ ﺣ

ِ

ْ

ِ

ُ

ْ ُ ُ

Particles of Affirmation

ﻔـﱠﺘﻟا ﺎ َ Particles of Clarification

ْ

ْ

ْ َ

ِ

ﻳ ﺪ

ُ ﺔ ﱠ َ ْ

ِ

ِ

ﺾِ

ر

َ

ﺼ ﻤْﻟا ف ﺮ

ْ ُ

ُ

و

ُ ﳊْ َ ا

ﻀ ﺤﱠﺘﻟا ف ﺮ

ْ

ِ

ْ

ُ

Particles of Exhortation

ْ ُ ُ

و

ﻊِﱡﻗ

مﺎ ﻔ ﺳ ﻻْا ﺎ َ ﻓ ﺮ

ُ

ﻮـﱠﺘﻟا ف

َ

ُ

ْ ﺣ َ

ِ

َ

ْ

ْ

ِ

ﻬ ﺘ

ِ

عِ ﺮﻟا ف ﺮ

ﻨـﱠﺘﻟ َ ا

ْ

ِ

د

ْ ﱠ

ُ ْ

ﻦ ﻮ

ِ

ِ ﻛْﺄﱠﺘﻟا ن ﻮ

ْ

ْ َ

Particle of Anticipation

Particles of Interrogation

Particle of Rebuke

ْ َ

ُ

ْ

ُ

ـﻧ

لَ ف ﺮ

ة

ط

ُ

ِ

ُ

ْ ﺣ َ

ﺰﱠﻟا ف ﺮ ُ ﳊْ َ ا

ﺪ َ ِ ﺋا

ُ

ْ ُ

و

ﺮﺸﱠ ﻟا ﺎ َ ﻓ ﺮ

ْ

Extra Particles

Conditional Particles

ْ َ

ﻻ ﻮَﻟ

ما َ د َ ﺎ ﻣ

ﻒْﻄ ﻌْﻟا ف ﺮ

َ

ْ

َ

َ

َ

ُ

ْ ُ ُ

و ﺣ

ِ

Bibliography

v

122

123

124

124

124

125

125

125

126

126

126

126

127

127

127

128

129

129

129

131

LIST OF TABLES

Table No

1.1

1.2

ُ

َ

ِ

ﺋﺎ ﻀﱠ ﻟ َ

ا

Personal Pronouns

ُ ة

رﺎ َ ﳉْ ا ف ﺮ

ْ ْ

ُ

و ُ ﳊْ

َ ا

Prepositions

1.3 ﻞِ ﻌ

ْ

1.4

2.1

2.2

2.3

Those Particles That Resemble the Verb

ِ

َ

ﻗﺎ

ِ

ﻞ ﺼ ـﻨ ْ

ﻞ ﺼ ـﻨ ْ

ٌ

ﻞ ﺼ ـﻨ ْ

ٌ

ﺼﱠﺘ

ٌ

ٌ

َ

ُ

ِ

ِ

ِ

ِ

ﺮ ﻤ

َ

َ

ُ

ٌ ْ

ُ

(

(

ٌ

ز

ِ

رﺎ َ )

ٌ

ﺬَ

(

ٌ

ُ

ْ ُ

َ

ٌ ْ

ْ َ

ْ َ

ُ

ٌ

َ

ُ

َ

ُ

ْ

َ

ْ

)

ْ

َ

ْ

ُ

ﻔ ﻣ

ُ

ٌ ْ

ع ﻮ ـﻓ ﺮ ﻣ ﺮ ـﻴ ﻤ ﺿ

ٌ

ْ

ُ

ْ َ

ٌ ْ

ِ

َ

ِ

َ

)

)

ْ

ب ﻮ ﺼ ﻨ ﻣ ﺮ ـﻴ ﻤ ﺿ

َ

ٌ

ْ ُ

ٌ ْ

ِ

َ

َ

)

ِ

ﻔ ْﻟﺎﺑ ﺔ ـﺒ

ُ

َ

َ

ُ

ْ

ﻬ ﺸ ْﻟا ف ﺮ

ْ ُ

َ

ُ

و ُ ﳊْ

َ ا

َ

ـﻓ

Auxiliary (Defective) Verbs

ٌ ْ

ﺮ ﻤ

ِ

َ

ٌ ْ

ـﻴ ﺿ

ـﻴ ﺿ (ز رﺎ ﺑ

َ

ِ

َ

in ﻊِ ْ ﻓ ﺮﻟا ﱠ ﺔ َﻟﺎﺣ

ُ

َ

(also called

ﻞ ﺼﱠﺘ ﻣ

ٌ

ُ

ِ

ِ

in ﻊِ ْ ﻓ ﺮﻟا ﱠ ﺔ َﻟﺎﺣ

َ

(also called

َ

ـﻴ ﻤ ﺿ

ِ

and

and

ُ

ﻞ ﺼﱠﺘ ﻣ

ُ

ٌ

ِ

ﺼﱠﺘ

ٌ

ِ

ﻣ ﺮ ـﻴ ﻤ ﺿ

ُ

ِ

ِ

ِ

ﺮ ﻤ ﺿ

in

ب ﻮ ﺼ ﻨ ﻣ ﺮ ـﻴ ﻤ ﺿ

َ

ْ

ٌ ْ

َ

َ

ِ

ﳉْ ا ﺔ َﻟﺎﺣ

ُ

in

َ

)

ٌ

ٌ

ﺼﱠﺘ

ْ ُ

ُ

ٌ ـﻴ ْ

َ

ِ

ﺼ ﱠﻨﻟا ﺔ َﻟﺎﺣ

ْ

ُ

َ

(also called

ﺮﻛﱠ ﻣ

ﺚﱠﻧ ﺆ ) ﺔ

َ ﻣ ُ

ُ

ُ

) ﺔ

ُ

ْ ُ

َﻟﻮ ﺻ ﻤ ْﻟا ءﺎ ﲰ َﻷْا

َ

َ

َﻟﻮ ﺻ ﻤ ْﻟا ءﺎ ﲰ َﻷْا

َ

ِ

ﺮﻛﱠ ﺬَ ﻤﻠْ ﻟ رﺎ ﺷ ﻹْا ءﺎ ﲰ َأ

ِ

ة

ِ

َ

ﺚﱠﻧ ﻤﻠْ ﻟ رﺎ

ِ

َ

ُ

ِ

ة

ِ

َ

َ

ﻹْا ءﺎ ﲰ

ُ

َأ

ﺿﺎ ﻤْﻟا ﻞ ﻔْﻟ َ ا

ِ

َ

ُ

ْ

ِ

ﺮ ﺿﺎ َ ﳊْ ا ﺮ ﻣَﻷْ َ ا

ُ

ِ

ُ ْ

تﺎ َ

َ

ِ

ﺑ ﺮ ﻤْﻟا ءﺎ َ ﲰَﻷْا مﺎ ﺴ ْ ﻗَأ با ﻋ ِ

إ

ْ

ُ

ِ

ْ

ِ

َ

ُ

َ

ْ

ٍ

ﺔ ﻠ ِ ﻗ ﻊِ ﲨ نا ز وَأ

َْ

ُ

َ ْ

ْ ﻛ َ ﻊِ َْ

ة ـﺜ

َ

ٍ

ﻊِ

ﲨ نا ز

ُ

َ وَأ ْ

َ ﳉْ ا ﻊِ َْ ﲨ لُﺎ َ ﻣَأ

ْ

ْ

ﻮ ﻤ ُ ﳉْ ا ﻰ ـﺘ ﻨ

ْ

ْ ُ

ﻣ نا ز وَأ

َ َ ُ

ُ

َ ْ

ﻞِ

ِ

ﻋﺎ ﻔْﻟا ﺐ ﺴ ﺣ ﻞِ ﻔْﻟا لُﺎ ﻌ ﺳ ِ ا

َ

َ

ْ

َ

ْ

ِ

َ ْ

ﻤ ﺘ

ِ

ْ

َ

ﻞ ﺼ َ ـﻨ ْ

ٌ

ِ

ْ

ُ

ْ َ

Rules Governing the I‘raab of the ىدٰ ﺎ َ

ُ

ـﺜ ْ َ ﺘ

ٰ

ْ

ُ

ﺴ ﻤْﻟا با ﻋ ِ

إ

ُ

َ

ْ

ُ

َ

ِ

ﺻﺎ ﱠﻨﻟا ف ﺮ

ُ

ُ

ْ

و

ُ ﳊْ

ا

َ

ﺔ ﻣ زﺎ َ ﳉْ ا ف ﺮ

ُ

َ

ُ

ْ

و

ُ

ُ ﳊْ

ا

َ

ﺔ ﺼ ﱠﻨﻟا لُ ﺎﻌ َﻷْا

ُ

ع ﻮ ـﻓ ﺮ ﻣ ﺮ ـﻴ ﻤ ﺿ

ٌ

(also called

ﻞ ﺼﱠﺘ ﻣ ر و ﺮ ﳎ َْ ﺮ ـﻴ ﻤ ﺿ

ٌ

ُ

ٌ ْ ٌ

ٌ ْ

ِ

ِ

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9 Nouns in the Meaning of

2.10 Nouns in the Meaning of

2.11

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4 عِ

3.5

3.6 Different Forms of the Noun of and Its I‘raab

3.7

3.8

4.1

4.2

ِ

vii

Page No

17

18

20

22

31

32

33

34

36

36

39

39

41

41

53

63

63

64

64

66

69

72

85

99

102

4.3

4.4 Verbs Requiring Three

4.5

4.6

4.7

ﻘْﻟا لُﺎ ـﻓ َأ

ُ ُ

ب ﻠ

ِ

ْ

َ

ْ

و ﺮﺸﱡ ﻟا و ءﺎ ﺮﻟا

ِ

َ

ﺔ ﱠ

ُ

ﻞِ ْ ﻀ ﻔـﱠﺘﻟا ﻢ ﺳ ِ نا وَأ

ْ ُ

عِ

ِ

ِ

ْ

ْ

َ

َ

َ

َ

ِ

َ

ْ

ا

و

ُ

َ ْ

ز

ﺮﺸﱠ ﻟا ُ ءﺎ ﲰ ْ َﻷْا

َ

َ

ُ

ِ

ﺔ رﺎ ﻘ ﻤْﻟا لُﺎ ﻌ ـﻓ

ْ

َ

َأ

ِ

ﻪ ﺑ لُﻮ ﻔ ْﻟا

ْ ُ

َ

ْ

َ

ﻌ ﻤ

ِ

viii

105

106

107

112

118

ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟا ﻦﲪﺮﻟا ﷲا ﻢﺴﺑ ﱘﺮﻜﻟا ﻪﻟﻮﺳر ﻰﻠﻋ ﻲﻠﺼﻧ و ﻩﺪﻤﳓ

Introduction to the Text & Translation

This book is a revised edition of Tasheel al-Nahw, which in turn is a somewhat expanded translation of the Urdu language primer of Arabic grammar, ‘Ilm al-Nahw by Mawlana Mushtaq Ahmad Charthawali. Mawlana Charthawali’s primers for Nahw (Arabic grammar) and Sarf (Arabic Morphology) are standard textbooks in Western madrasahs. The original English translation of ‘Ilm al-Nahw was prepared by scholars from Madrasah Islamiyyah, Benoni, South Africa. They put in a lot of hardwork and made the English translation much more beneficial than the Urdu original. May Allah reward them. At least two versions of this translation are available online. The first one had many errors and typing issues. The newer version has made some improvements but issues remain, especially with regards to language and clarity of the English and Arabic texts. We decided to bring out a revised edition of this translation to address these issues. During the course of our revision and editing, we consulted various grammar works including al-Nahw al-Wadih, Sharh ibn ‘Aqeel, Mu‘jam al-Qawa‘id al- ‘Arabiyyah, and A Simplified Arabic Grammar of Mawlana Hasan Dockrat. We have completely revised some sections, as well as a number of definitions. The organization has been changed in a way that we feel will make it easier for the student to understand how each section fits in the overall picture. This is a beginner-to-intermediate level text; therefore, we have not transliterated Arabic words exactly, keeping in mind that most people at this stage will not be comfortable with Arabic transliteration schemes. Rather, we have used approximate equivalents that are easier to read for the untrained. Nevertheless, non-English words have been italicized. As for duals and plurals of Arabic words, we have not used the original Arabic duals and plurals; rather, their plurals have been created the English way by adding an ‘s’ to the singular. Thus, two dammahs is used instead of dammahtain. The word still remains italicized so as to reflect its non-English origin. It should also be noted that the English equivalents of Arabic grammar terms are mere approximations. In some cases, they convey the exact meaning. In many cases, they do not. The student is, therefore, urged to focus on the original term in Arabic. To the best of our ability, we have tried to remove all errors. However, we are merely human. There are bound to be some mistakes in it. Your comments, constructive criticism, and suggestions are all welcome. You can contact us with your feedback at the email address given at the end.

ix

We hope and pray that this revised translation will be of benefit to the students. We also pray that Allah, the Exalted, accepts this humble effort from all those who have contributed to it in any way, especially the typists; and gives us the power to continue with more. We also request the readers and all those who benefit from it in any way to remember us in their prayers. And He alone gives success.

ِ ﲨَأ ﻪ ﺤ ﺻَأ و ﻪ ﻟٰا ﻰ

َْ َ

ْ

ِ

ِ ﺑﺎ َ

ْ

َ

ِ

ِ

ﻠ ﻋ و

ٰ

َ

‘Aamir Bashir Buffalo, NY 9 Sha‘ban, 1432 (8 July, 2011) E-mail: ainbay97@yahoo.com

ٍ

ﺪ ﻤ َُ َ َ

ﻧ ﻻ ﻣ و ﺎ َ

ْ َ

َ

َ

x

ٰ

َ

َ

ِ

َ

ﻴ ﺳ ﻪ ﻘﻠْ ﺧ ﲑ ﺧ ﻰ ﻋ ﱃﺎ ـﺗ ﷲا ﻰ ﻠ ﺻ و

َ

ٰ

َ

ْ َ

ِ

َ

َ

ِ ِ

ُ ﺔﱠﻴ

ﺑ ﻌْﻟا تﺎ ﺣﻼَ ﺻ ﻻَْ ا

َ

َ َ

ِ

ُ

ﻄ ْ

ِ

ِ

ARABIC TERMS

Arabic Term

Approximate

Equivalent English Term / Description of the meaning

 

Transliteration

ﻢ ﺳ ِ ا

ْ

ٌ

ism

Noun

ِ

ﻞ ﻓ

ٌ

ْ

fi‘l

Verb

ٌ

   

ف ﺣ

ْ

َ

harf

Particle

ﺮﻛﱠ ﺬَ ﻣ

ُ

ٌ

mudhakkar

Masculine

ﺚﱠﻧ ﻣ

َ ُ

ٌ

mu’annath

Feminine

ِ

ﺪ ﺣا و

ٌ

َ

waahid

Singular

َ ﻴ ِ ﻨ ْ ـﺗ َ

ٌ

tathniyah

Dual

ٌ

َْ

   

jam‘

Plural

ٌ

   

ﺔ ﺿ

ﱠ َ

dammah

ﺔ ﺤ ـﻓ

َ

ٌ

ْ

َ

fathah

ة ﺴ ﻛ

ٌ

َ

َ ْ

kasrah

 

ٌ

َ

   

َ

ٌ

َ

ﺮ ﺣ

َ

َ

تﺎ ﺮ ﺣ : ﲨ

َ

ٌ َْ

harakah

plural: harakaat

Short vowels, i.e., dammah , fathah , kasrah

ﻌْﻟا ف ﺮ

ُ

ِ ِ

ْ ُ ُ

و ﺣ

huroof al-illah

Long vowels i.e., ي ا - و

با ﻋ ِ إ

َ

ٌ

ْ

i‘raab

These are the variations at the end of the word, which take place in accordance with the governing word.

ٌ

ْ

ﻮ ـﺗ

ﻨ ْ َ

ِ

tanween

two fathahs , two dammahs , two kasrahs

ٌ

ٍ

ن ﻮﻜُ ﺳ

ٌ

ْ

ُ

sukoon

ﹿ

ٌ

ِ

ﻛﺎ ﺳ

َ

saakin

a letter with sukoon

 

ْ

ٌ

ﺸ ْ َ ﺗ

ِ

   

tashdeed

دﺪﱠ ﺸ ﻣ

ُ

ٌ

َ

mushaddad

A letter with tashdeed

ِ

ﻞ ﻋﺎ َ

ٌ

faa‘il

Subject i.e. the doer

xi

لٌ ﻌ ﻣ

َ

ُ

ْ

ْ

maf‘ool

Object i.e. the person or thing upon whom or which the work is done.

ٌ

َ

ﻣﺎ ﻋ

ِ

aamil

Governing word i.e. that word, which causes i‘raab change in the word(s) following it.

لٌ ﻤ ﻣ

ُ ْ َ

ْ

ma‘mool

The governed word i.e. that word in which the i‘raab change occurred.

ِ

ف ﺮ ﻣ ﻞ ﻓ

ٌ

ْ

ُ ْ َ ٌ

و ﻌ

ْ

fi‘l ma‘roof

The

known/mentioned.

active

verb

i.e.

that

verb

whose

doer

is

لٌ ﻬ

ْ

ُ

ِ

ﳎ َْ ﻞ ﻓ

ٌ

ْ

fi‘l majhool

The passive

known/mentioned.

verb i.e. that

verb whose doer is not

ِ

م زﻻَ ِ ﻞ ﻓ

ٌ

ْ

ٌ

fi‘l laazim

The intransitive verb i.e. that verb, which can be

understood without a لٌ

ْ

ﻮ ﻔ

َ

ﻌ ﻣ.

ْ ُ

ىﺪﱢ ـﺘ

َ

َ

ﻤْﻟا ﻞ ﻔْﻟ َ ا

ُ

ُ

ْ

ِ

fil mutaaddi

The transitive verb i.e. that verb, which cannot be

fully understood without a لٌ

ﻮ ْ ُ ﻔ

َ

ﻌ ﻣ.

ْ

ٌ

ﻓ ﺮ ﻣ

ْ

َ

َ

ِ

marifah

Definite noun. It is generally indicated by an لا. For

example,

ـﺒْﻟ َ ا the house (a particular/specific house).

ُ

ﻴ ْ َ

ٌ

 

Common noun. It is generally indicated by a tanween