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Experiment No.

1

Abstract

This experiment is dedicated on letting the student learn on how to setup the equipment
to be used in order to form a standing wave and how to determine the minima and maxima in
the oscilloscope. Learning to setup standing waves should be a basic knowledge to an ECE
student because this is used to measure the mismatch between load impedance and the
characteristic impedance of the transmission line. The experiment uses the transmission line
analyser also called TLA that is connected to an oscilloscope also called CRO to observe the
standing wave form of a transmission lines that is also connected to the TLA. The result in this
experiment is that when the transmission line is terminated to its characteristic impedance, the
standing waves is very minimal. When the transmission line is terminated to open or short load,
the standing wave is maximum and minima and maxima can be observed.


Results and Discussion

As we can see from the pictures, when the transmission line is terminated to its
characteristic impedance, standing wave is very minimal. The reason for this is because there is
no power being reflected to the source and all the power is absorbed by the load. We can also
observed that the standing wave is maximum when the transmission line is terminated to either
open or short load. The explanation of this can be seen in the formula of the standing wave ratio
in terms of the impedance. The formula of standing wave ratio can be either characteristic
impedance divided by load impedance or load impedance divided by characteristic impedance
depending whichever gives a value greater than one (1). From the formula we can see that if
the load impedance is either zero (for short load) or infinity (for open load), both will result to the
value of infinity. We can also from the waveform, the current minima and the voltage maxima
being formed when the load impedance is high enough or is terminated in the open load. Also
the current maxima and voltage minima is formed when the load impedance is zero or is
terminated to a short load. The explanation of this is because the sum of the incident and
reflected current waveforms is minimum at open while maximum at the short and the sum of the
incident and reflected voltage waveforms is maximum at the open and minimum at the short.


Summary

To wrap things up. The standing waves are minimum when the load is terminated to its
characteristic impedance. The standing waves are maximum when the load is terminated to
either short or zero impedance or open or infinity impedance. Current maxima and voltage
minima is observed when the load is short and voltage maxima and current minima is observed
when the load is open.



Experiment No. 2

Abstract

This experiment educate the group on how to measure the characteristic impedance and to
know the difference between matched and unmatched lines. As an ECE student this is very
important because buying cables are very important and knowing what cable to buy should be a
basic knowledge to know. The equipment and the set-up is the same in the first experiment with
a few modification like the connection of transmission line from Load Out to Load Input. The
results are; when the load is near or almost the same as the characteristic impedance the
standing wave ratio is minimal. Last when the load is getting far from the characteristic
impedance the standing ratio is high.

Results and Discussion

In the experiment number one I have learned the effect on the standing wave when the
transmission is line is terminated on open or short load, in this experiment I have learned the
effect on the transmission line when it is terminated into its characteristic impedance. As we can
see in the pictures above when the termination of the transmission line is getting nearer to its
characteristic impedance the standing wave is getting smaller. This is because when the
characteristic impedance of the transmission line is the same as the load, all the incident power
is absorbed by the load and there would not be any signal that will be reflected.

The typical impedance of a given characteristic impedance coaxial cable depends on the
type or the reference number of it. 75 ohms for RG-59 and 50 ohms for RG-58. In this
experiment we used RG-58 that is why the characteristic impedance is close to 50 Ohms.

Conclusion

The matched lines is when the difference of load and the characteristic impedance is
very minimal and this phenomenon resulted to the lessening or decrease the standing ratio and
also the standing wave ratio and reflection coefficient. The unmatched lines is when the
difference of load and the characteristic impedance is a large number. This will result to
increase of the standing wave ration and reflection coefficient. Frequency domain method is a
process to find the characteristic impedance using the humans mission in knowing the smallest
standing waveform.




Laboratory Experiment 3

Abstract

This experiment focuses on effect in the standing wave when a transmission line is
terminated on a different load. Coaxial cable is widely used now in the 21
st
century and having
knowledge on what affect the standing wave is beneficial to ECE students. The equipment and
set-up is the same with the first experiment. The result that the group learned from the activity is
that the standing wave is almost the same except for the 180 degrees phase shift. Also the
standing wave differs on each load with the lowest when the characteristic impedance is equal
to the load.


Results and Discussion

Voltage standing wave ratio also called standing wave ratio is the measure of the
mismatch between load impedance and the characteristic impedance. We can also say that the
VSWR is the measure of the difference of the impedance of the load and characteristic
impedance of the wire. The higher the difference between the impedance and the load and the
transmission line, the higher the value of the VSWR.

VSWR can be calculated using the values of the voltage maxima and the voltage minima
and dividing the maxima and dividing the maxima by voltage minima. The voltage minima can
be solved by adding the peak incident voltage and the peak reflected voltage. The voltage
minima can be solved by subtracting the peak incident voltage with the peak reflected voltage.

As we know, when having a matched transmission line the VSWR is greater than 1 and
the VSWR increases as the difference of the impedance of the load and the transmission line
increases. So if the loads impedance is infinity then the VSWR will achieve infinity to. But we
can see in the formula that there is no value that is less than 1 that is why if the load is shorted,
there would be zero in the denominator and it would result in infinity of the VSWR.

Conclusion

To summarize voltage standing wave ratio is the measure of the mismatch between load
impedance and the characteristic impedance. TO compute for the VSWR, voltage minima and
voltage maxima are needed. We can see from the pictures above the effect of the different load
to the standing wave of the transmission line. We can observe that the greater the absolute
difference between the load impedance and the characteristic impedance, the greater the
voltage of maxima and minima of the standing wave. The standing wave of the loads 25 and 75
ohms almost have the same size. Load 150 is greater than the two before. The value with the
greatest standing are the short and the open load, this proves my answer at the question above.


Laboratory Experiment 4

Abstract

This experiment teaches the students on how to get the value of the dielectric constant
of an insulator in the transmission line at a given frequency. Knowing the dielectric constant of
an insulator in a wire is important because the dielectric constant is one that decides whether a
particular wire is enough to contain a signal without much loss. In this experiment the set-up and
he equipment is the same as before. The result in this experiment is that the change of the
frequencies where there is a minima is increasing with the increase of frequency. With this the
dielectric constant also increase.


Result and Discussion

Length is 5 meters.

First frequencies




Second frequencies




Third frequencies




Fourth frequencies




Fifth Frequencies




From the pictures and the computations we can see that the difference of the first
frequency where minima occurs and the second frequency where the next minima occurs is
only near at 20 MHz and the value of the dielectric constant is near at 2. For the first four
frequencies that has been solved it shows that the difference of the first and the second
frequency is becoming higher. From this observation we can say that as higher frequency that is
the wire Is letting pass through the higher should be the protective insulator in order for minimal
loss.

Conclusion

In order to compute for the dielectric constant the values that are needed are the length
of the wire and the absolute difference of the where minima is located. From the results, it is
seen that with the increase of frequency, the absolute difference where minima is located also
increase which in consequence also increase the dielectric constant. This is all applicable
expect for the fifth frequency. It is assumed that what we found in the last frequency is an error
because it is seen in the previous result that the values are increasing.

Laboratory Experiment 5

Abstract

This experiment teaches the students on how to get the value of the velocity of
propagation in the given transmission line. Knowing the velocity of propagation means having a
knowledge in the speed of the date being transferred and also the knowledge about the material
is used to propagate a wave. In this experiment the set-up and he equipment is the same as
before. The result that is gathered from the experiment is that velocity of propagation and the
absolute difference between the minima have increased with the increase of the frequency.


Result and Discussion

Length is 5 meters.

First frequencies





Second frequencies





Third frequencies





Fourth frequencies




Fifth Frequencies





From the pictures and the computations we can see that the difference of the first
frequency where minima occurs and the second frequency where the next minima occurs is
only near at 20 MHz and the value of the dielectric constant is near 2. We can also see that the
value of the velocity of propagation is also near at 2 m/s. For the first four frequencies that has
been solved it shows that the difference of the first and the second frequency is becoming
higher. From this observation we can say that as higher frequency that is the wire Is letting pass
through, the faster the rate of transporting data from one place to another via the transmission
line.


Conclusion

In order to compute for the velocity of propagation, the value of the dielectric constant is
needed. In order to solve for the dielectric constant the length of the wire and the absolute
difference of the where minima is located are the values needed. From the results, it is seen
that with the increase of frequency, the absolute difference where minima is located also
increase which in consequence also increase the dielectric constant. With the increase of the
dielectric constant, the velocity of propagation will increase to. This is all applicable expect for
the fifth frequency. It is assumed that what we found in the last frequency is an error because it
is seen in the previous result that the values are increasing.


Laboratory Experiment 6



Result and Discussion






Laboratory Experiment 7

In this experiment, the group have analyze the effect of the reactive loads in the transmission
line. It is very important to know the effect of the reactive load on the standing wave of the
transmission line. By learning the effect of the reactive load in the standing wave, it will be
easier to know the type of load if it is capacitive or inductive. Same as before the set-up and the
equipment used is the same as before except for the capacitive and inductive load which are
new in this experiment. It is proved that the inductive load and the capacitive load really has an
effect in the standing wave. When the transmission line is terminated in the 33pF capacitive
load the maxima and minima have been shifted 90 degrees to the right and when the
transmission line is terminated to an inductive load the standing wave has also been shifted by
90 degrees to the left.

Results and Discussion

It is seen in the picture that when the transmission line is terminated in the open load the
maxima is on the right side and the minima is on the left side of the crosshair. We can also see
that when the transmission line is terminated in the 33pF capacitive load, the maxima now is on
the left side and the minima is on the right side of the crosshair. This means the standing wave
has been shifted. The problem is to know if the standing wave is shifted to the right or to the left.
Even the group cannot find for now the answer base on the graph for the reason that the graph
for the standing wave in the open load and the capacitive load is not the same. When the
transmission line is terminated on the 220 pF capacitive load, the maxima is also on the left side
and the minima is also on the right. This is means that shift of the 33 pF and the 220 pF load
has the same direction of shift but we can also see that the maxima in the 33pF is close to the
center. From this we can say the theory in the handout is correct that the higher capacitance the
resulting phase difference is greater. We can also now what direction is the shift when it is
capacitive and it is to the right.

We can see when that when the frequency of the wave is 100 MHz and terminated in 33 pF and
when the frequency of the wave is 10 MHz and terminated in 220 pF. The result has similarities
and difference. The similarities is that both the right side of the cross hair is minima. The
problem is the right side, in the 10 MHz, 220 pF the right has no standing wave. The standing
wave have this result because of the low frequency of the wave. The group cannot therefore say
that the phase difference of the 220 pF at 10 MHz and the 33 pF at 100 MHz is the same.

When the load is inductive we can observe that the minima is in the center and maxima is both
on the left side and right side of the crosshair. This is because earlier when the load is 220 MHz
the frequency of the wave is 10 MHz and it is also applied when the load is inductive. There
when the load is inductive the standing wave had shifted by 180 degrees. 90 degrees as
standing wave move from 90 degrees shift from the capacitive load to 90 degrees shift due to
the inductive load. We can also say that standing load move from the left.

Conclusion

To conclude all the result that is gain from the experiment, the capacitive load shift the
standing wave to the right and the inductive load shift the standing wave to the left. The degree
of the shifting depends on the value of the capacitive load. The higher the capacitive load the
higher the degree of shift to the right. This also applies to the inductive but it is not seen in the
experiment because there is only one inductive load. The degree of the shifting also depends on
the frequency of the wave. This is observe if the 33 pF load at 100 MHz is the same to the 220
pF at 10 MHz but this is not the case in our experiment due to some errors.


Laboratory Experiment 8

Abstract

The experiment is dedicated in the studying of the difference between the lossy and
lossless


Laboratory Experiment 9

Abstract

This experiment teaches the student on the behavior of the infinite and short lines.
Learning the difference between the short and infinite lines is also important as an ECE student
especially if taking communication course because the knowledge is very useful for the easily
determination if the given line is shorted. The equipment and the set-up that is used in this
experiment is same as before. The result of this experiment is that the infinite long lines have
higher frequency of standing in the same frequency of input signal while the short line have
smaller frequency of standing wave.
t
Result and Discussions

From the pictures we can observe the difference between the open line and the short
line. The standing wave of the open line is the 90 degree phase shift of the standing wave of the
short line. This is applicable for both the short and the infinite line. We can also see the
difference between the standing wave of the short line and the standing wave of the infinite line.
The standing wave of the infinite line has a higher frequency than that of the standing wave of
the short line. In the picture of the infinite line RG-59 cable, it seen that the CRO can
accommodate almost one period of the waveform of the standing wave while in the short line
TDR cable it is seen that CRO only accommodate almost one-fourth of the waveform of the
standing wave. From the observation, the group have come up with one of the reason on why
the coaxial line is not use for high frequency date rate in a large distance. The infinite line with a
higher frequency of standing wave means that if a high frequency it pass by the wire most of the
power will just be returned as reflected voltage.

Conclusion

In summary of the results, the standing wave of the open line is related in the standing
voltage of the short line in the sense that the standing wave of the open line is the 90 degrees
phase shift of the standing wave of the short line. The standing wave of an infinite line is
different to the standing wave of short line. The frequency of standing wave of infinite line is
higher than the frequency of the standing wave of short line. The observation explains why
coaxial lines is not in a long distance with a higher frequency.

Experiment No. 10

Abstract

This experiment guide the student on how the balun transformer work. Knowing the importance
of the balun transformer is important in the field communication because connecting the
balanced line to an unbalanced line is a process that will always part of the communication. The
equipment and the set-up is the same from the previous experiment except for the 1:4 balun
transformer and two wire transmission line that is first time that will be used. The result is that
when the two-wire transmission line is connected to the 1:4 balun transformer before connected
to the out, the two-wire transmission line act as coaxial wire.

Result and Discussion

It is observed from the picture that when the two-wire is connected to the 1:4 balun, the two-wire
line act as a coaxial line. When the two wire line act as a coaxial line, the two wire line will be
easily analyzed in the TDR. It is also observed that when the two-wire line with balun is
terminated to an open line, the standing wave and the maxima and minima is present, just like
in a coaxial line. Also it is observe that when the two-wire line with the balun is terminated to the
characteristic impedance of the wire, that is 300 ohms, it is seen that the amplitude of the
standing wave have been lessened. From the observation, the two-wire line with balun is seen
by the load as coaxial line. In the view of the kinds of transmission line, when a balanced line is
connected to balun the load will see then balanced line with the balun as unbalanced line. Also
from the observation, the characteristic impedance of the two-wire line is not much affected by
the balun. This is observed when the two-wire line with balun is terminated at its characteristic
impedance, the standing wave is very minimal. From the observation we can say that
characteristic impedance of the two wire line will not change due to the balun.

Conclusion

To conclude, balun transformer is used to connect a balanced line to an unbalanced line.
When a balanced line is connected to a balun transformer, he load will see the combined as
unbalanced line. Same goes with the unbalanced line and balun transformer. The effect of the
load which the two wire transmission line is connected is the same the coaxial as long there is a
balun. It is seen that from the open load which the minima and the maxima have a high
amplitude, the amplitude of the minima and maxima decrease extremely when the load is
terminated to the characteristic impedance of the wire that is 300 ohms.