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Defense System

Skin is composed of dead cells containing the

indigestible protein keratin
Sebum produced by the skin lowers the pH to
inhibit growth of pathogens
Lysozymes in salvia, sweat and tears are anti-
bacterial enzymes
Many ingested bacteria in the stomach are
destroyed by acid H!l"
# sticky substance, mucus, traps pathogens in
the respiratory tract
!ilia moves away mucus towards the throat to
protect gas e$change surfaces
%he immune system targets foreign materials
and pathogens
&nflammatory response
Histamine is released into the wound by white
%his increases vasodilation and increases
vascular permeability
'asodilation increases the local blood flow
area becomes red, warm
&ncreased permeability allows escape of tissue
fluid into the tissues
%issue fluid contains plasma proteins
antibodies" and may cause swelling
)hite cells phagocytes" contain digestive
enzymes within lysosomes
*eutrophils primarily engulf bacteria
Macrophages engulf larger particles+ including
old and infected red blood cells
,ound in blood, lymph systems and tissues
S-ueeze through gaps in the walls of venules to
enter tissues
%his allows them to move faster to tissues
infected with pathogens
(hagocytes are attracted by chemota$is
.psonisation by antibodies bacteria becomes
coated with antibody"
#s a result, binding between bacteria and
phagocytes is improved
(hagocytes form pseudopodia around the
%his positions the particle into a phagocytic
vacuole also called phagosome"
Lysosome fuses with the phagosome
&ntracellular killing by digestive enzymes from
the lysosome
(us if formed at the site of infection if no
e$tensive vasculature is present
Molecule that stimulates an immune response
/sually proteins polysaccharides, nucleic acid,
lipids can also act as antigens" and other
inorganic molecules important forself-
.nly found on the host0s own cells and does
not trigger an immune response
#s these are proteins, their structure depends
on the amino acid se-uence
%he gene for this se-uence is highly
polymorphic, having several alleles at each loci
%here is great genetic variability between
%hus, #ntigen is different in other people
would cause an immune response
%here is only 123 change that siblings will
possess an identical antigen
,ound on cells entering the body e4g4
bacteria, viruses, another person0s cell"
)ill cause an immune response
#ntibody immunoglobin protein"
Secreted by 5-lymphocytes and produced in
response to a specific foreign" non-self antigen
5-lymphocyte0s receptor site matches the non-
6ach antibody is produced by one type of 5-
lymphocyte for only one type of antigen
#n antibody is 7-shaped
%he two ends of the 7 are called the ,ab
%he other end is called the ,c fragment
,ab fragment is responsible for the antigen-
binding properties
,c fragment is the effector component and
triggers the immune response
5 cells divide and form memory cells and
antibody-secreting plasma cells2
#gglutination makes pathogens clump together
#ntito$ins neutralise to$ins produced by
Lysis digests bacterial membrane, killing the
.psonisation coats pathogen in protein that
identifies them as foreign cells
%ypes of &mmune 8esponse
Lymphocytes undergo maturating before birth,
producing different types of lymphocytes
Humoral response - 5 lymphocytes
(roduce and release antibodies into blood
(roduce antibodies from 5 plasma cells
8ecognize foreign antigen directly
!ellular response - % lymphocytes
5ind to antigen carrying cells and destroy
them and9or activate the humoral response
8ecognize foreign antigens displayed on the
surface of normal body cells
(rimary response produces memory cells
which remain in the circulation
Secondary response new invasion by same
antigen at a lower state4 &mmediate recognition
and distraction by memory cells -faster and
larger response usually prevents harm
5-Lymphocytes2 %he Humoral 8esponse
8esponse for pathogens not entering our cells
e4g4 bacterium"
6ach 5-lymphocyte recognizes only one
specific antigen 9 need %-helper cell to be
Maturation 9 5-cells develop to give many
different variants 9 specific immune system
responds to
any type of pathogen entering the body
(rimary response2
(athogen is ingested by macrophages 9
macrophage displays the pathogens surface
non-self antigen on its surface antigen
&t then :oins with specific %-helper cells and 5
lymphocytes that have membrane receptors
and are complementary in shape to the non-
self antigen
%-helper cells will release cytokines to activate
selected 5-cell9lymphocyte
Secretes antibodies of the same type into the
Divided by mitosis to produce a clone
!ells grow to form plasma cells producing
masses of free antibodies
Some of the cells remain in the blood as
memory cells4
Secondary response ; new invasion by same
antigen at lower state4 &mmediate recognition
and distraction - faster, larger response usually
prevents harm4 #ntibodies are produced more
rapidly and in larger amounts
%-Lymphocytes2 !ell-Mediated 8esponse
'irus enter cell and more difficult to remove
*o antibodies involved 9 work directly on the
infected cell by destroying it
Special proteins called Ma:or Histocompability
!omple$ MH!" are present on all human cells
*on-self antigen interacts with MH! as human
cell becomes infected by a pathogen
Specific %-lymphocyte recognises specific non-
self antigen only with a chemical marker ne$t
to it MH!"
#ctivated %-lymphocytes multiply by mitosis
and enter circulation
!ells differentiate into different types of cell
!ytoto$ic %-!ells destroy pathogens and
infected cells by enzyme action, and secrete
chemicals which attract and stimulate
Helper %-!ells stimulate the activity of the
cytoto$ic %-!ells and 5-lymphocytes by
releasing chemicals cytokines andinterleukins"4
Destroyed by H&'
Suppressor %-!ells switch off the % and 5 cell
responses when infection clears
Memory %-!ells Some activated %-!ells remain
in the circulation and can respond -uickly
when same pathogen enters body again
&M< =-1>-=
%able =-1>-=2 Different types of immunity
#ctive #ntibodies
made by the human
immune system, long
term acting due to
memory cells"
(assive <iven-
#ntibodies, short
term acting"
*atural - 8esponse to disease
- 8e:ecting transplant
- #c-uired antibodies
via placenta, breast
- 'accination
&n:ection of the
antigen in a
weakened form"
- &n:ection of
antibodies from an
artificial source, e4g4
anti venom against
snake biter
Differences - #ntibody in
response to antigen
- (roduction of
memory cells
- Long lasting
- #ntibodies provided
- *o memory cells
- Short lasting
How vaccines produce responses by the
immune system
#rtificial active immunity
'accine containing dead pathogens4 #ntigen is
still recognised and an immune response made
Salk polio vaccine (olio vaccine is in:ected"
)hooping cough
'accine containing a to$in
'accine containing an attenuated modified or
weakened" organism which is alive but has
been modified so that it is not harmful
Sabin polio vaccine %aken orally, often sugar
(urified antigen - genetically engineered
Hepatitis 5 # gene coding for a surface
protein of the hepatitis 5 virus has been
inserted into yeast cells which produce the
protein when grown in fermenters"